Archive for May, 2012

Anne Frank | Anne Frank House

Overview: the story of Anne Frank, the life in hiding, the diary.

The Secret Annex Online is a virtual tour of the building at 263 Prinsengracht in Amsterdam where Anne Frank was in hiding for more than two years during World War II and where she wrote her world famous diary.

The story of the Frank family against the backdrop of world history. With exceptional photographs and audio and video clips.

The wartime history of the city of Amsterdam based on locations, events and personal stories all within the framework of a visual timeline. Besides Anne Franks story, other personal stories are told.

The diary of Anne Frank has been translated into more than 70 languages. How did a young girls diary become one of the most widely read books about the persecution of the Jews? And why is it still so important and inspirational today? Discover the story behind Anne Franks diary.

Anne Frank wrote her world-famous diary while in hiding in occupied Holland. Read the whole story. With unique photos and film images.

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Anne Frank | Anne Frank House

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FBI investigation after New Mexico immigration attorney …

Attorney Allegra Love at work in her Santa Fe office.(Photo: Don J. Usner/Searchlight New Mexico)

SANTA FE – A death threat against immigration attorney Allegra Love launched an FBI investigation and forced the Santa Fe advocate to abandon her home until the danger passed, sources have told Searchlight New Mexico.

The threat came in an April 29 voicemail from a New Mexico phone number. A man, who said he was coming to Santa Fe, growled into the phone: Im going to murder every one of you tyranny-loving motherers. Be ready for me! You are all fing dead.

The next day, an FBI agent met Love at her office.

Heres what we suggest, she says the agent told her, Keep the doors locked. If your staff is uncomfortable, they can work from home. Were taking this as credible. Were going to try to figure out who the caller is.

MORE: New Mexico may seek oversight on immigration detention centers

As director of the nonprofit Santa Fe Dreamers Project and an outspoken advocate for immigrant families in New Mexico, Love says she has faced her share of insults often after a news report broadcasts her name. But nothing like this.

It scared me to think that something could happen to our staff, says Love, a former elementary school teacher in Santa Fe Public Schools. I feel like (the work)has become hazardous in a way I never would have anticipated.

What happened to Love and her colleagues, experts say, is a terrifying example of the open threats and unrelenting hostility that immigrant advocates face nationwide. Anti-immigrant rhetoric from the Trump administration amplified by media politically aligned with the president is at least partly to blame, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center, a civil rights organization that tracks incidents of hate speech.

Both Trump and national media outlets, including Fox, have given hate groups a huge platform to spout their bigoted views, says Heidi Beirich, director of the SPLCs Intelligence Project. We know that this rhetoric is not cost-free. Academic research shows hate speech is closely correlated to hate crimes.

As a matter of policy, Albuquerque-based FBI spokesman Frank Fisher said, the agency cannot confirm or deny an investigation. But he explained the difference between strong words and a criminal act this way.

MORE: City council opposes immigrant family separations

When it crosses the line to Im going to hurt you or your relatives, that is where it becomes a threat of violence, he says. It is no longer just expressing an opinion.

Though the caller did not carry out the attack, the threat was especially chilling because of its specificity, Love says. The caller stated exactly when, where and how she and her colleagues would die.

Loves twin sister begged her to leave her house. Police said they would keep a close patrol of her home and office until the threat passed.

She packed her things, locked her doors and stayed away from her house for more than two weeks while law enforcement watched and waited.

In the fervor over illegal immigration, the migrant caravan this spring became a particular flash point. It was the latest annual pilgrimage meant to draw attention to the plight of Central Americans fleeing violence in their home countries.

President Trump decried the caravan as a threat to border security. Anti-immigrant groups including neo-Nazis and white supremacists rallied around the cause.

Some anti-immigrant groups also attempted to mobilize protests at the border, and we saw a spike in violent rhetoric about the caravan, especially on social media, Beirich says.

Along with a dozen or so other attorneys, Love was in Mexico with the caravan in early April to answer questions and conduct legal seminars. An NBC Nightly News report showed the migrants, including many women and children, congregating under blue-and-yellow tarps after traveling hundreds of miles by train and on foot.

People want to know, Love told NBC, if I turn myself in at the U.S. border, what is going to happen to me?

MORE: In Las Cruces and other federal courts on the border, indigenous interpreters in demand

Her work in Mexico coincided with the mission of the Santa Fe Dreamers Project. In addition to providing pro bono legal aid to about 700 immigrants per year in New Mexico and asylum seekers in detention, the nonprofit offers know your rights seminars, legal clinics for young Dreamers and community presentations.

In Mexico, Love says, she explained U.S. asylum law to migrants, described poor detention conditions and warned about family separation polices at the border. The work made her uncomfortable, she says, because politically, I dont want to be telling asylum seekers not to come to our border, which is what I was telling 90 percent of the people.

A couple weeks later, on April 24, Fox News ran a segment on “The Ingraham Angle” that Love says broadly mischaracterized her work.

Laura Ingraham whose nightly opinion show ranks No. 2 on cable with 4.5 million viewers, according to Nielsen appeals to conservatives with her no-holds-barred commentary. Recently, during the intense coverage of parent-child separation, she called immigrant child detention centers at the border essentially summer camps.

Ingraham opened the April 24 segment by saying, We have also learned this is curious that American attorneys have traveled southward to meet with migrants to instruct them on their rights to apply for asylum in the United States. We did some digging and, according to reports, two of these lawyers are Allegra Love of Santa Fe Dreamers Project and Marie Vincent, who also works for a small 5O1(c)3 organization.

The problem for the attorneys helping the members of the caravan could be the U.S. law, Ingraham said, quoting a federal statute that prohibits citizens from inducing a foreign national to enter the U.S. illegally.

Then Ingraham made an accusation: If these attorneys are holding what is being described as these large-group seminars and demonstrate intent to skirt the laws or to help the migrant skirt the laws, well, they could be in jeopardy at least technically.

“The Ingraham Angle”never called Love or Vincent for comment.

They never interviewed me, Vincent told Searchlight. I just remember being shocked they were talking about us without asking us anything.

Searchlight New Mexico reached a Fox News spokeswoman who declined to answer questions on the record. The network did not respond to a list of questions Searchlight emailed in early July.

MORE: Domenici Conference to feature national defense and immigration

Love says, The sickest I felt about this whole thing, including listening to the threat, was watching ‘The Ingraham Angle.’ It was seeing something that is broadcast to millions of people that is completely mischaracterizing your action.

The threat came five days later.

Immigration has made for divisive politics for decades. Whats new, immigration attorneys say, is a sense of disdain and hostility coming from the government itself.

In a speech to Congress in October 2017, U.S. Attorney General Jeff Sessions spoke about dirty immigration lawyers. Last month, an ICE agent in Kansas City, Mo., was accused of shoving an immigration lawyer to the ground while she tried to reunite a 3-year-old boy with his mother.

ICE told the Kansas City Star the agency takes allegations against personnel seriously and is looking into the matter.

Parastoo Zahedi, a Washington, D.C., immigration attorney since 1989, has watched immigration politics shift from restrictive to relaxed and back again. She received her first concerning threat this year: an unsigned, handwritten letter warning her to keep her home safe and indicating the writer knew where she lived.

MORE: New Mexico may seek oversight on immigration detention centers

Not to say the Obama administration made it any easier for our clients, however there was no disrespect as I see it now, the hostility as I see it now, Zahedi says.

Several immigration attorneys and members of the American Immigration Lawyers Association interviewed for this article reported having received threatening messages in the past 18 months. Some said they have modified their home and office security in response.

At the Dreamers Project, the threat did what it was supposed to do, Love says. It distracted us from the work. It made us question, why are we doing this?

As the lawyer sat in her Santa Fe office, pondering her works purpose, a Spanish-speaking family young children in tow filed in the front door looking for help.

She had her answer.

Searchlight New Mexico is a nonprofit, nonpartisan news organization dedicated to investigative journalism. Read more of our stories on Raising New Mexico at projects.searchlightnm.com/. Reporter Lauren Villagran can be reached at lauren@searchlightnm.com.

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FBI investigation after New Mexico immigration attorney …

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David Icke | Gaia

A former professional soccer player and sports broadcaster, David Icke is an English writer and public speaker, best known for his views on what he calls “who and what is really controlling the world.”Self-described as the most controversial speaker in the world; he is the author of over 20 books and numerous dvds. Through his lectures in over 25 countries, Icke has attracted a global following that cuts across the political spectrum. His book, “The Biggest Secret,” has been described as “The Rosetta Stone for conspiracy junkies.”After being told by a psychic that he was a healer who had been placed on earth for a particular purpose, Icke held a press conference to announce that he was a “Son of the Godhead.” Through his writings, Icke has developed a worldview that combines new-age spiritualism with a denunciation of totalitarian trends. He believes that many prominent figures belong to the Babylonian Brotherhood, a secret group of shapeshifting reptilian humanoids that control humanity.

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Apartheid – Econlib

The now-defunct apartheid system of South Africa presented a fascinating instance of interest-group competition for political advantage. In light of the extreme human rights abuses stemming from apartheid, it is remarkable that so little attention has been paid to the economic foundations of that torturous social structure. The conventional view is that apartheid was devised by affluent whites to suppress poor blacks. In fact, the system sprang from class warfare and was largely the creation of white workers struggling against both the black majority and white capitalists. Apartheid was born in the political victory of radical white trade unions over both of their rivals. In short, this cruelly oppressive economic system was socialism with a racist face.

When the British arrived in South Africa in 1796, they quickly conquered the Dutch settlement that had been established in 1652 and set up a government under the English Parliament and British common law. This liberal, individualistic regime was inherently offensive to the Afrikanersthe Dutch settlers of South Africawho enjoyed both slavery (generally of imported Chinese and Malays) and a system of law that granted no standing to nonwhites. The Boers, as the Afrikaners were to call themselves, abhorred the intervention of the British, whom they considered agents of an imperialist power. Following Britains abolition of South African slavery in 1834, the Afrikaners physically escaped the rule of the British crown in the Great Trek of 1835.

Moving north from Capetown and spilling the blood of several major tribes, including the fierce Zulus, the Boers founded the Transvaal and the Orange Free State (i.e., free of British domination), and proceeded to establish racist legal institutions. The Boers treated brutally, and denied rights to, the relatively few nonwhites who resided and worked in their agricultural economy.

The Capetown of nineteenth-century British rule was markedly different. That area experienced some of the most unconstrained racial mixing in the world. A large nonwhite population, the Cape Coloureds, participated in integrated schools, churches, businesses, and government institutions. And they voted. A color-blind franchise was explicitly adopted in 1854. As a port city, Capetown became internationally famous for its laissez-faire social scene (including miscegenation), rivaling New Orleans as a haven for sea-weary sailors.

The physical separation of the two European populations, as well as the small degree of interaction between the Afrikaners and the African tribes, allowed a brief and uneasy equilibrium in the mid-nineteenth century. It was not to last. When gold was discovered near the Rand River in the Transvaal in 1871 (diamonds had been found in 1866), the worlds richest deposits exerted a powerful magnetic force on the tribes within the subcontinent: Afrikaners, British, Xhosi, Sotho, and Zulu were all drawn to the profitable opportunities opening in the Witwatersrand basin.

The South African gold rush made the natural synergy between white-owned capital and abundant black labor overpowering. The gains from cooperation between eager British investors and thousands of African workers were sufficient to bridge gaping differences in language, customs, and geography. At first, however, the white capitalist could deal directly only with the few English and Afrikaner managers and foremen who shared his tongue and work habits. But the premium such workers commanded soon became an extravagance. Black workers were becoming capable of performing industrial leadership roles in far greater numbers and at far less cost. Driven by the profit motive, the substitution of black for white in skilled and semiskilled mining jobs rose high on the agenda of the mining companies.

White workers feared the large supply of African labor as the low-priced competition that it was. Hence, white tradesmen and government officials, including police, regularly harassed African workers to discourage them from traveling to the mines and competing for permanent positions. Beginning in the 1890s, the Chamber of Mines, a group of employers, complained regularly of this systematic discrimination and attempted to secure better treatment for black workers. Their gesture was neither altruistic nor founded on liberal beliefs. Indeed, the mine owners often resorted to racist measures themselves. But here they had a clear economic incentive: labor costs were minimized where rules were color-blind. This self-interest was so powerful that it led the chamber to finance the first lawsuits and political campaigns against segregationist legislation.

Nonetheless, the state instituted an array of legal impediments to the promotion of black workers. The notorious Pass Laws sought to sharply limit the supply of nonwhite workers in white employment centers. Blacks were not allowed to become lawful citizens, to live permanently near their work, or to travel without government passports. This last restriction created a catch-22. If passports were issued only to those already possessing jobs, how was a nonwhite to get into the job area to procure a job so as to obtain a passport? Nonwhites also were prohibited from bringing their families while working in the mines (reinforcing the transient nature of employment).

Each restriction undercut the ability of blacks to fully establish themselves in the capitalist economy, and hence to compete with white workers on equal terms. Confined to temporary status, blacks were robbed of any realistic chance of building up the human capital to challenge their white bosses directly in the labor market.

Yet even on this decidedly unlevel playing field, the profit motive often found ways of matching white capitalists with black workers. Whites formed labor unions in the early 1900s to guard against this persistent tendency, and the South African Labour Party (SALP) was formed in 1908 to explicitly advance the interests of European workers. The SALP and the unions with which it allied, including the powerful Mine Workers Union, were all white and avowedly socialist; the British Labour Party formed the model for the SALP. These organizations opposed any degradation of European or civilized standards in the workplace, by which they meant the advancement of blacks willing to undercut white union pay scales.

To discourage mine owners from substituting cheaper African labor for more expensive European labor, the trade unions regularly resorted to violence and the strike threat. They also turned to legislation: the Mines and Works Act of 1911 (commonly referred to as the first Colour Bar Act) used the premise of worker safety to institute a licensing scheme for labor. A government board was set up to certify individuals for work in hazardous occupations. The effect was to decertify non-Europeans, who were deemed unqualified.

The legislative victory by the white unions froze African advances until the booming World War I demand for minerals raised employment and pay scales for all races. White workers did not object to black advancement per se, only to that which they perceived to come at their expense.

The postwar recession and the plummeting price of gold ended the tranquillity. In December 1921 the Chamber of Mines announced a plan to fire two thousand highly paid whites in semiskilled occupations and replace them with Africans. Before the planned substitution took effect, the Mine Workers Union launched a massive strike, seizing the mines and occupying the entire Rand mining region for two months.

In a full-scale assault involving seven thousand government troops complete with tanks, artillery, and air support, the government reclaimed the Rand at a reported cost of 250 lives. Several leaders of the strike were hanged. The insurrection was sensational, as was the haunting slogan of the striking miners: Workers of the world unite, and fight for a white South Africa. The miners saw not an ounce of irony in their V. I. Lenin meets Lester Maddox radicalism. They saw quite clearly, however, that the threat to their interests lay in the mutual interests of white capital and black labor.

White workers shared skin color with the capitalists, but their goals were quite different; the goal of mining and manufacturing capital was to hire cheap labor. As Africans assimilated into Western culture and the workforce, the abundance of managerial, skilled, and semiskilled talent would mushroom. The precariously privileged position of white labor would topple. These were not casual racists; they were economically vested up to their eyeballs in the policy of exclusion by skin color. Hence, the landmark election of 1924 tossed out the Smuts governmentcondemned by the strikers as a tool of big businessin a white backlash over suppression of the Rand Rebellion by Pretoria.

The Pact government, composed of Afrikaner nationalists (in the National Party) and white unionists (SALP), set an agenda of pro forma socialism that it dubbed the Civilized Labour Policy. Measures enacted in Western democracies as standard, off-the-shelf trade union legislation were adopted in South Africa, but with a racist twist. After the courts threw out the first Colour Bar Act in 1923 on a lawsuit by the Chamber of Mines, the Mines and Works Act of 1926 reestablished the Colour Bar. Like the earlier act, the new one used the pretext of industrial safety to keep blacks from moving into favorable job classifications. Despite the legalistic cover story, the government admitted its intent: to counteract the force of economic advantages at present enjoyed by the native (Doxey, 1961, p. 160).

Similarly, the Industrial Conciliation Act of 1924 authorized sector-by-sector labor union wage setting for the ostensible purpose of securing labor peace. The following year, the Wage Act extended this to the nonunionized sector. These rules amounted to race-based syndicalism.

The ebb and flow of the power of white trade unions to dictate terms to their bosses is graphically visible in the ethnic employment statistics. From 1910 to 1918 the ratio of blacks to whites employed in the mines ranged from 8 or 9 to 1. This was pushed down to 7.4 to 1 in the 1918 status quo agreement sought by the unions. After the Chamber of Mines suppressed the Rand Rebellion in 1922, it managed to up the ratio to 11.4 to 1. By 1929, however, the National Labour government, with its civilized labour policy, had cut it back to 8.8 to 1. In 1953the heyday of apartheidthe ratio was further constrained to 6.4 to 1, an incredible regulatory achievement considering that the natural (unregulated) advance of Africans would surely have pushed the ratio progressively higher over the passing decades.

Black trade unions were not illegal per se, but no black union was registered by the Ministry of Manpower until legislation explicitly promoting African unions was enacted in the late 1970s. Thus white workers were empoweredunder the guise of the Industrial Conciliation Acts of 1924, 1936, and 1956to solely control the terms of employment via officially sanctioned union bargaining. The enormous range of the state-backed unions powerssetting wages, employment conditions, benefits, entry qualifications, work rules, and negotiation rights on behalf of the entire industrial economyis staggering. But this was the level of state intervention required to supersede the profit motives of both firms and nonwhite workers. And that was the announced goal: to overrule the market forces that constantly sought to undermine civilized standards for European workers.

Ironically, the labor market rules that were intended to raise barriers against black workers blocked the path for what were commonly called poor whites, the lowest tier of the protected class. Hence, the final intervention of the Civilized Labour Policy was nationalization of businesses that employed large numbers of nonwhites. In a policy of affirmative action, state-run railways and other huge state enterprises preferentially hired and promoted less skilled whites. In fact, many industries were nationalized just to impose racial preference. Merle Lipton reported that the perverse tendency toward the employment of (more expensive) whites was evident after the proclamation of the 1924 Civilized Labour Policy (Lipton 1986). Between 1924 and 1933 the number of whites employed by South African Railways rose from 4,760 to 17,783, or from 10 to 39 percent of employees, while the number of blacks fell from 37,564 to 22,008, or from 75 to 49 percent. In central and local government employment the proportion of whites rose from 45 to 64 percent while the number and percentage of blacks correspondingly fell.

The Colour Bar brought labor calm because the black workers and white capitalists taxed by the deal lacked the requisite political muscle to disrupt the system. Moreover, a long period of South African prosperity began in the mid-1930s, fed by international demands for the countrys mineral exports. Demand during World War II was particularly strong and led again to a large expansion of the mining and industrial sectors. This lured many thousands of new African workers into the wage economy. During the boom, these new workers were not substituting for white managers; indeed, the massive influx of black industrial labor prevented severe bottlenecks that would have lowered even white working-class incomes.

But mirroring the experience of a generation earlier, the postwar contraction brought an end to the comparative tranquillity. By 1948 the first signs of white unemployment sent a shock wave through the (white) electorate. Fears that poor whites would be passed by upwardly mobile black workers excited a radical response: the National Party was elected to implement apartheid, a newly comprehensive social policy of separate development.

The problem apartheid attacked was circular. Economic cooperation among the races led to social integration. Social integration led to further economic cooperation because industrialists found low-wage blacks irresistible. Racists saw social separation enforced by lawapartheidas the essential way to shore up the economic protection of white labor.

Furthermore, white farmers, wanting an artificially large supply of cheap black labor, endorsed measures limiting industrial jobs for blacks. Farmers were key allies of white labor in initiating and preserving apartheid. Indeed, the gerrymandering of parliamentary seats to grant overrepresentation to the rural sector gave the National Party its 1948 victory even though the party lost the popular vote by a substantial margin.

The ruthlessness with which South Africa applied apartheid is legendary. The Group Areas Act (1950) dictated where members of the various races could legally reside, and whole communities were brutally uprooted. The Population Registration Act (1950) gave the state bureaucratic control over the racial identity of its citizens, and in combination with the Pass Laws regulated internal travel. Government spending on education was hugely biased in favor of whites. In 1952, school spending per black child was about 5 percent of spending per white child. Africans were not allowed to own real estate. All these measures attempted to buttress the economic protectionism already enjoyed by white labor under the Colour Bar legislation.

Capitalists strongly opposed apartheid, and apartheidists strongly opposed capitalism. As historian Brian Lapping noted: The National Party had to override some of the biggest financial, commercial and industrial interests in the state.. . . Overruling the bosses, the capitalists, as both the National Party and the communists liked to call them, was popular with the party faithful (Lapping 1987, p. 103).

The notorious Broederbond, the secret Afrikaner brotherhood that exercised huge influence on the racist policies of the apartheid government, stated its agenda quite succinctly in 1933: Abolition of the exploitation by foreigners of [South Africas] national resources . . . the nationalization of finance and the planned coordination of economic policy (Lipton 1986, p. 29). White supremacy had its very own industrial policy.

Beginning about 1970, the internal contradictions of apartheid finally caused its slow demise. After the massive legal discrimination of the early apartheid years, black income, relative to white, fell dramatically, and the advance of white workers was won. But much like the boom periods of the two world wars, the robust economic growth of the 1960s rendered apartheids protection increasingly obsolete (many white workers no longer required all the separateness that apartheid had wrought) and exceedingly expensive (the South African economy was continually stalled by the artificial truncation of labor supply). Necessity became the mother of reform. Herbert Giliomee and Lawrence Schlemmer noted that

as the white skilled-labor shortage worsened, the government became ever more impatient with white trade unions which were hampering the training of blacks and thus blocking black advances into skilled jobs. In 1973 it was announced that blacks, including Africans, could do skilled work in the white areas. The government did not rigorously adhere to its promise that it would consult with white trade unions before making this decision. In 1975 the defence force announced that black soldiers would enjoy the same status as whites of equal rank, and that whites would have to take orders from black officers. This broke the rule that the hierarchical structure (or ratchet) must be kept intact, with blacks always working under whites. (Giliomee and Schlemmer 1989, p. 124)

Postwar economic growth in South Africa so deeply integrated the nonwhite population within the white society that the very idea of separate development became ridiculous as a practical proposition, quite apart from its odious moral implications. Without skilled black labor, white living standards would fall precipitously. The inevitable economic synergy between the races drew people physically and socially closer together. Whereas the median white voter of the 1920s insecurely viewed black workers as substitutes, the majority of whites in the 1980s saw racial cooperation as increasingly beneficial. At the same time, the dramatic growth of an educated, urban African population, including a sizable black middle class, served to enormously raise the cost of enforcing apartheid. Indeed, the old African tribal system, which was cynically manipulated by apartheid policymakers under the notorious homelands policy, was eclipsed by the rise of urban townships closely tied to industrial job centers.

The vicissitudes of apartheid can be measured by the ratio of black income to white. From 1946 to 1960, despite a decrease in the white proportion of the population, a constant 70 percent of South Africas national income went to whites. But between 1970 and 1980, this fell to 60 percent. Apartheids decline can also be seen in increasing expenditures on black education: the twenty-to-one ratio in white-to-black per pupil educational spending in 1952 had shrunk to about five to one in 1987. Most evidently, reform was seen in the elimination of the apartheid laws: the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act (scrapped in 1985), the abolition of the Pass Laws (1986), and the widespread elimination of petty apartheid (whereby separate facilities for racial groups was rigidly maintained). In 1991 President F. W. de Klerk eliminated the Group Areas and Population Registration Acts, the backbone of social apartheid. The nation turned its attention to crafting a new South Africa, adopting a color-blind constitution guaranteeing equal rights under law to all citizens. In April 1994, Nelson Mandelaan antiapartheid activist who had spent twenty-six years in South African prisonswas elected president in South Africas first all-race elections. Mandelas African National Congress Party won 252 of 400 seats in the national assembly, and has remained in power since Mandela stepped aside in 1999.

Did international sanctions against South Africa force Pretorias hand in these reforms? The evidence is virtually unanimous that progress was only modestly correlated at best, and negatively correlated at worst, with such foreign campaigns. Not only did sanctions fail to lower South African trade flows from their previous levels, but GNP growth actually accelerated after the European Community and the United States imposed sanctions (in September and October 1986, respectively). Perversely, South African businesses reaped at least $5 billion to $10 billion in windfalls as Western firms disinvested at fire sale prices between 1984 and 1989.

Whatever the economic impact, the immediate political effect of sanctions was to encourage retrenchment by the Botha regime then in power. Right-wing (proapartheid) support rose sharply in the May 1987 parliamentary elections, and the National Party government responded by shelving all reforms and brutally suppressing antiapartheid dissent, initiating a state of emergency accompanied by sweeping press censorship. Only with a fading of sanctions pressures, a rebounding economy, and key changes in the international geopolitical environment (notably, the collapse of the Eastern bloc) did the course of reform reassert itself.

Apartheid was sought by those economically threatened by the synergies between black workers and white capitalists. That interest groups can so steer economic regulation as to achieve the social savagery of apartheid is a chilling lesson for those who take their politicsand hence their economicsseriously.

Thomas W. Hazlett is a professor of law and economics at George Mason University. In 19911992 he was chief economist of the Federal Communications Commission.

Doxey, G. V. The Industrial Colour Bar in South Africa. Capetown: Oxford University Press, 1961.

Frederickson, G. M. White Supremacy: A Comparative Study in American and South African History. London: Oxford University Press, 1981.

Giliomee, Herbert, and Lawrence Schlemmer. From Apartheid to Nation-Building. Capetown: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Hazlett, Thomas W. The Economic Origins of Apartheid. Contemporary Policy Issues 6 (October 1988): 85104.

Hazlett, Thomas W. The Effect of U.S. Economic Sanctions on South African Apartheid. Applied Public Policy Research Program Working Paper series no. 3. University of California at Davis, Institute of Governmental Affairs, 1992.

Hazlett, Thomas W. Kinnocks Crowning Cheek on Apartheid. Wall Street Journal, December 31, 1986, p. 14.

Hazlett, Thomas W. One Man, One Share: How to Privatize South Africa. New Republic 203 (December 31, 1990): pp. 1415.

Hufbauer, Gary Clyde, Jeffrey J. Schott, and Kimberly Ann Elliott. Economic Sanctions Reconsidered. 2d ed. Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics, 1990.

Lapping, Brian. Apartheid: A History. London: Paladin Books, 1987.

Lingle, Christopher. Apartheid as Racial Socialism. Kyklos 43, no. 2 (1989): 229247.

Lipton, Merle. Capitalism and Apartheid. London: Wildwood Press, 1986.

Lipton, Merle. The Challenge of Sanctions. Paper presented to the Economic Society of South Africa, Johannesburg, September 67, 1989. Washington, D.C.: Investor Responsibility Research Center, 1989.

Lowenberg, Anton D. An Economic Theory of Apartheid. Economic Inquiry 27, no. 1 (1989): 5774.

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Apartheid – Econlib

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Apartheid Questions and Answers – eNotes.com

Apartheid

The Group Areas Act was one of the main legislative components of the apartheid system. It was expressly designed to keep races apart. South Africa was divided geographically along racial lines,…

Apartheid

If one were to have asked the late former President Nelson Mandela this question, he would almost certainly have answered that Apartheid began in 1910, when South Africa became a unified country…

Apartheid

The Group Areas Act of 1950 was one of the major legislative building blocks of apartheid. In keeping with this policy, the Act’s primary purpose was to maintain the formal separation of the races….

Apartheid

The policy of apartheid, or separateness, was first put into practice by the white minority South African government in 1948. Racial discrimination and segregation had long been a part of South…

Apartheid

Apartheid is the systematic segregation of a particular group of people by a countrys government. The term traces its origins to South Africa. In 1948, the ruling National Party (NP) instituted…

Apartheid

The Reservation of Separate Amenities Act was passed in South Africa in 1953. It had a tremendous impact on the peoples lives. This law was a part of the system of segregation that existed in…

Apartheid

The questions I would ask of a person who lived through apartheid would be different depending on the persons race. Some of the questions would be similar, but they would change to some degree…

Apartheid

The international reaction to Apartheid was very strong. Global political and economic factors played into this. From a political standpoint, it was difficult for leaders of various governments…

History

One major source of disagreement exists in the narrative of what actually happened. Police reports indicated that the crowd became “hostile” and threatened police safety. Consider the words of…

Apartheid

Racial separation, or apartheid, was enforced in South Africa through a series of laws instituted by the minority White government, which was dominated by Afrikaners of Dutch descent. The earliest…

Apartheid

The most prominent event in South Africa which affects everyone who learns about it, is June 16 1976, The Soweto Uprising. Hector Petersen, a boy who died that day, became a symbol of the…

Apartheid

The late South African writer Alex la Guma (1925-1985) was a child of the black liberation movement in apartheid South Africa whose novels and short stories, including The Lemon Orchard,…

Apartheid

South Africa was initially colonized by the Dutch and the English. South Africa is a country rich in natural resources, including diamonds. This led to conflict between the English and Dutch in…

Apartheid

The most significant reason majority rule was delayed and not initiated sooner than its beginning in 1991-1994 was that post-colonialist English and Dutch Afrikaner citizens did not recognize black…

Apartheid

The 1960 Sharpeville Massacre was the result of a peaceful protest regarding racist South African policies of apartheid. The enforcement of Pass Laws and the reissue of laws that restricted the…

Apartheid

I think that most, if not all legislation, that arises during the Apartheid Era is to enhance the “apartness” of White South Africans and communities of color. This is seen in the establishment of…

Apartheid

Apartheid was put into place in South Africa for the purpose of control. It became evident that with the heterogeneous mixture of cultures in South Africa, White South Africans were a minority….

Apartheid

Camus’ quote can be used to express what anti- Apartheid resistance sought to achieve. Organizations like the African National Congress as well as individuals like Steve Biko felt that the best way…

Apartheid

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I certainly think that a good case can be made that the 1950s and 1960s were important to the Anti- Apartheid cause because they started the process of resistance that would inevitably bring down…

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I think that the United Nations played a significant and symbolic role in recognizing how the South African practice of apartheid had to come to an end. The 1973 United Nations International…

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I think that a case can be made for the narrator being the most important character because, in many respects, the future of a post- Apartheid vision rests with individuals like the narrator….

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Apartheid was a policy of racial discrimination and segregation used in South Africa from 1948 to 1994. Apartheid impacted world history through its legitimization of racism and prejudiced ideals….

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One good place to start on your research paper is developing a strong working thesis. A good thesis statement offers insight or an assertion about your main idea and has three or more supporting…

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The major similarity would be that both the colonization of Vietnam and the apartheid system in South Africa were imposed on the natives of the area by outsiders. In that sense, then, the…

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I think that the most intense theme that comes out of the work is how apartheid is fundamentally unjust. Brink is deliberate in choosing someone as apolitical as Ben to use as the reference point…

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Anti-Semitism: Martin Luther – "The Jews & Their Lies"

I had made up my mind to write no more either about the Jews or against them. But since I learned that these miserable and accursed people do not cease to lure to themselves even us, that is, the Christians, I have published this little book, so that I might be found among those who opposed such poisonous activities of the Jews who warned the Christians to be on their guard against them. I would not have believed that a Christian could be duped by the Jews into taking their exile and wretchedness upon himself. However, the devil is the god of the world, and wherever God’s word is absent he has an easy task, not only with the weak but also with the strong. May God help us. Amen.

* * *

He did not call them Abraham’s children, but a “brood of vipers” [Matt. 3:7]. Oh, that was too insulting for the noble blood and race of Israel, and they declared, “He has a demon’ [Matt 11:18]. Our Lord also calls them a “brood of vipers”; furthermore in John 8 [:39,44] he states: “If you were Abraham’s children ye would do what Abraham did…. You are of your father the devil. It was intolerable to them to hear that they were not Abraham’s but the devil’s children, nor can they bear to hear this today.

* * *

Therefore the blind Jews are truly stupid fools…

* * *

Now just behold these miserable, blind, and senseless people … their blindness and arrogance are as solid as an iron mountain.

* * *

Learn from this, dear Christian, what you are doing if you permit the blind Jews to mislead you. Then the saying will truly apply, “When a blind man leads a blind man, both will fall into the pit” [cf. Luke 6:39]. You cannot learn anything from them except how to misunderstand the divine commandments…

* * *

Therefore be on your guard against the Jews, knowing that wherever they have their synagogues, nothing is found but a den of devils in which sheer selfglory, conceit, lies, blasphemy, and defaming of God and men are practiced most maliciously and veheming his eyes on them.

* * *

Moreover, they are nothing but thieves and robbers who daily eat no morsel and wear no thread of clothing which they have not stolen and pilfered from us by means of their accursed usury. Thus they live from day to day, together with wife and child, by theft and robbery, as archthieves and robbers, in the most impenitent security.

* * *

However, they have not acquired a perfect mastery of the art of lying; they lie so clumsily and ineptly that anyone who is just a little observant can easily detect it. But for us Christians they stand as a terrifying example of God’s wrath.

* * *

If I had to refute all the other articles of the Jewish faith, I should be obliged to write against them as much and for as long a time as they have used for inventing their lies that is, longer than two thousand years.

* * *

…Christ and his word can hardly be recognized because of the great vermin of human ordinances. However, let this suffice for the time being on their lies against doctrine or faith.

* * *

Did I not tell you earlier that a Jew is such a noble, precious jewel that God and all the angels dance when he farts?

* * *

Alas, it cannot be anything but the terrible wrath of God which permits anyone to sink into such abysmal, devilish, hellish, insane baseness, envy, and arrogance. If I were to avenge myself on the devil himself I should be unable to wish him such evil and misfortune as God’s wrath inflicts on the Jews, compelling them to lie and to blaspheme so monstrously, in violation of their own conscience. Anyway, they have their reward for constantly giving God the lie.

* * *

No, one should toss out these lazy rogues by the seat of their pants.

* * *

…but then eject them forever from this country. For, as we have heard, God’s anger with them is so intense that gentle mercy will only tend to make them worse and worse, while sharp mercy will reform them but little. Therefore, in any case, away with them!

* * *

Over and above that we let them get rich on our sweat and blood, while we remain poor and they such the marrow from our bones.

* * *

I brief, dear princes and lords, those of you who have Jews under your rule if my counsel does not please your, find better advice, so that you and we all can be rid of the unbearable, devilish burden of the Jews, lest we become guilty sharers before God in the lies, blasphemy, the defamation, and the curses which the mad Jews indulge in so freely and wantonly against the person of our Lord Jesus Christ, this dear mother, all Christians, all authority, and ourselves. Do not grant them protection, safeconduct, or communion with us…. .With this faithful counsel and warning I wish to cleanse and exonerate my conscience.

* * *

Let the government deal with them in this respect, as I have suggested. But whether the government acts or not, let everyone at least be guided by his own conscience and form for himself a definition or image of a Jew.

* * *

However, we must avoid confirming them in their wanton lying, slandering, cursing, and defaming. Nor dare we make ourselves partners in their devilish ranting and raving by shielding and protecting them, by giving them food, drink, and shelter, or by other neighborly

* * *

Therefore we Christians, in turn, are obliged not to tolerate their wanton and conscious blasphemy.

* * *

Accordingly, it must and dare not be considered a trifling matter but a most serious one to seek counsel against this and to save our souls from the Jews, that is, from the devil and from eternal death.

* * *

What shall we Christians do with this rejected and condemned people, the Jews? Since they live among us, we dare not tolerate their conduct, now that we are aware of their lying and reviling and blaspheming. If we do, we become sharers in their lies, cursing and blasphemy. Thus we cannot extinguish the unquenchable fire of divine wrath, of which the prophets speak, nor can we convert the Jews. With prayer and the fear of God we must practice a sharp mercy to see whether we might save at least a few from the glowing flames. We dare not avenge ourselves. Vengeance a thousand times worse than we could wish them already has them by the throat. I shall give you my sincere advice:

First to set fire to their synagogues or schools and to bury and cover with dirt whatever will not burn, so that no man will ever again see a stone or cinder of them. This is to be done in honor of our Lord and of Christendom, so that God might see that we are Christians, and do not condone or knowingly tolerate such public lying, cursing, and blaspheming of his Son and of his Christians. For whatever we tolerated in the past unknowingly and I myself was unaware of it will be pardoned by God. But if we, now that we are informed, were to protect and shield such a house for the Jews, existing right before our very nose, in which they lie about, blaspheme, curse, vilify, and defame Christ and us (as was heard above), it would be the same as if we were doing all this and even worse ourselves, as we very well know.

Second, I advise that their houses also be razed and destroyed. For they pursue in them the same aims as in their synagogues. Instead they might be lodged under a roof or in a barn, like the gypsies. This will bring home to them that they are not masters in our country, as they boast, but that they are living in exile and in captivity, as they incessantly wail and lament about us before God.

Third, I advise that all their prayer books and Talmudic writings, in which such idolatry, lies, cursing and blasphemy are taught, be taken from them. (remainder omitted)

Fourth, I advise that their rabbis be forbidden to teach henceforth on pain of loss of life and limb. For they have justly forfeited the right to such an office by holding the poor Jews captive with the saying of Moses (Deuteronomy 17 [:10 ff.]) in which he commands them to obey their teachers on penalty of death, although Moses clearly adds: “what they teach you in accord with the law of the Lord.” Those villains ignore that. They wantonly employ the poor people’s obedience contrary to the law of the Lord and infuse them with this poison, cursing, and blasphemy. In the same way the pope also held us captive with the declaration in Matthew 16 {:18], “You are Peter,” etc, inducing us to believe all the lies and deceptions that issued from his devilish mind. He did not teach in accord with the word of God, and therefore he forfeited the right to teach.

Fifth, I advise that safeconduct on the highways be abolished completely for the Jews. For they have no business in the countryside, since they are not lords, officials, tradesmen, or the like. Let they stay at home. (…remainder omitted).

Sixth, I advise that usury be prohibited to them, and that all cash and treasure of silver and gold be taken from them and put aside for safekeeping. The reason for such a measure is that, as said above, they have no other means of earning a livelihood than usury, and by it they have stolen and robbed from us all they possess. Such money should now be used in no other way than the following: Whenever a Jew is sincerely converted, he should be handed one hundred, two hundred, or three hundred florins, as personal circumstances may suggest. With this he could set himself up in some occupation for the support of his poor wife and children, and the maintenance of the old or feeble. For such evil gains are cursed if they are not put to use with God’s blessing in a good and worthy cause.

Seventh, I commend putting a flail, an ax, a hoe, a spade, a distaff, or a spindle into the hands of young, strong Jews and Jewesses and letting them earn their bread in the sweat of their brow, as was imposed on the children of Adam (Gen 3[:19]}. For it is not fitting that they should let us accursed Goyim toil in the sweat of our faces while they, the holy people, idle away their time behind the stove, feasting and farting, and on top of all, boasting blasphemously of their lordship over the Christians by means of our sweat. No, one should toss out these lazy rogues by the seat of their pants.

* * *

But what will happen even if we do burn down the Jews’ synagogues and forbid them publicly to praise God, to pray, to teach, to utter God’s name? They will still keep doing it in secret. If we know that they are doing this in secret, it is the same as if they were doing it publicly. for our knowledge of their secret doings and our toleration of them implies that they are not secret after all and thus our conscience is encumbered with it before God.

* * *

Accordingly, it must and dare not be considered a trifling matter but a most serious one to seek counsel against this and to save our souls from the Jews, that is, from the devil and from eternal death. My advice, as I said earlier, is:

First, that their synagogues be burned down, and that all who are able toss in sulphur and pitch; it would be good if someone could also throw in some hellfire. That would demonstrate to God our serious resolve and be evidence to all the world that it was in ignorance that we tolerated such houses, in which the Jews have reviled God, our dear Creator and Father, and his Son most shamefully up till now but that we have now given them their due reward.

* * *

I wish and I ask that our rulers who have Jewish subjects exercise a sharp mercy toward these wretched people, as suggested above, to see whether this might not help (though it is doubtful). They must act like a good physician who, when gangrene has set in, proceeds without mercy to cut, saw, and burn flesh, veins, bone, and marrow. Such a procedure must also be followed in this instance. Burn down their synagogues, forbid all that I enumerated earlier, force them to work, and deal harshly with them, as Moses did in the wilderness, slaying three thousand lest the whole people perish. They surely do not know what they are doing; moreover, as people possessed, they do not wish to know it, hear it, or learn it. There it would be wrong to be merciful and confirm them in their conduct. If this does not help we must drive them out like mad dogs, so that we do not become partakers of their abominable blasphemy and all their other vices and thus merit God’s wrath and be damned with them. I have done my duty. Now let everyone see to his. I am exonerated. “

* * *

My essay, I hope, will furnish a Christian (who in any case has no desire to become a Jew) with enough material not only to defend himself against the blind, venomous Jews, but also to become the foe of the Jews’ malice, lying, and cursing, and to understand not only that their belief is false but that they are surely possessed by all devils. May Christ, our dear Lord, convert them mercifully and preserve us steadfastly and immovably in the knowledge of him, which is eternal life. Amen.

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The Iranian | Iran News, Events And Opinions

The prospects of Indian refiners cutting their intake of Iranian crude oil to zero are unrealistic, the chairman of Indian Oil Corp. told S&P Global…

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Jewish Population of the World

Jewish Population (2017) Historic Jewish Population

1

Israel

6,451,000

2

United States

5,700,000

3

France

456,000

4

Canada

390,000

5

U.K.

289,500

6

Argentina

180,500

7

Russia

176,000

8

Germany

116,500

9

Australia

113,200

10

Brazil

93,800

11

Ukraine

53,000

12

South Africa

69,300

13

Hungary

47,500

14

Mexico

40,000

15

Belgium

29,300

1880

7,800,000

1900

10,600,000

1922

14,400,000

1925

14,800,000

1939

16,728,000

1945

11,000,000

1950

11,297,000

1955

11,800,000

1960

12,079,000

1970

12,585,000

1980

12,819,000

1990

12,868,000

2000

12,900,000

2010

13,428,300

2017

14,511,100

Jewish Population By Region (2017):Americas | Asia | Oceania | Africa | Europe

The Americas

Country

Total Population

Jews

% of Population

Canada

36,200,000

390,000

1.11%

United States

323,900,000

5,700,000

1.76%

Bahamas

400,000

300

0.08%

Costa Rica

4,900,000

2,500

0.06%

Cuba

11,200,000

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Jewish Population of the World

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There Is Still So Much Evil: Growing Anti-Semitism Stuns …

Until recent years, many Jews in America believed that the worst of anti-Semitism was over there, in Europe, a vestige of the old country.

American Jews were welcome in universities, country clubs and corporate boards that once excluded their grandparents. They married non-Jews, moved into mixed neighborhoods and by 2000, the first Jew ran for vice president on a major party ticket.

So the massacre on Saturday of 11 people in a Pittsburgh synagogue, by a man who told the police when he surrendered that he wanted all Jews to die, was for many a shocking wake-up call.

This kind of evil makes me think of the Holocaust and how people can be so cruel, that there is so much evil in the world, still, said Moshe Taube, 91, a retired cantor from Congregation Beth Shalom in Pittsburgh and a survivor of the Holocaust.

But it did not come out of nowhere, said experts in anti-Semitism. At the same time that Jews were feeling unprecedented acceptance in the United States, the climate was growing increasingly hostile, intensifying in the two years since President Trump was elected. And it comes at a time when attacks on Jews are on the rise in Europe as well, with frequent anti-Semitic episodes in France and Germany.

The hate in the United States came into full view last year as white supremacists marched in Charlottesville, Va., with lines of men carrying torches and chanting, Jews will not replace us.

Swastikas and other anti-Semitic graffiti have been cropping up on synagogues and Jewish homes around the country. Jews online are subjected to vicious slurs and threats. Many synagogues and Jewish day schools have been amping up security measures.

The Anti-Defamation League logged a 57 percent rise in anti-Semitic incidents in the United States in 2017, compared to the previous year including bomb threats, assaults, vandalism, and anti-Semitic posters and literature found on college campuses.

A spokesman for the Anti-Defamation League said that before Saturdays shooting, the deadliest anti-Semitic attack in recent United States history was in 1985, when a man killed a family of four in Seattle. He had mistakenly thought they were Jewish.

[The 11 people killed in Pittsburgh were remembered as guardians of their faith. Read more about their lives here.]

There was also an attack by a white supremacist on a Jewish Community Center filled with children in Los Angeles in 1999 that injured five. More recently, in 2014, a white supremacist opened fire outside a Jewish Community Center in a suburb of Kansas City, Mo., killing three people.

Im not a Chicken Little whos always yelling, Its worse than its ever been! But now I think its worse than its ever been, said Deborah E. Lipstadt, a professor of Holocaust history at Emory University in Atlanta and the author of a planned book on anti-Semitism.

Ms. Lipstadt said she did not wish to be seen as alarmist, because in some ways things have never been better for Jews in America.

But she likened anti-Semitism to a herpes infection that lies dormant and re-emerges at times of stress. It does not go away, no matter how acculturated Jews have become in America, because its a conspiracy theory, said Ms. Lipstadt, whose win at trial against a Holocaust denier in England was portrayed in the 2016 movie Denial.

What has changed, said several experts in interviews, is that conspiracy theories and dog whistles that resonate with anti-Semites and white supremacists are being circulated by establishment sources, including the president and members of Congress. Bizarre claims about Jews have moved from the margins to the establishment.

Prominent recent examples include unfounded conspiracy theories about George Soros, a wealthy donor to Democratic Party causes and a Jewish migr from Hungary who survived the Nazis.

On Oct. 5, Mr. Trump asserted on Twitter that the women who stopped Senator Jeff Flake in an elevator to plead with him to vote against advancing the nomination of Justice Brett M. Kavanaugh for the Supreme Court were paid for by Soros and others. In a rally in Missoula, Mont., on Oct. 19, the president told the crowd that the news media prefers to interview protesters who were paid by Soros or somebody.

Mr. Soros has also been accused of financing the caravan of Hondurans and Guatemalans fleeing north on foot through Mexico another claim with no factual basis.

A day after a pipe bomb was discovered at Mr. Soross home in Westchester, Representative Kevin McCarthy, the House majority leader, wrote on Twitter, We cannot allow Soros, Steyer and Bloomberg to BUY this election! Get out and vote Republican Nov. 6.

Tom Steyer is an Episcopalian and is of Jewish descent. Michael Bloomberg, the former mayor of New York City, is Jewish. After more explosive devices were found in the homes and offices of other Democratic leaders and supporters, Mr. McCarthy deleted the tweet.

Anti-Semitism has also become a charged topic on many American college campuses, with Israel as the detonator.

[The rampage at a Pittsburgh synagogue has revealed the Jewish rifts in Israel and America.]

Activists on the left sometimes including young Jews call for boycotts and divestments from companies doing business in Israel, or the occupied territories. Mainstream Jewish groups are now branding such campaigns as anti-Semitism. Where to draw the line between criticism of Israel and anti-Semitism is a growing source of friction in many colleges and state capitals.

In Europe, Jewish leaders have been confronting open hatred toward Jews, also sometimes linked to animosity toward Israel.

In France, Jews have increasingly faced attacks and insults from members of the countrys large Muslim community. In March, an 85-year-old Holocaust survivor, Mireille Knoll, was knifed to death in her apartment by a young man who shouted Allahu akbar. Prosecutors classified it as an anti-Semitic hate crime.

In a 2015 study, 42 percent of French Jews surveyed said that they had suffered insults or aggressive acts at the hands of Muslims.

In Germany, anti-Semitism remains a daily occurrence, sometimes taking on the form of criminal attacks on Jews or Jewish institutions, but often in more casual insults or the questioning of the countrys post-World War II commitment to never again repeat the Nazi Holocaust.

One of the most prominent anti-Semitic attacks this year, in which a young Syrian struck a man wearing a skullcap on the street of a trendy Berlin neighborhood, prompted the head of Germanys main Jewish organization to warn Jews against openly wearing skullcaps, or other public displays of their religion.

A demonstration in support of the countrys Jews drew thousands of people to the streets, but months later, in the midst of violent demonstrations by neo-Nazis in the eastern city of Chemnitz, masked assailants threw rocks and bottles at a local Jewish restaurant and shouted anti-Semitic insults, the owner told the police.

Nadine Epstein, editor in chief of Moment, an independent Jewish magazine in the United States, said that in 2014 the magazine did a special section on anti-Semitism, interviewing a wide range of scholars and leaders in the field. She said that her conclusion was that anti-Semitism, while persistent, was mostly a problem in Europe. But it wasnt really an issue in the U.S., she said.

Four plus years later, she added in an email, we live in a very different world where nationalism, and with it anti-Semitism, is on the rise, stirred up by the rhetoric of one candidate in the 2016 presidential campaign. Its been building ever since, and now that we are in the run-up to the midterms, the first national election since, we are seeing the consequences of such dangerous rhetoric.

Moment magazine now has a web page to monitor anti-Semitism around the world, something Ms. Epstein said she never imagined doing.

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Anne Frank | Anne Frank House

Overview: the story of Anne Frank, the life in hiding, the diary. The Secret Annex Online is a virtual tour of the building at 263 Prinsengracht in Amsterdam where Anne Frank was in hiding for more than two years during World War II and where she wrote her world famous diary. The story of the Frank family against the backdrop of world history. With exceptional photographs and audio and video clips. The wartime history of the city of Amsterdam based on locations, events and personal stories all within the framework of a visual timeline. Besides Anne Franks story, other personal stories are told. The diary of Anne Frank has been translated into more than 70 languages. How did a young girls diary become one of the most widely read books about the persecution of the Jews? And why is it still so important and inspirational today? Discover the story behind Anne Franks diary. Anne Frank wrote her world-famous diary while in hiding in occupied Holland. Read the whole story. With unique photos and film images.

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FBI investigation after New Mexico immigration attorney …

Attorney Allegra Love at work in her Santa Fe office.(Photo: Don J. Usner/Searchlight New Mexico) SANTA FE – A death threat against immigration attorney Allegra Love launched an FBI investigation and forced the Santa Fe advocate to abandon her home until the danger passed, sources have told Searchlight New Mexico. The threat came in an April 29 voicemail from a New Mexico phone number. A man, who said he was coming to Santa Fe, growled into the phone: Im going to murder every one of you tyranny-loving motherers. Be ready for me! You are all fing dead. The next day, an FBI agent met Love at her office. Heres what we suggest, she says the agent told her, Keep the doors locked. If your staff is uncomfortable, they can work from home. Were taking this as credible. Were going to try to figure out who the caller is. MORE: New Mexico may seek oversight on immigration detention centers As director of the nonprofit Santa Fe Dreamers Project and an outspoken advocate for immigrant families in New Mexico, Love says she has faced her share of insults often after a news report broadcasts her name. But nothing like this. It scared me to think that something could happen to our staff, says Love, a former elementary school teacher in Santa Fe Public Schools. I feel like (the work)has become hazardous in a way I never would have anticipated. What happened to Love and her colleagues, experts say, is a terrifying example of the open threats and unrelenting hostility that immigrant advocates face nationwide. Anti-immigrant rhetoric from the Trump administration amplified by media politically aligned with the president is at least partly to blame, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center, a civil rights organization that tracks incidents of hate speech. Both Trump and national media outlets, including Fox, have given hate groups a huge platform to spout their bigoted views, says Heidi Beirich, director of the SPLCs Intelligence Project. We know that this rhetoric is not cost-free. Academic research shows hate speech is closely correlated to hate crimes. As a matter of policy, Albuquerque-based FBI spokesman Frank Fisher said, the agency cannot confirm or deny an investigation. But he explained the difference between strong words and a criminal act this way. MORE: City council opposes immigrant family separations When it crosses the line to Im going to hurt you or your relatives, that is where it becomes a threat of violence, he says. It is no longer just expressing an opinion. Though the caller did not carry out the attack, the threat was especially chilling because of its specificity, Love says. The caller stated exactly when, where and how she and her colleagues would die. Loves twin sister begged her to leave her house. Police said they would keep a close patrol of her home and office until the threat passed. She packed her things, locked her doors and stayed away from her house for more than two weeks while law enforcement watched and waited. In the fervor over illegal immigration, the migrant caravan this spring became a particular flash point. It was the latest annual pilgrimage meant to draw attention to the plight of Central Americans fleeing violence in their home countries. President Trump decried the caravan as a threat to border security. Anti-immigrant groups including neo-Nazis and white supremacists rallied around the cause. Some anti-immigrant groups also attempted to mobilize protests at the border, and we saw a spike in violent rhetoric about the caravan, especially on social media, Beirich says. Along with a dozen or so other attorneys, Love was in Mexico with the caravan in early April to answer questions and conduct legal seminars. An NBC Nightly News report showed the migrants, including many women and children, congregating under blue-and-yellow tarps after traveling hundreds of miles by train and on foot. People want to know, Love told NBC, if I turn myself in at the U.S. border, what is going to happen to me? MORE: In Las Cruces and other federal courts on the border, indigenous interpreters in demand Her work in Mexico coincided with the mission of the Santa Fe Dreamers Project. In addition to providing pro bono legal aid to about 700 immigrants per year in New Mexico and asylum seekers in detention, the nonprofit offers know your rights seminars, legal clinics for young Dreamers and community presentations. In Mexico, Love says, she explained U.S. asylum law to migrants, described poor detention conditions and warned about family separation polices at the border. The work made her uncomfortable, she says, because politically, I dont want to be telling asylum seekers not to come to our border, which is what I was telling 90 percent of the people. A couple weeks later, on April 24, Fox News ran a segment on “The Ingraham Angle” that Love says broadly mischaracterized her work. Laura Ingraham whose nightly opinion show ranks No. 2 on cable with 4.5 million viewers, according to Nielsen appeals to conservatives with her no-holds-barred commentary. Recently, during the intense coverage of parent-child separation, she called immigrant child detention centers at the border essentially summer camps. Ingraham opened the April 24 segment by saying, We have also learned this is curious that American attorneys have traveled southward to meet with migrants to instruct them on their rights to apply for asylum in the United States. We did some digging and, according to reports, two of these lawyers are Allegra Love of Santa Fe Dreamers Project and Marie Vincent, who also works for a small 5O1(c)3 organization. The problem for the attorneys helping the members of the caravan could be the U.S. law, Ingraham said, quoting a federal statute that prohibits citizens from inducing a foreign national to enter the U.S. illegally. Then Ingraham made an accusation: If these attorneys are holding what is being described as these large-group seminars and demonstrate intent to skirt the laws or to help the migrant skirt the laws, well, they could be in jeopardy at least technically. “The Ingraham Angle”never called Love or Vincent for comment. They never interviewed me, Vincent told Searchlight. I just remember being shocked they were talking about us without asking us anything. Searchlight New Mexico reached a Fox News spokeswoman who declined to answer questions on the record. The network did not respond to a list of questions Searchlight emailed in early July. MORE: Domenici Conference to feature national defense and immigration Love says, The sickest I felt about this whole thing, including listening to the threat, was watching ‘The Ingraham Angle.’ It was seeing something that is broadcast to millions of people that is completely mischaracterizing your action. The threat came five days later. Immigration has made for divisive politics for decades. Whats new, immigration attorneys say, is a sense of disdain and hostility coming from the government itself. In a speech to Congress in October 2017, U.S. Attorney General Jeff Sessions spoke about dirty immigration lawyers. Last month, an ICE agent in Kansas City, Mo., was accused of shoving an immigration lawyer to the ground while she tried to reunite a 3-year-old boy with his mother. ICE told the Kansas City Star the agency takes allegations against personnel seriously and is looking into the matter. Parastoo Zahedi, a Washington, D.C., immigration attorney since 1989, has watched immigration politics shift from restrictive to relaxed and back again. She received her first concerning threat this year: an unsigned, handwritten letter warning her to keep her home safe and indicating the writer knew where she lived. MORE: New Mexico may seek oversight on immigration detention centers Not to say the Obama administration made it any easier for our clients, however there was no disrespect as I see it now, the hostility as I see it now, Zahedi says. Several immigration attorneys and members of the American Immigration Lawyers Association interviewed for this article reported having received threatening messages in the past 18 months. Some said they have modified their home and office security in response. At the Dreamers Project, the threat did what it was supposed to do, Love says. It distracted us from the work. It made us question, why are we doing this? As the lawyer sat in her Santa Fe office, pondering her works purpose, a Spanish-speaking family young children in tow filed in the front door looking for help. She had her answer. Searchlight New Mexico is a nonprofit, nonpartisan news organization dedicated to investigative journalism. Read more of our stories on Raising New Mexico at projects.searchlightnm.com/. Reporter Lauren Villagran can be reached at lauren@searchlightnm.com. Read or Share this story: https://www.lcsun-news.com/story/news/local/new-mexico/2018/07/11/fbi-new-mexico-immigration-attorney-death-threat-work-immigrants/775610002/

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David Icke | Gaia

A former professional soccer player and sports broadcaster, David Icke is an English writer and public speaker, best known for his views on what he calls “who and what is really controlling the world.”Self-described as the most controversial speaker in the world; he is the author of over 20 books and numerous dvds. Through his lectures in over 25 countries, Icke has attracted a global following that cuts across the political spectrum. His book, “The Biggest Secret,” has been described as “The Rosetta Stone for conspiracy junkies.”After being told by a psychic that he was a healer who had been placed on earth for a particular purpose, Icke held a press conference to announce that he was a “Son of the Godhead.” Through his writings, Icke has developed a worldview that combines new-age spiritualism with a denunciation of totalitarian trends. He believes that many prominent figures belong to the Babylonian Brotherhood, a secret group of shapeshifting reptilian humanoids that control humanity. Read More

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Apartheid – Econlib

The now-defunct apartheid system of South Africa presented a fascinating instance of interest-group competition for political advantage. In light of the extreme human rights abuses stemming from apartheid, it is remarkable that so little attention has been paid to the economic foundations of that torturous social structure. The conventional view is that apartheid was devised by affluent whites to suppress poor blacks. In fact, the system sprang from class warfare and was largely the creation of white workers struggling against both the black majority and white capitalists. Apartheid was born in the political victory of radical white trade unions over both of their rivals. In short, this cruelly oppressive economic system was socialism with a racist face. When the British arrived in South Africa in 1796, they quickly conquered the Dutch settlement that had been established in 1652 and set up a government under the English Parliament and British common law. This liberal, individualistic regime was inherently offensive to the Afrikanersthe Dutch settlers of South Africawho enjoyed both slavery (generally of imported Chinese and Malays) and a system of law that granted no standing to nonwhites. The Boers, as the Afrikaners were to call themselves, abhorred the intervention of the British, whom they considered agents of an imperialist power. Following Britains abolition of South African slavery in 1834, the Afrikaners physically escaped the rule of the British crown in the Great Trek of 1835. Moving north from Capetown and spilling the blood of several major tribes, including the fierce Zulus, the Boers founded the Transvaal and the Orange Free State (i.e., free of British domination), and proceeded to establish racist legal institutions. The Boers treated brutally, and denied rights to, the relatively few nonwhites who resided and worked in their agricultural economy. The Capetown of nineteenth-century British rule was markedly different. That area experienced some of the most unconstrained racial mixing in the world. A large nonwhite population, the Cape Coloureds, participated in integrated schools, churches, businesses, and government institutions. And they voted. A color-blind franchise was explicitly adopted in 1854. As a port city, Capetown became internationally famous for its laissez-faire social scene (including miscegenation), rivaling New Orleans as a haven for sea-weary sailors. The physical separation of the two European populations, as well as the small degree of interaction between the Afrikaners and the African tribes, allowed a brief and uneasy equilibrium in the mid-nineteenth century. It was not to last. When gold was discovered near the Rand River in the Transvaal in 1871 (diamonds had been found in 1866), the worlds richest deposits exerted a powerful magnetic force on the tribes within the subcontinent: Afrikaners, British, Xhosi, Sotho, and Zulu were all drawn to the profitable opportunities opening in the Witwatersrand basin. The South African gold rush made the natural synergy between white-owned capital and abundant black labor overpowering. The gains from cooperation between eager British investors and thousands of African workers were sufficient to bridge gaping differences in language, customs, and geography. At first, however, the white capitalist could deal directly only with the few English and Afrikaner managers and foremen who shared his tongue and work habits. But the premium such workers commanded soon became an extravagance. Black workers were becoming capable of performing industrial leadership roles in far greater numbers and at far less cost. Driven by the profit motive, the substitution of black for white in skilled and semiskilled mining jobs rose high on the agenda of the mining companies. White workers feared the large supply of African labor as the low-priced competition that it was. Hence, white tradesmen and government officials, including police, regularly harassed African workers to discourage them from traveling to the mines and competing for permanent positions. Beginning in the 1890s, the Chamber of Mines, a group of employers, complained regularly of this systematic discrimination and attempted to secure better treatment for black workers. Their gesture was neither altruistic nor founded on liberal beliefs. Indeed, the mine owners often resorted to racist measures themselves. But here they had a clear economic incentive: labor costs were minimized where rules were color-blind. This self-interest was so powerful that it led the chamber to finance the first lawsuits and political campaigns against segregationist legislation. Nonetheless, the state instituted an array of legal impediments to the promotion of black workers. The notorious Pass Laws sought to sharply limit the supply of nonwhite workers in white employment centers. Blacks were not allowed to become lawful citizens, to live permanently near their work, or to travel without government passports. This last restriction created a catch-22. If passports were issued only to those already possessing jobs, how was a nonwhite to get into the job area to procure a job so as to obtain a passport? Nonwhites also were prohibited from bringing their families while working in the mines (reinforcing the transient nature of employment). Each restriction undercut the ability of blacks to fully establish themselves in the capitalist economy, and hence to compete with white workers on equal terms. Confined to temporary status, blacks were robbed of any realistic chance of building up the human capital to challenge their white bosses directly in the labor market. Yet even on this decidedly unlevel playing field, the profit motive often found ways of matching white capitalists with black workers. Whites formed labor unions in the early 1900s to guard against this persistent tendency, and the South African Labour Party (SALP) was formed in 1908 to explicitly advance the interests of European workers. The SALP and the unions with which it allied, including the powerful Mine Workers Union, were all white and avowedly socialist; the British Labour Party formed the model for the SALP. These organizations opposed any degradation of European or civilized standards in the workplace, by which they meant the advancement of blacks willing to undercut white union pay scales. To discourage mine owners from substituting cheaper African labor for more expensive European labor, the trade unions regularly resorted to violence and the strike threat. They also turned to legislation: the Mines and Works Act of 1911 (commonly referred to as the first Colour Bar Act) used the premise of worker safety to institute a licensing scheme for labor. A government board was set up to certify individuals for work in hazardous occupations. The effect was to decertify non-Europeans, who were deemed unqualified. The legislative victory by the white unions froze African advances until the booming World War I demand for minerals raised employment and pay scales for all races. White workers did not object to black advancement per se, only to that which they perceived to come at their expense. The postwar recession and the plummeting price of gold ended the tranquillity. In December 1921 the Chamber of Mines announced a plan to fire two thousand highly paid whites in semiskilled occupations and replace them with Africans. Before the planned substitution took effect, the Mine Workers Union launched a massive strike, seizing the mines and occupying the entire Rand mining region for two months. In a full-scale assault involving seven thousand government troops complete with tanks, artillery, and air support, the government reclaimed the Rand at a reported cost of 250 lives. Several leaders of the strike were hanged. The insurrection was sensational, as was the haunting slogan of the striking miners: Workers of the world unite, and fight for a white South Africa. The miners saw not an ounce of irony in their V. I. Lenin meets Lester Maddox radicalism. They saw quite clearly, however, that the threat to their interests lay in the mutual interests of white capital and black labor. White workers shared skin color with the capitalists, but their goals were quite different; the goal of mining and manufacturing capital was to hire cheap labor. As Africans assimilated into Western culture and the workforce, the abundance of managerial, skilled, and semiskilled talent would mushroom. The precariously privileged position of white labor would topple. These were not casual racists; they were economically vested up to their eyeballs in the policy of exclusion by skin color. Hence, the landmark election of 1924 tossed out the Smuts governmentcondemned by the strikers as a tool of big businessin a white backlash over suppression of the Rand Rebellion by Pretoria. The Pact government, composed of Afrikaner nationalists (in the National Party) and white unionists (SALP), set an agenda of pro forma socialism that it dubbed the Civilized Labour Policy. Measures enacted in Western democracies as standard, off-the-shelf trade union legislation were adopted in South Africa, but with a racist twist. After the courts threw out the first Colour Bar Act in 1923 on a lawsuit by the Chamber of Mines, the Mines and Works Act of 1926 reestablished the Colour Bar. Like the earlier act, the new one used the pretext of industrial safety to keep blacks from moving into favorable job classifications. Despite the legalistic cover story, the government admitted its intent: to counteract the force of economic advantages at present enjoyed by the native (Doxey, 1961, p. 160). Similarly, the Industrial Conciliation Act of 1924 authorized sector-by-sector labor union wage setting for the ostensible purpose of securing labor peace. The following year, the Wage Act extended this to the nonunionized sector. These rules amounted to race-based syndicalism. The ebb and flow of the power of white trade unions to dictate terms to their bosses is graphically visible in the ethnic employment statistics. From 1910 to 1918 the ratio of blacks to whites employed in the mines ranged from 8 or 9 to 1. This was pushed down to 7.4 to 1 in the 1918 status quo agreement sought by the unions. After the Chamber of Mines suppressed the Rand Rebellion in 1922, it managed to up the ratio to 11.4 to 1. By 1929, however, the National Labour government, with its civilized labour policy, had cut it back to 8.8 to 1. In 1953the heyday of apartheidthe ratio was further constrained to 6.4 to 1, an incredible regulatory achievement considering that the natural (unregulated) advance of Africans would surely have pushed the ratio progressively higher over the passing decades. Black trade unions were not illegal per se, but no black union was registered by the Ministry of Manpower until legislation explicitly promoting African unions was enacted in the late 1970s. Thus white workers were empoweredunder the guise of the Industrial Conciliation Acts of 1924, 1936, and 1956to solely control the terms of employment via officially sanctioned union bargaining. The enormous range of the state-backed unions powerssetting wages, employment conditions, benefits, entry qualifications, work rules, and negotiation rights on behalf of the entire industrial economyis staggering. But this was the level of state intervention required to supersede the profit motives of both firms and nonwhite workers. And that was the announced goal: to overrule the market forces that constantly sought to undermine civilized standards for European workers. Ironically, the labor market rules that were intended to raise barriers against black workers blocked the path for what were commonly called poor whites, the lowest tier of the protected class. Hence, the final intervention of the Civilized Labour Policy was nationalization of businesses that employed large numbers of nonwhites. In a policy of affirmative action, state-run railways and other huge state enterprises preferentially hired and promoted less skilled whites. In fact, many industries were nationalized just to impose racial preference. Merle Lipton reported that the perverse tendency toward the employment of (more expensive) whites was evident after the proclamation of the 1924 Civilized Labour Policy (Lipton 1986). Between 1924 and 1933 the number of whites employed by South African Railways rose from 4,760 to 17,783, or from 10 to 39 percent of employees, while the number of blacks fell from 37,564 to 22,008, or from 75 to 49 percent. In central and local government employment the proportion of whites rose from 45 to 64 percent while the number and percentage of blacks correspondingly fell. The Colour Bar brought labor calm because the black workers and white capitalists taxed by the deal lacked the requisite political muscle to disrupt the system. Moreover, a long period of South African prosperity began in the mid-1930s, fed by international demands for the countrys mineral exports. Demand during World War II was particularly strong and led again to a large expansion of the mining and industrial sectors. This lured many thousands of new African workers into the wage economy. During the boom, these new workers were not substituting for white managers; indeed, the massive influx of black industrial labor prevented severe bottlenecks that would have lowered even white working-class incomes. But mirroring the experience of a generation earlier, the postwar contraction brought an end to the comparative tranquillity. By 1948 the first signs of white unemployment sent a shock wave through the (white) electorate. Fears that poor whites would be passed by upwardly mobile black workers excited a radical response: the National Party was elected to implement apartheid, a newly comprehensive social policy of separate development. The problem apartheid attacked was circular. Economic cooperation among the races led to social integration. Social integration led to further economic cooperation because industrialists found low-wage blacks irresistible. Racists saw social separation enforced by lawapartheidas the essential way to shore up the economic protection of white labor. Furthermore, white farmers, wanting an artificially large supply of cheap black labor, endorsed measures limiting industrial jobs for blacks. Farmers were key allies of white labor in initiating and preserving apartheid. Indeed, the gerrymandering of parliamentary seats to grant overrepresentation to the rural sector gave the National Party its 1948 victory even though the party lost the popular vote by a substantial margin. The ruthlessness with which South Africa applied apartheid is legendary. The Group Areas Act (1950) dictated where members of the various races could legally reside, and whole communities were brutally uprooted. The Population Registration Act (1950) gave the state bureaucratic control over the racial identity of its citizens, and in combination with the Pass Laws regulated internal travel. Government spending on education was hugely biased in favor of whites. In 1952, school spending per black child was about 5 percent of spending per white child. Africans were not allowed to own real estate. All these measures attempted to buttress the economic protectionism already enjoyed by white labor under the Colour Bar legislation. Capitalists strongly opposed apartheid, and apartheidists strongly opposed capitalism. As historian Brian Lapping noted: The National Party had to override some of the biggest financial, commercial and industrial interests in the state.. . . Overruling the bosses, the capitalists, as both the National Party and the communists liked to call them, was popular with the party faithful (Lapping 1987, p. 103). The notorious Broederbond, the secret Afrikaner brotherhood that exercised huge influence on the racist policies of the apartheid government, stated its agenda quite succinctly in 1933: Abolition of the exploitation by foreigners of [South Africas] national resources . . . the nationalization of finance and the planned coordination of economic policy (Lipton 1986, p. 29). White supremacy had its very own industrial policy. Beginning about 1970, the internal contradictions of apartheid finally caused its slow demise. After the massive legal discrimination of the early apartheid years, black income, relative to white, fell dramatically, and the advance of white workers was won. But much like the boom periods of the two world wars, the robust economic growth of the 1960s rendered apartheids protection increasingly obsolete (many white workers no longer required all the separateness that apartheid had wrought) and exceedingly expensive (the South African economy was continually stalled by the artificial truncation of labor supply). Necessity became the mother of reform. Herbert Giliomee and Lawrence Schlemmer noted that as the white skilled-labor shortage worsened, the government became ever more impatient with white trade unions which were hampering the training of blacks and thus blocking black advances into skilled jobs. In 1973 it was announced that blacks, including Africans, could do skilled work in the white areas. The government did not rigorously adhere to its promise that it would consult with white trade unions before making this decision. In 1975 the defence force announced that black soldiers would enjoy the same status as whites of equal rank, and that whites would have to take orders from black officers. This broke the rule that the hierarchical structure (or ratchet) must be kept intact, with blacks always working under whites. (Giliomee and Schlemmer 1989, p. 124) Postwar economic growth in South Africa so deeply integrated the nonwhite population within the white society that the very idea of separate development became ridiculous as a practical proposition, quite apart from its odious moral implications. Without skilled black labor, white living standards would fall precipitously. The inevitable economic synergy between the races drew people physically and socially closer together. Whereas the median white voter of the 1920s insecurely viewed black workers as substitutes, the majority of whites in the 1980s saw racial cooperation as increasingly beneficial. At the same time, the dramatic growth of an educated, urban African population, including a sizable black middle class, served to enormously raise the cost of enforcing apartheid. Indeed, the old African tribal system, which was cynically manipulated by apartheid policymakers under the notorious homelands policy, was eclipsed by the rise of urban townships closely tied to industrial job centers. The vicissitudes of apartheid can be measured by the ratio of black income to white. From 1946 to 1960, despite a decrease in the white proportion of the population, a constant 70 percent of South Africas national income went to whites. But between 1970 and 1980, this fell to 60 percent. Apartheids decline can also be seen in increasing expenditures on black education: the twenty-to-one ratio in white-to-black per pupil educational spending in 1952 had shrunk to about five to one in 1987. Most evidently, reform was seen in the elimination of the apartheid laws: the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act (scrapped in 1985), the abolition of the Pass Laws (1986), and the widespread elimination of petty apartheid (whereby separate facilities for racial groups was rigidly maintained). In 1991 President F. W. de Klerk eliminated the Group Areas and Population Registration Acts, the backbone of social apartheid. The nation turned its attention to crafting a new South Africa, adopting a color-blind constitution guaranteeing equal rights under law to all citizens. In April 1994, Nelson Mandelaan antiapartheid activist who had spent twenty-six years in South African prisonswas elected president in South Africas first all-race elections. Mandelas African National Congress Party won 252 of 400 seats in the national assembly, and has remained in power since Mandela stepped aside in 1999. Did international sanctions against South Africa force Pretorias hand in these reforms? The evidence is virtually unanimous that progress was only modestly correlated at best, and negatively correlated at worst, with such foreign campaigns. Not only did sanctions fail to lower South African trade flows from their previous levels, but GNP growth actually accelerated after the European Community and the United States imposed sanctions (in September and October 1986, respectively). Perversely, South African businesses reaped at least $5 billion to $10 billion in windfalls as Western firms disinvested at fire sale prices between 1984 and 1989. Whatever the economic impact, the immediate political effect of sanctions was to encourage retrenchment by the Botha regime then in power. Right-wing (proapartheid) support rose sharply in the May 1987 parliamentary elections, and the National Party government responded by shelving all reforms and brutally suppressing antiapartheid dissent, initiating a state of emergency accompanied by sweeping press censorship. Only with a fading of sanctions pressures, a rebounding economy, and key changes in the international geopolitical environment (notably, the collapse of the Eastern bloc) did the course of reform reassert itself. Apartheid was sought by those economically threatened by the synergies between black workers and white capitalists. That interest groups can so steer economic regulation as to achieve the social savagery of apartheid is a chilling lesson for those who take their politicsand hence their economicsseriously. Thomas W. Hazlett is a professor of law and economics at George Mason University. In 19911992 he was chief economist of the Federal Communications Commission. Doxey, G. V. The Industrial Colour Bar in South Africa. Capetown: Oxford University Press, 1961. Frederickson, G. M. White Supremacy: A Comparative Study in American and South African History. London: Oxford University Press, 1981. Giliomee, Herbert, and Lawrence Schlemmer. From Apartheid to Nation-Building. Capetown: Oxford University Press, 1989. Hazlett, Thomas W. The Economic Origins of Apartheid. Contemporary Policy Issues 6 (October 1988): 85104. Hazlett, Thomas W. The Effect of U.S. Economic Sanctions on South African Apartheid. Applied Public Policy Research Program Working Paper series no. 3. University of California at Davis, Institute of Governmental Affairs, 1992. Hazlett, Thomas W. Kinnocks Crowning Cheek on Apartheid. Wall Street Journal, December 31, 1986, p. 14. Hazlett, Thomas W. One Man, One Share: How to Privatize South Africa. New Republic 203 (December 31, 1990): pp. 1415. Hufbauer, Gary Clyde, Jeffrey J. Schott, and Kimberly Ann Elliott. Economic Sanctions Reconsidered. 2d ed. Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics, 1990. Lapping, Brian. Apartheid: A History. London: Paladin Books, 1987. Lingle, Christopher. Apartheid as Racial Socialism. Kyklos 43, no. 2 (1989): 229247. Lipton, Merle. Capitalism and Apartheid. London: Wildwood Press, 1986. Lipton, Merle. The Challenge of Sanctions. Paper presented to the Economic Society of South Africa, Johannesburg, September 67, 1989. Washington, D.C.: Investor Responsibility Research Center, 1989. Lowenberg, Anton D. An Economic Theory of Apartheid. Economic Inquiry 27, no. 1 (1989): 5774.

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Apartheid Questions and Answers – eNotes.com

Apartheid The Group Areas Act was one of the main legislative components of the apartheid system. It was expressly designed to keep races apart. South Africa was divided geographically along racial lines,… Apartheid If one were to have asked the late former President Nelson Mandela this question, he would almost certainly have answered that Apartheid began in 1910, when South Africa became a unified country… Apartheid The Group Areas Act of 1950 was one of the major legislative building blocks of apartheid. In keeping with this policy, the Act’s primary purpose was to maintain the formal separation of the races…. Apartheid The policy of apartheid, or separateness, was first put into practice by the white minority South African government in 1948. Racial discrimination and segregation had long been a part of South… Apartheid Apartheid is the systematic segregation of a particular group of people by a countrys government. The term traces its origins to South Africa. In 1948, the ruling National Party (NP) instituted… Apartheid The Reservation of Separate Amenities Act was passed in South Africa in 1953. It had a tremendous impact on the peoples lives. This law was a part of the system of segregation that existed in… Apartheid The questions I would ask of a person who lived through apartheid would be different depending on the persons race. Some of the questions would be similar, but they would change to some degree… Apartheid The international reaction to Apartheid was very strong. Global political and economic factors played into this. From a political standpoint, it was difficult for leaders of various governments… History One major source of disagreement exists in the narrative of what actually happened. Police reports indicated that the crowd became “hostile” and threatened police safety. Consider the words of… Apartheid Racial separation, or apartheid, was enforced in South Africa through a series of laws instituted by the minority White government, which was dominated by Afrikaners of Dutch descent. The earliest… Apartheid The most prominent event in South Africa which affects everyone who learns about it, is June 16 1976, The Soweto Uprising. Hector Petersen, a boy who died that day, became a symbol of the… Apartheid The late South African writer Alex la Guma (1925-1985) was a child of the black liberation movement in apartheid South Africa whose novels and short stories, including The Lemon Orchard,… Apartheid South Africa was initially colonized by the Dutch and the English. South Africa is a country rich in natural resources, including diamonds. This led to conflict between the English and Dutch in… Apartheid The most significant reason majority rule was delayed and not initiated sooner than its beginning in 1991-1994 was that post-colonialist English and Dutch Afrikaner citizens did not recognize black… Apartheid The 1960 Sharpeville Massacre was the result of a peaceful protest regarding racist South African policies of apartheid. The enforcement of Pass Laws and the reissue of laws that restricted the… Apartheid I think that most, if not all legislation, that arises during the Apartheid Era is to enhance the “apartness” of White South Africans and communities of color. This is seen in the establishment of… Apartheid Apartheid was put into place in South Africa for the purpose of control. It became evident that with the heterogeneous mixture of cultures in South Africa, White South Africans were a minority…. Apartheid Camus’ quote can be used to express what anti- Apartheid resistance sought to achieve. Organizations like the African National Congress as well as individuals like Steve Biko felt that the best way… Apartheid Apartheid was a problematic situation for millions of Africans in South Africa. Essentially, the South African system of apartheid was a legitimized form of segregation in which the minority of… Apartheid I certainly think that a good case can be made that the 1950s and 1960s were important to the Anti- Apartheid cause because they started the process of resistance that would inevitably bring down… Apartheid I think that the United Nations played a significant and symbolic role in recognizing how the South African practice of apartheid had to come to an end. The 1973 United Nations International… A Dry White Season I think that a case can be made for the narrator being the most important character because, in many respects, the future of a post- Apartheid vision rests with individuals like the narrator…. Apartheid Apartheid was a policy of racial discrimination and segregation used in South Africa from 1948 to 1994. Apartheid impacted world history through its legitimization of racism and prejudiced ideals…. Apartheid One good place to start on your research paper is developing a strong working thesis. A good thesis statement offers insight or an assertion about your main idea and has three or more supporting… Apartheid The major similarity would be that both the colonization of Vietnam and the apartheid system in South Africa were imposed on the natives of the area by outsiders. In that sense, then, the… A Dry White Season I think that the most intense theme that comes out of the work is how apartheid is fundamentally unjust. Brink is deliberate in choosing someone as apolitical as Ben to use as the reference point…

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Anti-Semitism: Martin Luther – "The Jews & Their Lies"

I had made up my mind to write no more either about the Jews or against them. But since I learned that these miserable and accursed people do not cease to lure to themselves even us, that is, the Christians, I have published this little book, so that I might be found among those who opposed such poisonous activities of the Jews who warned the Christians to be on their guard against them. I would not have believed that a Christian could be duped by the Jews into taking their exile and wretchedness upon himself. However, the devil is the god of the world, and wherever God’s word is absent he has an easy task, not only with the weak but also with the strong. May God help us. Amen. * * * He did not call them Abraham’s children, but a “brood of vipers” [Matt. 3:7]. Oh, that was too insulting for the noble blood and race of Israel, and they declared, “He has a demon’ [Matt 11:18]. Our Lord also calls them a “brood of vipers”; furthermore in John 8 [:39,44] he states: “If you were Abraham’s children ye would do what Abraham did…. You are of your father the devil. It was intolerable to them to hear that they were not Abraham’s but the devil’s children, nor can they bear to hear this today. * * * Therefore the blind Jews are truly stupid fools… * * * Now just behold these miserable, blind, and senseless people … their blindness and arrogance are as solid as an iron mountain. * * * Learn from this, dear Christian, what you are doing if you permit the blind Jews to mislead you. Then the saying will truly apply, “When a blind man leads a blind man, both will fall into the pit” [cf. Luke 6:39]. You cannot learn anything from them except how to misunderstand the divine commandments… * * * Therefore be on your guard against the Jews, knowing that wherever they have their synagogues, nothing is found but a den of devils in which sheer selfglory, conceit, lies, blasphemy, and defaming of God and men are practiced most maliciously and veheming his eyes on them. * * * Moreover, they are nothing but thieves and robbers who daily eat no morsel and wear no thread of clothing which they have not stolen and pilfered from us by means of their accursed usury. Thus they live from day to day, together with wife and child, by theft and robbery, as archthieves and robbers, in the most impenitent security. * * * However, they have not acquired a perfect mastery of the art of lying; they lie so clumsily and ineptly that anyone who is just a little observant can easily detect it. But for us Christians they stand as a terrifying example of God’s wrath. * * * If I had to refute all the other articles of the Jewish faith, I should be obliged to write against them as much and for as long a time as they have used for inventing their lies that is, longer than two thousand years. * * * …Christ and his word can hardly be recognized because of the great vermin of human ordinances. However, let this suffice for the time being on their lies against doctrine or faith. * * * Did I not tell you earlier that a Jew is such a noble, precious jewel that God and all the angels dance when he farts? * * * Alas, it cannot be anything but the terrible wrath of God which permits anyone to sink into such abysmal, devilish, hellish, insane baseness, envy, and arrogance. If I were to avenge myself on the devil himself I should be unable to wish him such evil and misfortune as God’s wrath inflicts on the Jews, compelling them to lie and to blaspheme so monstrously, in violation of their own conscience. Anyway, they have their reward for constantly giving God the lie. * * * No, one should toss out these lazy rogues by the seat of their pants. * * * …but then eject them forever from this country. For, as we have heard, God’s anger with them is so intense that gentle mercy will only tend to make them worse and worse, while sharp mercy will reform them but little. Therefore, in any case, away with them! * * * Over and above that we let them get rich on our sweat and blood, while we remain poor and they such the marrow from our bones. * * * I brief, dear princes and lords, those of you who have Jews under your rule if my counsel does not please your, find better advice, so that you and we all can be rid of the unbearable, devilish burden of the Jews, lest we become guilty sharers before God in the lies, blasphemy, the defamation, and the curses which the mad Jews indulge in so freely and wantonly against the person of our Lord Jesus Christ, this dear mother, all Christians, all authority, and ourselves. Do not grant them protection, safeconduct, or communion with us…. .With this faithful counsel and warning I wish to cleanse and exonerate my conscience. * * * Let the government deal with them in this respect, as I have suggested. But whether the government acts or not, let everyone at least be guided by his own conscience and form for himself a definition or image of a Jew. * * * However, we must avoid confirming them in their wanton lying, slandering, cursing, and defaming. Nor dare we make ourselves partners in their devilish ranting and raving by shielding and protecting them, by giving them food, drink, and shelter, or by other neighborly * * * Therefore we Christians, in turn, are obliged not to tolerate their wanton and conscious blasphemy. * * * Accordingly, it must and dare not be considered a trifling matter but a most serious one to seek counsel against this and to save our souls from the Jews, that is, from the devil and from eternal death. * * * What shall we Christians do with this rejected and condemned people, the Jews? Since they live among us, we dare not tolerate their conduct, now that we are aware of their lying and reviling and blaspheming. If we do, we become sharers in their lies, cursing and blasphemy. Thus we cannot extinguish the unquenchable fire of divine wrath, of which the prophets speak, nor can we convert the Jews. With prayer and the fear of God we must practice a sharp mercy to see whether we might save at least a few from the glowing flames. We dare not avenge ourselves. Vengeance a thousand times worse than we could wish them already has them by the throat. I shall give you my sincere advice: First to set fire to their synagogues or schools and to bury and cover with dirt whatever will not burn, so that no man will ever again see a stone or cinder of them. This is to be done in honor of our Lord and of Christendom, so that God might see that we are Christians, and do not condone or knowingly tolerate such public lying, cursing, and blaspheming of his Son and of his Christians. For whatever we tolerated in the past unknowingly and I myself was unaware of it will be pardoned by God. But if we, now that we are informed, were to protect and shield such a house for the Jews, existing right before our very nose, in which they lie about, blaspheme, curse, vilify, and defame Christ and us (as was heard above), it would be the same as if we were doing all this and even worse ourselves, as we very well know. Second, I advise that their houses also be razed and destroyed. For they pursue in them the same aims as in their synagogues. Instead they might be lodged under a roof or in a barn, like the gypsies. This will bring home to them that they are not masters in our country, as they boast, but that they are living in exile and in captivity, as they incessantly wail and lament about us before God. Third, I advise that all their prayer books and Talmudic writings, in which such idolatry, lies, cursing and blasphemy are taught, be taken from them. (remainder omitted) Fourth, I advise that their rabbis be forbidden to teach henceforth on pain of loss of life and limb. For they have justly forfeited the right to such an office by holding the poor Jews captive with the saying of Moses (Deuteronomy 17 [:10 ff.]) in which he commands them to obey their teachers on penalty of death, although Moses clearly adds: “what they teach you in accord with the law of the Lord.” Those villains ignore that. They wantonly employ the poor people’s obedience contrary to the law of the Lord and infuse them with this poison, cursing, and blasphemy. In the same way the pope also held us captive with the declaration in Matthew 16 {:18], “You are Peter,” etc, inducing us to believe all the lies and deceptions that issued from his devilish mind. He did not teach in accord with the word of God, and therefore he forfeited the right to teach. Fifth, I advise that safeconduct on the highways be abolished completely for the Jews. For they have no business in the countryside, since they are not lords, officials, tradesmen, or the like. Let they stay at home. (…remainder omitted). Sixth, I advise that usury be prohibited to them, and that all cash and treasure of silver and gold be taken from them and put aside for safekeeping. The reason for such a measure is that, as said above, they have no other means of earning a livelihood than usury, and by it they have stolen and robbed from us all they possess. Such money should now be used in no other way than the following: Whenever a Jew is sincerely converted, he should be handed one hundred, two hundred, or three hundred florins, as personal circumstances may suggest. With this he could set himself up in some occupation for the support of his poor wife and children, and the maintenance of the old or feeble. For such evil gains are cursed if they are not put to use with God’s blessing in a good and worthy cause. Seventh, I commend putting a flail, an ax, a hoe, a spade, a distaff, or a spindle into the hands of young, strong Jews and Jewesses and letting them earn their bread in the sweat of their brow, as was imposed on the children of Adam (Gen 3[:19]}. For it is not fitting that they should let us accursed Goyim toil in the sweat of our faces while they, the holy people, idle away their time behind the stove, feasting and farting, and on top of all, boasting blasphemously of their lordship over the Christians by means of our sweat. No, one should toss out these lazy rogues by the seat of their pants. * * * But what will happen even if we do burn down the Jews’ synagogues and forbid them publicly to praise God, to pray, to teach, to utter God’s name? They will still keep doing it in secret. If we know that they are doing this in secret, it is the same as if they were doing it publicly. for our knowledge of their secret doings and our toleration of them implies that they are not secret after all and thus our conscience is encumbered with it before God. * * * Accordingly, it must and dare not be considered a trifling matter but a most serious one to seek counsel against this and to save our souls from the Jews, that is, from the devil and from eternal death. My advice, as I said earlier, is: First, that their synagogues be burned down, and that all who are able toss in sulphur and pitch; it would be good if someone could also throw in some hellfire. That would demonstrate to God our serious resolve and be evidence to all the world that it was in ignorance that we tolerated such houses, in which the Jews have reviled God, our dear Creator and Father, and his Son most shamefully up till now but that we have now given them their due reward. * * * I wish and I ask that our rulers who have Jewish subjects exercise a sharp mercy toward these wretched people, as suggested above, to see whether this might not help (though it is doubtful). They must act like a good physician who, when gangrene has set in, proceeds without mercy to cut, saw, and burn flesh, veins, bone, and marrow. Such a procedure must also be followed in this instance. Burn down their synagogues, forbid all that I enumerated earlier, force them to work, and deal harshly with them, as Moses did in the wilderness, slaying three thousand lest the whole people perish. They surely do not know what they are doing; moreover, as people possessed, they do not wish to know it, hear it, or learn it. There it would be wrong to be merciful and confirm them in their conduct. If this does not help we must drive them out like mad dogs, so that we do not become partakers of their abominable blasphemy and all their other vices and thus merit God’s wrath and be damned with them. I have done my duty. Now let everyone see to his. I am exonerated. ” * * * My essay, I hope, will furnish a Christian (who in any case has no desire to become a Jew) with enough material not only to defend himself against the blind, venomous Jews, but also to become the foe of the Jews’ malice, lying, and cursing, and to understand not only that their belief is false but that they are surely possessed by all devils. May Christ, our dear Lord, convert them mercifully and preserve us steadfastly and immovably in the knowledge of him, which is eternal life. Amen.

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The Iranian | Iran News, Events And Opinions

The prospects of Indian refiners cutting their intake of Iranian crude oil to zero are unrealistic, the chairman of Indian Oil Corp. told S&P Global… Persepolis are aiming to become the first Iranian football team to win the AFC Champions League but they will have two difficult matches ahead. Iranian… Having reportedly ‘folded’ by agreeing to let eight countries – including Japan, India and South Korea – keep buying Iranian oil after it reimposes sanctions… Iran, India and Russia are considering the creation of a new 7,200 km trade and transport corridor, which would become an alternative to thetraditional route… An alleged Iranian murder plot in Denmark to kill a political dissident has been swept aside by the countrys Foreign Minister Javad Zarif as a… The youngest brother of Saudi Arabia’s King Salman has returned from self-imposed exile to “challenge” Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman (MbS) “or find someone who… Iran, Turkey and Azerbaijan are determined to strengthen their joint cooperation as a result of their similar stances on developments in the Middle East, according… As journalist and Middle East expertSharmine Narwanipoints out, the leaked document essentiallyshows the UN is for saleas the KSA and UAE destroyed Yemen,then paid the… U.S. Secretary of Defense Jim Mattis called Tuesday for a ceasefire in Yemen and for parties to come to the negotiating table within the next… Denmark has announced that it will no longer provide any funding to groups that endorse the Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions (BDS) campaign, in what pro-Israel… Trump’s push for crippling sanctions against Iran got an unexpected supporter on Tuesday, when Denmark accused Iranian intelligence services of trying to carry out a… U.S. State Department spokesperson, Heather Nauert has called on Iran to show tolerance towards religious minorities. She tweeted on October 29, which is Cyrus Day,… South Korea has asked the United States for “maximum flexibility” on its request for a waiver to prevent South Korean companies from being affected by… Although the European Union (EU) has vowed to create a special purpose vehicle to continue trade with Iran after the U.S. sanctions on Tehrans oil… Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif on Monday joined international condemnation of the massacre at a Pittsburgh synagogue over the weekend that left 11 worshipers… A fascinatingFT articlesuggests Western intelligence agencies have now dumpedSaudi crown prince Mohammed bin Salmanafter he’s been personally accused by world leadersforemost among them Turkey’s President… Iran began selling crude oil to private companies for export on Sunday, part of a strategy to counter U.S. sanctions which come into effect on… The campaign, hosted by Muslim crowdfunding site LaunchGood, aimed to help the victims, whether it is the injured victims or the Jewish families who have… There weren’t exactly any breakthroughs at the four-way summit involving France, Germany, Russia, and host Turkey in Istanbul on Saturday, but the event itself was… Israeli warplanes carried out airstrikes targeting more than 80 sites across the besieged Gaza Strip, on Saturday, as a form of response to 30 rockets… Israeli public radio said on Friday that the US administration would reveal the details of its Deal of the Century to Israel next week. US… Iran has threatened to shoot down US military helicopters in the Persian Gulf. The incident took place on October 26 whenIranian fast boats were harassing… US Foreign Policy Mindset In A Nutshell: Ann Coulter Says Trump Should Order US Military To Invade Mexico We didnt ask for Iraqs approval to… Saudi Arabia and key ally Bahrain said on Saturday that Gulf states are playing a critical role in maintaining stability in the Middle East by… Russia is no replacement for the United States in the Middle East following Moscow’s military intervention in Syria, US Defence Secretary Jim Mattis told a… Iran brought a complaint to the ICJ on grounds that U.S. President Donald Trumps sanctions violated the 1955 Treaty of Amity signed between the two… Long before President Trump declared that his defense secretary, whom he had previously praised as “the real deal”, was actually “kind of a Democrat”, National… Europes economy could suffer from the refusal of European companies to work with Iran under pressure from the U.S. sanctions on Tehran, Rosneft Oil Company’s… Soon after the top U.S. commander in the Middle East boarded the USS Essex in the Persian Gulf, he could see one Iranian fast boat… Now that the Saudis have admitted that the killing of Jamal Khashoggi was a premeditated act, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan is stepping up his…

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Jewish Population of the World

Jewish Population (2017) Historic Jewish Population 1 Israel 6,451,000 2 United States 5,700,000 3 France 456,000 4 Canada 390,000 5 U.K. 289,500 6 Argentina 180,500 7 Russia 176,000 8 Germany 116,500 9 Australia 113,200 10 Brazil 93,800 11 Ukraine 53,000 12 South Africa 69,300 13 Hungary 47,500 14 Mexico 40,000 15 Belgium 29,300 1880 7,800,000 1900 10,600,000 1922 14,400,000 1925 14,800,000 1939 16,728,000 1945 11,000,000 1950 11,297,000 1955 11,800,000 1960 12,079,000 1970 12,585,000 1980 12,819,000 1990 12,868,000 2000 12,900,000 2010 13,428,300 2017 14,511,100 Jewish Population By Region (2017):Americas | Asia | Oceania | Africa | Europe The Americas Country Total Population Jews % of Population Canada 36,200,000 390,000 1.11% United States 323,900,000 5,700,000 1.76% Bahamas 400,000 300 0.08% Costa Rica 4,900,000 2,500 0.06% Cuba 11,200,000

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There Is Still So Much Evil: Growing Anti-Semitism Stuns …

Until recent years, many Jews in America believed that the worst of anti-Semitism was over there, in Europe, a vestige of the old country. American Jews were welcome in universities, country clubs and corporate boards that once excluded their grandparents. They married non-Jews, moved into mixed neighborhoods and by 2000, the first Jew ran for vice president on a major party ticket. So the massacre on Saturday of 11 people in a Pittsburgh synagogue, by a man who told the police when he surrendered that he wanted all Jews to die, was for many a shocking wake-up call. This kind of evil makes me think of the Holocaust and how people can be so cruel, that there is so much evil in the world, still, said Moshe Taube, 91, a retired cantor from Congregation Beth Shalom in Pittsburgh and a survivor of the Holocaust. But it did not come out of nowhere, said experts in anti-Semitism. At the same time that Jews were feeling unprecedented acceptance in the United States, the climate was growing increasingly hostile, intensifying in the two years since President Trump was elected. And it comes at a time when attacks on Jews are on the rise in Europe as well, with frequent anti-Semitic episodes in France and Germany. The hate in the United States came into full view last year as white supremacists marched in Charlottesville, Va., with lines of men carrying torches and chanting, Jews will not replace us. Swastikas and other anti-Semitic graffiti have been cropping up on synagogues and Jewish homes around the country. Jews online are subjected to vicious slurs and threats. Many synagogues and Jewish day schools have been amping up security measures. The Anti-Defamation League logged a 57 percent rise in anti-Semitic incidents in the United States in 2017, compared to the previous year including bomb threats, assaults, vandalism, and anti-Semitic posters and literature found on college campuses. A spokesman for the Anti-Defamation League said that before Saturdays shooting, the deadliest anti-Semitic attack in recent United States history was in 1985, when a man killed a family of four in Seattle. He had mistakenly thought they were Jewish. [The 11 people killed in Pittsburgh were remembered as guardians of their faith. Read more about their lives here.] There was also an attack by a white supremacist on a Jewish Community Center filled with children in Los Angeles in 1999 that injured five. More recently, in 2014, a white supremacist opened fire outside a Jewish Community Center in a suburb of Kansas City, Mo., killing three people. Im not a Chicken Little whos always yelling, Its worse than its ever been! But now I think its worse than its ever been, said Deborah E. Lipstadt, a professor of Holocaust history at Emory University in Atlanta and the author of a planned book on anti-Semitism. Ms. Lipstadt said she did not wish to be seen as alarmist, because in some ways things have never been better for Jews in America. But she likened anti-Semitism to a herpes infection that lies dormant and re-emerges at times of stress. It does not go away, no matter how acculturated Jews have become in America, because its a conspiracy theory, said Ms. Lipstadt, whose win at trial against a Holocaust denier in England was portrayed in the 2016 movie Denial. What has changed, said several experts in interviews, is that conspiracy theories and dog whistles that resonate with anti-Semites and white supremacists are being circulated by establishment sources, including the president and members of Congress. Bizarre claims about Jews have moved from the margins to the establishment. Prominent recent examples include unfounded conspiracy theories about George Soros, a wealthy donor to Democratic Party causes and a Jewish migr from Hungary who survived the Nazis. On Oct. 5, Mr. Trump asserted on Twitter that the women who stopped Senator Jeff Flake in an elevator to plead with him to vote against advancing the nomination of Justice Brett M. Kavanaugh for the Supreme Court were paid for by Soros and others. In a rally in Missoula, Mont., on Oct. 19, the president told the crowd that the news media prefers to interview protesters who were paid by Soros or somebody. Mr. Soros has also been accused of financing the caravan of Hondurans and Guatemalans fleeing north on foot through Mexico another claim with no factual basis. A day after a pipe bomb was discovered at Mr. Soross home in Westchester, Representative Kevin McCarthy, the House majority leader, wrote on Twitter, We cannot allow Soros, Steyer and Bloomberg to BUY this election! Get out and vote Republican Nov. 6. Tom Steyer is an Episcopalian and is of Jewish descent. Michael Bloomberg, the former mayor of New York City, is Jewish. After more explosive devices were found in the homes and offices of other Democratic leaders and supporters, Mr. McCarthy deleted the tweet. Anti-Semitism has also become a charged topic on many American college campuses, with Israel as the detonator. [The rampage at a Pittsburgh synagogue has revealed the Jewish rifts in Israel and America.] Activists on the left sometimes including young Jews call for boycotts and divestments from companies doing business in Israel, or the occupied territories. Mainstream Jewish groups are now branding such campaigns as anti-Semitism. Where to draw the line between criticism of Israel and anti-Semitism is a growing source of friction in many colleges and state capitals. In Europe, Jewish leaders have been confronting open hatred toward Jews, also sometimes linked to animosity toward Israel. In France, Jews have increasingly faced attacks and insults from members of the countrys large Muslim community. In March, an 85-year-old Holocaust survivor, Mireille Knoll, was knifed to death in her apartment by a young man who shouted Allahu akbar. Prosecutors classified it as an anti-Semitic hate crime. In a 2015 study, 42 percent of French Jews surveyed said that they had suffered insults or aggressive acts at the hands of Muslims. In Germany, anti-Semitism remains a daily occurrence, sometimes taking on the form of criminal attacks on Jews or Jewish institutions, but often in more casual insults or the questioning of the countrys post-World War II commitment to never again repeat the Nazi Holocaust. One of the most prominent anti-Semitic attacks this year, in which a young Syrian struck a man wearing a skullcap on the street of a trendy Berlin neighborhood, prompted the head of Germanys main Jewish organization to warn Jews against openly wearing skullcaps, or other public displays of their religion. A demonstration in support of the countrys Jews drew thousands of people to the streets, but months later, in the midst of violent demonstrations by neo-Nazis in the eastern city of Chemnitz, masked assailants threw rocks and bottles at a local Jewish restaurant and shouted anti-Semitic insults, the owner told the police. Nadine Epstein, editor in chief of Moment, an independent Jewish magazine in the United States, said that in 2014 the magazine did a special section on anti-Semitism, interviewing a wide range of scholars and leaders in the field. She said that her conclusion was that anti-Semitism, while persistent, was mostly a problem in Europe. But it wasnt really an issue in the U.S., she said. Four plus years later, she added in an email, we live in a very different world where nationalism, and with it anti-Semitism, is on the rise, stirred up by the rhetoric of one candidate in the 2016 presidential campaign. Its been building ever since, and now that we are in the run-up to the midterms, the first national election since, we are seeing the consequences of such dangerous rhetoric. Moment magazine now has a web page to monitor anti-Semitism around the world, something Ms. Epstein said she never imagined doing.

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