Archive for March, 2015

SPLC Targets ROK For Leftist Violence By Smearing It As A …

It looks like the Southern Poverty Law Center, one of Americas premier ethnic shakedown organizations, is running low on donations again. This week, they announced the new edition of their hate group list, a record of supposed white supremacist, far-right terrorist organizations operating in the United States. Most notably,Return Of Kings has been added to the list as a male supremacy organization, alongside mens rights groupA Voice For Men:

Also, for the first time, the SPLC added two male supremacy groups to the hate group list: A Voice for Men, based in Houston, and Return of Kings, based in Washington, D.C. The vilification of women by these groups makes them no different than other groups that demean entire populations, such as the LGBT community, Muslims or Jews, based on their inherent characteristics.

This isnt the first time that ROK publisher Rooshhas been targeted by the SPLC: in 2012, he was named in one of the organizations Intelligence Reports, alongsideA Voice for Men and my old siteIn Mala Fide.Roosh later cited the experience as the final push that moved him to the dissident right.

Its clear that the SPLC is going after AVFM and ROK in an attempt to scare liberal old biddies into giving them more money, because their attack was sloppy and poorly-handled. For example, the SPLC claims that ROK is headquartered in Washington D.C., even though its a website with no physical address or full-time employees.

They put a web site with no office on a map pic.twitter.com/H8hTw6iUee

Roosh (@rooshv) February 21, 2018

Most hilariously, the SPLCs dossier on alt right figure Richard Spencer confused him withRobertSpencer, the founder ofJihad Watch, suggesting they outsourced the research to a stupid intern.

Having said this, the SPLCs attack cant be handwaved away. Much like the Anti-Defamation League, the SPLCs purpose in naming organizations as hate groups or individuals as extremists is designed to incite violence against them. Ever since the election of Donald Trump, the left in America has become increasingly violent, and the SPLCs list is a dog whistle to antifa and other groups with the intent of hurting or possibly killing Roosh and other targeted individuals.

The SPLC, ADL, and other related organizations like to masquerade as legitimate news organizations who are merely calling attention to violent, anti-government extremists, but this is as far from the truth as possible. In actuality, the SPLC functions as an intelligence-gathering operation for antifa and other violent leftists, compiling dossiers on chosen targets with the implicit message of, Its okay to hurt, maim, or kill these people: theyre Nazis/misogynists/homophobes, after all.

Hate group lists compiled by the SPLC have been used by leftist criminals in the past to identify targets for assassination. For example, in 2013, a left-winger committed a mass shooting against the Family Research Council after seeing them named by the SPLC as an anti-gay group. More recently, weve seen leftists openly going after Republican politicians and public figures, such as the attempted assassination of House Majority Leader Steve Scalise by Bernie Sanders supporter James Hodgkinson.

This is not the first time that figures in the dissident right have been targeted in such a way. Last summer, the ADL released a hit list of alt right and alt lite figures such as Mike Cernovich, Richard Spencer, and myself, with the purpose of inciting violence against us. In response, Cernovich and several other alt lite figures launched the #ADLTerror hashtag on Twitter with the intent of bringing attention to the fact that their lives were now in danger.

Moreover, the SPLC cant even be consistent with the criteria it uses to evaluate hate groups. In response to their attack onA Voice For Men, ex-feminist filmmaker Cassie Jaye (creator of the documentaryThe Red Pill) revealed that in 2016, the SPLC told her that AVFM didnt fit their criteria for a group since they lacked an official group policy, due to the fact that AVFM was just a website and a forum. The SPLC has not yet revealed to Jaye why they changed their policy.

Men’s rights website A Voice For Men has now officially been listed a ‘Hate Group’ by the Southern Poverty Law Center. I have more questions than answers. Hopefully the SPLC will get back to me to clarify what has changed. https://t.co/EF2N4ycNDM pic.twitter.com/u30MW45DWs

Cassie Jaye (@Cassie_Jaye) February 22, 2018

Regardless, it is clear that the international left is ramping up for a broader attack on the dissident right. While the alt right was the focus of much of the lefts ire last year, the movement has been weakened due to systematic deplatforming, failed stunts such as Charlottesville, and personality conflicts between its major leaders. As a result, the left now feels confident in going after sites likeReturn Of Kings that had previously been out of the line of fire.

Dissident right and alternative media figures should prepare themselves for an onslaught from the globalists in the coming months. With the 2018 midterm elections coming up and the Russia investigation in the U.S. unraveling, the left is looking to strike out at anyone who challenges their power or narrative. As the SPLCs actions show, they are not above physically hurting or killing their enemies to achieve their goals.

Read More:Anti-Defamation Leagues Hate List Puts Alt Right And Alt Lite Figures At Risk Of Leftist Violence

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SPLC Targets ROK For Leftist Violence By Smearing It As A …

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Israel-Apartheid Week kicks off across S. African campuses …

A bloodied Israeli flag hangs on the main building at the University of Cape Town on Monday at the start of Israel-Apartheid Week.. (photo credit: SAUJS/FACEBOOK)

A massive Israeli flag covered in red stood on the steps of the main university building with the words Apartheid State, blood is on your hands written on it.

This is just one of several intimidation tactics Jewish students at several university campuses in South Africa have had to deal with, as Israel-Apartheid Week kicked off across the country on Monday.

The flag has since been taken down from the building at the University of Cape Town, but the effect remained. However, Jewish students at the campus refused to back down from their Israel Awareness campaign, which has so far been a success.

Meanwhile, antisemitic and anti-Israel graffiti, inspired by BDS and its followers, littered the Wits University campus in Johannesburg, with slogans such as F*** Zionism, F*** Israel, Israel is anti-Black and Zionism is Racism spray-painted in several main areas of the campus.

To counter Israel-Apartheid Week, the South African Union of Jewish Students launched a Dialogue Not Division campaign in an effort to encourage discussion as opposed to hate and intimidation. SAUJS hosted several speakers during its campaign, including Miss Israel 2013, Titi Aynaw, who is an Ethiopian Jew, and StandWithUss Yahya Mahamid, an Israeli Arab.

Where the student union had placed some of its posters around Wits, BDS supporters had torn them down and spray-painted anti-Israel slurs on the walls where the posters had been.

Several small wars of words broke out between the two sides over the last few days, but there has been no physical violence as was the case last year.

There is also a large presence of university security on the campus, and the SAUJS contingent requested that the two sides and their displays be separated by 100 meters.

A contingent of BDS supporters and Wits Palestinian Solidarity Committee members also covered their faces with keffiyehs, wore black and held signs written in red the color of blood calling on students to come and see the truth.

In response to the graffiti, SAUJS said that it had reported all the instances of defacement on the main campus and have been in close contact with the universitys executive in dealing with this issue.

We are happy to report that most of the graffiti has been removed by the university, and by tomorrow, everything should be cleaned up, it said. The university does not condone vandalism nor prejudicial statements against any student, staff or external stakeholder. They have thus informed us that investigations into this malicious case have begun. As soon as they are informed of the culprits, they will then refer the matter to the legal office, to institute disciplinary actions against those that are found guilty of acting outside the rules of discipline.

Last week at the University of Cape Town, during a separate campaign hosted by SAUJS to create awareness and tolerance of minority groups, an installation that made up the hashtag #RESPECT in large plastic letters and posters describing different forms of discrimination was defaced by pro-BDS students.

They changed the plastic words to spell #SPECTRE and the letters and posters were vandalized with anti-Israel and pro-Palestinian slogans despite the campaign having nothing to do with Israel-Apartheid Week.

According to SAUJS in the Western Cape, the main posters vandalized were those that explained antisemitism.

Vandalism of this kind does not only amount to discrimination on the grounds of religion, but also impinges on the right to freedom of expression, it said.

SAUJS called on the University of Cape Towns administration to respond appropriately.

In a statement released earlier this week, the SA Jewish Board of Deputies made it clear that any antisemitic behavior on the part of IAW supporters, as well as attempts to unlawfully prevent SAUJS from running its campaign, will be raised with the necessary authorities.

The countrys ruling party, the African National Congress, threw its support behind Israel-Apartheid Week and said it was actively participating… as part of our ongoing commitment to the heroic people of Palestine.

The ANC said that the continued imprisonment of 17-year-old Ahed Tamimi is an example of the extreme and unacceptable abuse of child rights, human rights and international law by the Israeli government.

Israel-Apartheid Week is perhaps one of the best examples of South Africas unity in diversity and the vibrancy of our civil society, it added.

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The case for US government sanctions on Israel Mondoweiss

United States government diplomatic, economic, and military support has been critical for Israel to maintain its post-1967 occupations of Gaza, East Jerusalem, and West Bank, and to transform these occupations into a permanent apartheid state.

The role of the U.S. government in facilitating Israeli apartheid, however, will eventually fade for multiple geopolitical reasons, and that development will create opportunities to turn an apartheid state into as an equitable democratic state or two separate states. The sooner United States government for Israeli apartheid ends, the sooner this transformation could occur.

The waning of U.S. government support for Israel may take the form of conditions on military aid or comprehensive government sanctions, even though either development strikes many people as unimaginable. Nevertheless, a December 2016 Brookings public opinion poll reveals that nearly half of the U.S. public supports sanctions on Israel including a majority of self-identifying Democrats. This increased support for U.S. government sanctions indicates that now is the time for political groups committed to a just resolution of the Israel-Palestine conflict to lead public opinion, not follow or ignore it. They need to become advocates for official U.S. government sanctions on Israel, such as an update to the Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act of 1986. Instead of sanctioning South African apartheid, this updated legislations new goal should be to end Israeli apartheid.

While there have previously been short-term, minor sanctions on Israel, like President G.H.W. Bushs withholding loan guarantees in 1991, and there are several groups calling for partial sanctions, this is not enough. Full sanctions are needed, and its case rests on three principles:

Emerging Trends: Advocacy of U.S. sanctions on Israel will be aided by many emerging geopolitical trends, several of which we previously described in a Countercurrents article.

While some of these trends are beyond our control, we can play a role in advancing others. Especially effective may be calls for U.S. government sanctions on Israel and anti-apartheid political mobilizations by the U.S, Israeli, and Palestinian publics for a viable and just one- or two-state solution.

We should have no illusions about the intensity of Israeli opposition to any campaign to finally implement U.S. government sanctions. And, even when U.S. sanctions are enacted, Israels democratic transformation will be lengthy, contested, and could face many setbacks, including new expulsions and atrocities. Furthermore, we must also learn an important lesson from South Africa and address the economic equity issues that have undermined that countrys efforts to end apartheid.

The battle of ideas is at the core of the political struggle for government sanctions on Israel. To that end we must carefully describe how the Israeli occupations have transformed into an apartheid state, how apartheid violates international laws, and how Israeli apartheid could, in turn, be transformed into a democratic state or states.

This intellectual effort must be coupled with political organization since even the most carefully drafted anti-apartheid proposals will become shelf documents unless a well-organized and strategic movement supports them. To succeed that movement needs to be fully aware of both local and global geo-political trends because these, and only these, will create openings for a successful campaign to impose U.S. government sanctions on Israel.

Once sanctions finally take their toll, the chances that either a viable and democratic one- or two-state solution will emerge dramatically increase.

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The case for US government sanctions on Israel Mondoweiss

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Morris Dees | American civil rights lawyer | Britannica.com

Alternative Titles:Morris Seligman Dees, Jr.

Morris Dees, in full Morris Seligman Dees, Jr., (born December 16, 1936, Shorter, Alabama, U.S.), American lawyer and civil rights activist who is known for founding the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) with American attorney Joseph Levin in 1971 in Montgomery, Alabama. Under Deess leadership, the SPLC won several unprecedented lawsuits against hate organizations and their leaders.

Dees was the son of Morris Seligman Dees, a tenant cotton farmer, and Annie Ruth Dees. Although he was brought up in segregationist Alabama, his parents imparted strong Christian values, and he experienced warm interactions with African American families.

Dees received an undergraduate degree and a law degree (1960) from the University of Alabama. He then became a successful entrepreneur in the direct-mail publishing business with American lawyer and entrepreneur Millard Fuller, the founder of Habitat for Humanity. Dees bought Fuller out of the business in 1965. He sold the company to the Times Mirror Company in 1967 after reading Clarence Darrows The Story of My Life (1932), which provoked him into committing his full attention to a law practice devoted to civil rights legislation. The law firm, which he shared with Levin, evolved into the SPLC in 1971.

Deess legal career was marked by a number of landmark cases and decisions. His efforts helped to integrate the Montgomery, Alabama, Young Mens Christian Association (YMCA) in 1969 . The SPLC introduced lawsuits that held white supremacist organizations financially and criminally responsible for murders and other unlawful actions against immigrants and persons of colour. Substantial monetary awards against groups such as the United Klans of America and Aryan Nations in 1991, in fact, forced some such organizations to disband. Despite the critical advances against hate organizations, Deess decision to make such lawsuits an SPLC priority prompted some of its personnel who disagreed with the new legal focus to leave the organization. Additionally, critics outside the SPLC accused Dees of drawing few distinctions between white supremacists and groups that support limits to immigration, controls on population growth, or the right to bear arms.

During the 1970s and 1980s, Dees was also a prominent Democratic fund-raiser for presidential candidate George McGovern, Pres. Jimmy Carter, and Sen. Ted Kennedy. His books include Hate on Trial: The Case Against Americas Most Dangerous Neo-Nazi (1993) and Gathering Storm: Americas Militia Threat (1996). In addition, Dees received numerous awards, including the ABA Medal (2012), the highest honour bestowed by the American Bar Association.

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Alumni Leadership Pinellas

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Heather CiampiniLorrie ClineJenn CowanJoe CoyleCourtney DavidsonMeagan DeckerDenis DeMarinoJoe DeRingJarrett DixonMatt EvansMark FazziniScott FergusonDenise FougereEric GandyBrenna HaggarGreg HauensteinChad HawkinsonMelissa HoneycuttTom JamisonMike JansenJustin KellyTim KnowlesNatalie LambDon LehrianEmmanuel LelekisDebbie LeousLeigh LillaMeg LokeyHolly McBride DennisMarilyn MillerPam MooreValerie MurrayRich NalvenJenny NoblesKathy PerrottJP PetersonSeema RamroopBruce RectorFranco RippleSuzanne RuleyDan SarackiRea SieberMargie SwopeLauren VonderauZak WhiteDoug WhittingtonJulie WhittleBobby Morig

Wendy BarmoreWoody BrownChad BurgessLindsay CarsonJoanna CheshireJim ConlinMatt CrumDavid DanzigLeslie DiPaciEkaterini Gerakios-SirenShane GillAdonis HarrisDane HeptnerJeff HobergTaylor HustonFrank JurkovicRobin LavitchChris LewisTim LimaDamon ListerAshley LoweryVictor LucasLaura MaioccoSean McGillenNancy MeyerShirley MiaoulisAnthony MonteDiane MorseJordan MyersJim NicholsJay OzbunDebb PauleyRon PiccininiCyndi Raskin-SchmittTammy RobicontiJill SomersJudith TiltonKatrina TrumpRosemary WindsorTish Wold

Adrian ArnoldDavid BantherShelly BeachSherrie BroadwayMike ButlerRichard Ricky ButlerJason ButtsMatthew CampbellEric CarverPatrick CravenChristopher CJ CrooksBrian CurtissValerie DiGennaroErin EmnettEmily FasnachtAudrey FordJoyce FrustaciJoseph GallinaBruce GriffinHoyt HamiltonLori HedmanAndrea HenningRichard Scoop JacksonEric JohansonNathan Skip KatzSean KingJames KleinsorgeTraci KosterKimberly LacinaSara Sally McLaneAnnNixonPam OraJulie PerrelliKali RoseSarah Sally SeymourCorey SilvermanSuzy SoferDiane SteinTammy Strickling

Amelia CampbellTammy CapplemanKaren CarliMichael CarliJen CarlisleAl CarrierRey ClaudioTina M. CostaLaura CozartDavid DaltonTony DeginaCarlos DiazTiffany FaykusNate FreemanHeather GracyKarla Jo HelmsBrigitta JohnsonDarrin JohnsonJohnny JohnsonChris LatvalaGlenn LubenApril Rose MonteithRandy NilssonDean ONaleGreg RuggieroRichard SchompWilliam Bill SedeyBrian SiracusaKara SiracusaErik SmithSabrina SmithMatt SpenceChris SprowlsGrant WoodSweet Alice YoungRicka Zimmermann

Charles Charlie Allcott, IIIJohn ArcaroBrandon BellewDeborah BoyleSusan CharlesTeresa ConteRobert Bob ClarkShelly Lynn ClarkScott CliffordJames Jim DownesEvan ForteDavid FoxBeth FreyBrent GordonSuzanne B. GrantTamara HelmsDanielle HintzJoseph Joe Holt, Sr.Lynn JohnsonPrincess Fleming JonesCaitlin Higgins JoyHeather KellerReginald KirvenApril LottDavid MeadowsMaria N. MiaoulisJoyce PembertonRichard PlaceyJeff RathmellSharon Reid-KaneNancy St. ArnoldJon SiperaDaniel Dan SlaughterEric SullivanKim ToddJoanne ValentinWilliam Bill VandevenLuis A. Velez, Jr.Mia Colleen Welch

Brian BarkerSarah BrownBrandon BurgAllie CantonisJason ClementJackie DrydenPaul DunhamScott EsterAndrea GregorDonald HallRobin HedmanAbby Kennedy HoltCarrie JannazoKaryn Johnson MahorneySusanna Johnston VersandiKaren JubrailKim KaszubaKate KellyLynda LeedyJessica LillesandRandy LoosJaymie PatelJim PenningtonDavid PhillipsKevin PiccarretoSuzan Decker RossMark RomanMel SamsDawn ScottJim SpicerAimee TrachtenbergAdam VassalloBonnie WaltersMark WeinkrantzMark WhittleTodd Willsie

Rebekah AppleGary BanloweJeanine BlakeAdam BouchardJosh BouchardLaura Krueger BrockBob ChildressFranklin ClarkMorgan CookMary DavidNick DiCeglieClaire EnickJason EsterBeth Hinesley GettigSteven GraneseVickie GlennJamie HicksErin Michele HintonCorey JudgeHollee KierTiffany KruegerChris MaggiErik MathenevMichah MaxwellStarla MetzBobby Metz, Jr.Gretchen MitchellDave MottJames NicholsDev PathikMike SahrKathryn ScheneMatt SpoorTina TenretScott WheelerLynn WeltjenJohn Wintermeier

Ileane AltamuraRob BollenbackKelly BosettiSusan Hudak BossMichael Mike BrundageRichard G Rick BuschartCathy BushAndrea CampagnaWilliam Russell Bill Cosgray JrMichael DiBrizziAnthony DiTinnoRichard B Brett DulaneyMorgan GaynorEd HoffmanJerry HubbellJason JensenSarah MillerMary MorrowDenise MurphyBarry NiemannDana NovakNeil PalenzuelaTimothy PappBarbara PickellGary PolanskyJoy PollackKim PraitanoGary RegoliRon SchultzStephanie SmithLisa MatznerLaura Leigh SnellTom Steiner IIIJennifer StengerAaron StuartBob SymanskiMario TelfairKaren Van De PutteThomas Wright

Eric BeckDonna BlazevicJulie Ward BujalskiStephen BunchPat CarlisleJamie CataldoBob ChiavacciKristie DenboEd DotteryCharlie DyeKevin EssexSandie GrimesSirena IonataShannon Long SprowlsRoberta KlarPerry LopezStephanie MartinBenjamin McBrideGeorgie S. MenkeKeith MeyerJohn MonteBeth MoserStephanie OddoGrant PetersenJessica PetotPeggy PhillipsMichael RothbergNermine Khouzam RubinBrian ScottRon SeelKimberly SharpeByrdJill SilverboardClayton Chip SnareBrenda StewartTodd StillChristine Taylor PatelDebbie VassTom WagnerGary WilliamsGregory C. Wright

Nicholas Nick AmaroRobert Bob BatzLiz BradleyEmily CallawayDimity CarlsonAndrew CaudellRobert Fletch FletcherCarl FolkmanSuzanne Suzie SakalKenneth Ken HannonCyndee HaydonJanice HowardBarbara Grazul HubbardChester Chet JohnsonRoger JohnsonAmber KammersLynn KiehnePenethia Psalms MackElise MinkoffSydney NiewierskiJohn PatrickMark PostmaChris ReimannJoanna RosseLisa ShadrouiScott SimmonsStephen SlaughterJames Jim StearnsSherri StinsonTirrah SwitzerTerry TeunisKelly TrioloKathryn VoskuilMark WallRene WeidmanSteven Williamson

Stefanie BarsemaLinda BeyroutiMargaret BiczTracey BirchGeorge Ann BissettJonathan BowmanGregory BradyGeorgine BrancatoCharlotte BrazielLiza CarterMarcus CastilloAllyn ChildressDuggan CooleyDoreen DiPolitoPatrick DonoghueAmanda FisherKaren FitzpatrickTom FlynnEarl GlosterBrenda GreenJanice HowardBarbara HubbardBill LaymanGwin LondriganPat McAbeeBob McIntyreKathy MilamKay NewsomCraig PhillipsJoAnn RooneyKaren SkiratkoBill SmithDebra SullivanMark TeunisDr. John VenturellaPierre VogelbacherRich WallingSally ZehFred ZinoberJustin Zinzow

Lester AradiRyan BarackKaren BlackburnBonnie BollenbackGeraldine Campos-LopezJena CarpenterBarton CobbD Rep DeLoach IIIJoe FalangaKaren FentonColleen FlynnEvan FraymanHelena Lee GuthrieGary HallasTeresa HibbardLisa HurleyGermaine JacksonGeorge KoderSally LindbergJanice LuthThomas MaddenLisa MansellShannon MartinPaul McBroomMichael MonahanMatthew NovakCourtney OrrCarlen PetersenSarah PickettCarol-Lynn RomanJanet RosenquistMargaret Peg RoweNeil RuizTom StathopoulosDiane Vollbracht

William BergerBuster BrasfieldSarah ByarsKimberly CampbellBruce CottonRita DiehlGeorgetta DoyleDouglas F EdwardsRuth FanovichKevin FlynnSusan FraleyJack J GellerAnne GibaldiNancy GreenbergRobert HumberstoneBarbara InmanCynthia JohnsonCythia Jollif-JohnsonJeff JoynerFelicia LeonardPat MarzulliTimothy McMahonTom MorrissetteCynthia ODonnellTroy PerdueJames A. PfeifferSteven RossBrian St. ArnoldAna Maria SchweitzerKinnear SmithCheryl Smith-KhanNora SternMary StoryScott SwopeElizabeth WarrenJennifer Young

Miles BalloggCharles BauerleinDebra BebellLisa BrownPat BrownJill CarbonelliAllison CarmenJeffrey CestaJohn CourisNeil CovertEvelyn FinkleaDavid FrankAlbert GadomskiAmanda GilroyScott GrutchfieldLaurel GustafsonMark HumphriesArch JohnstonSean JowellArlene Walker KaslanderChuck KearnsSteve KennedyLeAnne LetizeMargaret MartinAlvina MooreSuzanne PatrickJoseph RosetoJoe ScholtzMark SimpsonJames SteffensLise Ann StocksAdam StruckhoffJohn JT ThatchBarbara ThomasJim WattTerry Welker

Chris AllenLiz BarloweMark BillirisRobin BorlandBrian CartlandPatricia ColantonioTrenia CoxMark DouglasEva EraclidesJudy EvansScott FinkJason FlyntMaureen FreaneyRobin GomezBarbara GreenEd HalleranJohn KamkutisLois Klein*George LaBancaBrian LangilleJonathan LewisColleen MackinElizabeth MenendezCatherine OstranderChristian RuppelChristine RuppelBetty Ann BA SafleyJan SebaldDavid SiracusPamela SkyrmeMichelle TurmanMichael J WatersSteven WeinbergerPenelope WelchLauralee Westine

Martha BarkerRon BarnwellJose A. BorregoJames F. CoatsJewel White ColeCorene CollinsKristie C. CottierMichael I. FaehnerSteven M. FishmanDianne Wheatley GiliottiJanet Harper GoldenG. Scott GoyerRowland HeraldWilliam HerveyAnthony HollowaySr. Mary Dion HorriganAmy E HudockMarita LynchCarla J MatternDavid McDonaldAnneNeil PicconeDonna RasmussenLisa RillingPeter A RivelliniAnya C SebastienLibby StoneMicki ThompsonLeslie D ViensWindy O WickmanTed WilliamsonMarlene YorkAndrea Zahn

Melissa AllenKaren AltieriChristopher S. ArbutineRebecca CarlsonSharon CoilKatie Elliott ColeChester G. (Bud) Elias Jr.Ellen Smith FisherMartha GallowayJanet D. GammonsJames L. GearyWhitney GrayKrista Jane HinrichsWilliam B. Horne IIPatricia L. JohnstonAnn H. KelleyBrad McMurtreyWayne C. MineoC. Scott NallMarianne PashaThomas M. RamsbergerCarmen RowlandScott Eric SchiltzGregory K. ShowersDiane E. SmithMichael Van ButselJonathan WadeMichael J. WallaceDewey M. WilliamsLeesther Williams

Michele BermanBeverly BillirisGarry BrumbackKimberly A. BriggsJ. Patrick CallanSherwood Flip ColemanCynthia Davis-GryceJeffrey DiamondKelly C. EdgarJeffrey D. FriedmanBufus E. GammonsFrank HibbardJanice B. HillRobert C. IronsmithBruce V. LivingstonAmy MartinRichard P. McClearyPamela J. MontanariRosalie MurrayDonna NettestadRobb ReslerArthur C. ShandJean R. ShapiroWendy SpencerJerry SpilatroChuck A. SullivanJohn F. SzaboDavid WhiteVonda K. WhiteJudy WoodStephanie Zaragoza

David AbelsonRick BaconNina BandoniLula Lu BanksDavid J. Becker, MDRobert Burwell, JrGloria CampbellJeff ColemanHarriet Coren *Connie DavisDebbie DiroffPat DonnellyCynthia FoxKaren FranceClarence HulseSherri JohnsonWilliam Bill JonsonW. Garrison JusticeJohn MangineElizabeth MannionJennifer Klinge McGrailSandra McKennaDiane NelsonCarol ParksJacqueline RiveraCharlie Robinson, Jr.Debra RothbergThomas Tom SewellOla SeifertGail SimpsonJanis SmithThomas Tom TarulliJeff TomeoKaren Vann *Amanda WagnerKeith Zayac *

Beverly AlandDavid O. ArchieKaren BrayboyNeil BrickfieldTeddy BuellJohn CoheeSteve ColeDarlene DavisJohn ElbareDouglas EvelethRose Aleta GrebisPam HawthorneJane HelmsEd HooperLisa HughesBetteann HultgrenWard JohansenR. Dennis MacaleerCary McCulloughThomas Wm. McGrewMichael MeidelNadine Spring NickesonJane OldsJanet A. PanebiancoVicki G. PappageorgeJeffrey L. PattersonMarion RichNancy RidenourAndrew J. Rodnite, Jr.Susan RolstonLarry SandeferTheresa Kym SanzKathleen SimonSonja StefanadisAmy Van DellGeneva WatersJohn H. Williams, IIIDonald Wood

Marcia AlbaneseStephen S. BarrettKimberly BerfieldLinda ChamberlainSolange DepompeoMelody FigurskiRobin ForninoCaroline GoodrichMarcus GreeneBarbara JacobsMary Taylor JacobsSusan KirbyDale KleineKoni ManleyRobert MarmonSuze MartinJoe McCreightScott McIntyreLois MillerScott MooreVicki MorganBeth NorthcuttSusan PawlakJoe PidalaDavid RothbergKristin ScheurerMcBride Mack SigmonMargaret SimmonsPat E. SiracusaBonnie Skaggs*Cristina SnyderMack Vines

Donna Adkins-WrightRichard J. BaierJudith L. CannadyAlan D. DarnellBonnie S. DavisJeff P. DavisDee Anna FarnellGerald A. FigurskiJim FogartyPatricia FooteCynthia E. GoudeauTony GriffithIsay M. GulleyKathryn M. HelmuthSandra Ann HoSusan HumphreysPatricia G. JonesPatricia KorpanJeff KronschnablJoseph J. KubickiGail LeBlancJames Lewin, Sr.Nancy Moate LeyD. Judith LutzEdmund OCarrollSusan L. OldsAlison PainterCarol E. RasorDiane RoffeyRobert J. SnyderLarry M. StarnesSusan M. SudnikJan H. TracyBruce R. Young

Keith AppenzellerSusan E. BenjaminEleanor R. BrelandPatricia BurkeMichelle DetweilerTeresa R. DioquinoDana C. FordDonald H. GageJames A. GibsonCraig A. GilmanPeter F. GozzaSue A. JohnsonS. Jane MalagonElizabeth T. ManosNorman W. MillerMichael A. PusateraPeter RamsbergerMary RogeroKen RollinsKaren Young SchmeiserJudith Ann SiracusaMary Ann SmithSteven B. StantonDavid W. TomlinsonCharles S. Warrington, Jr.Debbie WhiteThomas C. Williams

Karen L. BailCarrie BeemSue BerfieldRay BouchardKimberly R. BowmanRussel A. Bowman, IIFredric BuchholtzSusan Horsey DeesD. A. Skip DvornikSally H. FooteCandace GardnerGary S. GrayArlita HallamFrank J. Hancock*Mark JornsDebbie Kerin-TrujilloOdalys LaraThomas W. LattoEileen McAllisterRoberta E. McIntoshDavid PetersonElizabeth PhillipsMarvin L. PinkardDavid Charles SmithRay Gene Ulmer, Jr.Yvonne UlmerEduardo Tito Vargas

James D. Jim AppeltStephen H. BilsJanice L. BirchJohn E. BurciagaPam CorbinoJudith M. CottrellScott L. DanielsPaige J. Fisher-SimpsonJanet Nelson HendersonLynne M. JenningsThomas F. KennedyPamela Leousis-DinsmoreMary Ellen LewisJ. William LockhartRichard A. LuceH. Mary McKeownHubert L. Pascoe, Jr.Patricia Perzel-GellerSue PorterKathy RiceChristina K. RoddeyJack E. Russell, IIITimothy C. SchulerPolly A. Jester StannardElla J. SmithJoan M. VecchioliEric D. WilliamsLinda S. WilliamsM. Elizabeth Williams

W. Reed AdcockEllen BabbDiane BaileyLinda BurrLinda ChambersJohn P. ConnellyDouglas F. DahlhauserPamela M. DubovKathy DuncanJames P. EgnewGilbert V. GottGreg HackleyCatherine M. HarlanLinda N. HildebrandCraig HuegelJohn C. LandonLauren C. LaughlinMichael Thomas LopsJan MarinoKay MedwickClaude P. MorrisRichard E. MurdockMike NevilleValarie NussbaumNancy PaikoffAnnette M. PattersonGregory F. Wilder

Linda A. AdkinsAlex T. AyscueThomas H. Beatty, IIINancy BomsteinStephen J. BonczekBernadette K. CraigKevin J. DonoghueJonna DouglassNancy FrockJanis KaramCathy L. KeithLisa LanzaMartha R. LendermanR. S. Rick McCollumS. Craig MillerJudy A. MitchellBruce MurphyGuy D. PearsonJeannette G. RenfrowJack St. ArnoldMary Julianne ScalesJohn A. SchaeferKaren Williams SeelSteve V. SellersJohn G. TappHal Ziecheck

Mary Alice BlevinsMark W. BrandtJames R. CasePhyllis Barwick CoatsPatricia GarrahanPatricia GerardRonnie J. GoodsteinBrett W. GowRebecca A. GrahamKate HowzeJiffy JohnsonNelly Nagui KhouzamJean H. KwallDaniel T. MannKathleen MonahanWilliam PullerKathy Short RabonR. Thomas RiggsNancy J. RitzMorris SilbermanR. Stephen TarverDeborah Vincent *Cathy A. WagnerThomas C. WedekindMichael WrightJudy Yates

Bruce M. BaldwinFloyd L. CrawfordLynn M. FuhlerThomas W. HaleMolly C. HancockCathy E. HollandDonna Koutney HooverAnthony M. JonesRichard H. KatzeffPaul N. KingGary M. KleinDeborah Pointer KynesKenneth C. MillmanCynthia PearseCynthia I. RiceDonald R. SchmidtGregory G. SmyserGerry J. StephensonPatricia A. P.A. TyrerB. Clifford Williams, IIIRoni S. Dordick WrightD. Wayne Wyatt

Joan M. BrockJames C. Brock, Jr.Sandra J. CampbellCharles N. CastagnaEdward A. EagerLoretta M. EnglishLaree L. EwersJohn D. FlockJames Edward GoodloeMarian J. GoodmanPaulette Szabo GrossSarah Walker GuthrieC. Guy HancockD. F. Buz Heuchan, Jr.Margena HinelySara Sally IrvingDarlene J. KaladaCarol L. Swyers KentN. David KoronesPamela Griener LeavyDaniel F. MillerGregory SchletterH. Browning Spence, Jr. *Karen H. Mounts WilderElise K. Winters

John C. AppelDouglas R. BirchNancy L. BrownRobert C. Dickinson, IIIAaron R. FodimanRaymond O. GrossH. Sandra HuggSandra C. JamiesonSheila W. JaquishRobert J. KruegerTheresa S. Lintz *Randolph A. MabryAndrew J. McAdamsRonald M. McElrathElizabeth E. McMahonRichard L. Pearse, Jr.Lili Sikorski SmithMary Frances TaymansWilliam T. TrautweinHelen B. UmbergKaren K. WalkerCharles W. WhetstoneRichard C. Young

Steve CarlisleJames M. CourtneyRonnie G. CriderMary CrosbyElizabeth DeptulaCrockett FarnellMartha C. GrayDonna HarperPaula HarveyHarry B. JamiesonRandall C. JohnsonHerbert E. Langford, Jr.Peggy McLeodSandra G. MillspaughBrenda Harris NixonMary OReillyDilman K. ThomasMaria Nieves EdmondsBarbara WerderPeter Woodham

Carol AllmanVance ArnettLana BracewellAlan Braswell, Jr.Margaret Word BurnsideThomas W. CareySue E. Pringle ClearyAleta CozartRichard Buzz DavidHeather FoderinghamJean JohnstonJohn C. LockeCarolyn Crochet MatherLinda MielkeDavid R. Moores *W. Bruce PageJoel ParkerCyril E. Bud PoguePaul Probst, Jr.William D. Repper, Jr.James SowerbrowerEllen StoutamireTerrence ThomasPamela W. WallaceBarbara Jean Whiteman

Parwez AlamRobert W. ByrdTony DattiloSandra F. DiamondHolly H. DuncanMyra K. ElliottDaniel K. FlatleyRobert L. GravesNancy S. KaylorS. M. Sally KiserRonald D. LancasterThomas C. LokeySusan L. OrneckMargot PequignotCynthia J. PetellePatricia PlumleeJames W. RasmussenCharles F. RobinsonPatricia A. RosserCozee Lynn Smith

Mindy BaconMichael D. BollenbackRobert K. ClarkJean CookKaren C. CrownMartha H. FolwellDora H. HarrisonDavid P. HealeyWilliams M. HollowayJean Ann HughesThomas U. KnappRoberta S. KoronesJohn LawrenceThomas J. McQueenLinda K. ParkerJames W. PfisterSara Sue Sopkin PrughWalter L. Schafer, Jr.Eric S. SekeresJames S. WatrousCynthia Nash Weller

Alan C. BomsteinRobert B. BoothR. William Bramberg, Jr.Thomas C. BrownMaria P. CantonisElizabeth J. DanielsJohn P. FrazerTim J. GelvinGay LancasterMichael E. LewisEdward Maur, Jr.Sallie A. ParksJudith B. Powers-JonesR. Grable Stoutamire *Stephen G. Watts

Paul P. BurroughsBrandt C. Downey, IIIJulie W. FeatherstoneMichael R. GorsageCharles E. HartPaul J. Kaslander *Matthew A. KludingKy M. KochSharon S. LarsonJean F. Ruff MageeMark McCutcheonPaul A. MeissnerCarolyn F. PhillipsDavid J. RosserJ. Ellis RueDyne SappN. John Simmons, Jr.Darrell W. StephensCary StiffJoel R. TewKenneth N. Waters*Bob Watson*

Patricia BauerSusan J. BrownLorin W. BryanJanice B. CaseMichael CroseJeff S. DavisJ. Jey Deifell, Jr.Paul R. EspositoRichard E. GehringBarry M. GlennRuth Heineman GoodwinKenneth G. HamiltonMatile G. HendryAida Y. JuradoPatrick W. KerrJerry R. ParkerFred L. RobbinsGyneth S. StanleyRobert Stiff, Jr.Mary Lou Miller Wagstaff

Joyce M. BarnettScott A. BraueerKenneth R. BurnsideAmelia Davis CareySondra G. GoldenfarbTom L. HorneDale L. PadenThomas E. Penick, Jr.Jim PittsJane M. Pope-ArnettJ. Paul RaymondPriscilla RogersR.Z. Sandy SafleyGlenn T. WarrenLeon Jeff Whitehurst

H. Emerson Atkinson, Jr.Georgia BarnesburgRobert BurnsideDavid Burton, Jr.Sam CasellaM. Therese ChamberlinMary CummingsJoseph ElliotTheodosios G. FrantzisTimothy JohnsonNicholas G. KarayDonald L. LeonardAndrew W. MacGillPat McFrederickMike McWeeneyJames E. PhillipsJohn S. Jay Rhoades, IIIRonald M. RicardoDon SkinnerRobert M. Tharin, Jr.Donald TurnerMike WnchickJohn WyllysKurt Youngstrom

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Martin Luther King Jr. – Minister, Civil Rights Activist …

Martin Luther King Jr. was a Baptist minister and social activist, who led the Civil Rights Movement in the United States from the mid-1950s until his death by assassination in 1968.

Martin Luther King Jr. was born in 1929 in Atlanta, Georgia. King, a Baptist minister and civil-rights activist, had a seismic impact on race relations in the United States, beginning in the mid-1950s.

Among his many efforts, King headed the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Through his activism and inspirational speeches he played a pivotal role in ending the legal segregation of African-American citizens in the United States, as well as the creation of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

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King received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964, among several other honors. He was assassinated in April 1968, and continues to be remembered as one of the most influential and inspirational African-American leaders in history.

Born as Michael King Jr. on January 15, 1929, Martin Luther King Jr. was the middle child of Michael King Sr. and Alberta Williams King. The King and Williams families were rooted in rural Georgia. Martin Jr.’s grandfather, A.D. Williams, was a rural minister for years and then moved to Atlanta in 1893. He took over the small, struggling Ebenezer Baptist church with around 13 members and made it into a forceful congregation. He married Jennie Celeste Parks and they had one child that survived, Alberta. Michael King Sr. came from a sharecropper family in a poor farming community. He married Alberta in 1926 after an eight-year courtship. The newlyweds moved to A.D. Williams’ home in Atlanta.

Michael King Sr. stepped in as pastor of Ebenezer Baptist Church upon the death of his father-in-law in 1931. He too became a successful minister, and adopted the name Martin Luther King Sr. in honor of the German Protestant religious leader Martin Luther. In due time, Michael Jr. would follow his father’s lead and adopt the name himself.

Young Martin had an older sister, Willie Christine, and a younger brother, Alfred Daniel Williams King. The King children grew up in a secure and loving environment. Martin Sr. was more the disciplinarian, while his wife’s gentleness easily balanced out the father’s more strict hand. Though they undoubtedly tried, Martin Jr.s parents couldnt shield him completely from racism. Martin Luther King Sr. fought against racial prejudice, not just because his race suffered, but because he considered racism and segregation to be an affront to God’s will. He strongly discouraged any sense of class superiority in his children which left a lasting impression on Martin Jr.

Growing up in Atlanta, Georgia, Martin Luther King Jr. entered public school at age 5. In May, 1936 he was baptized, but the event made little impression on him. In May, 1941, Martin was 12 years old when is grandmother, Jennie, died of a heart attack. The event was traumatic for Martin, more so because he was out watching a parade against his parents’ wishes when she died. Distraught at the news, young Martin jumped from a second story window at the family home, allegedly attempting suicide.

King attended Booker T. Washington High School, where he was said to be a precocious student. He skipped both the ninth and eleventh grades, and entered Morehouse College in Atlanta at age 15, in 1944. He was a popular student, especially with his female classmates, but an unmotivated student who floated though his first two years. Although his family was deeply involved in the church and worship, young Martin questioned religion in general and felt uncomfortable with overly emotional displays of religious worship. This discomfort continued through much of his adolescence, initially leading him to decide against entering the ministry, much to his father’s dismay. But in his junior year, Martin took a Bible class, renewed his faith and began to envision a career in the ministry. In the fall of his senior year, he told his father of his decision.

In 1948, Martin Luther King Jr. earned a sociology degree from Morehouse College and attended the liberal Crozer Theological Seminary in Chester, Pennsylvania. He thrived in all his studies, and was valedictorian of his class in 1951, and elected student body president. He also earned a fellowship for graduate study. But Martin also rebelled against his fathers more conservative influence by drinking beer and playing pool while at college. He became involved with a white woman and went through a difficult time before he could break off the affair.

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During his last year in seminary, Martin Luther King Jr. came under the guidance of Morehouse College President Benjamin E. Mays who influenced Kings spiritual development. Mays was an outspoken advocate for racial equality and encouraged King to view Christianity as a potential force for social change. After being accepted at several colleges for his doctoral study, including Yale and Edinburgh in Scotland, King enrolled at Boston University.

During the work on his doctorate, Martin Luther King Jr. met Coretta Scott, an aspiring singer and musician, at the New England Conservatory school in Boston. They were married in June 1953 and had four children, Yolanda, Martin Luther King III, Dexter Scott and Bernice. In 1954, while still working on his dissertation, King became pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church of Montgomery, Alabama. He completed his Ph.D. and earned his degree in 1955. King was only 25 years old.

On March 2, 1955, a 15-year-old girl refused to give up her seat to a white man on a Montgomery city bus in violation of local law. Claudette Colvin was arrested and taken to jail. At first, the local chapter of the NAACP felt they had an excellent test case to challenge Montgomery’s segregated bus policy. But then it was revealed that she was pregnant and civil rights leaders feared this would scandalize the deeply religious black community and make Colvin (and, thus the group’s efforts) less credible in the eyes of sympathetic whites.

On December 1, 1955, they got another chance to make their case. That evening, 42-year-old Rosa Parks boarded the Cleveland Avenue bus to go home after an exhausting day at work. She sat in the first row of the “colored” section in the middle of the bus. As the bus traveled its route, all the seats in the white section filled up, then several more white passengers boarded the bus. The bus driver noted that there were several white men standing and demanded that Parks and several other African Americans give up their seats. Three other African American passengers reluctantly gave up their places, but Parks remained seated. The driver asked her again to give up her seat and again she refused. Parks was arrested and booked for violating the Montgomery City Code. At her trial a week later, in a 30-minute hearing, Parks was found guilty and fined $10 and assessed $4 court fee.

On the night that Rosa Parks was arrested, E.D. Nixon, head of the local NAACP chapter met with Martin Luther King Jr. and other local civil rights leaders to plan a citywide bus boycott. King was elected to lead the boycott because he was young, well-trained with solid family connections and had professional standing. But he was also new to the community and had few enemies, so it was felt he would have strong credibility with the black community.

In his first speech as the group’s president, King declared, “We have no alternative but to protest. For many years we have shown an amazing patience. We have sometimes given our white brothers the feeling that we liked the way we were being treated. But we come here tonight to be saved from that patience that makes us patient with anything less than freedom and justice.”

Martin Luther King Jr.’s skillful rhetoric put a new energy into the civil rights struggle in Alabama. The bus boycott involved 382 days of walking to work, harassment, violence and intimidation for the Montgomery’s African-American community. Both King’s and E.D. Nixon’s homes were attacked. But the African-American community also took legal action against the city ordinance arguing that it was unconstitutional based on the Supreme Court’s “separate is never equal” decision in Brown v. Board of Education. After being defeated in several lower court rulings and suffering large financial losses, the city of Montgomery lifted the law mandating segregated public transportation.

Flush with victory, African-American civil rights leaders recognized the need for a national organization to help coordinate their efforts. In January 1957, Martin Luther King Jr., Ralph Abernathy, and 60 ministers and civil rights activists founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference to harness the moral authority and organizing power of black churches. They would help conduct non-violent protests to promote civil rights reform. King’s participation in the organization gave him a base of operation throughout the South, as well as a national platform. The organization felt the best place to start to give African Americans a voice was to enfranchise them in the voting process. In February 1958, the SCLC sponsored more than 20 mass meetings in key southern cities to register black voters in the South. King met with religious and civil rights leaders and lectured all over the country on race-related issues.

In 1959, with the help of the American Friends Service Committee, and inspired by Gandhi’s success with non-violent activism, Martin Luther King visited Gandhi’s birthplace in India. The trip affected him in a deeply profound way, increasing his commitment to America’s civil rights struggle. African-American civil rights activist Bayard Rustin, who had studied Gandhi’s teachings, became one of King’s associates and counseled him to dedicate himself to the principles of non-violence. Rustin served as King’s mentor and advisor throughout his early activism and was the main organizer of the 1963 March on Washington. But Rustin was also a controversial figure at the time, being a homosexual with alleged ties to the Communist Party, USA. Though his counsel was invaluable to King, many of his other supporters urged him to distance himself from Rustin.

In February 1960, a group of African-American students began what became known as the “sit-in” movement in Greensboro, North Carolina. The students would sit at racially segregated lunch counters in the city’s stores. When asked to leave or sit in the colored section, they just remained seated, subjecting themselves to verbal and sometimes physical abuse. The movement quickly gained traction in several other cities. In April 1960, the SCLC held a conference at Shaw University in Raleigh, North Carolina with local sit-in leaders. Martin Luther King Jr. encouraged students to continue to use nonviolent methods during their protests. Out of this meeting, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee formed and for a time, worked closely with the SCLC. By August of 1960, the sit-ins had been successful in ending segregation at lunch counters in 27 southern cities.

By 1960, Martin Luther King Jr. was gaining national notoriety. He returned to Atlanta to become co-pastor with his father at Ebenezer Baptist Church, but also continued his civil rights efforts. On October 19, 1960, King and 75 students entered a local department store and requested lunch-counter service but were denied. When they refused to leave the counter area, King and 36 others were arrested. Realizing the incident would hurt the city’s reputation, Atlanta’s mayor negotiated a truce and charges were eventually dropped. But soon after, King was imprisoned for violating his probation on a traffic conviction. The news of his imprisonment entered the 1960 presidential campaign, when candidate John F. Kennedy made a phone call to Coretta Scott King. Kennedy expressed his concern for King’s harsh treatment for the traffic ticket and political pressure was quickly set in motion. King was soon released.

In the spring of 1963, Martin Luther King Jr. organized a demonstration in downtown Birmingham, Alabama. Entire families attended. City police turned dogs and fire hoses on demonstrators. Martin Luther King was jailed along with large numbers of his supporters, but the event drew nationwide attention. However, King was personally criticized by black and white clergy alike for taking risks and endangering the children who attended the demonstration. From the jail in Birmingham, King eloquently spelled out his theory of non-violence: “Nonviolent direct action seeks to create such a crisis and foster such a tension that a community, which has constantly refused to negotiate, is forced to confront the issue.”

By the end of the Birmingham campaign, Martin Luther King Jr. and his supporters were making plans for a massive demonstration on the nation’s capital composed of multiple organizations, all asking for peaceful change. On August 28, 1963, the historic March on Washington drew more than 200,000 people in the shadow of the Lincoln Memorial. It was here that King made his famous “I Have a Dream” speech, emphasizing his belief that someday all men could be brothers.

“I have a dream that my four children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.” Martin Luther King, Jr. / “I Have A Dream” speech, August 28, 1963

The rising tide of civil rights agitation produced a strong effect on public opinion. Many people in cities not experiencing racial tension began to question the nation’s Jim Crow laws and the near century second class treatment of African-American citizens. This resulted in the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 authorizing the federal government to enforce desegregation of public accommodations and outlawing discrimination in publicly owned facilities. This also led to Martin Luther King receiving the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964.

King’s struggle continued throughout the 1960s. Often, it seemed as though the pattern of progress was two steps forward and one step back. On March 7, 1965, a civil rights march, planned from Selma to Alabama’s capital in Montgomery, turned violent as police with nightsticks and tear gas met the demonstrators as they tried to cross the Edmund Pettus Bridge. King was not in the march, however the attack was televised showing horrifying images of marchers being bloodied and severely injured. Seventeen demonstrators were hospitalized in a day that would be called “Bloody Sunday.” A second march was cancelled due to a restraining order to prevent the march from taking place. A third march was planned and this time King made sure he was part of it. Not wanting to alienate southern judges by violating the restraining order, a different approach was taken. On March 9, 1965, a procession of 2,500 marchers, both black and white, set out once again to cross the Pettus Bridge and confronted barricades and state troopers. Instead of forcing a confrontation, King led his followers to kneel in prayer and they then turned back.Alabama governor George Wallace continued to try to prevent another march, however, President Lyndon Johnson pledged his support and ordered U.S. Army troops and the Alabama National Guard to protect the protestors. On March 21, approximately 2,000 people began a march from Selma to the capitol in Montgomery. On March 25, the number of marchers, which had grown to an estimated 25,000, gathered in front of the state capitol where Dr. King delivered a televised speech. Five months after the historic peaceful protest, President Johnson signed the 1965 Voting Rights Act.

From late 1965 through 1967, Martin Luther King Jr. expanded his civil rights efforts into other larger American cities, including Chicago and Los Angeles. But he met with increasing criticism and public challenges from young black power leaders. King’s patient, non-violent approach and appeal to white middle-class citizens alienated many black militants who considered his methods too weak, too late and ineffective. To address this criticism, King began making a link between discrimination and poverty, and he began to speak out against the Vietnam War. He felt that America’s involvement in Vietnam was politically untenable and the government’s conduct in the war discriminatory to the poor. He sought to broaden his base by forming a multi-race coalition to address economic and unemployment problems of all disadvantaged people.

By 1968, the years of demonstrations and confrontations were beginning to wear on Martin Luther King Jr. He had grown tired of marches, going to jail, and living under the constant threat of death. He was becoming discouraged at the slow progress of civil rights in America and the increasing criticism from other African-American leaders. Plans were in the works for another march on Washington to revive his movement and bring attention to a widening range of issues. In the spring of 1968, a labor strike by Memphis sanitation workers drew King to one last crusade. On April 3, he gave his final and what proved to be an eerily prophetic speech,Ive Been to the Mountaintop,in which he told supporters at the Mason Temple in Memphis, “I’ve seen the promised land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight that we, as a people, will get to the promised land.” The next day, while standing on a balcony outside his room at the Lorraine Motel, Martin Luther King Jr. was struck by a sniper’s bullet. The shooter, a malcontent drifter and former convict named James Earl Ray, was eventually apprehended after a two-month, international manhunt. The killing sparked riots and demonstrations in more than 100 cities across the country. In 1969, Ray pleaded guilty to assassinating King and was sentenced to 99 years in prison. He died in prison on April 23, 1998.

Martin Luther King Jr.’s life had a seismic impact on race relations in the United States. Years after his death, he is the most widely known African-American leader of his era. His life and work have been honored with a national holiday, schools and public buildings named after him, and a memorial on Independence Mall in Washington, D.C. But his life remains controversial as well. In the 1970s, FBI files, released under the Freedom of Information Act, revealed that he was under government surveillance, and suggested his involvement in adulterous relationships and communist influences. Over the years, extensive archival studies have led to a more balanced and comprehensive assessment of his life, portraying him as a complex figure: flawed, fallible and limited in his control over the mass movements with which he was associated, yet a visionary leader who was deeply committed to achieving social justice through nonviolent means.

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Martin Luther King Jr. – Minister, Civil Rights Activist …

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Hizb ut-Tahrir | Counter Extremism Project

Submitted by cextremismadmin on Fri, 01/26/2018 – 16:21, last updated on Fri, 01/26/2018 – 16:21

Places of Operation Australia, Bangladesh, Denmark, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Malaysia Netherlands, Pakistan, Sweden, United States, Uzbekistan

Hizb ut-Tahrir (HT), meaning Party of Liberation, is an international Islamist movement seeking to unite Muslims under one Islamic caliphate.

Founded by Palestinian Taqiuddin al-Nabhani al-Filastyni in 1953, HT considers itself a non-violent political party. HT states that its goal is to peacefully convert Muslim nations to Islamist political systems. HT praises the concept of jihad but insists that it does not use material power to defend itself or as a weapon. The group publicly disavows efforts to achieve its goals of a caliphate through violent means.

HT has been banned in at least 13 countries worldwide.

However, individuals affililated with the group have been linked to violent acts in multiple countries. Some have been involved in coup attempts in the Middle East, the murder of a pro-secularist blogger in Bangladesh, and spreading anti-Western and Muslim-separatist propaganda in the West. HT maintains that its members are political dissidents.

HT has been called a conveyor belt for terrorists by Zeyno Baran of the Hudson Institute. Baran notes that HT members, once radicalized by the groups ideology, are vulnerable to more explicit messages of militancy. One example is British citizen Omar Sharif, who attempted to blow up a Tel Aviv bar in 2003. British intelligence officers found HT literature in Sharifs U.K. home. Another example is ISIS fighter Jihadi John (now deceased), who reportedly attended events with HT speakers while in university in Great Britain.

HT chapters operate in more than 40 countries, but the group is banned in many Muslim-majority countries, including Egypt, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and Uzbekistan. The group is also banned in China and Russia. The United Kingdom has not banned HT. According to Baran, HTs British chapter in London is the nerve center of the international movement.

While HT promotes the concept of a caliphate, it does not recognize the so-called caliphate created by ISIS. On July 2, 2015, HT Britain published a statement denouncing ISISs June 2014 declaration of an Islamic state because ISIS lacked the authority to create or secure a caliphate in Syria. Nevertheless, British HT members have reportedly joined ISIS and other militant Islamist groups in the Middle East. Former Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott accused HT of nurturing extremism in our suburbs, claiming that the group justifies terrorism and inspires young men to join jihadist activities in Syria and Iraq.

British prime ministers Tony Blair and David Cameron called for banning HT in 2009 and 2011, respectively. However, David Anderson, then the U.K. governments cindependent reviewer of terrorism legislation, submitted a report to Parliament in 2011 recommending against banning HT as it had not advocated violence. The British Home Office has also ruled that HT does not advocate violence and that Britain cannot ban the group for having unpopular ideas. The Home Office did concede, however, that HT is anti-Semitic, homophobic, and anti-Western.

Former Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbotts failure to ban HT in that country prompted his government to propose a law prohibiting speech deemed advocacy to genocide. Attorney General George Brandis said the proposed law was aimed at groups like HT. In September 2015, Brandis and the Abbott government announced the advocacy to genocide legislation as part of a package to be introduced in parliament later that year. However, later that month, Malcolm Turnbull defeated Abbott for the leadership of Australias Liberal party and consequently, for the office of prime minister. Australias Daily Telegraph reported in October 2015 that the Turnbull government would abandon its predecessors attempts to ban HT and to advance the advocacy to genocide bill.

HT seeks to establish a global caliphate and presents its Islamist ideology (based on the writings of the organizations founder, Taqiuddin Nahbani) as an alternative to both capitalism and secular democracy. HT proposes the restoration of a caliphate as a solution to the problems in the Middle East, with all Muslims living according to sharia (Islamic law) under the rule of an Islamic caliphate. HT insists that it seeks to reestablish the caliphate only in the Muslim world, not in any of the western countries including the US. However, HT uses anti-Western propaganda to advance its Islamist objectives. For example, HT blames purported anti-Muslim discrimination in the West and violence against Muslims in Muslim-majority countries on Western domestic and foreign policies.

HT seeks to erect a global caliphate.

The groups strategy to create a global caliphate is divided into three phases. The first phase is to create a core Muslim leadership to guide HT. In the second phase, this core leadership reaches out to the broader Muslim community and convinces them to follow HTs model of Islam. HTs extensive outreach activities around the world indicate that the group is currently focusing on this second phase of its strategy.

The third and final stage of HTs mission is regime change. Once HT has obtained sufficient public support for its vision of a caliphate, HT expects that support to facilitate a peaceful transition to Islamist rule. HT doctrine officially eschews violence and believes Islamic law forbids violence or armed struggle against the regime as a method to reestablish the Islamic State. Only the caliph of the Islamic statea position that does not yet existcan declare jihad under HT doctrine. Further, HT believes military struggle is not the method of reestablishing the Caliphate.

However, HT does not foreclose the possibility that a transition to Islamist rule could also transpire through a military coup if, for example, enough soldiers were converted to HTs worldview. Despite hoping for military support to overthrow current regimes, HT still positions itself as a non-violent movement, HTs doctrine considers military intervention to be outside help (nusrah) since the military is not a direct arm of HT. Analysts studying the HT movement have implicated HT members in failed military coups in Jordan (1968 and 1969) and Egypt (1974). However, HT members did not provide any military support for these coups. In the case of Jordan, HT members allegedly encouraged members of the military to overthrow the government.

Since HT presents Islam as an exclusive socio-political system superior to secularism and democracy, the group urges Muslims to detach themselves from any secular or nationalist loyalties. To that end, HT spreads an Islamist narrative of Muslim grievance and victimhood, oversimplifying the complex global socio-political environment into a single, simple narrative: the West opposes Islam. This narrative can result in an identity crisis for some Muslims, which opens the door for their radicalization, according to a 2007 radicalization study from Denmarks justice ministry. One possible example of HT-inspired radicalization is the case of 15-year-old Farhad Jabbar in Parramatta, Australia. Jabbar shot and killed a police accountant in October 2015 and reportedly attended an HT event the morning of the shooting. HT Australia denied that Jabbar is a member and condemned the shooting, but it also called western foreign and domestic policy the real cause of violence.

HT promotional materials have called for violence against Jews.

Despite its official non-violent stance, HT has called for violence against Jews. In 2002, HT leaflets found in Denmark urged Muslims to kill Jews wherever you find them, and turn them out from where they have been [sic] turned you out. A BBC report quoted the HT leaflet further: The Jews are a people of slander…a treacherous people… they fabricate lies and twist words from their right context. In 2003, similar anti-Semitic rhetoric resulted in the group being banned from many university campuses in Britain and a complete ban of the group in Germany.

HT supports not only violence against Jews in general but offensive jihad against Israel in particular. HT believes Israel has occupied Islamic landslands once ruled by Islamic law. Accordingly, HT believes those lands should return to governance by Islamic law and supports jihad as a means to that end.

Accordingly, HT views violent acts against Israel as legitimate political protest against Israels existence as a state. The organizations literature has supported Islamist suicide bombings in Israel, the Gaza Strip, and the West Bank. In 1994, HTs global leader, Ata Abu Rashta, reiterated this point when he declared that Jews who came to Palestine after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire have no right to live there. He called for all Jews of fighting age in Israel to be killed until none survive.

At least one HT-related person is believed to have attempted a suicide bombing in Israel. British citizen Omar Khan Sharif was reportedly affiliated with an HT splinter group. He began attending HT meetings while at Kings College in London. Sharif reportedly followed former HT leader Omar Bakri Mohammed to his new group, al-Muhajiroun. On April 30, 2003, Sharif and fellow British citizen Asif Muhammad Hanif attempted a suicide bombing at a Tel Aviv bar. Sharifs explosives failed, but Hanif killed three and wounded 50. HT denied responsibility for radicalizing Sharif.

On social issues, HTs ideology is reactionary. HT dictates subservient roles for women, who are required to obtain their husbands permission to leave the house and cannot go outside wearing perfume. HTs doctrine also forbids homosexual acts and prohibits participation in other faiths celebrations, such as Christmas.

HT is a hierarchical organization with as many as 1 million members throughout the world. HT boasts of a presence in at least 33 countries and maintains a central media office in Beirut, Lebanon. Each country has a local chapter led by an emir, who answers to HTs overall emir, Ata Abu Rashta. While Abu Rashtas exact location is unknown, he continues to lecture at Islamist conferences worldwide and new rhetoric from him regularly appears on HT websites.

In each of these chapters, men and women are encouraged to be active members of the movement but work separately in order to keep the genders apart. HTs vision of a future Islamic state reserves the highest positionsincluding caliph, provincial governors, and defense ministerfor men alone. Once an Islamic state is established, the caliph would select a defense minister, who would then enforce conscription to the caliphates army of all Muslim men over the age of 15. While women are encouraged to join and participate in HT, they are forbidden from filling leadership roles like defense minister.

Some of the most active HT chapters are listed and described below:

United Kingdom:

HT Britain is the nerve center of the organization.

HTs British chapter (HT Britain) is considered the nerve center of the global movement. HTs operations in the United Kingdom are led by HT Britains chief executive, Dr. Abdul Wahid. HTs spokesperson, Taji Mustafa, engages the media on behalf of the movement, and has spoken at HT conferences in other countries like Australia. Because HT is allowed to operate freely in Britain, HT Britain recruits members by hosting public conferences and panels, and by engaging with the British media on a regular basis. HT Britain also maintains a website, where its positions on foreign and domestic policy are made available through articles and video.

On both Twitter and Facebook, HT Britain has amassed over 11,000 followers. Local HT Britain chapters organize their own fundraising to support outreach efforts, such as printing and handing out leaflets in public spaces. HT Britain has also benefited from government funding, including grants to run early education programs. The British government ended this funding program after media reports confirmed that HT members were using the funding to indoctrinate students with controversial HT ideology, including the belief that tolerance and integration are un-Islamic.

Individuals known to have been in contact with HT Britain have gone on to join more violent Islamist groups. For example, notorious ISIS executioner Mohammed Emwazi (a.k.a. Jihadi John) was in contact with the group while studying at British universities before he joined ISIS.

United States:

HT operates freely in the United States, although the group keeps its leadership and membership numbers private. HT America recruits members by hosting periodic conferences and panels, as well as maintaining a website and social media accounts. The HT America website includes articles advocating its policy positions and information on upcoming events around the country.

HT America has more than 28,000 followers on Facebook.

HT America has amassed more than 1,000 followers on Twitter, up from more than 300 followers in 2016. Meanwhile, the groups Facebook page has more than 28,000 followers as of May 2017, up from more than 20,000 in early 2016. HT America has held multiple conferences across the United States over the years at such prominent venues as the Hilton hotel in Oak Lawn, Illinois. Other venues in Illinois, like the Chicago Marriott Oak Brook and the Meadows Club in Rolling Meadows, have canceled HT America events after receiving concerned calls from the public.

Australia:

HT Australia is led by Islamist cleric Ismail al-Wahwah. Since HT is free to operate in Australia, HT has recruited members by hosting public conferences and panels, and by engaging regularly with Australian media. HT Australia also maintains a website, where the group posts content highlighting the movements philosophy, positions on political issues, and planned events in the country.

The group also maintains a strong public profile on social media. Al-Wahwah has more than 4,000 followers on Facebook, and the groups Facebook page has more than 26,000 likes as of May 2017, up from 9,000 likes in January 2016. HT Australias media spokesperson, Uthman Badar, tweets regularly to more than 7,000 people.

In October 2015, a 15-year-old who shot and killed a police accountant in Parramatta, Australia, had reportedly attended an HT discussion at his local mosque on the morning of the incident. In December 2014, Iranian-born Man Haron Monis took more than a dozen people hostage at Sydneys Lindt Chocolat Caf. Monis and two hostages were killed after a 16-hour standoff with police. Monis had attended a June 2014 HT lecture on the failings of the West.

In March 2017, international media circulated video footage of Badar stating that apostatesthose who leave Islamshould be put to death. In response, anti-HT activists in Australia launched an online petition to have the group banned.

Denmark:

HT Denmark was founded in 2000 by former HT member Maajid Nawaz, and others. Today, the group is popularized by its spokesperson Junes Kock.

The Copenhagen-based branch of HT considers itself a regional office as indicated by its name HT Scandinavia. Outside of Denmark, HT Scandinavia has hosted events and distributed leaflets in Stockholm, Sweden. HT Scandinavia has a website that highlights the groups work, policy positions, and planned events in the region. On Facebook, the group has amassed more than 6,000 likes as of May 2017, up from 4,000 in February 2016.

Since its founding, HTs operations in Denmark have been steeped in controversy. In 2003, former HT spokesperson in Denmark Fadi Abdelatif served a 60-day suspended sentence for distributing anti-Semitic propaganda. Moreover, while HT Scandinavia is not proscribed in Denmark, Danish MPs have discussed banning HT in Denmark in 2008 and 2015 because of the groups inflammatory speeches.

HTs Danish leadership frequently focuses its attention on the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. On February 14, 2015, Imam Hajj Saeed spoke at an HT Scandinavia event, wherein he denounced interfaith dialogue. He also implied that since Islams prophet Muhammad waged war with the Jews in Medina, it was permissible to do the same today. Saeeds sermon was delivered the day before a terrorist attack in Copenhagen, wherein 22-year-old gunman Omar El-Hussein killed two and injured five while attempting to enter a cultural center that was hosting a free-speech event.

Netherlands:

Not much is publicly known about HT leadership in the Netherlands, though it is known to include media representative Okay Pala. On Twitter, Pala has accrued more than 3,000 followers. The HT Netherlands Facebook page has more than 13,000 likes, as of May 2017, representing a growth of almost 200 percent since February 2016, when the page had little more than 5,000 likes. HT Netherlands also maintains a website highlighting its policy positions, activities, and planned events in the country.

While the organization is allowed to operate in the Netherlands, some private venues in the country have been unwilling to host HT events, including the Rotterdam-Zuid community center De Put, which rejected hosting an HT panel in September 2015. HT has persisted in its recruitment and publicity strategy by handing out HT literature in Dutch in Rotterdam.

Australia, the U.K., and Netherlands have each sought to ban HT.

Consequently, Netherlands has unsuccessfully attempted to ban HT.

Pakistan:

HT is not allowed to operate in Pakistan. Nevertheless, the organization remains active on social media and through outreach efforts that primarily target members of the military and educated classes. HT Pakistan engages the public regularly through its website and social media activity. HT Pakistans Twitter account has more than 6,000 followers, and its Facebook page has more than 19,000 likes as of May 2017, up from more than 5,500 in March 2016. The groups illegal status in Pakistan notwithstanding, the number of HT Pakistans Facebook followers increased more than 300 percent over the previous year.

Pakistani authorities periodically arrest HT members despite the groups ban in 2003. For example, the group maintains that the Pakistani government abducted its leader, Naveed Butt, in 2012, and has since been advocating for his release. In November 2015, Pakistani authorities arrested HT Pakistan leader Siham Qamar and seven others during a series of raids.

The New York Times noted in 2012 that special concern arose in Pakistan after an army brigadier named Ali Khan was charged in 2011 with having ties to HT, and of conspiring to overthrow the [Pakistani] government. Khan and four others were convicted in 2012. The incident highlights HTs efforts to recruit Pakistans military leadership in hopes of replacing the government with a caliphate.

Bangladesh:

HT was banned in Bangladesh in 2009. Since then, HT has continued its activities in the country, despite sporadic arrests of alleged members. HT Bangladesh recruits members by hosting conferences and passing out HT literature in public. HT Bangladesh also maintains a website. The groups Facebook account has more than 1,300 likes.

In March 2015, Bangladeshi authorities arrested HT member Farabi Shafiur Rahman in connection with the murder of secular blogger Avijit Roy. Rahman joined HT in approximately 2010. He had previously been arrested in 2010 and again in 2013 for threatening a cleric performing funeral rites for another atheist blogger who had been murdered.

Bangladeshi authorities have arrested more than 600 HT supporters since the group was banned. In June 2016, HT Bangladesh was reportedly distributing leaflets calling for rebellion against the tyrannical rule of Bangladeshi Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina Wazed.

Malaysia:

HT Malaysias leadership includes spokesman Abdul Hakim Othman and vice president Sopian Jahir. HT operates freely in Malaysia, except in the province of Selangor, where HT was proscribed in September 2015. Outside of Selangor, HT recruits members by hosting periodic conferences and seminars.

HT Malaysia also maintains a website and official Twitter and Facebook accounts. The groups Twitter account had more than 2,000 followers as of January 2016, but has since been discontinued. Its Facebook page has more than 26,000 followers as of May 2017, up from 13,000 followers in March 2016.

In November 2015, Malaysian authorities briefly arrested HT Malaysias former spokesperson, Abdul Hakim Othman, in connection to anti-American protests during President Obamas visit to Malaysia that month. On September 17, 2015, the Islamic Religious Department of the Malaysian state of Selangor issued a fatwa outlawing HT Malaysia within its jurisdiction. Othman attempted to respond to the edict banning the group by holding a press conference in Selangor on December 4, 2015, but was arrested during the event. Othman was released later the same day.

Indonesia:

HT Indonesias spokesperson, Muhammad Ismail Yusanto had more than 31,000 followers on Twitter as of May 2017, representing an increase of 7,000 followers since January 2016, when he had more than 24,000 followers. Yusanto regularly engages Indonesian media to advocate HT positions in the country. While membership numbers are unknown, HT events have included more than 100,000 attendees at some conferences. HT Indonesias website is regularly updated with articles and videos addressing domestic and foreign politics and social issues from an HT perspective.

In 2011, HT Indonesias chairman, Rochmat Labib, told the Associated Press that HTs 10-year plan in Indonesia is to reinforce the peoples lack of trust and hope in the regime. Further, he said, HT is converting people from democracy, secularism and capitalism to Islamic ideology. In 2016, HT organized protests accusing Jakartas Christian governor, Basuki Ahok Tjahaja Purnama, of blasphemy. In May 2017, Purnama was found guilty of blasphemy and sentenced to two years in prison.

On May 8, 2017, Indonesian President Joko Jokowi Widodo ordered a ban of HT activities. Security Minister Wiranto told media that HT has clearly caused conflict in society and worked against Indonesias pluralistic society.

Central Asia:

In Central Asiaincluding Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and KyrgyzstanHT membership is estimated at between 20,000 and 100,000, with members typically including college students, teachers, the unemployed, and factory workers. New members are also drawn through prison recruitment in Central Asia. Uzbekistan is believed to have as many as 8,000 HT members. In the late 1970s, HT outreach spread from Uzbekistan to neighboring Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan. There, HTs membership has expanded to include non-ethnic Uzbeks, ethnic Russians, and Koreans.

HT financing in Central Asia is believed to come from private donations and dues paid by members, with dues estimated at anywhere from 5 percent to 20 percent of a members monthly income.

HT appears to be funded through several means, including private donations and government subsidies, but few details about the groups finances are public. Local chapters organize their own fundraising to support outreach efforts, such as printing and handing out leaflets in public spaces. Operational costs appear low because many members do volunteer work. Donations are primarily raised in Europe, the Middle East, and Pakistan. Pakistan recalled diplomatic envoy Mohammad Mazhar Khan from Bangladesh in March 2015 after receiving allegations that he had laundered money toHT and other Islamist militant groups in Bangladesh.

HT has also benefited from government funding. For example, a British foundation run by HT members received government grants to run early education programs. The British government ended the funding after media reports confirmed that HT members were teaching students HT ideology, including the belief that tolerance and integration are un-Islamic.

Recruitment is crucial to HTs overarching strategy. As a self-purported peaceful movement for regime change, HT must gain sufficient public support to realize that change. In countries where the group is not banned, HTs outreach efforts include passing out literature in public spaces, organizing seminars, and releasing pro-Islamist publications, such as The Institutions of State in the Khilafah [caliphate], online. HT also operates websites in multiple languages that provide access to HT literature, such as political commentary and religious justifications for the movements worldview.

Conferences are another critical method for HT to spread its message. HT has held multiple conferences in the United States, including at least three Khilafa [caliphate] conferences in 2015. The conferences focused on answering questions surrounding a future Islamic caliphate. These questions include, What is Khilafah, Why Khilafah, Who is Hizb ut-Tahrir, and How we work for Khilafah. HT America held multiple rallies and conferences through 2016 as well, including its annual Khilafa Conference at the Ramada Inn in Glendale, Illinois, that May. HT returned to the hotel in April 2017 for its annual conference, which the group dubbed as a global call to Muslims worldwide to stand up and fulfill the obligation to resume the Islamic way of life, as decreed by Allah (SWT), by reestablishing the Khilafah on the path of our Prophet (SAW). In 2012, then-presidential candidate Michelle Bachmann questioned whether an HT event in Rolling Meadows, Illinois, was subversive speech. In 2009, protests were held in front of an HT event in Oak Lawn, Illinois.

In the United Kingdom, HT operates freely and publicly, holding conferences and conducting outreach programs at numerous U.K. universities. In 2003, the British Home Office concluded that it could not ban an HT conference in Birmingham that year since HT professed to be non-violent. Approximately 10,000 people attended.

HT outreach to students relies on access to campus events at universities. In the United Kingdom, HT recruits and maintains an active presence on university campuses. British media have reported that HT radicalized future ISIS fighter Mohammed Emwazi, a.k.a. Jihadi John (now deceased), and other future prominent jihadists before they traveled to fight in the Middle East. Emwazi attended Britains University of Westminster, where he was exposed to HT ideology through the universitys Islamic Society. During Emwazis years as a student at the University of Westminster, the Islamic Society organized on-campus panels that included HT members as speakers. The university has been the subject of several accusations that HT has infiltrated its campus.

British counter-extremism activist Maajid Nawaz is a former HT member who was drawn to the group as a teenager. As a student at Londons Newham College, Nawaz continued to spread HTs message until he was expelled when his self-appointed bodyguard stabbed and killed a non-Muslim student. According to Nawaz, HT seeks to recruit members of student groups, such as the University of Westminsters Islamic Society, and exploits freedom of speech to showcase speakers who peddle a highly politicized, often violent strain of Islam.

Nawaz warns it is easier than one might think for bright, capable people like Mr. Emwazi to fall for the myopic worldview of the preachers of hate. Young people from relatively prosperous, educated backgrounds have long been overrepresented in jihadist causes. In April 2011, for example, Westminster students elected Tarik Mahri and Jamal Achchi, both tied to HT, as president and vice president, respectively, of the student union. As president of Westminsters Global Ideas Society, Mahri had been instrumental in bringing HT speaker Jamal Harwood to campus.

Dr. Alexandra Stein is a social psychologist specializing in extremist groups. While teaching at Westminster between 2007 and 2012, Stein noticed a tremendous amount of recruiting at the school. Stein recalled female Muslim students telling her they had been pressured to wear veils and sit in the back of classrooms at university-sanctioned HT lectures. Because of the universitys tolerance of HT campus activities, students were being led like lambs to the slaughter, according to Stein.

HT also enjoys a strong presence in the Middle East and Asia. In Central Asia, the group operates through underground channels, where 2003 membership ranged from 20,000 to 100,000. Recruits include college students and teachers, the unemployed, and factory workers. Central Asian authorities believe HT also recruits heavily in prisons.

HT is particularly active in Indonesia and Malaysia. On August 12, 2007, HT hosted a Khilafa (caliphate) conference in Indonesia to discuss the need for a global Islamic state. Although several speakers canceled due to travel restrictions by Indonesia and other countries, the conference attracted approximately 100,000 participants. Organizers called it the largest gathering of Muslim activists in the world.

Since the beginning of the Arab Spring, HT has intensified its recruitment efforts in the Middle East, seemingly to take advantage of political voids left by toppled dictatorships and ongoing civil wars. HT outreach includes efforts to highlight the humanitarian crisis created by the current conflicts. In March 2012, for example, HT hosted a women-only conference in Tunisia. The group organized a protest in Aleppo, Syria, on November 9, 2012, and a press conference in Amman, Jordan, in April 2013 to highlight the Syrian civil wars impact on women and children.

History Timeline https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1KmpSo7G94gRn0mCrR3rRoaDp9NAzCEDlllCFETYgDCE/pubhtml

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Hizb ut-Tahrir | Counter Extremism Project

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Jimmy Kimmel Tweets CNN’s Inflated School Shooting Stats

Late-night Jimmy Kimmel tweeted CNN’s inflated school shooting stats on Monday, which claim school shootings occur “57 times” more often in the U.S. than other “industrialized nations combined.”

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Jimmy Kimmel Tweets CNN’s Inflated School Shooting Stats

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North Korea Charges $10,000 to Cover Nuclear Site Closure; Bans South Koreans

North Korea reportedly charged international reporters $10,000 each for flight visas to cover the shutdown of the Punggye-ri Nuclear Test Site, scheduled to occur sometime between May 23 and 25

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North Korea Charges $10,000 to Cover Nuclear Site Closure; Bans South Koreans

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SPLC Targets ROK For Leftist Violence By Smearing It As A …

It looks like the Southern Poverty Law Center, one of Americas premier ethnic shakedown organizations, is running low on donations again. This week, they announced the new edition of their hate group list, a record of supposed white supremacist, far-right terrorist organizations operating in the United States. Most notably,Return Of Kings has been added to the list as a male supremacy organization, alongside mens rights groupA Voice For Men: Also, for the first time, the SPLC added two male supremacy groups to the hate group list: A Voice for Men, based in Houston, and Return of Kings, based in Washington, D.C. The vilification of women by these groups makes them no different than other groups that demean entire populations, such as the LGBT community, Muslims or Jews, based on their inherent characteristics. This isnt the first time that ROK publisher Rooshhas been targeted by the SPLC: in 2012, he was named in one of the organizations Intelligence Reports, alongsideA Voice for Men and my old siteIn Mala Fide.Roosh later cited the experience as the final push that moved him to the dissident right. Its clear that the SPLC is going after AVFM and ROK in an attempt to scare liberal old biddies into giving them more money, because their attack was sloppy and poorly-handled. For example, the SPLC claims that ROK is headquartered in Washington D.C., even though its a website with no physical address or full-time employees. They put a web site with no office on a map pic.twitter.com/H8hTw6iUee Roosh (@rooshv) February 21, 2018 Most hilariously, the SPLCs dossier on alt right figure Richard Spencer confused him withRobertSpencer, the founder ofJihad Watch, suggesting they outsourced the research to a stupid intern. Having said this, the SPLCs attack cant be handwaved away. Much like the Anti-Defamation League, the SPLCs purpose in naming organizations as hate groups or individuals as extremists is designed to incite violence against them. Ever since the election of Donald Trump, the left in America has become increasingly violent, and the SPLCs list is a dog whistle to antifa and other groups with the intent of hurting or possibly killing Roosh and other targeted individuals. The SPLC, ADL, and other related organizations like to masquerade as legitimate news organizations who are merely calling attention to violent, anti-government extremists, but this is as far from the truth as possible. In actuality, the SPLC functions as an intelligence-gathering operation for antifa and other violent leftists, compiling dossiers on chosen targets with the implicit message of, Its okay to hurt, maim, or kill these people: theyre Nazis/misogynists/homophobes, after all. Hate group lists compiled by the SPLC have been used by leftist criminals in the past to identify targets for assassination. For example, in 2013, a left-winger committed a mass shooting against the Family Research Council after seeing them named by the SPLC as an anti-gay group. More recently, weve seen leftists openly going after Republican politicians and public figures, such as the attempted assassination of House Majority Leader Steve Scalise by Bernie Sanders supporter James Hodgkinson. This is not the first time that figures in the dissident right have been targeted in such a way. Last summer, the ADL released a hit list of alt right and alt lite figures such as Mike Cernovich, Richard Spencer, and myself, with the purpose of inciting violence against us. In response, Cernovich and several other alt lite figures launched the #ADLTerror hashtag on Twitter with the intent of bringing attention to the fact that their lives were now in danger. Moreover, the SPLC cant even be consistent with the criteria it uses to evaluate hate groups. In response to their attack onA Voice For Men, ex-feminist filmmaker Cassie Jaye (creator of the documentaryThe Red Pill) revealed that in 2016, the SPLC told her that AVFM didnt fit their criteria for a group since they lacked an official group policy, due to the fact that AVFM was just a website and a forum. The SPLC has not yet revealed to Jaye why they changed their policy. Men’s rights website A Voice For Men has now officially been listed a ‘Hate Group’ by the Southern Poverty Law Center. I have more questions than answers. Hopefully the SPLC will get back to me to clarify what has changed. https://t.co/EF2N4ycNDM pic.twitter.com/u30MW45DWs Cassie Jaye (@Cassie_Jaye) February 22, 2018 Regardless, it is clear that the international left is ramping up for a broader attack on the dissident right. While the alt right was the focus of much of the lefts ire last year, the movement has been weakened due to systematic deplatforming, failed stunts such as Charlottesville, and personality conflicts between its major leaders. As a result, the left now feels confident in going after sites likeReturn Of Kings that had previously been out of the line of fire. Dissident right and alternative media figures should prepare themselves for an onslaught from the globalists in the coming months. With the 2018 midterm elections coming up and the Russia investigation in the U.S. unraveling, the left is looking to strike out at anyone who challenges their power or narrative. As the SPLCs actions show, they are not above physically hurting or killing their enemies to achieve their goals. Read More:Anti-Defamation Leagues Hate List Puts Alt Right And Alt Lite Figures At Risk Of Leftist Violence

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Israel-Apartheid Week kicks off across S. African campuses …

A bloodied Israeli flag hangs on the main building at the University of Cape Town on Monday at the start of Israel-Apartheid Week.. (photo credit: SAUJS/FACEBOOK) A massive Israeli flag covered in red stood on the steps of the main university building with the words Apartheid State, blood is on your hands written on it. This is just one of several intimidation tactics Jewish students at several university campuses in South Africa have had to deal with, as Israel-Apartheid Week kicked off across the country on Monday. The flag has since been taken down from the building at the University of Cape Town, but the effect remained. However, Jewish students at the campus refused to back down from their Israel Awareness campaign, which has so far been a success. Meanwhile, antisemitic and anti-Israel graffiti, inspired by BDS and its followers, littered the Wits University campus in Johannesburg, with slogans such as F*** Zionism, F*** Israel, Israel is anti-Black and Zionism is Racism spray-painted in several main areas of the campus. To counter Israel-Apartheid Week, the South African Union of Jewish Students launched a Dialogue Not Division campaign in an effort to encourage discussion as opposed to hate and intimidation. SAUJS hosted several speakers during its campaign, including Miss Israel 2013, Titi Aynaw, who is an Ethiopian Jew, and StandWithUss Yahya Mahamid, an Israeli Arab. Where the student union had placed some of its posters around Wits, BDS supporters had torn them down and spray-painted anti-Israel slurs on the walls where the posters had been. Several small wars of words broke out between the two sides over the last few days, but there has been no physical violence as was the case last year. There is also a large presence of university security on the campus, and the SAUJS contingent requested that the two sides and their displays be separated by 100 meters. A contingent of BDS supporters and Wits Palestinian Solidarity Committee members also covered their faces with keffiyehs, wore black and held signs written in red the color of blood calling on students to come and see the truth. In response to the graffiti, SAUJS said that it had reported all the instances of defacement on the main campus and have been in close contact with the universitys executive in dealing with this issue. We are happy to report that most of the graffiti has been removed by the university, and by tomorrow, everything should be cleaned up, it said. The university does not condone vandalism nor prejudicial statements against any student, staff or external stakeholder. They have thus informed us that investigations into this malicious case have begun. As soon as they are informed of the culprits, they will then refer the matter to the legal office, to institute disciplinary actions against those that are found guilty of acting outside the rules of discipline. Last week at the University of Cape Town, during a separate campaign hosted by SAUJS to create awareness and tolerance of minority groups, an installation that made up the hashtag #RESPECT in large plastic letters and posters describing different forms of discrimination was defaced by pro-BDS students. They changed the plastic words to spell #SPECTRE and the letters and posters were vandalized with anti-Israel and pro-Palestinian slogans despite the campaign having nothing to do with Israel-Apartheid Week. According to SAUJS in the Western Cape, the main posters vandalized were those that explained antisemitism. Vandalism of this kind does not only amount to discrimination on the grounds of religion, but also impinges on the right to freedom of expression, it said. SAUJS called on the University of Cape Towns administration to respond appropriately. In a statement released earlier this week, the SA Jewish Board of Deputies made it clear that any antisemitic behavior on the part of IAW supporters, as well as attempts to unlawfully prevent SAUJS from running its campaign, will be raised with the necessary authorities. The countrys ruling party, the African National Congress, threw its support behind Israel-Apartheid Week and said it was actively participating… as part of our ongoing commitment to the heroic people of Palestine. The ANC said that the continued imprisonment of 17-year-old Ahed Tamimi is an example of the extreme and unacceptable abuse of child rights, human rights and international law by the Israeli government. Israel-Apartheid Week is perhaps one of the best examples of South Africas unity in diversity and the vibrancy of our civil society, it added. Share on facebook

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The case for US government sanctions on Israel Mondoweiss

United States government diplomatic, economic, and military support has been critical for Israel to maintain its post-1967 occupations of Gaza, East Jerusalem, and West Bank, and to transform these occupations into a permanent apartheid state. The role of the U.S. government in facilitating Israeli apartheid, however, will eventually fade for multiple geopolitical reasons, and that development will create opportunities to turn an apartheid state into as an equitable democratic state or two separate states. The sooner United States government for Israeli apartheid ends, the sooner this transformation could occur. The waning of U.S. government support for Israel may take the form of conditions on military aid or comprehensive government sanctions, even though either development strikes many people as unimaginable. Nevertheless, a December 2016 Brookings public opinion poll reveals that nearly half of the U.S. public supports sanctions on Israel including a majority of self-identifying Democrats. This increased support for U.S. government sanctions indicates that now is the time for political groups committed to a just resolution of the Israel-Palestine conflict to lead public opinion, not follow or ignore it. They need to become advocates for official U.S. government sanctions on Israel, such as an update to the Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act of 1986. Instead of sanctioning South African apartheid, this updated legislations new goal should be to end Israeli apartheid. While there have previously been short-term, minor sanctions on Israel, like President G.H.W. Bushs withholding loan guarantees in 1991, and there are several groups calling for partial sanctions, this is not enough. Full sanctions are needed, and its case rests on three principles: Emerging Trends: Advocacy of U.S. sanctions on Israel will be aided by many emerging geopolitical trends, several of which we previously described in a Countercurrents article. While some of these trends are beyond our control, we can play a role in advancing others. Especially effective may be calls for U.S. government sanctions on Israel and anti-apartheid political mobilizations by the U.S, Israeli, and Palestinian publics for a viable and just one- or two-state solution. We should have no illusions about the intensity of Israeli opposition to any campaign to finally implement U.S. government sanctions. And, even when U.S. sanctions are enacted, Israels democratic transformation will be lengthy, contested, and could face many setbacks, including new expulsions and atrocities. Furthermore, we must also learn an important lesson from South Africa and address the economic equity issues that have undermined that countrys efforts to end apartheid. The battle of ideas is at the core of the political struggle for government sanctions on Israel. To that end we must carefully describe how the Israeli occupations have transformed into an apartheid state, how apartheid violates international laws, and how Israeli apartheid could, in turn, be transformed into a democratic state or states. This intellectual effort must be coupled with political organization since even the most carefully drafted anti-apartheid proposals will become shelf documents unless a well-organized and strategic movement supports them. To succeed that movement needs to be fully aware of both local and global geo-political trends because these, and only these, will create openings for a successful campaign to impose U.S. government sanctions on Israel. Once sanctions finally take their toll, the chances that either a viable and democratic one- or two-state solution will emerge dramatically increase.

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Morris Dees | American civil rights lawyer | Britannica.com

Alternative Titles:Morris Seligman Dees, Jr. Morris Dees, in full Morris Seligman Dees, Jr., (born December 16, 1936, Shorter, Alabama, U.S.), American lawyer and civil rights activist who is known for founding the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) with American attorney Joseph Levin in 1971 in Montgomery, Alabama. Under Deess leadership, the SPLC won several unprecedented lawsuits against hate organizations and their leaders. Dees was the son of Morris Seligman Dees, a tenant cotton farmer, and Annie Ruth Dees. Although he was brought up in segregationist Alabama, his parents imparted strong Christian values, and he experienced warm interactions with African American families. Dees received an undergraduate degree and a law degree (1960) from the University of Alabama. He then became a successful entrepreneur in the direct-mail publishing business with American lawyer and entrepreneur Millard Fuller, the founder of Habitat for Humanity. Dees bought Fuller out of the business in 1965. He sold the company to the Times Mirror Company in 1967 after reading Clarence Darrows The Story of My Life (1932), which provoked him into committing his full attention to a law practice devoted to civil rights legislation. The law firm, which he shared with Levin, evolved into the SPLC in 1971. Deess legal career was marked by a number of landmark cases and decisions. His efforts helped to integrate the Montgomery, Alabama, Young Mens Christian Association (YMCA) in 1969 . The SPLC introduced lawsuits that held white supremacist organizations financially and criminally responsible for murders and other unlawful actions against immigrants and persons of colour. Substantial monetary awards against groups such as the United Klans of America and Aryan Nations in 1991, in fact, forced some such organizations to disband. Despite the critical advances against hate organizations, Deess decision to make such lawsuits an SPLC priority prompted some of its personnel who disagreed with the new legal focus to leave the organization. Additionally, critics outside the SPLC accused Dees of drawing few distinctions between white supremacists and groups that support limits to immigration, controls on population growth, or the right to bear arms. During the 1970s and 1980s, Dees was also a prominent Democratic fund-raiser for presidential candidate George McGovern, Pres. Jimmy Carter, and Sen. Ted Kennedy. His books include Hate on Trial: The Case Against Americas Most Dangerous Neo-Nazi (1993) and Gathering Storm: Americas Militia Threat (1996). In addition, Dees received numerous awards, including the ABA Medal (2012), the highest honour bestowed by the American Bar Association.

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May 25, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Morris Dees  Comments Closed

Alumni Leadership Pinellas

2016-2017 Heather CiampiniLorrie ClineJenn CowanJoe CoyleCourtney DavidsonMeagan DeckerDenis DeMarinoJoe DeRingJarrett DixonMatt EvansMark FazziniScott FergusonDenise FougereEric GandyBrenna HaggarGreg HauensteinChad HawkinsonMelissa HoneycuttTom JamisonMike JansenJustin KellyTim KnowlesNatalie LambDon LehrianEmmanuel LelekisDebbie LeousLeigh LillaMeg LokeyHolly McBride DennisMarilyn MillerPam MooreValerie MurrayRich NalvenJenny NoblesKathy PerrottJP PetersonSeema RamroopBruce RectorFranco RippleSuzanne RuleyDan SarackiRea SieberMargie SwopeLauren VonderauZak WhiteDoug WhittingtonJulie WhittleBobby Morig Wendy BarmoreWoody BrownChad BurgessLindsay CarsonJoanna CheshireJim ConlinMatt CrumDavid DanzigLeslie DiPaciEkaterini Gerakios-SirenShane GillAdonis HarrisDane HeptnerJeff HobergTaylor HustonFrank JurkovicRobin LavitchChris LewisTim LimaDamon ListerAshley LoweryVictor LucasLaura MaioccoSean McGillenNancy MeyerShirley MiaoulisAnthony MonteDiane MorseJordan MyersJim NicholsJay OzbunDebb PauleyRon PiccininiCyndi Raskin-SchmittTammy RobicontiJill SomersJudith TiltonKatrina TrumpRosemary WindsorTish Wold Adrian ArnoldDavid BantherShelly BeachSherrie BroadwayMike ButlerRichard Ricky ButlerJason ButtsMatthew CampbellEric CarverPatrick CravenChristopher CJ CrooksBrian CurtissValerie DiGennaroErin EmnettEmily FasnachtAudrey FordJoyce FrustaciJoseph GallinaBruce GriffinHoyt HamiltonLori HedmanAndrea HenningRichard Scoop JacksonEric JohansonNathan Skip KatzSean KingJames KleinsorgeTraci KosterKimberly LacinaSara Sally McLaneAnnNixonPam OraJulie PerrelliKali RoseSarah Sally SeymourCorey SilvermanSuzy SoferDiane SteinTammy Strickling Amelia CampbellTammy CapplemanKaren CarliMichael CarliJen CarlisleAl CarrierRey ClaudioTina M. CostaLaura CozartDavid DaltonTony DeginaCarlos DiazTiffany FaykusNate FreemanHeather GracyKarla Jo HelmsBrigitta JohnsonDarrin JohnsonJohnny JohnsonChris LatvalaGlenn LubenApril Rose MonteithRandy NilssonDean ONaleGreg RuggieroRichard SchompWilliam Bill SedeyBrian SiracusaKara SiracusaErik SmithSabrina SmithMatt SpenceChris SprowlsGrant WoodSweet Alice YoungRicka Zimmermann Charles Charlie Allcott, IIIJohn ArcaroBrandon BellewDeborah BoyleSusan CharlesTeresa ConteRobert Bob ClarkShelly Lynn ClarkScott CliffordJames Jim DownesEvan ForteDavid FoxBeth FreyBrent GordonSuzanne B. GrantTamara HelmsDanielle HintzJoseph Joe Holt, Sr.Lynn JohnsonPrincess Fleming JonesCaitlin Higgins JoyHeather KellerReginald KirvenApril LottDavid MeadowsMaria N. MiaoulisJoyce PembertonRichard PlaceyJeff RathmellSharon Reid-KaneNancy St. ArnoldJon SiperaDaniel Dan SlaughterEric SullivanKim ToddJoanne ValentinWilliam Bill VandevenLuis A. Velez, Jr.Mia Colleen Welch Brian BarkerSarah BrownBrandon BurgAllie CantonisJason ClementJackie DrydenPaul DunhamScott EsterAndrea GregorDonald HallRobin HedmanAbby Kennedy HoltCarrie JannazoKaryn Johnson MahorneySusanna Johnston VersandiKaren JubrailKim KaszubaKate KellyLynda LeedyJessica LillesandRandy LoosJaymie PatelJim PenningtonDavid PhillipsKevin PiccarretoSuzan Decker RossMark RomanMel SamsDawn ScottJim SpicerAimee TrachtenbergAdam VassalloBonnie WaltersMark WeinkrantzMark WhittleTodd Willsie Rebekah AppleGary BanloweJeanine BlakeAdam BouchardJosh BouchardLaura Krueger BrockBob ChildressFranklin ClarkMorgan CookMary DavidNick DiCeglieClaire EnickJason EsterBeth Hinesley GettigSteven GraneseVickie GlennJamie HicksErin Michele HintonCorey JudgeHollee KierTiffany KruegerChris MaggiErik MathenevMichah MaxwellStarla MetzBobby Metz, Jr.Gretchen MitchellDave MottJames NicholsDev PathikMike SahrKathryn ScheneMatt SpoorTina TenretScott WheelerLynn WeltjenJohn Wintermeier Ileane AltamuraRob BollenbackKelly BosettiSusan Hudak BossMichael Mike BrundageRichard G Rick BuschartCathy BushAndrea CampagnaWilliam Russell Bill Cosgray JrMichael DiBrizziAnthony DiTinnoRichard B Brett DulaneyMorgan GaynorEd HoffmanJerry HubbellJason JensenSarah MillerMary MorrowDenise MurphyBarry NiemannDana NovakNeil PalenzuelaTimothy PappBarbara PickellGary PolanskyJoy PollackKim PraitanoGary RegoliRon SchultzStephanie SmithLisa MatznerLaura Leigh SnellTom Steiner IIIJennifer StengerAaron StuartBob SymanskiMario TelfairKaren Van De PutteThomas Wright Eric BeckDonna BlazevicJulie Ward BujalskiStephen BunchPat CarlisleJamie CataldoBob ChiavacciKristie DenboEd DotteryCharlie DyeKevin EssexSandie GrimesSirena IonataShannon Long SprowlsRoberta KlarPerry LopezStephanie MartinBenjamin McBrideGeorgie S. MenkeKeith MeyerJohn MonteBeth MoserStephanie OddoGrant PetersenJessica PetotPeggy PhillipsMichael RothbergNermine Khouzam RubinBrian ScottRon SeelKimberly SharpeByrdJill SilverboardClayton Chip SnareBrenda StewartTodd StillChristine Taylor PatelDebbie VassTom WagnerGary WilliamsGregory C. Wright Nicholas Nick AmaroRobert Bob BatzLiz BradleyEmily CallawayDimity CarlsonAndrew CaudellRobert Fletch FletcherCarl FolkmanSuzanne Suzie SakalKenneth Ken HannonCyndee HaydonJanice HowardBarbara Grazul HubbardChester Chet JohnsonRoger JohnsonAmber KammersLynn KiehnePenethia Psalms MackElise MinkoffSydney NiewierskiJohn PatrickMark PostmaChris ReimannJoanna RosseLisa ShadrouiScott SimmonsStephen SlaughterJames Jim StearnsSherri StinsonTirrah SwitzerTerry TeunisKelly TrioloKathryn VoskuilMark WallRene WeidmanSteven Williamson Stefanie BarsemaLinda BeyroutiMargaret BiczTracey BirchGeorge Ann BissettJonathan BowmanGregory BradyGeorgine BrancatoCharlotte BrazielLiza CarterMarcus CastilloAllyn ChildressDuggan CooleyDoreen DiPolitoPatrick DonoghueAmanda FisherKaren FitzpatrickTom FlynnEarl GlosterBrenda GreenJanice HowardBarbara HubbardBill LaymanGwin LondriganPat McAbeeBob McIntyreKathy MilamKay NewsomCraig PhillipsJoAnn RooneyKaren SkiratkoBill SmithDebra SullivanMark TeunisDr. John VenturellaPierre VogelbacherRich WallingSally ZehFred ZinoberJustin Zinzow Lester AradiRyan BarackKaren BlackburnBonnie BollenbackGeraldine Campos-LopezJena CarpenterBarton CobbD Rep DeLoach IIIJoe FalangaKaren FentonColleen FlynnEvan FraymanHelena Lee GuthrieGary HallasTeresa HibbardLisa HurleyGermaine JacksonGeorge KoderSally LindbergJanice LuthThomas MaddenLisa MansellShannon MartinPaul McBroomMichael MonahanMatthew NovakCourtney OrrCarlen PetersenSarah PickettCarol-Lynn RomanJanet RosenquistMargaret Peg RoweNeil RuizTom StathopoulosDiane Vollbracht William BergerBuster BrasfieldSarah ByarsKimberly CampbellBruce CottonRita DiehlGeorgetta DoyleDouglas F EdwardsRuth FanovichKevin FlynnSusan FraleyJack J GellerAnne GibaldiNancy GreenbergRobert HumberstoneBarbara InmanCynthia JohnsonCythia Jollif-JohnsonJeff JoynerFelicia LeonardPat MarzulliTimothy McMahonTom MorrissetteCynthia ODonnellTroy PerdueJames A. 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ArchieKaren BrayboyNeil BrickfieldTeddy BuellJohn CoheeSteve ColeDarlene DavisJohn ElbareDouglas EvelethRose Aleta GrebisPam HawthorneJane HelmsEd HooperLisa HughesBetteann HultgrenWard JohansenR. Dennis MacaleerCary McCulloughThomas Wm. McGrewMichael MeidelNadine Spring NickesonJane OldsJanet A. PanebiancoVicki G. PappageorgeJeffrey L. PattersonMarion RichNancy RidenourAndrew J. Rodnite, Jr.Susan RolstonLarry SandeferTheresa Kym SanzKathleen SimonSonja StefanadisAmy Van DellGeneva WatersJohn H. Williams, IIIDonald Wood Marcia AlbaneseStephen S. BarrettKimberly BerfieldLinda ChamberlainSolange DepompeoMelody FigurskiRobin ForninoCaroline GoodrichMarcus GreeneBarbara JacobsMary Taylor JacobsSusan KirbyDale KleineKoni ManleyRobert MarmonSuze MartinJoe McCreightScott McIntyreLois MillerScott MooreVicki MorganBeth NorthcuttSusan PawlakJoe PidalaDavid RothbergKristin ScheurerMcBride Mack SigmonMargaret SimmonsPat E. SiracusaBonnie Skaggs*Cristina SnyderMack Vines Donna Adkins-WrightRichard J. BaierJudith L. CannadyAlan D. DarnellBonnie S. DavisJeff P. DavisDee Anna FarnellGerald A. FigurskiJim FogartyPatricia FooteCynthia E. GoudeauTony GriffithIsay M. GulleyKathryn M. HelmuthSandra Ann HoSusan HumphreysPatricia G. JonesPatricia KorpanJeff KronschnablJoseph J. KubickiGail LeBlancJames Lewin, Sr.Nancy Moate LeyD. Judith LutzEdmund OCarrollSusan L. OldsAlison PainterCarol E. RasorDiane RoffeyRobert J. SnyderLarry M. StarnesSusan M. SudnikJan H. TracyBruce R. Young Keith AppenzellerSusan E. BenjaminEleanor R. BrelandPatricia BurkeMichelle DetweilerTeresa R. DioquinoDana C. FordDonald H. GageJames A. GibsonCraig A. GilmanPeter F. GozzaSue A. JohnsonS. Jane MalagonElizabeth T. ManosNorman W. MillerMichael A. PusateraPeter RamsbergerMary RogeroKen RollinsKaren Young SchmeiserJudith Ann SiracusaMary Ann SmithSteven B. StantonDavid W. TomlinsonCharles S. Warrington, Jr.Debbie WhiteThomas C. Williams Karen L. BailCarrie BeemSue BerfieldRay BouchardKimberly R. BowmanRussel A. Bowman, IIFredric BuchholtzSusan Horsey DeesD. A. Skip DvornikSally H. FooteCandace GardnerGary S. GrayArlita HallamFrank J. Hancock*Mark JornsDebbie Kerin-TrujilloOdalys LaraThomas W. LattoEileen McAllisterRoberta E. McIntoshDavid PetersonElizabeth PhillipsMarvin L. PinkardDavid Charles SmithRay Gene Ulmer, Jr.Yvonne UlmerEduardo Tito Vargas James D. Jim AppeltStephen H. BilsJanice L. BirchJohn E. BurciagaPam CorbinoJudith M. CottrellScott L. DanielsPaige J. Fisher-SimpsonJanet Nelson HendersonLynne M. JenningsThomas F. KennedyPamela Leousis-DinsmoreMary Ellen LewisJ. William LockhartRichard A. LuceH. Mary McKeownHubert L. Pascoe, Jr.Patricia Perzel-GellerSue PorterKathy RiceChristina K. RoddeyJack E. Russell, IIITimothy C. SchulerPolly A. Jester StannardElla J. SmithJoan M. VecchioliEric D. WilliamsLinda S. WilliamsM. Elizabeth Williams W. Reed AdcockEllen BabbDiane BaileyLinda BurrLinda ChambersJohn P. ConnellyDouglas F. DahlhauserPamela M. DubovKathy DuncanJames P. EgnewGilbert V. GottGreg HackleyCatherine M. HarlanLinda N. HildebrandCraig HuegelJohn C. LandonLauren C. LaughlinMichael Thomas LopsJan MarinoKay MedwickClaude P. MorrisRichard E. MurdockMike NevilleValarie NussbaumNancy PaikoffAnnette M. PattersonGregory F. Wilder Linda A. AdkinsAlex T. AyscueThomas H. Beatty, IIINancy BomsteinStephen J. BonczekBernadette K. CraigKevin J. DonoghueJonna DouglassNancy FrockJanis KaramCathy L. KeithLisa LanzaMartha R. LendermanR. S. Rick McCollumS. Craig MillerJudy A. MitchellBruce MurphyGuy D. PearsonJeannette G. RenfrowJack St. ArnoldMary Julianne ScalesJohn A. SchaeferKaren Williams SeelSteve V. SellersJohn G. TappHal Ziecheck Mary Alice BlevinsMark W. BrandtJames R. CasePhyllis Barwick CoatsPatricia GarrahanPatricia GerardRonnie J. GoodsteinBrett W. GowRebecca A. GrahamKate HowzeJiffy JohnsonNelly Nagui KhouzamJean H. KwallDaniel T. MannKathleen MonahanWilliam PullerKathy Short RabonR. Thomas RiggsNancy J. RitzMorris SilbermanR. Stephen TarverDeborah Vincent *Cathy A. WagnerThomas C. WedekindMichael WrightJudy Yates Bruce M. BaldwinFloyd L. CrawfordLynn M. FuhlerThomas W. HaleMolly C. HancockCathy E. HollandDonna Koutney HooverAnthony M. JonesRichard H. KatzeffPaul N. KingGary M. KleinDeborah Pointer KynesKenneth C. MillmanCynthia PearseCynthia I. RiceDonald R. SchmidtGregory G. SmyserGerry J. StephensonPatricia A. P.A. TyrerB. Clifford Williams, IIIRoni S. Dordick WrightD. Wayne Wyatt Joan M. BrockJames C. Brock, Jr.Sandra J. CampbellCharles N. CastagnaEdward A. EagerLoretta M. EnglishLaree L. EwersJohn D. FlockJames Edward GoodloeMarian J. GoodmanPaulette Szabo GrossSarah Walker GuthrieC. Guy HancockD. F. Buz Heuchan, Jr.Margena HinelySara Sally IrvingDarlene J. KaladaCarol L. Swyers KentN. David KoronesPamela Griener LeavyDaniel F. MillerGregory SchletterH. Browning Spence, Jr. *Karen H. Mounts WilderElise K. Winters John C. AppelDouglas R. BirchNancy L. BrownRobert C. Dickinson, IIIAaron R. FodimanRaymond O. GrossH. Sandra HuggSandra C. JamiesonSheila W. JaquishRobert J. KruegerTheresa S. Lintz *Randolph A. MabryAndrew J. McAdamsRonald M. McElrathElizabeth E. McMahonRichard L. Pearse, Jr.Lili Sikorski SmithMary Frances TaymansWilliam T. TrautweinHelen B. UmbergKaren K. WalkerCharles W. WhetstoneRichard C. Young Steve CarlisleJames M. CourtneyRonnie G. CriderMary CrosbyElizabeth DeptulaCrockett FarnellMartha C. GrayDonna HarperPaula HarveyHarry B. JamiesonRandall C. JohnsonHerbert E. Langford, Jr.Peggy McLeodSandra G. MillspaughBrenda Harris NixonMary OReillyDilman K. ThomasMaria Nieves EdmondsBarbara WerderPeter Woodham Carol AllmanVance ArnettLana BracewellAlan Braswell, Jr.Margaret Word BurnsideThomas W. CareySue E. Pringle ClearyAleta CozartRichard Buzz DavidHeather FoderinghamJean JohnstonJohn C. LockeCarolyn Crochet MatherLinda MielkeDavid R. Moores *W. 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LewisEdward Maur, Jr.Sallie A. ParksJudith B. Powers-JonesR. Grable Stoutamire *Stephen G. Watts Paul P. BurroughsBrandt C. Downey, IIIJulie W. FeatherstoneMichael R. GorsageCharles E. HartPaul J. Kaslander *Matthew A. KludingKy M. KochSharon S. LarsonJean F. Ruff MageeMark McCutcheonPaul A. MeissnerCarolyn F. PhillipsDavid J. RosserJ. Ellis RueDyne SappN. John Simmons, Jr.Darrell W. StephensCary StiffJoel R. TewKenneth N. Waters*Bob Watson* Patricia BauerSusan J. BrownLorin W. BryanJanice B. CaseMichael CroseJeff S. DavisJ. Jey Deifell, Jr.Paul R. EspositoRichard E. GehringBarry M. GlennRuth Heineman GoodwinKenneth G. HamiltonMatile G. HendryAida Y. JuradoPatrick W. KerrJerry R. ParkerFred L. RobbinsGyneth S. StanleyRobert Stiff, Jr.Mary Lou Miller Wagstaff Joyce M. BarnettScott A. BraueerKenneth R. BurnsideAmelia Davis CareySondra G. GoldenfarbTom L. HorneDale L. PadenThomas E. Penick, Jr.Jim PittsJane M. Pope-ArnettJ. Paul RaymondPriscilla RogersR.Z. Sandy SafleyGlenn T. 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May 25, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Morris Dees  Comments Closed

Martin Luther King Jr. – Minister, Civil Rights Activist …

Martin Luther King Jr. was a Baptist minister and social activist, who led the Civil Rights Movement in the United States from the mid-1950s until his death by assassination in 1968. Martin Luther King Jr. was born in 1929 in Atlanta, Georgia. King, a Baptist minister and civil-rights activist, had a seismic impact on race relations in the United States, beginning in the mid-1950s. Among his many efforts, King headed the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Through his activism and inspirational speeches he played a pivotal role in ending the legal segregation of African-American citizens in the United States, as well as the creation of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Thanks for watching!Visit Website King received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964, among several other honors. He was assassinated in April 1968, and continues to be remembered as one of the most influential and inspirational African-American leaders in history. Born as Michael King Jr. on January 15, 1929, Martin Luther King Jr. was the middle child of Michael King Sr. and Alberta Williams King. The King and Williams families were rooted in rural Georgia. Martin Jr.’s grandfather, A.D. Williams, was a rural minister for years and then moved to Atlanta in 1893. He took over the small, struggling Ebenezer Baptist church with around 13 members and made it into a forceful congregation. He married Jennie Celeste Parks and they had one child that survived, Alberta. Michael King Sr. came from a sharecropper family in a poor farming community. He married Alberta in 1926 after an eight-year courtship. The newlyweds moved to A.D. Williams’ home in Atlanta. Michael King Sr. stepped in as pastor of Ebenezer Baptist Church upon the death of his father-in-law in 1931. He too became a successful minister, and adopted the name Martin Luther King Sr. in honor of the German Protestant religious leader Martin Luther. In due time, Michael Jr. would follow his father’s lead and adopt the name himself. Young Martin had an older sister, Willie Christine, and a younger brother, Alfred Daniel Williams King. The King children grew up in a secure and loving environment. Martin Sr. was more the disciplinarian, while his wife’s gentleness easily balanced out the father’s more strict hand. Though they undoubtedly tried, Martin Jr.s parents couldnt shield him completely from racism. Martin Luther King Sr. fought against racial prejudice, not just because his race suffered, but because he considered racism and segregation to be an affront to God’s will. He strongly discouraged any sense of class superiority in his children which left a lasting impression on Martin Jr. Growing up in Atlanta, Georgia, Martin Luther King Jr. entered public school at age 5. In May, 1936 he was baptized, but the event made little impression on him. In May, 1941, Martin was 12 years old when is grandmother, Jennie, died of a heart attack. The event was traumatic for Martin, more so because he was out watching a parade against his parents’ wishes when she died. Distraught at the news, young Martin jumped from a second story window at the family home, allegedly attempting suicide. King attended Booker T. Washington High School, where he was said to be a precocious student. He skipped both the ninth and eleventh grades, and entered Morehouse College in Atlanta at age 15, in 1944. He was a popular student, especially with his female classmates, but an unmotivated student who floated though his first two years. Although his family was deeply involved in the church and worship, young Martin questioned religion in general and felt uncomfortable with overly emotional displays of religious worship. This discomfort continued through much of his adolescence, initially leading him to decide against entering the ministry, much to his father’s dismay. But in his junior year, Martin took a Bible class, renewed his faith and began to envision a career in the ministry. In the fall of his senior year, he told his father of his decision. In 1948, Martin Luther King Jr. earned a sociology degree from Morehouse College and attended the liberal Crozer Theological Seminary in Chester, Pennsylvania. He thrived in all his studies, and was valedictorian of his class in 1951, and elected student body president. He also earned a fellowship for graduate study. But Martin also rebelled against his fathers more conservative influence by drinking beer and playing pool while at college. He became involved with a white woman and went through a difficult time before he could break off the affair. Thanks for watching!Visit Website Thanks for watching!Visit Website During his last year in seminary, Martin Luther King Jr. came under the guidance of Morehouse College President Benjamin E. Mays who influenced Kings spiritual development. Mays was an outspoken advocate for racial equality and encouraged King to view Christianity as a potential force for social change. After being accepted at several colleges for his doctoral study, including Yale and Edinburgh in Scotland, King enrolled at Boston University. During the work on his doctorate, Martin Luther King Jr. met Coretta Scott, an aspiring singer and musician, at the New England Conservatory school in Boston. They were married in June 1953 and had four children, Yolanda, Martin Luther King III, Dexter Scott and Bernice. In 1954, while still working on his dissertation, King became pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church of Montgomery, Alabama. He completed his Ph.D. and earned his degree in 1955. King was only 25 years old. On March 2, 1955, a 15-year-old girl refused to give up her seat to a white man on a Montgomery city bus in violation of local law. Claudette Colvin was arrested and taken to jail. At first, the local chapter of the NAACP felt they had an excellent test case to challenge Montgomery’s segregated bus policy. But then it was revealed that she was pregnant and civil rights leaders feared this would scandalize the deeply religious black community and make Colvin (and, thus the group’s efforts) less credible in the eyes of sympathetic whites. On December 1, 1955, they got another chance to make their case. That evening, 42-year-old Rosa Parks boarded the Cleveland Avenue bus to go home after an exhausting day at work. She sat in the first row of the “colored” section in the middle of the bus. As the bus traveled its route, all the seats in the white section filled up, then several more white passengers boarded the bus. The bus driver noted that there were several white men standing and demanded that Parks and several other African Americans give up their seats. Three other African American passengers reluctantly gave up their places, but Parks remained seated. The driver asked her again to give up her seat and again she refused. Parks was arrested and booked for violating the Montgomery City Code. At her trial a week later, in a 30-minute hearing, Parks was found guilty and fined $10 and assessed $4 court fee. On the night that Rosa Parks was arrested, E.D. Nixon, head of the local NAACP chapter met with Martin Luther King Jr. and other local civil rights leaders to plan a citywide bus boycott. King was elected to lead the boycott because he was young, well-trained with solid family connections and had professional standing. But he was also new to the community and had few enemies, so it was felt he would have strong credibility with the black community. In his first speech as the group’s president, King declared, “We have no alternative but to protest. For many years we have shown an amazing patience. We have sometimes given our white brothers the feeling that we liked the way we were being treated. But we come here tonight to be saved from that patience that makes us patient with anything less than freedom and justice.” Martin Luther King Jr.’s skillful rhetoric put a new energy into the civil rights struggle in Alabama. The bus boycott involved 382 days of walking to work, harassment, violence and intimidation for the Montgomery’s African-American community. Both King’s and E.D. Nixon’s homes were attacked. But the African-American community also took legal action against the city ordinance arguing that it was unconstitutional based on the Supreme Court’s “separate is never equal” decision in Brown v. Board of Education. After being defeated in several lower court rulings and suffering large financial losses, the city of Montgomery lifted the law mandating segregated public transportation. Flush with victory, African-American civil rights leaders recognized the need for a national organization to help coordinate their efforts. In January 1957, Martin Luther King Jr., Ralph Abernathy, and 60 ministers and civil rights activists founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference to harness the moral authority and organizing power of black churches. They would help conduct non-violent protests to promote civil rights reform. King’s participation in the organization gave him a base of operation throughout the South, as well as a national platform. The organization felt the best place to start to give African Americans a voice was to enfranchise them in the voting process. In February 1958, the SCLC sponsored more than 20 mass meetings in key southern cities to register black voters in the South. King met with religious and civil rights leaders and lectured all over the country on race-related issues. In 1959, with the help of the American Friends Service Committee, and inspired by Gandhi’s success with non-violent activism, Martin Luther King visited Gandhi’s birthplace in India. The trip affected him in a deeply profound way, increasing his commitment to America’s civil rights struggle. African-American civil rights activist Bayard Rustin, who had studied Gandhi’s teachings, became one of King’s associates and counseled him to dedicate himself to the principles of non-violence. Rustin served as King’s mentor and advisor throughout his early activism and was the main organizer of the 1963 March on Washington. But Rustin was also a controversial figure at the time, being a homosexual with alleged ties to the Communist Party, USA. Though his counsel was invaluable to King, many of his other supporters urged him to distance himself from Rustin. In February 1960, a group of African-American students began what became known as the “sit-in” movement in Greensboro, North Carolina. The students would sit at racially segregated lunch counters in the city’s stores. When asked to leave or sit in the colored section, they just remained seated, subjecting themselves to verbal and sometimes physical abuse. The movement quickly gained traction in several other cities. In April 1960, the SCLC held a conference at Shaw University in Raleigh, North Carolina with local sit-in leaders. Martin Luther King Jr. encouraged students to continue to use nonviolent methods during their protests. Out of this meeting, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee formed and for a time, worked closely with the SCLC. By August of 1960, the sit-ins had been successful in ending segregation at lunch counters in 27 southern cities. By 1960, Martin Luther King Jr. was gaining national notoriety. He returned to Atlanta to become co-pastor with his father at Ebenezer Baptist Church, but also continued his civil rights efforts. On October 19, 1960, King and 75 students entered a local department store and requested lunch-counter service but were denied. When they refused to leave the counter area, King and 36 others were arrested. Realizing the incident would hurt the city’s reputation, Atlanta’s mayor negotiated a truce and charges were eventually dropped. But soon after, King was imprisoned for violating his probation on a traffic conviction. The news of his imprisonment entered the 1960 presidential campaign, when candidate John F. Kennedy made a phone call to Coretta Scott King. Kennedy expressed his concern for King’s harsh treatment for the traffic ticket and political pressure was quickly set in motion. King was soon released. In the spring of 1963, Martin Luther King Jr. organized a demonstration in downtown Birmingham, Alabama. Entire families attended. City police turned dogs and fire hoses on demonstrators. Martin Luther King was jailed along with large numbers of his supporters, but the event drew nationwide attention. However, King was personally criticized by black and white clergy alike for taking risks and endangering the children who attended the demonstration. From the jail in Birmingham, King eloquently spelled out his theory of non-violence: “Nonviolent direct action seeks to create such a crisis and foster such a tension that a community, which has constantly refused to negotiate, is forced to confront the issue.” By the end of the Birmingham campaign, Martin Luther King Jr. and his supporters were making plans for a massive demonstration on the nation’s capital composed of multiple organizations, all asking for peaceful change. On August 28, 1963, the historic March on Washington drew more than 200,000 people in the shadow of the Lincoln Memorial. It was here that King made his famous “I Have a Dream” speech, emphasizing his belief that someday all men could be brothers. “I have a dream that my four children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.” Martin Luther King, Jr. / “I Have A Dream” speech, August 28, 1963 The rising tide of civil rights agitation produced a strong effect on public opinion. Many people in cities not experiencing racial tension began to question the nation’s Jim Crow laws and the near century second class treatment of African-American citizens. This resulted in the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 authorizing the federal government to enforce desegregation of public accommodations and outlawing discrimination in publicly owned facilities. This also led to Martin Luther King receiving the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964. King’s struggle continued throughout the 1960s. Often, it seemed as though the pattern of progress was two steps forward and one step back. On March 7, 1965, a civil rights march, planned from Selma to Alabama’s capital in Montgomery, turned violent as police with nightsticks and tear gas met the demonstrators as they tried to cross the Edmund Pettus Bridge. King was not in the march, however the attack was televised showing horrifying images of marchers being bloodied and severely injured. Seventeen demonstrators were hospitalized in a day that would be called “Bloody Sunday.” A second march was cancelled due to a restraining order to prevent the march from taking place. A third march was planned and this time King made sure he was part of it. Not wanting to alienate southern judges by violating the restraining order, a different approach was taken. On March 9, 1965, a procession of 2,500 marchers, both black and white, set out once again to cross the Pettus Bridge and confronted barricades and state troopers. Instead of forcing a confrontation, King led his followers to kneel in prayer and they then turned back.Alabama governor George Wallace continued to try to prevent another march, however, President Lyndon Johnson pledged his support and ordered U.S. Army troops and the Alabama National Guard to protect the protestors. On March 21, approximately 2,000 people began a march from Selma to the capitol in Montgomery. On March 25, the number of marchers, which had grown to an estimated 25,000, gathered in front of the state capitol where Dr. King delivered a televised speech. Five months after the historic peaceful protest, President Johnson signed the 1965 Voting Rights Act. From late 1965 through 1967, Martin Luther King Jr. expanded his civil rights efforts into other larger American cities, including Chicago and Los Angeles. But he met with increasing criticism and public challenges from young black power leaders. King’s patient, non-violent approach and appeal to white middle-class citizens alienated many black militants who considered his methods too weak, too late and ineffective. To address this criticism, King began making a link between discrimination and poverty, and he began to speak out against the Vietnam War. He felt that America’s involvement in Vietnam was politically untenable and the government’s conduct in the war discriminatory to the poor. He sought to broaden his base by forming a multi-race coalition to address economic and unemployment problems of all disadvantaged people. By 1968, the years of demonstrations and confrontations were beginning to wear on Martin Luther King Jr. He had grown tired of marches, going to jail, and living under the constant threat of death. He was becoming discouraged at the slow progress of civil rights in America and the increasing criticism from other African-American leaders. Plans were in the works for another march on Washington to revive his movement and bring attention to a widening range of issues. In the spring of 1968, a labor strike by Memphis sanitation workers drew King to one last crusade. On April 3, he gave his final and what proved to be an eerily prophetic speech,Ive Been to the Mountaintop,in which he told supporters at the Mason Temple in Memphis, “I’ve seen the promised land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight that we, as a people, will get to the promised land.” The next day, while standing on a balcony outside his room at the Lorraine Motel, Martin Luther King Jr. was struck by a sniper’s bullet. The shooter, a malcontent drifter and former convict named James Earl Ray, was eventually apprehended after a two-month, international manhunt. The killing sparked riots and demonstrations in more than 100 cities across the country. In 1969, Ray pleaded guilty to assassinating King and was sentenced to 99 years in prison. He died in prison on April 23, 1998. Martin Luther King Jr.’s life had a seismic impact on race relations in the United States. Years after his death, he is the most widely known African-American leader of his era. His life and work have been honored with a national holiday, schools and public buildings named after him, and a memorial on Independence Mall in Washington, D.C. But his life remains controversial as well. In the 1970s, FBI files, released under the Freedom of Information Act, revealed that he was under government surveillance, and suggested his involvement in adulterous relationships and communist influences. Over the years, extensive archival studies have led to a more balanced and comprehensive assessment of his life, portraying him as a complex figure: flawed, fallible and limited in his control over the mass movements with which he was associated, yet a visionary leader who was deeply committed to achieving social justice through nonviolent means.

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May 24, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Martin Luther King  Comments Closed

Hizb ut-Tahrir | Counter Extremism Project

Submitted by cextremismadmin on Fri, 01/26/2018 – 16:21, last updated on Fri, 01/26/2018 – 16:21 Places of Operation Australia, Bangladesh, Denmark, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Malaysia Netherlands, Pakistan, Sweden, United States, Uzbekistan Hizb ut-Tahrir (HT), meaning Party of Liberation, is an international Islamist movement seeking to unite Muslims under one Islamic caliphate. Founded by Palestinian Taqiuddin al-Nabhani al-Filastyni in 1953, HT considers itself a non-violent political party. HT states that its goal is to peacefully convert Muslim nations to Islamist political systems. HT praises the concept of jihad but insists that it does not use material power to defend itself or as a weapon. The group publicly disavows efforts to achieve its goals of a caliphate through violent means. HT has been banned in at least 13 countries worldwide. However, individuals affililated with the group have been linked to violent acts in multiple countries. Some have been involved in coup attempts in the Middle East, the murder of a pro-secularist blogger in Bangladesh, and spreading anti-Western and Muslim-separatist propaganda in the West. HT maintains that its members are political dissidents. HT has been called a conveyor belt for terrorists by Zeyno Baran of the Hudson Institute. Baran notes that HT members, once radicalized by the groups ideology, are vulnerable to more explicit messages of militancy. One example is British citizen Omar Sharif, who attempted to blow up a Tel Aviv bar in 2003. British intelligence officers found HT literature in Sharifs U.K. home. Another example is ISIS fighter Jihadi John (now deceased), who reportedly attended events with HT speakers while in university in Great Britain. HT chapters operate in more than 40 countries, but the group is banned in many Muslim-majority countries, including Egypt, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and Uzbekistan. The group is also banned in China and Russia. The United Kingdom has not banned HT. According to Baran, HTs British chapter in London is the nerve center of the international movement. While HT promotes the concept of a caliphate, it does not recognize the so-called caliphate created by ISIS. On July 2, 2015, HT Britain published a statement denouncing ISISs June 2014 declaration of an Islamic state because ISIS lacked the authority to create or secure a caliphate in Syria. Nevertheless, British HT members have reportedly joined ISIS and other militant Islamist groups in the Middle East. Former Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott accused HT of nurturing extremism in our suburbs, claiming that the group justifies terrorism and inspires young men to join jihadist activities in Syria and Iraq. British prime ministers Tony Blair and David Cameron called for banning HT in 2009 and 2011, respectively. However, David Anderson, then the U.K. governments cindependent reviewer of terrorism legislation, submitted a report to Parliament in 2011 recommending against banning HT as it had not advocated violence. The British Home Office has also ruled that HT does not advocate violence and that Britain cannot ban the group for having unpopular ideas. The Home Office did concede, however, that HT is anti-Semitic, homophobic, and anti-Western. Former Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbotts failure to ban HT in that country prompted his government to propose a law prohibiting speech deemed advocacy to genocide. Attorney General George Brandis said the proposed law was aimed at groups like HT. In September 2015, Brandis and the Abbott government announced the advocacy to genocide legislation as part of a package to be introduced in parliament later that year. However, later that month, Malcolm Turnbull defeated Abbott for the leadership of Australias Liberal party and consequently, for the office of prime minister. Australias Daily Telegraph reported in October 2015 that the Turnbull government would abandon its predecessors attempts to ban HT and to advance the advocacy to genocide bill. HT seeks to establish a global caliphate and presents its Islamist ideology (based on the writings of the organizations founder, Taqiuddin Nahbani) as an alternative to both capitalism and secular democracy. HT proposes the restoration of a caliphate as a solution to the problems in the Middle East, with all Muslims living according to sharia (Islamic law) under the rule of an Islamic caliphate. HT insists that it seeks to reestablish the caliphate only in the Muslim world, not in any of the western countries including the US. However, HT uses anti-Western propaganda to advance its Islamist objectives. For example, HT blames purported anti-Muslim discrimination in the West and violence against Muslims in Muslim-majority countries on Western domestic and foreign policies. HT seeks to erect a global caliphate. The groups strategy to create a global caliphate is divided into three phases. The first phase is to create a core Muslim leadership to guide HT. In the second phase, this core leadership reaches out to the broader Muslim community and convinces them to follow HTs model of Islam. HTs extensive outreach activities around the world indicate that the group is currently focusing on this second phase of its strategy. The third and final stage of HTs mission is regime change. Once HT has obtained sufficient public support for its vision of a caliphate, HT expects that support to facilitate a peaceful transition to Islamist rule. HT doctrine officially eschews violence and believes Islamic law forbids violence or armed struggle against the regime as a method to reestablish the Islamic State. Only the caliph of the Islamic statea position that does not yet existcan declare jihad under HT doctrine. Further, HT believes military struggle is not the method of reestablishing the Caliphate. However, HT does not foreclose the possibility that a transition to Islamist rule could also transpire through a military coup if, for example, enough soldiers were converted to HTs worldview. Despite hoping for military support to overthrow current regimes, HT still positions itself as a non-violent movement, HTs doctrine considers military intervention to be outside help (nusrah) since the military is not a direct arm of HT. Analysts studying the HT movement have implicated HT members in failed military coups in Jordan (1968 and 1969) and Egypt (1974). However, HT members did not provide any military support for these coups. In the case of Jordan, HT members allegedly encouraged members of the military to overthrow the government. Since HT presents Islam as an exclusive socio-political system superior to secularism and democracy, the group urges Muslims to detach themselves from any secular or nationalist loyalties. To that end, HT spreads an Islamist narrative of Muslim grievance and victimhood, oversimplifying the complex global socio-political environment into a single, simple narrative: the West opposes Islam. This narrative can result in an identity crisis for some Muslims, which opens the door for their radicalization, according to a 2007 radicalization study from Denmarks justice ministry. One possible example of HT-inspired radicalization is the case of 15-year-old Farhad Jabbar in Parramatta, Australia. Jabbar shot and killed a police accountant in October 2015 and reportedly attended an HT event the morning of the shooting. HT Australia denied that Jabbar is a member and condemned the shooting, but it also called western foreign and domestic policy the real cause of violence. HT promotional materials have called for violence against Jews. Despite its official non-violent stance, HT has called for violence against Jews. In 2002, HT leaflets found in Denmark urged Muslims to kill Jews wherever you find them, and turn them out from where they have been [sic] turned you out. A BBC report quoted the HT leaflet further: The Jews are a people of slander…a treacherous people… they fabricate lies and twist words from their right context. In 2003, similar anti-Semitic rhetoric resulted in the group being banned from many university campuses in Britain and a complete ban of the group in Germany. HT supports not only violence against Jews in general but offensive jihad against Israel in particular. HT believes Israel has occupied Islamic landslands once ruled by Islamic law. Accordingly, HT believes those lands should return to governance by Islamic law and supports jihad as a means to that end. Accordingly, HT views violent acts against Israel as legitimate political protest against Israels existence as a state. The organizations literature has supported Islamist suicide bombings in Israel, the Gaza Strip, and the West Bank. In 1994, HTs global leader, Ata Abu Rashta, reiterated this point when he declared that Jews who came to Palestine after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire have no right to live there. He called for all Jews of fighting age in Israel to be killed until none survive. At least one HT-related person is believed to have attempted a suicide bombing in Israel. British citizen Omar Khan Sharif was reportedly affiliated with an HT splinter group. He began attending HT meetings while at Kings College in London. Sharif reportedly followed former HT leader Omar Bakri Mohammed to his new group, al-Muhajiroun. On April 30, 2003, Sharif and fellow British citizen Asif Muhammad Hanif attempted a suicide bombing at a Tel Aviv bar. Sharifs explosives failed, but Hanif killed three and wounded 50. HT denied responsibility for radicalizing Sharif. On social issues, HTs ideology is reactionary. HT dictates subservient roles for women, who are required to obtain their husbands permission to leave the house and cannot go outside wearing perfume. HTs doctrine also forbids homosexual acts and prohibits participation in other faiths celebrations, such as Christmas. HT is a hierarchical organization with as many as 1 million members throughout the world. HT boasts of a presence in at least 33 countries and maintains a central media office in Beirut, Lebanon. Each country has a local chapter led by an emir, who answers to HTs overall emir, Ata Abu Rashta. While Abu Rashtas exact location is unknown, he continues to lecture at Islamist conferences worldwide and new rhetoric from him regularly appears on HT websites. In each of these chapters, men and women are encouraged to be active members of the movement but work separately in order to keep the genders apart. HTs vision of a future Islamic state reserves the highest positionsincluding caliph, provincial governors, and defense ministerfor men alone. Once an Islamic state is established, the caliph would select a defense minister, who would then enforce conscription to the caliphates army of all Muslim men over the age of 15. While women are encouraged to join and participate in HT, they are forbidden from filling leadership roles like defense minister. Some of the most active HT chapters are listed and described below: United Kingdom: HT Britain is the nerve center of the organization. HTs British chapter (HT Britain) is considered the nerve center of the global movement. HTs operations in the United Kingdom are led by HT Britains chief executive, Dr. Abdul Wahid. HTs spokesperson, Taji Mustafa, engages the media on behalf of the movement, and has spoken at HT conferences in other countries like Australia. Because HT is allowed to operate freely in Britain, HT Britain recruits members by hosting public conferences and panels, and by engaging with the British media on a regular basis. HT Britain also maintains a website, where its positions on foreign and domestic policy are made available through articles and video. On both Twitter and Facebook, HT Britain has amassed over 11,000 followers. Local HT Britain chapters organize their own fundraising to support outreach efforts, such as printing and handing out leaflets in public spaces. HT Britain has also benefited from government funding, including grants to run early education programs. The British government ended this funding program after media reports confirmed that HT members were using the funding to indoctrinate students with controversial HT ideology, including the belief that tolerance and integration are un-Islamic. Individuals known to have been in contact with HT Britain have gone on to join more violent Islamist groups. For example, notorious ISIS executioner Mohammed Emwazi (a.k.a. Jihadi John) was in contact with the group while studying at British universities before he joined ISIS. United States: HT operates freely in the United States, although the group keeps its leadership and membership numbers private. HT America recruits members by hosting periodic conferences and panels, as well as maintaining a website and social media accounts. The HT America website includes articles advocating its policy positions and information on upcoming events around the country. HT America has more than 28,000 followers on Facebook. HT America has amassed more than 1,000 followers on Twitter, up from more than 300 followers in 2016. Meanwhile, the groups Facebook page has more than 28,000 followers as of May 2017, up from more than 20,000 in early 2016. HT America has held multiple conferences across the United States over the years at such prominent venues as the Hilton hotel in Oak Lawn, Illinois. Other venues in Illinois, like the Chicago Marriott Oak Brook and the Meadows Club in Rolling Meadows, have canceled HT America events after receiving concerned calls from the public. Australia: HT Australia is led by Islamist cleric Ismail al-Wahwah. Since HT is free to operate in Australia, HT has recruited members by hosting public conferences and panels, and by engaging regularly with Australian media. HT Australia also maintains a website, where the group posts content highlighting the movements philosophy, positions on political issues, and planned events in the country. The group also maintains a strong public profile on social media. Al-Wahwah has more than 4,000 followers on Facebook, and the groups Facebook page has more than 26,000 likes as of May 2017, up from 9,000 likes in January 2016. HT Australias media spokesperson, Uthman Badar, tweets regularly to more than 7,000 people. In October 2015, a 15-year-old who shot and killed a police accountant in Parramatta, Australia, had reportedly attended an HT discussion at his local mosque on the morning of the incident. In December 2014, Iranian-born Man Haron Monis took more than a dozen people hostage at Sydneys Lindt Chocolat Caf. Monis and two hostages were killed after a 16-hour standoff with police. Monis had attended a June 2014 HT lecture on the failings of the West. In March 2017, international media circulated video footage of Badar stating that apostatesthose who leave Islamshould be put to death. In response, anti-HT activists in Australia launched an online petition to have the group banned. Denmark: HT Denmark was founded in 2000 by former HT member Maajid Nawaz, and others. Today, the group is popularized by its spokesperson Junes Kock. The Copenhagen-based branch of HT considers itself a regional office as indicated by its name HT Scandinavia. Outside of Denmark, HT Scandinavia has hosted events and distributed leaflets in Stockholm, Sweden. HT Scandinavia has a website that highlights the groups work, policy positions, and planned events in the region. On Facebook, the group has amassed more than 6,000 likes as of May 2017, up from 4,000 in February 2016. Since its founding, HTs operations in Denmark have been steeped in controversy. In 2003, former HT spokesperson in Denmark Fadi Abdelatif served a 60-day suspended sentence for distributing anti-Semitic propaganda. Moreover, while HT Scandinavia is not proscribed in Denmark, Danish MPs have discussed banning HT in Denmark in 2008 and 2015 because of the groups inflammatory speeches. HTs Danish leadership frequently focuses its attention on the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. On February 14, 2015, Imam Hajj Saeed spoke at an HT Scandinavia event, wherein he denounced interfaith dialogue. He also implied that since Islams prophet Muhammad waged war with the Jews in Medina, it was permissible to do the same today. Saeeds sermon was delivered the day before a terrorist attack in Copenhagen, wherein 22-year-old gunman Omar El-Hussein killed two and injured five while attempting to enter a cultural center that was hosting a free-speech event. Netherlands: Not much is publicly known about HT leadership in the Netherlands, though it is known to include media representative Okay Pala. On Twitter, Pala has accrued more than 3,000 followers. The HT Netherlands Facebook page has more than 13,000 likes, as of May 2017, representing a growth of almost 200 percent since February 2016, when the page had little more than 5,000 likes. HT Netherlands also maintains a website highlighting its policy positions, activities, and planned events in the country. While the organization is allowed to operate in the Netherlands, some private venues in the country have been unwilling to host HT events, including the Rotterdam-Zuid community center De Put, which rejected hosting an HT panel in September 2015. HT has persisted in its recruitment and publicity strategy by handing out HT literature in Dutch in Rotterdam. Australia, the U.K., and Netherlands have each sought to ban HT. Consequently, Netherlands has unsuccessfully attempted to ban HT. Pakistan: HT is not allowed to operate in Pakistan. Nevertheless, the organization remains active on social media and through outreach efforts that primarily target members of the military and educated classes. HT Pakistan engages the public regularly through its website and social media activity. HT Pakistans Twitter account has more than 6,000 followers, and its Facebook page has more than 19,000 likes as of May 2017, up from more than 5,500 in March 2016. The groups illegal status in Pakistan notwithstanding, the number of HT Pakistans Facebook followers increased more than 300 percent over the previous year. Pakistani authorities periodically arrest HT members despite the groups ban in 2003. For example, the group maintains that the Pakistani government abducted its leader, Naveed Butt, in 2012, and has since been advocating for his release. In November 2015, Pakistani authorities arrested HT Pakistan leader Siham Qamar and seven others during a series of raids. The New York Times noted in 2012 that special concern arose in Pakistan after an army brigadier named Ali Khan was charged in 2011 with having ties to HT, and of conspiring to overthrow the [Pakistani] government. Khan and four others were convicted in 2012. The incident highlights HTs efforts to recruit Pakistans military leadership in hopes of replacing the government with a caliphate. Bangladesh: HT was banned in Bangladesh in 2009. Since then, HT has continued its activities in the country, despite sporadic arrests of alleged members. HT Bangladesh recruits members by hosting conferences and passing out HT literature in public. HT Bangladesh also maintains a website. The groups Facebook account has more than 1,300 likes. In March 2015, Bangladeshi authorities arrested HT member Farabi Shafiur Rahman in connection with the murder of secular blogger Avijit Roy. Rahman joined HT in approximately 2010. He had previously been arrested in 2010 and again in 2013 for threatening a cleric performing funeral rites for another atheist blogger who had been murdered. Bangladeshi authorities have arrested more than 600 HT supporters since the group was banned. In June 2016, HT Bangladesh was reportedly distributing leaflets calling for rebellion against the tyrannical rule of Bangladeshi Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina Wazed. Malaysia: HT Malaysias leadership includes spokesman Abdul Hakim Othman and vice president Sopian Jahir. HT operates freely in Malaysia, except in the province of Selangor, where HT was proscribed in September 2015. Outside of Selangor, HT recruits members by hosting periodic conferences and seminars. HT Malaysia also maintains a website and official Twitter and Facebook accounts. The groups Twitter account had more than 2,000 followers as of January 2016, but has since been discontinued. Its Facebook page has more than 26,000 followers as of May 2017, up from 13,000 followers in March 2016. In November 2015, Malaysian authorities briefly arrested HT Malaysias former spokesperson, Abdul Hakim Othman, in connection to anti-American protests during President Obamas visit to Malaysia that month. On September 17, 2015, the Islamic Religious Department of the Malaysian state of Selangor issued a fatwa outlawing HT Malaysia within its jurisdiction. Othman attempted to respond to the edict banning the group by holding a press conference in Selangor on December 4, 2015, but was arrested during the event. Othman was released later the same day. Indonesia: HT Indonesias spokesperson, Muhammad Ismail Yusanto had more than 31,000 followers on Twitter as of May 2017, representing an increase of 7,000 followers since January 2016, when he had more than 24,000 followers. Yusanto regularly engages Indonesian media to advocate HT positions in the country. While membership numbers are unknown, HT events have included more than 100,000 attendees at some conferences. HT Indonesias website is regularly updated with articles and videos addressing domestic and foreign politics and social issues from an HT perspective. In 2011, HT Indonesias chairman, Rochmat Labib, told the Associated Press that HTs 10-year plan in Indonesia is to reinforce the peoples lack of trust and hope in the regime. Further, he said, HT is converting people from democracy, secularism and capitalism to Islamic ideology. In 2016, HT organized protests accusing Jakartas Christian governor, Basuki Ahok Tjahaja Purnama, of blasphemy. In May 2017, Purnama was found guilty of blasphemy and sentenced to two years in prison. On May 8, 2017, Indonesian President Joko Jokowi Widodo ordered a ban of HT activities. Security Minister Wiranto told media that HT has clearly caused conflict in society and worked against Indonesias pluralistic society. Central Asia: In Central Asiaincluding Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and KyrgyzstanHT membership is estimated at between 20,000 and 100,000, with members typically including college students, teachers, the unemployed, and factory workers. New members are also drawn through prison recruitment in Central Asia. Uzbekistan is believed to have as many as 8,000 HT members. In the late 1970s, HT outreach spread from Uzbekistan to neighboring Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan. There, HTs membership has expanded to include non-ethnic Uzbeks, ethnic Russians, and Koreans. HT financing in Central Asia is believed to come from private donations and dues paid by members, with dues estimated at anywhere from 5 percent to 20 percent of a members monthly income. HT appears to be funded through several means, including private donations and government subsidies, but few details about the groups finances are public. Local chapters organize their own fundraising to support outreach efforts, such as printing and handing out leaflets in public spaces. Operational costs appear low because many members do volunteer work. Donations are primarily raised in Europe, the Middle East, and Pakistan. Pakistan recalled diplomatic envoy Mohammad Mazhar Khan from Bangladesh in March 2015 after receiving allegations that he had laundered money toHT and other Islamist militant groups in Bangladesh. HT has also benefited from government funding. For example, a British foundation run by HT members received government grants to run early education programs. The British government ended the funding after media reports confirmed that HT members were teaching students HT ideology, including the belief that tolerance and integration are un-Islamic. Recruitment is crucial to HTs overarching strategy. As a self-purported peaceful movement for regime change, HT must gain sufficient public support to realize that change. In countries where the group is not banned, HTs outreach efforts include passing out literature in public spaces, organizing seminars, and releasing pro-Islamist publications, such as The Institutions of State in the Khilafah [caliphate], online. HT also operates websites in multiple languages that provide access to HT literature, such as political commentary and religious justifications for the movements worldview. Conferences are another critical method for HT to spread its message. HT has held multiple conferences in the United States, including at least three Khilafa [caliphate] conferences in 2015. The conferences focused on answering questions surrounding a future Islamic caliphate. These questions include, What is Khilafah, Why Khilafah, Who is Hizb ut-Tahrir, and How we work for Khilafah. HT America held multiple rallies and conferences through 2016 as well, including its annual Khilafa Conference at the Ramada Inn in Glendale, Illinois, that May. HT returned to the hotel in April 2017 for its annual conference, which the group dubbed as a global call to Muslims worldwide to stand up and fulfill the obligation to resume the Islamic way of life, as decreed by Allah (SWT), by reestablishing the Khilafah on the path of our Prophet (SAW). In 2012, then-presidential candidate Michelle Bachmann questioned whether an HT event in Rolling Meadows, Illinois, was subversive speech. In 2009, protests were held in front of an HT event in Oak Lawn, Illinois. In the United Kingdom, HT operates freely and publicly, holding conferences and conducting outreach programs at numerous U.K. universities. In 2003, the British Home Office concluded that it could not ban an HT conference in Birmingham that year since HT professed to be non-violent. Approximately 10,000 people attended. HT outreach to students relies on access to campus events at universities. In the United Kingdom, HT recruits and maintains an active presence on university campuses. British media have reported that HT radicalized future ISIS fighter Mohammed Emwazi, a.k.a. Jihadi John (now deceased), and other future prominent jihadists before they traveled to fight in the Middle East. Emwazi attended Britains University of Westminster, where he was exposed to HT ideology through the universitys Islamic Society. During Emwazis years as a student at the University of Westminster, the Islamic Society organized on-campus panels that included HT members as speakers. The university has been the subject of several accusations that HT has infiltrated its campus. British counter-extremism activist Maajid Nawaz is a former HT member who was drawn to the group as a teenager. As a student at Londons Newham College, Nawaz continued to spread HTs message until he was expelled when his self-appointed bodyguard stabbed and killed a non-Muslim student. According to Nawaz, HT seeks to recruit members of student groups, such as the University of Westminsters Islamic Society, and exploits freedom of speech to showcase speakers who peddle a highly politicized, often violent strain of Islam. Nawaz warns it is easier than one might think for bright, capable people like Mr. Emwazi to fall for the myopic worldview of the preachers of hate. Young people from relatively prosperous, educated backgrounds have long been overrepresented in jihadist causes. In April 2011, for example, Westminster students elected Tarik Mahri and Jamal Achchi, both tied to HT, as president and vice president, respectively, of the student union. As president of Westminsters Global Ideas Society, Mahri had been instrumental in bringing HT speaker Jamal Harwood to campus. Dr. Alexandra Stein is a social psychologist specializing in extremist groups. While teaching at Westminster between 2007 and 2012, Stein noticed a tremendous amount of recruiting at the school. Stein recalled female Muslim students telling her they had been pressured to wear veils and sit in the back of classrooms at university-sanctioned HT lectures. Because of the universitys tolerance of HT campus activities, students were being led like lambs to the slaughter, according to Stein. HT also enjoys a strong presence in the Middle East and Asia. In Central Asia, the group operates through underground channels, where 2003 membership ranged from 20,000 to 100,000. Recruits include college students and teachers, the unemployed, and factory workers. Central Asian authorities believe HT also recruits heavily in prisons. HT is particularly active in Indonesia and Malaysia. On August 12, 2007, HT hosted a Khilafa (caliphate) conference in Indonesia to discuss the need for a global Islamic state. Although several speakers canceled due to travel restrictions by Indonesia and other countries, the conference attracted approximately 100,000 participants. Organizers called it the largest gathering of Muslim activists in the world. Since the beginning of the Arab Spring, HT has intensified its recruitment efforts in the Middle East, seemingly to take advantage of political voids left by toppled dictatorships and ongoing civil wars. HT outreach includes efforts to highlight the humanitarian crisis created by the current conflicts. In March 2012, for example, HT hosted a women-only conference in Tunisia. The group organized a protest in Aleppo, Syria, on November 9, 2012, and a press conference in Amman, Jordan, in April 2013 to highlight the Syrian civil wars impact on women and children. History Timeline https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1KmpSo7G94gRn0mCrR3rRoaDp9NAzCEDlllCFETYgDCE/pubhtml

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May 23, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Muslim Extremism  Comments Closed

Jimmy Kimmel Tweets CNN’s Inflated School Shooting Stats

Late-night Jimmy Kimmel tweeted CNN’s inflated school shooting stats on Monday, which claim school shootings occur “57 times” more often in the U.S. than other “industrialized nations combined.”

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May 22, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Jews  Comments Closed

North Korea Charges $10,000 to Cover Nuclear Site Closure; Bans South Koreans

North Korea reportedly charged international reporters $10,000 each for flight visas to cover the shutdown of the Punggye-ri Nuclear Test Site, scheduled to occur sometime between May 23 and 25

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Fair Use Disclaimer

"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances."

Under the 'fair use' rule of copyright law, an author may make limited use of another author's work without asking permission. Fair use is based on the belief that the public is entitled to freely use portions of copyrighted materials for purposes of commentary and criticism. The fair use privilege is perhaps the most significant limitation on a copyright owner's exclusive rights.

Fair use as described at 17 U.S.C. Section 107:

"Notwithstanding the provisions of section 106 and 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phono-records or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright.

In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include:

  • (1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for or nonprofit educational purposes,
  • (2) the nature of the copyrighted work,
  • (3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole, and
  • (4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work."