Archive for the ‘Adolf Hitler’ Category

Adolf Hitler Wikipdia

Adolf Hitler (Braunau am Inn, 1889. prilis 20. Berlin, 1945. prilis 30.) osztrk szlets nmet politikus, a Nemzetiszocialista Nmet Munksprt (nmetl Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei vagy rviden NSDAP) vezetje, kancellr 1933-tl s Fhrer (vezr) elnevezssel dikttor 1934-tl hallig.

1923-ban az gynevezett srpuccs sorn megprblta megdnteni a weimari kztrsasgot, de tmenetileg kudarcot vallott. A brtnben megrta a Mein Kampfot, amelyben sszefoglalta vilgnzett, a ncizmus ideolgijt, antiszemita fajelmlett, vilguralmi trekvseit s kommunistaellenessgt. Szabadulsa utn ezeken az ideolgiai alapokon ptette jj a prtjt. Nagy sznoki tehetsgvel, a versailles-i bkeszerzds igazsgtalansgainak tmadsval, zsidellenes demaggival igyekezett npszersget szerezni, de csak az 192933-as nagy gazdasgi vilgvlsg sorn sikerlt hatalomra jutnia.

Kormnyra kerlve felszmolta a weimari kztrsasg intzmnyrendszert, a jogllamisgot, a nmet llam fderlis jellegt, az ellenzket s a munksmozgalmat egyarnt. Ltrehozta a kzkeleten Harmadik Birodalomnak nevezett j nmet llamot, amely szndkai szerint ezer vre a vilg vezet hatalma lett volna. Ellenfeleit megsemmist tborokba zratta, knoztatta s meggyilkoltatta. Klpolitikjban nem elgedett meg a versailles-i bkerendszer felszmolsval, hanem a gyakorlatban is meg akarta valstani vilguralmi elkpzelseit, s klnsen az akkori Szovjetuni eurpai terleteinek bekebelezsvel letteret (Lebensraum) akart biztostani a germn fajnak. Ezrt kirobbantotta a msodik vilghbort, antiszemita cljai elrse rdekben pedig elindtotta az n. vgs megoldst, az Endlsungot.

Hatalmnak cscspontjn hadserege ellenrzse alatt tartotta az eurpai kontinens nagy rszt. A szvetsges hatalmak tlerejvel szemben azonban mr csak id krdse volt a buksa. A msodik vilghbor vgn, a szovjet Vrs Hadsereg ltal krbevett berlini fld alatti bunkerben ngyilkos lett.

Hitler szemlyes buksa teljes volt, cljaiban is nagyrszt kudarcot vallott. A minden nmetet egyest nagynmet birodalom helyett orszga elvesztette keleti terleteit, a Kelet-Eurpban elszrtan vszzadok ta l nmet npcsoportokat a hbor utn elztk lakhelykrl. A marxizmus s a kommunizmus felszmolsa helyett vesztes hborjval hozzjrult ahhoz, hogy a Szovjetuni s a kommunizmus negyven vre befolysa al vonja Kzp-Eurpt. A zsidsg teljes s vgleges megsemmistse a holokauszt borzalmai ellenre sem sikerlt, s Hitler buksa utn pr vvel ltrejtt Izrael llam. A nmet vilguralom, a vilgpolitikai vezet szerep helyett a kt rszre szakadt Nmetorszg fl vszzadon t alrendelt szerepet jtszott a nemzetkzi politikban, a Szvetsgi Kztrsasg viszont a vilggazdasg 2-3. helyrt mltn indulhatott.

Adolf Hitler 1889. prilis 20-n, az OsztrkMagyar Monarchia terletn, Nmetorszgtl nem messze, a Linztl 90 kilomterre lv fels-ausztriai Braunau am Inn kisvrosban szletett. Alois Hitler (18371903) vmgyi tisztvisel s unokahga, egyben harmadik felesge, Klara Plzl (18601907) negyedik gyermekeknt ltta meg a napvilgot. A hzaspr hat gyermeke kzl csak Adolf s Paula rte meg a felnttkort. Adolfnak kt fltestvre is volt apja korbbi, msodik hzassgbl, Alois s Angela.[1]

Apja, Alois Hitler hzassgon kvli gyermekknt szletett, s anyjnak vezetknevt (Schicklgruber) viselte egszen 40 ves korig. Anyja ksbb felesgl ment Johann Georg Hiedlerhez (17921857), aki molnrlegnyknt dolgozott. Aloist azonban nem , hanem ccse, Johann Nepomuk Hiedler (18071888) nevelte, aki valsznleg az apja volt. kldte Aloist Bcsbe cipsztanulnak, ahol meg is szerezte a cipszmesteri oklevelet. Ezutn azonban rgtn belpett a vmrsghez, ahol vekig kzlegnyknt szolglt. 1872-ben, 35 ves korban elvette egy magas lls vmtisztvisel 50 ves nevelt lnyt. 1875-ben vmtiszt, majd 1892-ben ftiszt lett. 1876-ban vette fel mostohaapja (s nevelapja) csaldi nevt. A nvvltoztatskor azonban a Hiedler (kb. kisbirtokos) nv betzst egy hivatalnok a kevsb parasztos Hitler formban jegyezte be. Adolf Hitlert ksbb ellenfelei propagandisztikus okokbl a rosszabbul hangz Schicklgruber nven is emlegettk, br ezt a nevet maga sohasem viselte.[2]

Hitler nem volt biztos apai nagyapjnak kiltt illeten, m az minden valsznsg szerint Johann Georg Hiedler vagy annak ccse, Johann Nepomuk Hiedler volt. Ha Johann Nepomuk volt az, akkor az apai nagyapja ugyanaz a szemly volt, mint az anyai ddapja, mert anyja, Klara Plzl Johann Nepomuk Hiedler unokja volt.[3]

Mr az 1920-as vek elejn terjedt a mncheni kvhzakban az a pletyka, hogy Hitler apai nagyapja zsid volt. A dikttorral szemben ll klfldi sajt ksbb nagy elszeretettel terjesztette ezt. A legenda vgleges vltozatt Hans Frank, Lengyelorszg hitleri fkormnyzja diktlta le emlkirataiban, kivgzse eltt. Eszerint Hitler apai nagyapja egy Leopold Frankenberger vagy Frankenreiter nev zsid frfi volt, mert Maria Anna Schicklgruber (Hitler apai nagyanyja, 17951847) Graz vrosban ennl a zsid csaldnl dolgozott. Modern kutatk ttelesen cfoljk ezt a trtnetet, mivel ilyen nev csaldok a grazi anyaknyvekben egyltaln nem lelhetk fel, s arra sincs bizonytk, hogy Hitler anyja Grazban dolgozott volna.[4] Ennek a trtnetnek a hamis volta azonban nem jelenti azt, hogy Hitler zsid szrmazsa vglegesen kizrhat.[5]

Alois Hitler foglalkozsbl addan, de sajt kezdemnyezsbl is, csaldjval egytt gyakran kltztt, elszr Braunaubl Passauba, aztn Lambachba, majd Leondingba s Linzbe. A fiatal Adolf ltalnos iskolai vei alatt mg j tanul volt. A lambachi bencs iskolban tallkozhatott elszr a horogkereszttel, ugyanis az egyik 19. szzadi apt szvesen hasznlta dsztelemknt ezt az si szimblumot, s az tbbfel megtallhat volt a kolostorban.[6]

Adolf j tanulmnyi eredmnyei utn apja egy neves linzi reliskolba ratta, ahol azonban az eminens dikbl egy v alatt bukott dik lett. letrajzri tbb ksrletet is tettek ennek a vltozsnak a megmagyarzsra, de a legvalsznbb az, hogy a krnyezetvltozs s a kt iskola kztti sznvonalklnbsg okozta a kezdeti problmkat, amire aztn a 11 ves fi dacosan reaglt, s nem volt hajland komoly erfesztseket tenni.[7]

Alois Hitler sikeres hivatali plyt futott be, s j anyagi krlmnyeket biztostott csaldjnak. 1903-ban, 66 ves korban hunyt el. A linzi Freisinnige Tageszeitung (Szabadgondolkod Napilap) a kvetkezkppen emlkezett meg rla: Alois Hitler egy keresztl-kasul haladan gondolkod ember volt, s mint ilyen, a szabad iskola nagy bartja.[8]

Apja halla utn az ifj Adolf Hitlert – tovbbra is gyenge eredmnyei miatt – eltancsoltk az iskoljbl. 15 vesen kerlt msik kzpiskolba, de itt sem akart a haszontalannak tartott tanulmnyokkal foglalkozni. A Mein Kampfban slyos tdbntalomrl beszl, de valsznbb, hogy csak kifogst keresett arra, hogy a szmra rdektelen iskoltl megszabaduljon.[9]

1905-tl az apja utn jr rvatmogats, valamint az anyjtl s nagynnjtl kapott pnz viszonylag knyelmes meglhetst biztostott szmra. Betegsgre hivatkozva, valamint azzal az rggyel, hogy felkszl a bcsi Festmvszeti Akadmia felvteli vizsgjra, vidki, majd bcsi rokonainl ldeglt mintegy kt vig. Sznhzba jrt, olvasott, rajzolt, festegetett, de rendszeres tanulmnyokat nem folytatott, s valsznleg nem volt tisztban az akadmia szigor felvteli kvetelmnyeivel sem.[10]

1907-ben sikertelen felvteli vizsgt tett a bcsi Mvszeti Akadmin, de a kudarcot mindenki eltt elhallgatta. Ez v karcsonyn halt meg desanyja, a hozz legkzelebb ll szemly. Hitler ezutn soha nem nnepelte meg a karcsonyt. Az 1908-as v nagy rszben kzsen brelt szobt Bcsben bartjval, August Kubizekkel. gy rt rla: Valami knos komolysgban megnyilvnul kemnysg, merevsg, mozdthatatlansg, makacs megrgzttsg jellemezte lnyt.[11] Kubizeknek sem rulta el azonban, hogy tulajdonkppen nem vettk fel az akadmira, hanem gy tett, mintha tanulmnyi feladatait rajzoln, festen.

1908 szn jra megprblta a felvteli vizsgt az akadmira, de ezttal mr az elszelekcin sem jutott t. Anyagilag egyre nehezebb helyzetbe kerlt, mert rksge fogyatkozott, s az rvasgi ptlkra sem tarthatott tovbb ignyt. Mgis megvlt Kubizektl, inkbb maga keresett olcs hnapos szobt. t hnapig bejelentve sem volt valsznleg a sorozs ell is bujklt. 1910 februrjban vgl bejelentkezett egy gynevezett frfiszllsra, ahol olcsn kapott egy cella mret szobt. Itt ismersei tancsra elkezdett elads cljra kpeslapokat rajzolni, festeni, ebbl hrom vig fenn tudta tartani magt. Kpei eladsban rszt vett egy Neumann nev magyarorszgi zsid ember is, akivel normlis kapcsolata volt.[12] Akkoriban azok kz tartozhatott, akik elmleti antiszemitizmusukat a krnyezetkben l konkrt zsidkra nem terjesztettk ki. Azt tervezte, hogy tanulmnyait Mnchenben folytatja majd, erre gyjttt. Naponta elkszlt egy, ltalban 3540cm-es kppel, amely majdnem mindig bcsi utcarszletet brzolt, s ezeket el is tudta adni 510 koronrt a bcsi kispolgroknak.[13]

Hitler vilgnzete, ideolgija Bcsben kezdte fellteni vgleges formjt. Ersen hatott r az alldeutsch mozgalom, amelyet magyarra nagynmet-nek vagy pngermnnak fordt az irodalom, br bet szerint ssznmet-et jelent. Szervezetk, az Alldeutscher Verband meghatroz egynisge ebben az idben Georg von Schnerer volt. Lapjuk, az Alldeutsches Tageblatt szerkesztsge Hitler lakhelynek kzelben volt, a lap friss szmait akr az utcai vitrinben is el lehetett olvasni.

A mozgalom clja Ausztria-Magyarorszg felbomlasztsa s az sszes nmetnek egy nagynmet birodalomban trtn egyestse volt. A leend birodalombl ki akartk kszblni a szlv s a magyar npelemet, de a katolicizmust s klnsen a zsidsgot is. Emellett a szocildemokrcia eskdt ellensgeinek nyilvntottk magukat, rszben annak internacionalizmusa, rszben zsid szrmazs vezeti miatt. Felfogsukban a rgi hagyomnyokra visszatekint, vallsi s gazdasgi gyker antiszemitizmus talakult faji zsidgyllett: a zsid biolgiailag zsid, zsid ltt csak a ltvel egytt lehet megszntetni.[14]

Br Hitlerre sokban hatott a nagynmet ideolgia, a ksbbiekben ezen alaposan tllpett, s ersen kritizlta is ezt az eszmerendszert a Mein Kampfban. F mvben maga is arrl rt, hogy antiszemitizmusa Bcsben teljesedett ki. Bcs ekkoriban nagy ltszm zsid kisebbsgnek adott otthont, akik kzl sokan Kelet-Eurpbl odavndorolt ortodox zsidk voltak. Hatssal volt Hitlerre ez idben Karl Lueger bcsi polgrmester populista, agresszv retorikja, akit minden idk legnagyobb nmet polgrmestereknt aposztroflt, dicsrte emberismerett, a kisemberek krben npszer intzkedseit, amelyeket gyesen hasznlt fel sajt cljaira.[15] Kimutathat az antiszemita Lanz von Liebenfels(de) fajelmletnek befolysa is Hitler eszmerendszerre, br az utbbi nevt rsaiban nem emlti, s nem vette t tle az antiszemitizmusnak durva szexulis vonatkozsait. (Liebenfels konkrtan tenyszteni szorgalmazta az arra rdemes vrvonal rja frfiakat, mg az arra rdemteleneket ki akarta zrni a szaporodsbl.)

Hitler bcsi vei alatt nehz anyagi helyzete ellenre gyakran jrt sznhzba, s klnsen operba. Kedvelte a bcsi (s magyar) operettet, de abszolt kedvence Wagner volt, akiben a germn mitolgia jjteremtjt ltta. Amikor Kubizek egy 1938-as tallkozsuk sorn emlkeztette t egy 30 vvel korbban egytt ltott Rienzi-eladsra, Hitler gy reaglt: Abban az rban kezddtt[16]

Hitlert rzkenyen rintette buksa a felvteli vizsgkon, de ezt kveten is festknt prblt meglni Bcsben, majd Mnchenben, nem kezdett ms szakma vagy munka keressbe. Amikor az osztrk soroztisztek megtalltk, festmvsznek vallotta magt, de hozztette, hogy csak meglhetsi okok miatt fest. Ksbb mg hatrozottabban elutastotta magtl a festszetet.[17]

Ami stlust, festi felfogst illeti, br dhdten tmadta a konzervatv akadmikusokat (akiknek a felvtelin vallott kudarct tulajdontotta), de megvetette a korabeli modern ramlatokat is. Ksbb, kancellrknt kitiltotta a degenerlt, zsid-nger hatst tkrz festszetet a killttermekbl. A maga rszrl szinte mindig ember nem jrta utcakpeket festett, pleteket rktett meg. J szemmel, gyes kzzel brzolta, msolta vlasztott trgyait, de alkotsai a szakrtk nagyobb rsznek vlemnye szerint nem tik meg a mvszi sznvonalat.[18] Ksbbi politikai szerepe azonban alaposan megemelte kpeinek rtkt, gy azokat nagy mennyisgben hamistottk is. Leghresebb hamistja Konrad Kujau lett, aki a Stern magazin szmra eladta Hitler ugyancsak hamistott napljt is mintegy 10 milli mrkrt, s vele 300 festmnyt, vzlatot, rajzot is, amelyek kzl egy sem volt eredeti.[19]

Mnchenben is kialakult a vevkre, egy aranymves pldul 21 kpet vsrolt tle. Kancellrr vlsa utn sok korbbi vevje felajnlotta szmra festmnyeit, de Hitler nem tartott ignyt mveire. Becslsek szerint festi korszakban, 191014 kztt sszesen mintegy kt-hromezer kpet festhetett. Kzlk mintegy 700 fennmaradt klnbz archvumokban s gyjtemnyekben.[20]

Hatalomra jutsa utn az antifasiszta propaganda azt terjesztette rla, hogy szobafestknt indult. Ennek semmi letrajzi alapja nincs. (Egybknt egsz letben soha nem volt rendszeres, fizetett polgri foglalkozsa.) 1938-ban Jean Effel francia karikaturista kt rajza is megjelent nagy pldnyszm francia lapokban, amelyeken Hitler szobafestknt Ausztrit, illetve Csehszlovkit festi t barnra. A karikatra termszetesen a hitleri Nmetorszg terjeszkedsre utal. Lehetsges, hogy a szobafest-legenda ezekbl ered, vagy legalbbis ezeknek a karikatrknak a nyomn terjedt el szles krben.[21]

Hitler a festszet mellett ersen vonzdott az ptszethez is. Ez egybevgott azzal is, hogy a bcsi sikertelen festszeti felvteli vizsgjn a professzorok a rajzai alapjn inkbb az ptszi plyt ajnlottk szmra.[22] Krlbell 24 ves korban vgleg bcst mondott festszeti terveinek, s teljesen az ptszet fel fordult rdekldsvel. Addigi festi tevkenysgvel ksbb sem trdtt, de ptszeti vzlatait gondosan megrizte.[23] Rendszeres tanulmnyokat azonban nem folytatott, rdekldse nagyrszt az lmodozsokban merlt ki. Kancellrknt azonban mr tg tere nylt annak, hogy elkpzelseit megvalsttassa.

ptszi stlusa ifjkori festi trekvseivel ellenttben megfelelt a korszellemnek, mondhatni divatos volt. A 30-as vek klasszicizl, monumentlis stlusa szmos vilgvrosban felbukkant, Moszkvtl New Yorkig, Rmtl Prizsig. Hitler azonban mindenki mson messze tl akart tenni. ptszeti elkpzelseinek els f kivitelezje Paul Ludwig Troost volt, majd az halla utn, 1934-tl Albert Speer. Troost mg a neoklasszicizmus keretei kztt maradt (Nmet Mvszetek Hza, Mnchen), de Speer mr hsgesen kvette Hitler gigantomnijt. tervezte a nrnbergi prtnapok sznhelyt, amely vgs formjban egymilli ember befogadsra lett volna alkalmas.[24] Speer tervezte Hitler elkpzelsei alapjn a birodalmi s egyben vilgfvros, a Germnia nvre keresztelend Berlin j arculatt is, olyan kzhivatali pletekkel, amelyek inkbb kolosszlis templomokra, mint munkahelyekre hasonltottak. Hitler ide sznta a vilg legmagasabb kupolacsarnokt s diadalvt.

Szmos szakrt szerint a nmet ptszet Hitler irnytsa alatt az 19341940 kztti idszakban trtnelmileg egyedlll eredmnyeket rt el.[25] Az ltala tmogatott ptszek, Tessenow, Troost, Speer fellmltk Mussolini vagy Sztlin ptszeinek neoklasszicizmust. Olyan j stlust akart teremteni, amely nem utnozza a trtnelmi stlusokat, hanem maga vlik trtnelmiv.[26] Az ptszet tern is elismerte a kor modern technolgiit. Az autplya-ptsek ltala diktlt temt a kor kzlekeds-gazdasgi szksgletei mg nem igazn indokoltk, Hitler stratgiai, valamint ideolgiai okokbl szorgalmazta azt. Speernek egyszer kijelentette, hogy az autplya lesz az Parthennja, s hozztette, hogy az tpts a rmaiaktl s az inkktl Napleonig mindig az ers kormnyzat jele volt.[27]

Hitler letrajznak kutati semmifle szexulis kapcsolatrl nem talltak adatot fiatal korbl. Kubizek szerint titokban vonzdott egy lenyhoz, akit meglesett, amikor az anyjval korzzott az utcn, de soha nem beszlt vele. Egy msik emlkezs szerint egyszer agresszven lpett fel egy modellt ll lnnyal szemben.[28]

A szerelmi kapcsolatainak hinya sok tallgatsra adott alkalmat. Impotensnek vagy homoszexulisnak tartottk sokan, s mr a hbor elejn elterjedt, hogy csak egy herje van. (Ami klnben orvosilag nem felttlenl okoz zavart egy frfi szexulis letben.) Mindez azonban csak spekulcikon alapul.[29] (A Hd a Kwai folyn cm filmben is egy ilyen trgy gnydal, a Hitler Has Only Got One Ball hangzik el az angol katonktl, de csak ftylve.[30]) Ami a homoszexualitst illeti, Hitler sokig egykedven trte a prtjban (klnsen az Ernst Rhm vezette SA-ban) meglv homoszexulis aktivitst, de semmi jel nem mutat arra, hogy maga homo- vagy biszexulis lett volna. Tbb letrajzrja viszont lappang homoszexulis hajlamot tulajdont Hitlernek annak alapjn, hogy els igazi otthona, ahol jl rezte magt s sem okozott problmkat, a hadsereg volt a maga tiszta frfitrsasgval. Erre utalhat az is, hogy a hossz ksek jszakja sorn, amikor politikai okokbl leszmolt az SA vezetivel, dhdten tmadt azok ferde hajlamai ellen.[31]

Klns, sok pletykra okot ad kapcsolata volt Angela Rauballal, mostohanvrnek, egyben hzvezetnjnek lnyval. 1929-tl a 20 ves Gelinek sajt szobja volt Hitler hatalmas mncheni laksban, s a prtvezr nevelt lnyaknt kezelte, mindenhov magval vitte. A fiatal lnyt eltiltotta ms kapcsolataitl. Geli Hitler irnti rajongsa fokozatosan gyllett vltozott, s 1931-ben vitatott krlmnyek kztt ngyilkos lett.[32] Hitlert a lny halla nagyon megrzta. Ettl kezdve lett vegetrinus, amit sokan ezzel az esemnnyel hoztak sszefggsbe.

A nk trsadalmi szereprl llspontja mlysgesen konzervatv volt. Szerinte a n vilga a frje, csaldja, gyermekei s a hza A nemancipci csak a zsid intellektus ltal kifundlt sz, s tartalmt ugyanez a szellem hatrozza meg.[33] Fel kell leszteni a nmet anya hagyomnyos ernyeit, el kell fogadni, hogy a frfiak az let szmos terletn elnyben vannak a nkkel szemben. Ugyanakkor prtolta, hogy a lnyok testnevelse olyan legyen, mint a fik, k is sportos, modern letmdot folytassanak. Amikor azonban a hbor alatt Goebbels a nk teljes mozgstst kezdemnyezte, Hitler ezt ellenezte.[34]

lettrsnak, Eva Braunnak mg azokat a jogokat sem biztostotta, amelyeket ltalban a nmet nnek sznt. 1932-ben kialakult kapcsolatuk sorn t teljesen httrbe szortotta, a nyilvnossg eltt nem vllalta. Vgl kzs ngyilkossguk eltt adta meg neki az elgttelt, hogy Frau Hitlernek mondhassa magt.

Hitler alkatilag aszketikus hajlam ember volt, ez klnsen fiatal korban tett neki j szolglatot. Keveset evett, nem zavarta, ha kenyren s tejen kvl msra nem jut. Soha nem dohnyzott, alkoholt is ritkn ivott nha egy-egy srt, ami hozztartozott a nmet frfi imzshoz, csakgy, mint a bajor rvidnadrg, amelyet szintn felvett nha. Nem jrt nk utn sem, gy aztn anyagi szempontbl knny volt szabadnak maradnia, nem kellett erltetnie a pnzkeresetet. Meg tudott lni szerny ifjkori apanzsbl, nhny korons festmnyei rtkestsbl, a szks katonai zsoldbl, vagy a kezd prtmunksknt tartott eladsok s rt cikkek csekly honorriumbl egyarnt.

Idsebb korban kapott r az dessgre, nagyon megszerette, s ervel kellett visszafognia magt, hogy el ne pocakosodjon. Tartott attl, hogy emiatt sznokknt is vesztene hatsbl. Ignyei kancellrknt is korltozottak maradtak: a luxusbl csak a legjobb autt, a j lakst s a megfelel flrevonulsi lehetsget, villt ignyelte.[35]

Hitlert katolikusnak kereszteltk, de vallsossga korn httrbe szorult. Politikai tevkenysge sorn azt tartotta szem eltt, hogy vallsi llsfoglalsa klnsen a katolicizmus s a reformci sszefggsben a vlasztk egyik vagy msik rsze eltt mindenkppen htrnyos helyzetbe hozn. Ezrt semleges igyekezett maradni: A politikai vezr szmra npnek vallsi tanai s intzmnyei rinthetetlenek kell hogy legyenek, klnben nem szabad politikusnak lennie, hanem legyen reformtor, ha ahhoz megvan az eszkze.[36]

1933-as hatalomra jutsa utn, az j parlament megnyitja eltti hivatalos egyhzi szertartson nem vett rszt, mint hivatalosan bejelentette, a katolikus pspksg ellensges magatartsa miatt.[37] A parlament els lsn ugyan leszgezte, hogy a keresztnysgben a npi morl s erklcsisg alapjt ltja, de ebben az idben mr szmos pap is a koncentrcis tborokban volt. Rosenberg nci fideolgus pedig ekkor megjelent knyvben f tmaknt trgyalta a keresztnysg mint nemrja jelensg krtkonysgt. A m Hitlernek nem tetszett, mert az egyhzak tmadsa nem felelt meg cljainak.[38] St, fontosnak tartotta a nagy tmegbefolyssal rendelkez egyhzakkal fenntartott kapcsolatot. 1934-ben hrom nmet rsek eltt kijelentette: Soha nem fogok Kulturkampfot indtani.[39] 1941-ben Hitler megfenyegette Bajororszg nemzetiszocialista helytartjt, hogy lecsukatja, mert az elrendelte a feszletek eltvoltst az iskolkbl. A hbor alatt is gyakran mondogatta hveinek, hogy az egyhz megleckztetsvel vrni kell a hbor utnig, akkor viszont fel kell majd szabadtani az ifjsgot a hatsa all.[40]

Hitler Bcsben nemcsak a zsidkat gyllte, hanem magt a ketts monarchit, a katolikus egyhzat, a polgrsgot s munkssgot egyarnt.[41] 1913 tavaszn betlttte 24. letvt, gy szmtania kellett arra, hogy besorozzk az ltala megvetett llam hadseregbe. Ezrt mjus 24-n egy ismers fiatalemberrel egytt egyszeren fellt a vonatra, s tteleplt Mnchenbe.

Ksbb tbbszr nyilatkozott gy, hogy a Mnchenben a hbor kitrsig eltlttt j egy ve letnek legboldogabb idszaka volt.[42] Pedig bcsi lethez kpest nem sokat vltoztak krlmnyei. Ugyangy kpei eladsbl lt nagyon szernyen. titrsval albrlett is megosztotta. Ksbb az osztrk soroztisztek is utolrtk, de vgl fizikai gyengesge miatt minden katonai szolglatra alkalmatlannak nyilvntottk.[43] Mnchen szmra elssorban a vros tiszta nmet jellege miatt volt otthonos. Egy nmet vros! Micsoda ellentt Bccsel szemben! rta mg tz vvel ksbb is a Mein Kampfban.[44]

Mnchenben Hitler rengeteget olvasott, s a helyi forrsok alapjn fejleszthette tovbb politikai s fajelmleti elkpzelseit. A nmet alldeutschok elmletei azonban rszben el is trtek az osztrk eszmetrsaiktl. k is nagynmet birodalomban gondolkodtak, de nem vetettk fel a ketts monarchia felbontsnak gondolatt, hanem az egsz OsztrkMagyar Monarchit vontk volna nmet befolys al. Emellett hvei voltak a tengerentli nmet gyarmatostsnak is, ami Hitlert soha nem foglalkoztatta. Visszaemlkezsei szerint ekkoriban fejtette ki elszr azt a meggyzdst, hogy a nmet nemzet jvjnek krdse a marxizmus megsemmistse.[45]

Mindenesetre Hitler sokkal jobban rezte magt a hborra s hdtsra kszl nmet csszrsgban, mint a megoldatlan nemzetisgi problmkkal terhelt, felbomls eltt ll Ausztria-Magyarorszgon. Hitler legksbb 1913-ban tisztban volt mr a ketts monarchia felbomlsnak elkerlhetetlensgvel, st a maga rszrl kvnta is azt.[46]

Hitler a Mein Kampfban arrl r, hogy 1914. augusztus 3-n nhny hnappal azutn, hogy az osztrk hadseregbl kiszuperltatta magt srgs krst intzett III. Lajos bajor kirlyhoz, hogy osztrk llampolgrsga ellenre bevonulhasson a bajor hadseregbe, s krsre mr msnap pozitv vlaszt kapott.[47] A trtnet valszertlen, hiszen egy nap alatt krse el sem juthatott az illetkesekhez, mindenesetre augusztus 16-n Hitler lelkesen bevonult a nmet hadseregbe (a sorozk valsznleg nem is rdekldtek llampolgrsga irnt).[48]

Kt hnapos kikpzs utn a nyugati frontra kerlt a 16. bajor List tartalkos gyalogezredhez. Az egysg feladata a LilleBrugge vonaltl az Ypres irnyba indtand tmads tmogatsa volt. Hitler 1941-ben gy emlkezett vissza: Az egyetlen olyan id volt, amikor nem voltak gondjaim: a hat v a hadseregben; ott mindennel kiszolgltk az embert, koszttal csakgy, mint kvrtllyal[49] November 1-jn mr megkapta a Gefreiter rendfokozatot, ez a nmet tisztesi rendfokozati csoportban az rvezet s a tizedes kztt helyezkedett el. November 9-n az ezredstbhoz kerlt kldncnek, s a hbor alatt mindvgig megmaradt ebben a beosztsban. Feladata az ezredparancsnoksg s a fronton harcolk lvszrkai kztti zenetek eljuttatsa volt, gyakran slyos tzrsgi s gppuskatz alatt. Mr 1914 decemberben kitntettk a Vaskereszt msodik fokozatval. 1916 oktberben az szak-franciaorszgi harcokban sebesls rte a lbn. Felplse utn nhny napot Berlinben, illetve Mnchenben tlttt. A htorszg llapott elkesertnek tartotta, alig vrta, hogy visszatrhessen a frontra. Felettesei elgedettek voltak teljestmnyvel, ellptetsre is fel akartk terjeszteni, Hitler azonban tiltakozott ez ellen, br ennek nem adta semmifle magyarzatt.[50] Feletteseihez val viszonyt ksbb, a mncheni srpuccsot kvet 1924-es per sorn gy jellemezte: A feletteseket tisztelni, senkinek nem ellentmondani, vakon engedelmeskedni. (nmetl: Den Vorgesetzten achten, niemandem widersprechen, blindlings sich fgen).

Br a hasonl rendfokozat katonk ritkn kaptak ilyen magas kitntetst, egyik felettese, egy zsid tiszt mgis felterjesztette t a Vaskereszt els fokozatra, amelyet 1918 szeptemberben kapott meg. Nem sokkal ksbb, 1918 oktberben mustrgz-tmads ldozata lett az ypres-i front kzelben. Valsznleg a harctri sokk kvetkeztben kialakult pszichoszomatikus hats miatt tmenetileg elvesztette ltst.[51] Rvid belgiumi kezelse utn a pomerniai Pasewalkba szlltottk. Az ottani krhzban rte a hbor vgnek hre. A Mein Kampfban azt rja, hogy a krhzban, gygyulsa s a hbors veresg hatsra formldott meg benne az elhatrozs, hogy politikai plyra lp.[52]

1918 novemberben visszatrt Mnchenbe. Az tmeneti hadsereg tagja lett, amely igyekezett leveznyelni a katonai veresg utni talakulsokat a felboml hatalmi viszonyok kzepette. Szzadban a szocildemokrata befolys volt a dnt, ennek ellenre meg tudta vlasztatni magt szzadbizalminak.[53]

1919. prilis 6-n Mnchenben kikiltottk a Bajor Tancskztrsasgot. prilis 15-n Hitlert megvlasztottk a zszlaljtancs pttagjv, azaz elrelpett a bizalmiak hierarchijban, felvilgost tanfolyamokon vett rszt. Ekkoribl szrmazhatnak bizonyos kezdetleges marxista ismeretei.

A Bajor Tancskztrsasgot azonban mr mjus 1-jre levertk a kormnycsapatok s a jobboldali paramilitris egysgek. Elrendeltk a helyi illetsg katonk leszerelst, de eltte vizsglbizottsgoknak kellett feltrni politikai magatartsukat. A bolsevista, spartakista, kommunista elemeket letartztattk. Hitler mjus 10-re az egyik vizsglbizottsg tagja lett, gy elkerlte a leszerelst, ami visszatasztotta volna t a ltbizonytalansgba, egyben ftyolt bortott korbbi tevkenysgre is.

Az j, teljhatalm mncheni katonai vezets bels elhrt rszleget hozott ltre a bolsevik eszmk elleni harcra s az tnevel munkra. Ennek az lre egy Karl Mayr nev, ersen jobboldali s antiszemita, egybknt tehetsges s ambicizus vezrkari tiszt kerlt, aki tnapos beszdtanfolyamokat rendezett.[54] (Mayr egybknt lett egy koncentrcis tborban vgezte.) Hitler, a magas kitntetsekkel kestett katona rszt vehetett egy ilyen kurzuson, ami alkalmat adott addigi ismeretei, nzetei rendszerezsre. Itt ismerte fel azt is, hogy komoly sznoki kpessgekkel br.[55]

Hitler hamarosan a vezet propagandistk kz kerlt. Szmos eladst tartott, Mayr krsre brosrt rt a szocildemokrcia s a zsidsg tmakrben, ahol mr gyakorlatilag vglegesen megformlta antiszemita nzeteinek rendszert.

A Mayr vezette osztag nemcsak propagandatevkenysget folytatott, hanem titkosszolglati munkt is vgzett a hadseregen kvl, a gyans polgri szervezetek, prtok krben. Hitler ennek a keretben kapta azt a feladatot, hogy vegyen rszt a Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (Nmet Munksprt, DAP) egyik lsn, 1919 szeptemberben. Ebbl az akkor szinte jelentktelen prtocskbl lett ksbb a Hitler vezette Nemzetiszocialista Nmet Munksprt.[56]

Hitler az Anton Drexler alaptotta Nmet Munksprt lsn ahol csupn tucatnyi ember vett rszt felszlalsban utastotta el az nll Bajororszgnak az egyik eltte szl ltal kifejtett programjt. Beszdvel olyan sikert aratott, hogy nhny nap mlva levlben rtestettk: felvettk t a prt tagjai sorba. Nem tudta, bosszankodjon, vagy nevessen, mert korbban sajt prt alaptsra gondolt,[57] de vgl elfogadta ezt a helyzetet, s a DAP sorrendben 55. tagja lett. Hamarosan azt is tapasztalhatta, hogy knnyen hat az emberekre, nagy politikai manipulatv s taktikai rzkkel rendelkezik. Aktivizlta j prtjt, egyre nagyobb ltszm gylseket szervezett. Els nyilvnos beszdt 1919. november 13-n tartotta egy srzben, a hadsereg megfigyelje szerint mesteri mdon.[58] Hitler maga is rmmel llaptotta meg, hogy tud beszlni a nyilvnossg eltt.[59]

Hamarosan prtja vezeti kz kerlt, httrbe szortva dilettns trsait. Eldnttte, hogy a DAP-bl kialaktja sajt prtjt, amely mellesleg ltfeltteleit is biztostja, hiszen a hadseregben nemigen maradhatott. Ekkoriban ismerkedett meg Alfred Rosenberggel, a nci mozgalom egyik ksbbi f ideolgusval, valamint Ernst Rhm szzadossal, aki nagyon fontos szvetsgese lett a prt erszakszervezeteinek kialaktsban. Rhm rengeteg volt katont, tisztet verbuvlt a DAP soraiba, s alaktotta ki azt a kemny magot, amely a prt gylsein biztostotta a hangulatot, s egyben ksz volt lecsapni az ellenvlemnyt hangoztatkra. Ekkor kerlt Hitler krnyezetbe Rudolf He is. A prt f propagandistja Hermann Esser lett, az alig 20 ves jsgr-zseni, aki pontosan tudta, hogyan kell annyit tlozni, hogy egy hrbl szenzci legyen, hogyan lehet valakit a sajtban tnkretenni anlkl, hogy a rgalmazs vdjt magra vonn, hogyan lehet emberfeletti imzst teremteni Hitler szmra. Gtlstalansgval azonban Esser a prton bell is annyi ellenfelet szerzett magnak, hogy Hitler a 30-as vek elejn, amikor mr ptolni tudta, megvlt tle.[60]

A DAP programja kvetelte minden nmet egyestst egy llamban, megfelel terletet (Land und Boden) a lakossg szmra, a zsidk megfosztst llampolgrsguktl s eltvoltsukat a kzhivatalokbl, az idegenek kiutastst, llamostst, a kamatrabszolgasg megszntetst, a nagyruhzak kommunalizlst. A munksok szmra nyeresgrszesedst kvetelt a vllalatoktl, a parasztsg szmra fldreformot, a fld ingyenes kisajttst. A program a szles nprtegekhez szlt, de alkalmas volt arra is, hogy felkeltse a tksek s nagybirtokosok gyanakvst s ellenrzst. Hitler ezrt nem llt teljes mrtkben a program mg, br nem is hatrolta el magt tle. Tudatban volt annak, hogy szksge van a vezet rtegek nem utolssorban anyagi tmogatsra. Ksbb, a Mein Kampfban a program jelentsgt jelkpesknt, hitvallsknt aposztroflta.[61]

1920. februr 24-n a 25 pontos program elfogadsa mellett Hitler javaslatra a prt nevt is megvltoztattk Nemzetiszocialista Nmet Munksprtra (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), amelyet hivatalosan NSDAP-nak, a kznyelvben nci prtnak rvidtettek.

1921 jliusban kerlt sor a prton bell arra a kenyrtrsre, amelynek rvn Hitler egyszemlyi vezetv vlt. Hitler nhny hetet Berlinben tlttt az ottani prtszervezs rdekben, ezalatt Mnchenben a prtelnksg kt fontos krdsben dntst srgetett. Azt akartk, hogy a programban a nagybirtok elleni harc egy szintre kerljn a zsid befolys elleni kzdelemmel, valamint egyeslni kvntak a hasonl irnyzat kis Nmetszocialista Prttal. Hitlert visszatrt Mnchenbe s ultimtumot adott a prt elnksgnek: j vlasztson diktatrikus hatalommal felruhzott prtelnkt kell vlasztani, ellenkez esetben elhagyja a prtot.[62] Hitler mr nlklzhetetlen volt, ha a prt nem akart visszasllyedni a jelentktelensgbe. Az elnksg megadta magt, a jlius 29-i taggyls Hitler elkpzelsei szerint zajlott, s azon t teljhatalm prtelnkk vlasztottk.[63]

Hitler a prtbl tmegprtot kvnt formlni, ami hatalmi trekvseinek eszkze lehet, s elhdthatja a munksokat a szocildemokrcitl. Szmtott azokra a kispolgrokra is, akiket a lesllyeds veszlye fenyegetett. Az NSDAP vonzskrbe kerltek a leszerels utn egzisztencilis gondokkal kzd katonk, fiatal tisztek is. Elssorban k lettek az SA tagjai is, mivel ott korbbi letkhz hasonl letet lhettek, s kisebb-nagyobb juttatsokban rszesltek. A prt felvsrolta a hadsereg kszleteiben elfekv barna ingeket, s ezeket kiosztotta az SA-ba lp fiatalok kztt. Hitler kialaktotta a prt jelkprendszert, a klnbz jobboldali szervezetek ltal Eurpa-szerte alkalmazott si horogkereszt sajt vltozatt, amelyet fehr krben vrs zszlba helyezett. Terjedt a felemelt jobbkarral val kszns, a Heil Hitler, s a prtelnkt elkezdtk Fhrernek szltani.[64] (A Heil Hitler Wagner Rienzijbl ered, ahol elhangzik a Heil Rienzi! ksznts. Ksbb a nagy nrnbergi prtgylsek kezdetn mindig elhangzott a Rienzi-nyitny.)

A mozgalom egyre tbb hvet szerzett, kztk pnzgyi tmogatkat, bel- s klfldn egyarnt. Az bred Magyarok Egyeslete is nyjtott tmogatst ebben az idben az NSDAP-nak.[65]

A hogyan tovbb krdst Hitler Benito Mussolini pldjnak kvetsvel szerette volna megoldani. A menetels Rmba mintjt alapul vve puccsot szervezett a hatalom tvtelre, az tgondolatlan ksrlet azonban teljes kudarcot vallott. A felkelst csrjban elfojtottk a kormny eri, Hitlert letartztattk, prtjt betiltottk.

Letartztatsa utn Hitlert eleinte ngyilkossgi gondolatok foglalkoztattk, de aztn a perre kszlve felismerte, hogy ez j alkalom addigi plyafutsnak s politikai hitvallsnak tgondolsra. A per lehetsget teremtett szmra ahhoz is, hogy errl a nyilvnos szszkrl tmadhassa a weimari kztrsasg demokratikus kormnyt, mint a zsid sszeeskvs egyik gct. A bajor konzervatv erket viszont a nemzeti rdek ruliknt lltotta be. Hitlert a brsg vgl 5 v brtnre s 200 mrka pnzbntetsre tlte, de idegen llampolgrsga miatti kiutaststl a vdlott nmet rzelmei alapjn a brsg eltekintett. Eltlse utn Nmetorszgban sokan gondoltk azt, hogy ezzel az osztrk mzol nmet politikai plyafutsnak vge szakadt. Hitler azonban veresgbl egyfajta erklcsi gyzelmet kovcsolt.[66]

Landsberg am Lechben tlttt tves bntetsbl Hitler mindssze 13 hnapot tlttt brtnben. Ezalatt megrta, pontosabban Rudolf Henek rgpbe diktlta egyetlen, mg az letben kt vaskos ktetben megjelent mvt, a kzel 800 oldalas Mein Kampfot. Ebben ttekintette addigi plyafutst, megfogalmazta vilgnzett, valamint politikai programjt. A knyv a nemzetiszocializmus ideolgiai alapvetse lett.

Megfogalmazta benne legfontosabb politikai, stratgiai cljait is:

A clok mellett a megfelel mdszereket is ismertette mvben. Kiemelte:

Minden propagandnak npinek kell lennie, s szellemi sznvonalt azok legkorltozottabbjaihoz belltania, akikhez fordulni gondol. Szellemi szintjt annl mlyebbre lltja, minl nagyobb kell legyen a megragadand embertmeg.

A tmegek felfogkpessge nagyon korltozott, ezzel szemben a feledkenysg nagy. E tnyekbl kifolylag minden hatkony propagandnak csak nagyon kevs pontra szabad korltozdnia, s ezeket jelzsszeren oly sokig hasznlnia, amg csak a legutols is kpes egy ilyen szval kapcsolatban maga el idzni azt, amit akarunk.

Minden nagy vezr mvszete abban ll elssorban, hogy egy np figyelmt ne sztszrja, hanem mindig csak egyetlen ellensgre sszpontostsa Egy nagy vezr zsenialitshoz hozztartozik, hogy mg az egymssal ellenttben ll ellenfeleket is gy jelentse meg, mint amelyek egyetlen kategrihoz tartoznak, mert klnbz ellensgek felismerse a gyenge s bizonytalan kategriknl knnyen vezethet ahhoz, hogy ktelkedni kezdjenek sajt igazukban.

Hitler, Mein Kampf, 197., 198., 247. oldal

Hitler a tudatlan tmegek szmra megalkotand ellensgkpet, a modern kifejezssel lve hvszt a zsidsgban tallta meg. Ennek a vgletekig eltorztott alakjba aztn tetszs szerint belefoglalhatta minden ellensgt, a marxizmust, a munksmozgalmat, a polgri baloldalt, a nemzetkzi pnztkt, a nyugati nagyhatalmakat, a polgri humanizmust, az eurpai jogrendet egyarnt.[67]

Br a brtn krlmnyei lehetv tettk volna, hogy onnan prblkozzon meg prtja irnytsval, Hitler ezt nem tette meg. tengedte a prt vezetst Alfred Rosenbergnek, azonban kptelen volt hatkonyan szervezni az NSDAP tevkenysgt.

Hitlert j magaviselete s a szthullban lv prt veszlytelensge nyomn jval bntetse lejrta eltt, 1924. december 20-n szabadon engedtk.[68]

Szabadulsa utn Hitler j alapokrl kezdte meg politikai ptkezst. Nyilatkozatban biztostotta lojalitsrl a bajor kormnyt, tvedsnek minstette a srpuccsot, s felajnlotta prtja segtsgt a marxizmus elleni harchoz. Ennek rvn jra megnylt az NSDAP eltt a szabad szervezkeds tja, megint megjelenhetett a prtlap, a Vlkischer Beobachter is.

Az NSDAP a srpuccs utni betiltsa miatt egy ideig ms neveken, illetve ms jobboldali szervezetekkel koalciban tevkenykedett, de nem sok sikerrel. Az 1924. mjusi vlasztsokon a klnbz nacionalista s nemzetiszocialista csoportok egyttesen 1,9 milli szavazatot szereztek meg (vagyis a szavazatok 6,6%-t), ami decemberre 0,9 milli szavazatra, vagyis a szavazatok 2,9%-ra esett vissza. Hitler szabadulsa utn felmondta ezeket a koalcikat, ragaszkodott sajt egyszemlyi vezetshez azon az ron is, hogy a megvlasztott kpviselk tbbsgt nem sikerlt megnyernie a sajt irnyvonala szmra.[69]

Hitler tisztzni akarta llampolgri helyzett is, 1925 mrciusban krelmezte osztrk llampolgrsgnak megszntetst, s krst szinte azonnal el is fogadtk. Egyelre azonban Hitler nem merte krni a nmet allampolgrsgot, ezrt egszen 1932-ig papron hontalan maradt.[70]

A prton bell sem volt mg elg szilrd Hitler helyzete. Gregor s Otto Strasser a prt vezeti kzl kitntek szervez munkjukkal, klnsen szak-Nmetorszgban, de ideolgiailag Hitlertl balra lltak, brltk t a forradalmi mdszerek feladsa, a hatsgokkal val kiegyezs, a nagytksekre tmaszkods miatt. k is nacionalistk s antiszemitk voltak, de ellensgei voltak a kapitalizmusnak is. Ekkor mg Joseph Goebbels is ehhez a csoporthoz tartozott.[71]

Strasserk Hannoverbe, Hitlerrel nem egyeztetve, gylst hvtak ssze, amelyen egy szocilis programot alaktottak ki. Ennek szles kr megvitatsra nagygylst kezdtek szervezni. Hitler ezt megelzve egy msik nagygylst hvott ssze Bambergbe, ahol sznoki tehetsgvel a maga oldalra lltotta a hallgatsgot. A kt Strasser testvr ezutn mr nem lpett fel nyilvnosan Hitler ellen. Hasonl nzeteltrsek jellemeztk Hitler s Rhm kapcsolatt is. Rhm emiatt 1925-ben lemondott az SA vezetsrl, s klfldre tvozott; csak 1931-ben trt vissza Hitler hvsra.[72]

Az NSDAP 1926-os msodik, weimari kongresszusa Hitler teljes gyzelmt hozta. A felszlalsok szvegt elre be kellett mutatni az elnksgnek, a beszdidt korltoztk (Gregor Strasser ettl kezdve barti krben halott nemzetiszocializmusrl beszlt). Hitler ezutn tovbb fokozta erfesztseit a prt befolysnak az egsz orszgra trtn kiterjesztse rdekben. Az 1927-es nrnbergi kongresszus mr klssgeiben is igazi nci rendezvny volt, zszlkkal, alakzatban menetel egysgekkel, kizrlag barna inget visel tagokkal. A mrskelt sajt 15000, a Vlkischer Beobachter 100000 felvonulrl tudstott.[73]

A prt orszgos befolysa azonban alig nvekedett. 1927 vgn tagjainak szma alig haladta meg a 70000-et. Hitler erre kijelentette, hogy nem is akar tbb prttagot, mint maximum 6800000 f. Mindenesetre jra ersdtek a kritikk vele szemben. Az SA trelmetlen tagjai utcai harcokat kveteltek, Strasserk pedig a Szovjetuni elleni fellpstl vtk a prtot.[74]

Az 1928-as vlasztsokon az NSDAP a nagy kampny ellenre mindssze a szavazatok 2,6%-t kapta, a 491 kpviseli helybl 12-t szerzett meg.[75]

Hitlertl tvol llt a nmeteknek sztereotipikusan tulajdontott rendszeretet s alapossg. rasztal mellett soha nem dolgozott, paprt, tollat szinte egyltaln nem hasznlt. Hosszabb llegzet utastsait is diktlta. A prtvezri, majd a kancellri hivatalba alig jrt be, legfeljebb dlutn. Rendszeres munkaideje nem volt, soha nem tudta senki, mikor lehet vele beszlni. Vacsorapartnereit viszont rkon t szval tartotta, rajtuk szondztatta meg gondolatait, elmleteit, amelyeket mg nem akart a nyilvnossg el trni.[76] Esti a hajnalba nyltak, de dlelttnknt nem mertk felkelteni fontos fejlemnyek esetn sem. llandan mozgsban volt, s ekzben szban adta ki rendelkezseit krnyezetnek. Kiemelked emlkeztehetsgnek segtsgvel az gyeket fejben intzte. A legfels szint hivatali munkra Hitler munkastlusa nagyban rnyomta a blyegt; az gyek gyakran csak intzdtek, sok volt a prhuzamossg az intzmnyek s a szemlyek kztt egyarnt, nem lehetett azonostani az egyes feladatok felels vgrehajtit. Hitler maga azonban mindig tudta, mit tart igazn fontosnak, s azt ltalban vgre is tudta hajtatni.[77]

Az 1920-as vek derekn Nmetorszgban lezajlott gazdasgi konszolidci s fellendls krlmnyei kztt az NSDAP s vezetje anyagi helyzete is ltvnyosan javult. Hitler 1925-ben brelt egy villt Berchtesgaden mellett, majd 1928-ban meg is vsrolta azt. A hely kivlasztsban az is szerepet jtszott, hogy a brtn utn Hitler a menekls esetleges szksgessgre is gondolt, s ez a hely kzvetlenl az osztrk hatr mellett volt; Ausztribl pedig szksg esetn eljuthatott volna a barti Olaszorszgba vagy Magyarorszgra.[78] Mncheni brlakst egy kilencszobs luxuslaksra cserlte. Hitler szemlyes jvedelmei, a beszdek, cikkek utn jr honorriumok nyilvnvalan nem lehettek elegendek ezek finanszrozsra. Hasonlkppen llt a helyzet az NSDAP kltsgvetsvel. A prt rendezvnyei, sajtja, rplapjai, plaktjai, az SA s a prtvezetk vdelmre ltrehozott SS kiadsait nem fedezhettk a tagdjbevtelek.[79]

Mindezzel azonban az NSDAP nem llt egyedl. Ebben az idszakban mr a tbbi prt is fleg vllalkozi juttatsokbl gazdlkodott. Ezek az adomnyok ltalban akkor sem voltak nyilvnosak, br klns okuk nem volt a titkolzsra, ma pedig mg nehezebb errl adatokhoz jutni. A Mercedes-Benz cg pldul egy luxusautt bocstott Hitler rendelkezsre sofrrel. Annak idejn az NDK-beli trtnszek s msok minden ervel azt kvntk bizonytani, hogy Hitlert kezdetektl a nmet finnctke, mindenekeltt a Ruhr-vidki nagyvllakozk finanszroztk, mg msok ezt vehemensen tagadtk. A valsghoz minden bizonnyal az a nzet ll a legkzelebb, hogy a nagy prtokat jelents rszben olyan vllalkozk finanszroztk, akik fantzit lttak az adott prtok programjban. Tmogatsukat a legtbb esetben tbb prt kztt is megosztottk.

Az NSDAP szmos pnzkijrja kztt fontos szerepe volt pldul Hermann Gringnek. Maga Hitler is j kapcsolatot polt a nagytks krkkel, rendszeresen jrt hozzjuk eladst tartani. Ezekben az eladsaiban a munksmozgalom ellen lpett fel, skraszllt a gazdasgi autonmia, a gazdasgi vezetk tekintlynek elismerse mellett, s nagy v kpet festett a nmet birodalom fellendlsrl. Az antiszemita kirohansok s a fajelmlet viszont kimaradtak ezekbl a beszdeibl.[80]

Hitler szmra a politikai fordulpont a nagy gazdasgi vilgvlsg sorn rkezett el. Hitler a vilgvlsgot megelz jlt veiben figyelmeztetett beszdeiben, hogy a weimari kztrsasg vezetse a gazdasgot nagyban amerikai klcsnkbl finanszrozza, s e kls fggsg miatt brmikor sszeomolhat. Amikor a vilgvlsggal Hitler jslata vratlanul valsgg vlt, a jlt veiben csupn radiklis szlssgesknt elknyvelt Hitler a nmet kzvlemny szemben hirtelen a vilgot helyesen felmr ltnokk vltozott.[81] A vlsg eljelei 192829 teln mr rezhetek voltak. 1929 februrjban a munkanlkliek szma tllpte a 3 millit.[82] A kezre jtszott Hitlernek a jvttel gynek jbli napirendre kerlse is. Az els vilghbor minden felelssgt nhny vesztes llamra, fleg Nmetorszgra rtta a prizsi bkerendszer. A rendszer nem csak igazsgtalan volt, hanem bonyolultsga miatt teljesen alkalmazhatatlan is. 1928 krl mr senki nem fizetett semmit ennek keretben. Ekkor Owen Young amerikai bankr vezetsvel ltrehoztak egy bizottsgot a jvtteli rendszer fellvizsglatra. A Young-terv, amely egszen 1988-ig temezte volna t a jvtteli kiadsokat, vgl semmivel nem lett igazsgosabb vagy egyszerbb, csak arra volt alkalmas, hogy klnsen a kzeled vlsg krlmnyei kztt felsztsa az ssztrsadalmi felhborodst Nmetorszgban.

A Young-terv ellen Alfred Hugenberg sajtmgns, a Deutschnationale Volkspartei (Nmetnemzeti Npprt) elnke vezetsvel egy bizottsg alakult, amely clul tzte ki a terv npszavazs tjn trtn eltlst s egyttal a radiklis jobboldal sszefogst. Hugenberg a fels kzposztlyhoz tartozott, tmegei nem voltak, ezrt szvetsget ajnlott a npi nci prtnak. Hitler ezttal nem dzkodott a prtszvetsgtl, mindent egy lapra tett fel, bzva abban, hogy ms szvetsgeseihez hasonlan Hugenberget is ki tudja majd szortani a vezetsbl. Elssorban a sajtbirodalmt akarta felhasznlni sajt cljaira. A npszavazsi kampny sorn az SA legnysge elrte a 100000-es ltszmot, Hitler prtja orszgos ismertsget szerzett s a nagytks krk is egyre hatrozottabban mg lltak. Az 1930. szeptemberi parlamenti vlasztsok eltt Hitler mr szinte korltlan pnzeszkzkkel s sajtval rendelkezett hatalmas kampnyhoz. Abban bzott, hogy 5060 kpviseli helyet szerez prtja. Az eredmny viszont 107 mandtum lett (az 575-bl), a kt vvel korbbi 810000 helyett 6,4 milli szavazatot kaptak.[83] Az NSDAP a Reichstag msodik legnagyobb prtja lett.

A vlsg kzben egyre slyosbodott. 1931 elejn az orszgot elnttte a csdhullm, a munkanlkliek szma 5 millira emelkedett. Az NSDAP igyekezett tovbb sztani az elgedetlensget, bojkottokat szervezett, utcai verekedseket provoklt, sztrjkokat kezdemnyezett, akr a kommunistkkal egyttmkdve is. A Heinrich Brning vezette kormnyzat kudarcot vallott a vlsg kezelsben. Hindenburg llamelnk s krnyezete azon volt, hogy a rogyadoz llamot a kzpjobb, konzervatv erk sszefogsval tmogassa meg. Hitler viszont arra trekedett, hogy az elnk alkotmnyos lehetsgvel lve t s mg kisebbsgben lv prtjt bzza meg a kormnyalaktssal, azonban ebben csaldnia kellett.

A nemzeti jobboldal eri Hugenberg vezetsvel 1931. oktber 11-re Harzburgba gylst hvtak ssze az sszefogs deklarlsa rdekben. Hitler nem trhetett ki e tallkoz ell, de tovbbra sem kvnta megosztani leend hatalmt senkivel. Ezt klssgekben is deklarlta: a tallkozra utoljra rkezett s elsknt tvozott. Utna viszont a nci prt Braunschweigben nll nagygylst szervezett, ahol csak az SA felvonulsa 6 rt vett ignybe.

A gazdasgi vlsg miatt is llandsul politikai vlsg kzepette 1932-ben sszesen t nagy vlasztsi kampnyra kerlt sor (ktforduls kztrsasgi elnki, tartomnyi s kt Reichstag-vlaszts). Az NSDAP mindennek a pnzgyi nehzsgeit gond nlkl llta. Ebben nagy szerepe volt annak, hogy Hitler lete egyik legsikeresebb beszdt tartotta 1932. janur 26-n a dsseldorfi Iparosklubban.[84] Abbl indult ki, hogy a nyomor oka nem a vlsg, nem a versailles-i bkerendszer, hanem a vezetk alkalmatlansga s a demokrcia kiegyenlt mkdse, ami ellenttes a np rdekeivel. A demokrcia s az internacionalizmus egymstl elvlaszthatatlan fogalmak, nyomukban eltnik a klnbsg az rja s a mongol, nger kztt s egy nap majd a Npszvetsgnek is nger lehet az elnke. A demokrcia a magntulajdonnal is sszeegyeztethetetlen s vgeredmnyben az ostobk s lustk uralmhoz vezet. Sajt jelentsgt abban adta meg, hogy az, aki szembeszll a bolsevizmussal, amely enlkl 300 v alatt meghdtan a vilgot, ahogy annak idejn ugyanennyi id alatt meghdtotta azt a keresztnysg. Hitler a nagytksek eltt ezttal sem szlt fajelmletrl.

Az 1932 tavaszn lezajlott llamf-vlasztsokon Hitler nagy remnyekkel indult. Eltte sikerlt megoldania egy rgi technikai problmt nem volt mg nmet llampolgr. 1929-ben Bajororszgban, majd ksbb Tringiban prblkozott ennek megszerzsvel, sikertelenl. Vgl a nci befolys alatt ll Braunschweigben kapott egy fiktv kormnytancsosi posztot s ezzel az llami hivatalnoki kinevezssel egytt jrt az llampolgrsg is. 1932. februr 26-n tette le az eskt arra a nmet llamra, a demokratikus kztrsasgra, amelynek sztzzsa elsrend politikai clja volt.[85] Hitler az elnkvlasztsok els forduljban a Goebbels irnytotta elkpeszt kampny ellenre azonban csak msodik lett, 30,23%-kal Hindenburg (49,45%) mgtt. (Ernst Thlmann, a kommunistk jelltje a szavazatok 13,23%-t, Theodor Duesterberg, a nemzeti jobboldal vagyis a Nmet Nemzeti Npprt s a Stahlhelm jelltje a szavazatok 6,81%-t kapta.)[86] A vratlan kudarc csak fokozta Hitler elszntsgt, a msodik fordulban mr replvel jrta Nmetorszgot, hogy mg tbb beszdet mondhasson. Belergtam magam ellensgembe, s ettl az ellensgtl nem tvoltanak el jelentette ki mrcius 15-n weimari beszdben.[87] De a msodik fordulban is csak a szavazatok 36,68%-t szerezte meg, Hindenburg maradt az elnk (52,93%).

Hindenburg sikere lttn a kormny megprblt rendet teremteni az utckon. Tbb nci kzpontban hzkutatst tartottak, prilis 13-n pedig Wilhelm Groener hadgyminiszter kezdemnyezsre az elnk betiltotta az SA s az SS tevkenysgt. Hitler azonban ezt is felhasznlta a kvetkez, ezttal tartomnyi vlasztsokon folytatott kampnyban s felszltotta a betiltott testletek tagjait, hogy egyszer prttagokknt teljestsk ktelessgket. prilis 16. s 24. kztt Hitler a repls mdszerrel 25 vrosban tartott vlasztsi beszdet. Prtja a klnbz tartomnyokban 3040%-os eredmnyeket rt el. Kormnyt alaktani azonban egyedl a korabeli Anhalt Szabadllam(de) tartomnyban tudtak.

A gazdasgi vlsg azonban nem enyhlt, a politikai vlsg pedig csak elmlylt az orszgban. A ncik botrnyos jeleneteket provokltak a birodalmi s a tartomnyi parlamentekben egyarnt, a politikai gylsek mindenhol utcai verekedsekkel jrtak, polgrhbor-kzeli llapot alakult ki. A rendrsg ngy nci kpviselt a parlament lstermben tartztatott le. Brning kormnya krl elfogyott a leveg. A tarthatatlan helyzetben egyes vezet politikusok gy vltk, hogy Hitler bevonsa a hatalomba valamikppen megszeldtheti a nci prt tombolst. Mjus 30-n Hindenburg elbocstotta Brning kormnyt s Franz von Papent, a konzervatv, katolikus nemessg kpviseljt, a Nmet Centrum Prt (Deutsche Zentrumspartei) jobboldaln elhelyezked volt diplomatt nevezte ki miniszterelnknek. Papen kisebbsgi kormnynak eslye sem volt arra, hogy a Reichstagban megszerezze a tbbsget, elnki szksgrendeletekre tmaszkodva kormnyozhatott csak.[88] Hindenburg ezrt fel is oszlatta a parlamentet s a lehet legtvolabbi idpontra, jnius 31-re tzte ki az j vlasztsokat.

Jnius 16-n jra engedlyeztk az SA s az SS tevkenysgt, a tilalmat mr amgy is semmibe vettk. Csak jnius msodik felben 17 politikai gyilkossgra kerlt sor. A legnagyobb nmet tartomny, Poroszorszg szocildemokrata kormnyt elnki rendelettel feloszlattk, a helyi kormnyzat ln maga Papen lett a birodalmi biztos. A szocildemokrata prt megadta magt. A hat millis munkanlklisg mellett elkpzelhetetlen lett volna egy ltalnos sztrjk, ami a katonai puccs veszlyt is felidzte volna.

Megkezddtt az j vlasztsi harc, vagy inkbb folytatdott a permanens kampny. Hitler legfontosabb clkitzse az apr polgri prtok felszmolsa s a Centrum Prt bzisnak kikezdse volt. A kampnyban tovbbi jtsokat vetettek be, filmeket, hanglemezeket ksztettek, terjesztettek. Hitler repltjaival 53 vrosba jutott el beszdet tartani. A vlasztsok eredmnye azonban ellentmondsos volt szmukra. Ugyan tovbb nveltk szavazik szmt 37,4%-ra s 230 mandtummal a legnagyobb prt lettek a Reichstagban, de nem sikerlt tt sikert elrnik. A kis polgri prtokat ugyan sikerlt felmorzsolni, a szocildemokratk is visszaestek, de a kommunistk s a Centrum Prt is nvelte szavazatainak szmt. Goebbels gy rtkelt: gy sohasem szerezzk meg az abszolt tbbsget![89]

Papen s a Centrum Prt trgyalni kezdett Hitlerrel egy j kormny alaktsrl, amelyben alkancellri cmet ajnlott a szmra. Hitler azonban Hindenburggal folytatott augusztus 13-i trgyalsn ragaszkodott a kormny s az llam teljes kr vezetshez.[90] Az elnk gy megllaptotta, hogy Hitler a kormnyon kvl kvn maradni s lovagias ellenzki magatartst krt tle.

A jelents vlasztsi siker teht nem volt elegend Hitler hatalomra kerlshez, st politikai kudarcot jelentett. Hitlernek szmtania kellett arra, hogy sikertelensge lttn hveinek egy rsze elfordul tle. s valban, amikor az llandsul politikai patthelyzet miatt megint j vlasztsokat kellett kirni 1932 novemberre, az NSDAP ktmilli szavazatot vesztett s csak a szavazatok 33,1%-t, 230 kpviseli hely helyett 196-ot szerzett.[91]

Hindenburg Kurt von Schleicher tbornokot nevezte ki miniszterelnknek, aki rszint a szakszervezetekkel akart konzultlni a vlsg kezelsrl, rszint pedig az NSDAP-n bell Gregor Strasserrel trgyalt, mivel a hajthatatlan Hitlerrel ellenttben hajlandnak mutatkozott elfogadni az alkancellri posztot. A helyzet rendkvl veszlyes lett Hitler szmra: ha sikerl megszilrdtani a kormnyzatot az rszvtele nlkl, az a szemlyes politikai bukst jelentette volna. (Ksbb, 1934-ben, a hossz ksek jszakjn mind Schleichert, mind Strassert ki is vgeztette.) Hitler azonban a prt vezeti eltt durvn lehordta alvezrt, aki erre nyomban visszavonult terveitl s klfldre utazott. Schleicher gy maga is kudarcot vallott s ellenlbasa, Papen kapott lehetsget, aki azt javasolta Hindenburgnak, hogy nevezze ki Hitlert kancellrr s alkancellrknt majd kzben tartja. gy lett Hitler kancellr 1933. janur 30-n (szges ellenttben azzal a legendval, hogy szabad vlasztsokon jutott volna hatalomra).[92]

Hitler termszetesen tltott Papen s trsai kpzelgsein.[93] Tudta, hogy a kancellri poszt megszerzsvel dnt lpst tett a teljhatalom megszerzshez, br a kormnyban rajta kvl csak kt nemzetiszocialista volt. Els nyilatkozatban, februr 1-jn a helyzet slyossgt hangslyozta: Az rksg, amit tvesznk, rettenetes. A feladat, amit meg kell oldanunk, a legnehezebb, ami emberemlkezet ta a nmet llamfrfiak eltt llt.[94] Meghirdette, hogy kt ngyves terv keretben helyrelltja a gazdasgot, megsznteti a munkanlklisget s a klpolitikban kivvja a nmet egyenjogsgot.[95]

Msnap a hadsereg parancsnokai eltt mr kevsb bks hrokat pengetett. Biztostotta hallgatsgt arrl, hogy az orszgban csak egyetlen katonai er ltezhet, a Reichswehr, a milcinak (SA) csak belpolitikai feladatai lehetnek. Kijelentette, hogy fel kell szmolni a versailles-i bkerendszer korltozsait, vissza kell lltani az ltalnos hadktelezettsget, modern lgiert s hadiflottt kell ltrehozni, mgpedig abbl a clbl, hogy j letteret hdtsanak meg Keleten s azt kmletlenl germanizljk. Erre stratgiai s lelmezsi okokbl egyarnt felttlen szksg van.[96]

j vlasztsokat tervezett, hogy az llamhatalom birtokban vgre olyan eredmnyt rjen el, amivel megersti vezet szerept s megszabadulhat a tbbi koalcis partnertl. E vlasztsokat mrcius 5-re tztk ki. A kampny kells kzepn, februr 27-n felgyjtottk a Reichstagot. Mindmig tisztzatlan, hogy nci provokci volt-e, vagy a magnyos rlt kommunista gyjtotta fel a hatalmas pletet mintegy 60 helyen, de az ktsgtelen, hogy az esemny Hitler kezre jtszott. Az g plet hre hallatn gy kiltott fel: Most megvannak! Most nincs kegyelem A kommunista kpviselket mg az jjel fel kell akasztani. Mindent lefoglalni, ami a kommunistkkal kapcsolatban ll. A szocildemokratk s a Reichsbanner irnt sincs tbb kmlet.[97] (A Reichsbanner Schwarz-Rot-Gold azaz Fekete-vrs-arany Birodalmi Lobog tbb, a politikai centrumhoz kzeli prt ltal a kztrsasg vdelmre ltrehozott, a szocildemokratk ltal dominlt flkatonai szervezet volt.)

Mr februr 28-n szksgllapotot vezettek be, felfggesztettk a polgri szabadsgjogokat s sok kommunista s szocildemokrata kpviseljelltet brtnbe zrtak, illetve klfldre ldztek. A mrciusi vlasztsokon a ncik mg gy sem tudtk megszerezni az abszolt tbbsget, csak 43,9%-ot kaptak. Hitler szmra tovbbi csaps volt, hogy a kommunista sszeeskvs tervt ksbb a brsgon sem sikerlt igazolni (igaz, az a gyan sem nyert igazolst, hogy Gring akkori parlamenti elnk lakst a Reichstaggal sszekt fldalatti folyost hasznlva az SS besegtett az elmebeteg Marinus van der Lubbnak). Hitler a jogszokat addig sem kedvelte, ettl fogva azonban gyllte ket.[98]

Br a szavazs eredmnye csaldst okozott az NSDAP-nak, ennek mr nem volt nagy jelentsge. Az j kormny els lsn kineveztk forradalomnak a vlasztst s gy tettek, mintha hatalmas gyzelmet arattak volna.[99]

Hitler hatalmas lptekkel indult meg programja vgrehajtsnak tjn. Mr t nappal a vlasztsok utn, trvnyi alap nlkl, az SA-ra tmaszkodva feloszlatta a tartomnyok parlamentjeit s kormnyait, helykre birodalmi biztosokat nevezett ki. A mai nappal a nemzeti kormny egsz Nmetorszgban kezbe vette a hatalmat. Ezltal a nemzeti felemelkeds tovbbi menete fellrl irnytott, tervszer folyamatt vlt jelentette ki.[100] Az idzet msodik mondata egyben a sajt trelmetlen hveinek szl figyelmeztets is volt. A forradalom megtrtnt s le is zrult, egyni akciknak nincs helye.

A Reichstag els lsnek legfontosabb feladata Hitler szmra a felhatalmazsi trvny elfogadtatsa volt, ami a rendeleti kormnyzs bevezetst, egyben az rdemi parlamenti tevkenysg vgt is jelentette. Hitler kijelentette, hogy e trvny nem csorbtja a birodalmi elnk jogait, a parlamentet pedig idrl idre tovbbra is tjkoztatni fogja azrt A trvny elfogadshoz ktharmados tbbsg, azaz a Centrum Prt tmogatsa is kellett. Nekik meggrtk, hogy Hitler r szmukra egy levelet, amelyben garantlja, hogy a trvnyt csak kivteles alkalmakkor veszi majd ignybe. A soha meg nem rt levlrl azt lltottk, hogy ton van, de a szavazs eltt nem rkezett meg, ennek ellenre a Centrum Prt igennel voksolt. A kommunista kpviselk s a szocildemokratk egy rsze ekkorra mr brtnben volt. Az SA krbevette az pletet s megflemltettk a kpviselket. A szocildemokrata kpviselk maradk rsze gy tervezte, hogy nem vesz rszt az lsen, gy nem lett volna meg a parlament szavazkpessge, de a nci prt elfogadtatott egy olyan mdostst, mely szerint a hinyz kpviselket is jelenlvknek kell tekinteni. gy a szocildemokratk is rszt vettek s nemmel szavaztak.

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Adolf Hitler – Uncyclopedia – Wikia

There is still reasonable evidence linking Hitler to Iraq and WMDs.

Hitler, keeping his pimp hand strong. “You must be this tall to ride in my wohnwagen”.

Adolf “Chuckles” Hitler (April 20, 1889April 30, 1945) was, quite surely, the greatest man who ever lived (since Jesus Christ whom he so strongly opposed). He had very sexy legs. I wouldn’t mind a piece of that. Mmm, mmm, good.[Citation not needed at all; thank you very much] Hitler was also the Chancellor (and Fcker) of Germany from 1933 to 1945. During his time in office, he socially and economically reformed Germany after the injustice of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles, established the Third Reich (Deutsches Reich), architected the Holocaust, and had three root canals as a result of his infatuous indulgence in Reese’s Peanut Butter Cups.

Despite these accomplishments, he was most famous for having led Germany as an Axis power through World War II,[1] or as he referred to it, The European World Tour 1939-1945, when he liberated Poland from Jewish influence, liberated France from incompetent rulers, and liberated Austria from itself. Notably, he also tried to liberate Russia from Communism and Britain from its collapsing Third World imperialism, but was unable to do so.

He was also known for his amateur but passionate art and acting talents as displayed throughout his memorable thespian service to the German war effort in World War I and for the penning and publication of his entertaining autobiography.

His efforts to promote global tolerance would earn him title as Time Magazine’s “Person of the Year” in 1938, nomination for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1939[2], and one of People Magazine’s “50 Most Beautiful People” for 1943. Additionally, he was leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party and vice president of the Anti-Defamation League for several years, but was removed from this office after it was discovered that he didn’t pay his membership fees.

You know what they say, people look like their homes

Hitler was born April 20, 1889 [citation needed] at Braunau am Inn, Australia Austria, a poor village slum in Upper Austria, bordering Germany, the third son and eighth child of six. His father, Alois Hitler, (born Schicklgruber), (18371903), was a customs official in Australia-Hungary on the border with the German Empire; his mother, Gretta Plzl (18601907), Alois’ second cousin, was his father’s third wife who was also her own grandmother.

Hitler once declared in “Mein Kampf” that his political views stemmed from the observations he had made while he was young. Some historians suggest Hitler may have felt cramped inside his mother’s womb, giving way to his later resentment of foreigners invading his already cramped space in Europe. It has also been suggested that the insides of Hitler’s mom were not diverse enough, contributing to his later xenophobia. In addition, the nutrient needs of an unbirthed Hitler may have, from time to time, gone unfulfilled. This most likely contributed to his paranoia and sense of impending doom regarding the continued availability of resources at Germany’s disposal, including Aryans.

The fact that Hitler’s conception was unplanned, some have argued, may have attributed to his later pessimism and stress-induced anxiety. A certain Alice had sexual relations with Hitler back in 1942. Hitler killed himself 3 years later. In another context, paranoid tendencies may have led to his decision to invade the Soviet Union, acting on preemption; however, it may have just been penis envy. It should be mentioned, however, that Stalin planned to invade Germany.

Young Adolf tended to be a rebellious youth. In particular, he was disruptive in class, with one notable incident occurring in third grade. Hitler was seated next to a Polish boy and a French boy, and one day when the teacher was off in the teacher’s lounge, he beat them up and tried to take their desks away because, he said, he needed more room to work on his math homework. However, when he tried to beat up Ivan, the exchange student from Moscow, young Adolf ended up with a black eye. A nearby American kid stepped in to help restore order, but only after the fight had already gone on for twenty minutes. Some psychologists believe that this event may have been a formative one for the impressionable young Adolf.

Hitler proved to be an incredibly gifted child with superior intelligence until his high school years in which Hitler’s teachers claimed he had “far exceeded the courses offered at even the most prestigious institute.” Hitler once stated that some of his idols and heroes growing up were Michael Jordan and Pontius Pilate.[3] No longer challenged and bored with school, Hitler left school with no qualifications at the age of sixteen.

Hitler became very depressed after the death of his mother.

After high school, Hitler found himself living in both Vienna and Munich at the same time. He applied to several art schools, only to be rejected, not because his artwork sucked, but because he had no legitimate high school degree. Unable to meet qualifications of any art school, he was recommended to pursue a career in architecture. His memoirs reflect his opinions on architecture:

“Naturally, I was no good at it. Architecture, as a whole, is a career most suited for those who can create rather than destroy. Not only that, but designing crap just seems really boring. After a while, it’s just like, ‘Oh, let’s go build the world’s largest gazebo’, or ‘Let’s build another synagogue.’ Yawn.”

Hitler’s mother would then die a horribly painful death in December of 1907 after falling into a woodchipper feet-first. Hitler would suffer from severe depression, and many historians have asserted that he never fully recovered from the loss of his mother. He was also plagued with a phobia of gardening equipment for the rest of his life.

Hitler as a young Reichsmarine Gefreiter.

As some may know and other may not, World War I was a war when the French, British, starving Austrian Australian artists, the Pope, the Germans and various others, picked up big guns and shot at each other. This went on for several years. Eventually, the Russians joined in, as the constant explosions were keeping them up all night. While their leader, the Czar, was out getting shot at by Germans, some nasty men with beards took over his country, so he had to go home and be executed. Ironically, by being shot at. After long years of fighting, someone won, but no-one can quite decide who. Well, apart from the fact that it probably wasn’t the Germans.[4]

As a young patriot, Hitler joined the Austrian German military and briefly served in the war on a blockade runner. Aside from sinking the occasional ship (two at Verdun), Hitler’s main duties also included running messages and selling medicated condoms. In one particular incident, Hitler’s entire regiment was ambushed, though he managed to crawl to safety after being shot in the hiney and having one of his testicles shot off. Hitler was the only one to survive. For his bravery, Hitler received an Iron Cross and the nickname ‘Screamer’.

He then found himself carted off to a hospital in occupied Belgium. Strangely, everyone there was doing a new experimental psychoactive drug, known as “acid”. Hitler was told by his quipster bunkmates that the drug “healed all wounds”. Hitler, eager to get back into action to serve his country, was fooled. After a few moments, Hitler found himself in a magical place where he claims he ran into God. The Divine One told the young Austrian Australian to utilize his musical talents to best serve the German war cause.

It went against all religious principles but he went on with it. It is Western propaganda that he actually instigated the war by annoying the Allies with his horrible banjo playing, and so the Allies had to “eliminate him for a good cause, taking away his musical privileges and squashing him under an iron fist”.

Or so the story goes. Hitler mentioned his vision on several occasions,including once on real time with Bill Maher, but some historians doubt the authenticity of this tale, claiming that shrooms were the cause of his vision, not LSD.

Later that year, in 1916, Hitler helped found “Der Frontseite Westliche Choralgruppe,” a musical comedy team that entertained soldiers. The original cast, of which Hitler is the only surviving member, consisted of Benjy Bronkelstein, Shlomo Strasseberg, Shalom Klein and Adolf Hitler. It is believed that, during this period, Hitler grew unreasonably fond of Jews.

At the end of the second season, however, all but Hitler had lost interest in entertaining soldiers and building acts around Germanic themes. After a series of legal battles and hearings, the trio wrest control of the group from Hitler. The court decided that if Hitler wished to continue his show, he would have to come up with a new name. The whole experience left Hitler bitter and jaded towards lawyers and show business, but fortunately, not the ethnic groups that thrived within these professions. Still dedicated to helping the war effort, Hitler continued solo, billing his program as “Der Neue Frontseite Westliche Choralgruppe Empfindung.” Hitler was also forced to develop new comedy routines, the most acclaimed of which guest-starred Le Ptomane in a routine called “Guess What I Had For Breakfast”.

As the war dragged on into its fourth year, it had become clear to a number of generals that the war had been lost, and they refused to book Hitler. After being repeatedly rejected, Hitler became irate and stormed out of Germany just as the armistice was being signed. Hitler angrily returned his SAG card in disgust and vowed never to grace the stage to perform a drama again. However, his love of theatrics would crop up repeatedly in the ensuing years, as is best shown in the spectacle of Nuremberg and the sweet-ass costumes the Wehrmacht got.

“FIRST, WE TAKE FRANCE! AND THEN, WE FIND NEMO!

Convinced that he was among traitors, Hitler took a brief hiatus from the recently reformed Nazi party. He went to Calcutta and began to meditate with Savitri Devi, which seemed his only hope for finding inner peace.

Meanwhile, back in Europe, both the winning and losing powers were totally ashamed of the destruction that they had caused in World War I, but nobody wanted to hurt feelings and designate one party as responsible. Thus, it was decided at the conference in Versailles that the only fair way would be to draw straws to determine who would pay to rebuild Europe and take the blame for the war, following the protocol of the Straw Drawing Act of 1835. Needless to say, Germany drew the short straw, was assigned the guilt, forced to pay war reparations and sell its children into slavery. These conditions were written into the Treaty of Versailles. Immediately after the short straw was drawn on behalf of Germany by Gottlieb Krzerenziehen, the German government folded. Kaiser Wilhelm II fled for Denmark. His parting words were:

Anarchy erupted, but after several days and a brief shootout, the Illuminati finally took over, and the Weimar Republic was formed the next day on November 32, 1919. This changed very little.

The official Wehrmacht (Panzer Corpse) poster, used to recruit those who wished to die. This was one of the few versions printed in English until the Reich realized Germany spoke German.

Hitler heard about the treaty and its aftermath, who convinced that his beloved Germany would never again be a powerful nation, was about to commit suicide. However, God reportedly appeared before Hitler once again and stopped him. As the film Triumph of the Will would later show, it was God’s will for Hitler to return and rebuild Germany.

Hitler eagerly accepted the task, filled with extraordinary and unrelenting rage over the Versailles treaty. Interestingly, Hitler was misinformed, and did not know the entire story behind Versailles; nobody had bothered to tell him about the legitimate straw drawing. Consequently, even if his oratory skills did not suck, it was this ill-informed disposition that was the foundation of his passionate rants. As good sports, the Germans had accepted the guilt and hardships that came with the short straw, albeit reluctantly. For this reason, nobody knew quite what to think of Hitler. At first, few took him seriously. Some thought that his speeches were part of neo-modernist Weimar culture, and as such, an experimental comedy act. On more than one occasion, people were known to start laughing hysterically in the middle of Hitler’s rantingout of confusion, mainly. This always created a very awkward moment, for both Hitler and his audience.

Nevertheless, Hitler continued to argue his case vehemently, people began to realize that he was serious, and also began to see him as a way by which they really could reverse the doings of Versailles and revitalize Germany. Thus, once the movement began to grow rapidly, nobody dared to tell Hitler about the straws, fearing that Hitler might have a change of heart. Hitler not only promised to destroy the Versailles Peace Treaty, but also destroy all inferior races and take over the world. Unfortunately, everyone thought he was only mucking around when he said this.

Hitler, at this time, was the Fhrer of the Nazi party. The party had just found its roots in the German political arena when on November 9, 1923, Hitler along with members of Kampfbund, the Nazi party, and World War I General Erich Ludendorff, attempted to take control of power in Munich and Bavaria. To make a very long story short, the coup failed after the group burst into Brgerbrukeller, a beer hall, armed with squirt guns. Hitler was consequently convicted and sentenced to five years at Landsberg Prison after the coup failed, but was released early after bribing the judge overhearing his case through unmentionable methods.

The sequel to Mein Kampf, discovered years after Hitler’s death.

Hitler was arrested after the failed coup and held prisoner for treason; he was held at the Federal Prison of the Greatest Place in the World: Landsberg, Germany. While imprisoned, Hitler penned “Mein Kampf” (My Bullshit), an autobiography which explained his views on tolerance, acceptance, peace, the equality of races, and detailed the greatest feats he had made in his life so far. One of them included the time he killed a man in a bathtub with a hairdryer. Mein Kampf was published to an ecstatic audience. On the fifth anniversary of its initial publication, an uncensored paperback version was made available.

Its contents were confusing and inconsistent. It was, at points, political and serious, yet at other points contained pop-up pictures and fart jokes. Nonetheless, during Hitler’s lifetime, the book was a bestseller and Hitler enjoyed great success. But he still wasn’t able to buy a Volkswagen with all the dough he raked in. Years later, an unfinished sequel titled “Mein Kampfy Chair” would be uncovered, leaving readers bewildered at the lack of any coherent structure.

After his release, Hitler was court ordered to attend two AA meetings a week and was placed on probation. He was on probation from his release until his death in 1945. During this time, he violated his probation only once when his probation officer caught him systematically exterminating nine million Jews in Europe, for which he was fined and sentenced to twenty hours of community service.

Hitler performing on his famous banjo as part of his election campaign.

The foundation of the early Nazi party consisted of German patriots, particularly those who had served Germany in World War I. Among this cast were korspe’s for hire, such as the Frei Korpses. Pissed off that there were no more wars to fight, these former militarymen kept themselves busy chasing Commie rats out of the country. In one particular incident, Bavarian socialists thought they could take advantage of the weak government and stage a revolution. Pff. What were they thinking? The Frei Korpses gave them a roundhouse kick to the face, and that was the end of that.

Later, the Panzer Korpse would be named in honor of this group of World War I veterans, who were instrumental in building the party’s following; sort of like an anti-Communist, social traditionalist and ultra-nationalist Pied Piper.

There is more to the story of how Hitler came to power. His major nemesis, Adolf Schmitler von Knorring, was an Austrian doctor. Schmitler was a rather successful doctor, and was able to publish his memoirs about his work, “My Cough”. His book was very popular with cardiologists, but it had little effect on the general public. On the other hand, Hitler’s platform combined the elements that lead both the Republican Party and Democratic Party in America to each gain approximately one half of the votes every time:

Hitler also appealed to the demographic that remained:

Others knew Hitler from his world-renown yet brief stint as a war entertainer and were simply impressed with his reputation. The Nazis also combined elements of Christianity with neo-pagan philosophy. On Christianity, Hitler said:

Hitler also tried to woo Christians by demonstrating his support for their traditional holidays. Here the Fhrer is seen in his Easter Sunday bunny costume during an Easter Parade/Nuremberg Rally in the mid-1930s.

This information, while valuable, totally contradicts much of what we know about elephants or playing cards.

Hitler often employed methods of “intimidation” and “not taking any shit” to create a loyal military following.

Hitler intended to build a Third Reich Empire from which other nations could take anything they wanted. Homosexuality was not only tolerated by this ultra-liberal regime, but it was actually encouraged, especially in public. At first, the Nazis rewarded those who engaged in street-side, gay sex romps with the German Cross. These events became so popular that the award became devalued, leading to the special creation of Golden Party Badge for those regularly involved in six man orgies which included watersports.

Hitler knew that not everyone would find these events appealing. Thus, he encouraged citizens of the Reich to find their own unique cup of tea. Consequently, many pursued Judaism, another Nazi favorite. One could even be a gypsy if they wanted to learn the socially acceptable way to hassle tourists. Hitler was criticized for his policies of tolerance, not yet fully understood by the inferior world outside of the Reich. Overall, the Third Reich was at least 17% better than the two that came before it.

Hitler exercises his absolute power over the German masses by counting the lightbulbs in the stadium for 20 minutes.

However, the Night Of Broken Glass (Kristallnacht), was universally frowned upon. On that fateful night, Hitler’s temper got the best of him due to his frustration with the quality of silverware available throughout the Reich. Consequently, in an incident Hitler personally regretted until his death, he expelled all of Germany’s silverware manufacturers to Siberia. The Soviets did not take to this news very well, and told Hitler to find his own exile camps to use.

Additionally, Joseph Goebbels was getting very desperate as he had not maintained an erection since 1933, so he ordered the SA to smash up some Jewish shops and kill some Jewish children. Unfortunately, they did not realize that many Jews were renting premises from their Aryan superiors and therefore Goebbels had inadvertently licensed vandalism of German property. Satisfied with his erection nonetheless, he apologized to an angry Adolf and ordered the Jews to clear up the mess.

Hitler’s propaganda film Black Schwanz which was aimed to raise the popularity from Gay Ballet Dancers.

In this Fascist regime, many information that was deemed “unsafe for the citizens” were censored by the Indian call centers. Minister of Propaganda, Joseph Goebbels organized all of Hitler’s private collection of Party Dresses. Propaganda played a vital role in manipulating the minds of the Germans, as seen in the movies Olympia and Triumph of the Willy. These were some lousy propaganda films presumably filmed by his Fan-Boy, Rudolf Hess, who wrote the script while in bed with Hitler.

Historians concluded that the propaganda films of the Third Reich were “meek and flabby” and lacked the potential of making Hitler look like a Nahtzee Rock Star. But on the 32nd of April 2013, films made in the Third Reich were found from the German Archives. This film, Black Schwanz was notably better with a higher box office compared to the crappy Triumph of the Willy. This ballet film was starring Hitler, Heinrich Himmler, and Rudolf Hess all dressed in their tutus, filmed by Hitler’s milkmaid, Leni ReifenstahlLeni Reifenstahl.

Hitler improved Germany vastly by increasing foreign trade with other Axis powers and enjoying the natural resources of conquered nations. With the construction of the German highway system and socialization of German education, Germany became one of the most economically stable nations in the world during the Third Reich all thanks to Hitler.

Hitler in an ad of his age.

Hitler also advocated economic nationalism. Hitler’s economic policy could be best summed up by a speech he gave in 1938:

Despite this, it wasn’t long before globalization got the best of German businesses. McDonalds, KFC, and several other companies soon found their roots in Germany.

In a speech in early 1938, Hitler expressed his foreign policy quite plainly:

Clearly, Hitler’s foreign policy was aggressive and extremely nationalistic. Hitler believed that all other countries were inferior to Germany, which is probably why he opposed NAFTA, the European Union, and unconditional diplomacy during his time. On international affairs, Hitler’s position was always that of “which benefits the Reich.” Hitler also strongly opposed the League of Nations.

Hitler, seen here, strategizing his military campaign.

Hitler with Polish beer, the main cause of the invasion (1939 Nuremberg Rally).

It is probably true that the Polish generals had taunted Hitler with pictures of Brad Pitt without a shirt. In addition, war was almost certain because Poland was also eating Germany’s children. Nevertheless, after Germany finally invaded Poland, Earth ganged up on Germany and declared war for reasons unexplained. Shortly thereafter, Hitler began the invasion of France. When asked why, he said, “ze Eiffeil tower vas billt fur ze Germans, and ze French cheese ist smelly.”

Hitler also took over some country that nobody cares about called Czechoslovakia. The message Hitler relayed to the Czechs went like this:

NARRATOR: In the year 1939, lebensraum was the beginning.

Hitler’s series of misguided invasions. Clearly, he did not know the way to Czechoslovakia.

CAPTAIN: What happen?

OPERATOR: Somebody set up us the telegram.

OPERATOR 2: We get signal.

CAPTAIN: What!

OPERATOR 2: Mainscreen turn on!

CAPTAIN: It’s you!

HITLER: How are you, Czech infidels of the great Satan?

HITLER: All your country are belong to us.

CAPTAIN: What you say!!

HITLER: You are on way to becoming part of an anti-Semitic country.

HITLER: You have no chance to survive, make your time.

HITLER: Ha-ha-ha!

CAPTAIN: Crap.

HITLER: Resistance is futile. We will add your biological and technological distinctiveness to our own. You will adapt to service us!

The Germans were just as excited as Hitler to lose another world war.

Stalin, a rational man, knew he had to confront Hitler personally, so he worked hard to get Hitler to agree to a conference. Hitler agreed to meet with Stalin and surprisingly, the two were able to come to terms and became good old friends like the good old days of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. Then one night during dinner, Hitler brought the finest bottle of French champagne and asked Stalin to perform intercourse with him because he found his moustache attractive. Stalin, highly confused, told Hitler to get out of his house and to never call him again. Hitler went home and cried all night, then launched Operation Barbarossa, the German attack on Western Russia the next day.

Despite his best efforts, Hitler simply could not convince the Germans to stop frolicking in the meadow picking daisies. At the time, the hills were alive with the sound of music, which meant everyone wanted to stay in the Alps and enjoy the show; nobody wanted to fight the war. When Hitler realized that he was losing, he became extremely angry and ran into his bedroom and cried for hours into his velvet pillow.

After spending all night crying in his room full of candles and incense (again), he decided that he didn’t care about the war anymore and ordered the construction of the Phooey-Bunker so that he could play Xbox without interruptions. The German military would continue to fight, even after losing at the Battle of the Bulge (Germany’s last major offensive). At this point, the Allied bombings of Germany had become ridiculous[5], so most Kenyans contend that Hitler had made the right decision since the war wasn’t even his fault in the first place (it was God’s, remember?).

A copy of the monstrous gas bill (courtesy of Deutsche Information Agence) that shocked Hitler when he realized he couldn’t pay it off as his store cards were maxed to the limit.

The Soviet Onion began closing in on Berlin from the east, and other Allies from the west, while Middle Earth invaded from the South. Through his own stubborn nature, Hitler refused to discuss terms of surrender. After realizing defeat and receiving a huge gas bill in the mail, Hitler committed suicide by going to his local McDonald’s and dying of food poisoning on April 30th, 1945, only ten days after his 56th birthday and one day after marrying his beloved mistress. Joseph Goebbels assumed position as Chancellor of Germany and Germany’s unconditional surrender followed. However, his efforts to create a better world and promote tolerance did not go unrewarded, and God recognized his good deeds in the afterlife.

While no one knows who “Jude” was, his stickers were the style in the 1930s, and were immortalized in the Beatles tune Hey, Jude!.

Concentration camps were actually nice places to live.

These “death camps” were actually camps used to keep Jewish and other minority inhabitants safe while the war carried on based on Hitler’s fear that the Allies would begin a massive genocide of these people were Germany to be invaded. Such activities at these camps included frequent showering, digging holes, playing cards, dieting, and baking Kosher cookies.

There are also some other explanations for the Holocaust. Europe was in a poor state before and during the war. With many countries and people, including Germany, something had to be done. The Jews of Europe successfully convinced Hitler to let them help out their superior fellow man. Throughout time, the Jews received the best from others. The best treatment, jobs, and the most money. The Jews offered to commit suicide so that the rest of Europe could have ample food and resources. Hitler, of course, refused. However, the Jews persisted that they were helping mankind, and that their actions would be the “Final Solution” to world hunger. Eventually, the upset Hitler agreed. Without his approval, we could be in a state of world hunger now. We could have so much less resources than we do now. This was a selfless act that the Jews did, causing them to be highly regarded and respected as a people in Germany (posthumously of course).

Never able to birth his own children, Hitler enjoyed the company of his friends’ children in a very creepy way.

As recorded by Wagener in his many pages of notesis shortly after Geli Raubal’s 1931 accidental shooting death, it is evident that Hitlers niece was not murdered, but rather, had accidentally shot herself while mishandling Hitlers handgun[6]. He left the gun for her to use in case she wished to play with it while he was gone. As Wagener himself, Heinrich Hoffmann, Kurt Ludecke, Ernst Hanfstaengl, Otto Dietrich and Winifred Wagner have asserted, her death was most certainly a terrible yet humorous accident.

Hitler was deeply affected over her tragic death, and often recounted not only how much she meant to him personally, but more importantly, he acknowledged how disposable women are in general. One of the most powerful monologues Hitler had ever delivered was on this subject Wagener recorded it out of boredom.

Hitlers Christian beliefs came to the fore in a very real, honest, tangible, and anti-Semitic way during his life. Nobody could come away from it not believing in Hitlers complete sincerity when it came to the death of his niece. Hitler had a very real human side that could easily overtake him, especially when he experienced tragedies like this one. Hopefully you will come away from it having learned not only a bit more about history, but a bit more about the fragility of life and the importance of the safety mechanism on pistols as Hitler did.

Moreover, Hitlers emphasis on marriage as much more than a ‘contract’ will reveal to you that he thought on a much deeper intellectual and spiritual plane than the average white supremacist. He was unique indeed, and his outlook on marriage and women is interesting when one considers he was a failure at relationships. Hitler also had a sincere belief that marriage was not to be taken lightly, and he sometimes expressed why he could not marry. He did not choose not to marry out of selfishness, but rather, impotence. Many historians paint a morbid picture of a stormy relationship between Hitler and Eva Braun; one in which Hitler mistreated Eva and called her “simple” and “stupid.” Actually, Hitler called Eva on the phone every day while he was away, and his vacation time spent with her has been extensively documented by several of his adjutants, especially Hans Baur (his pilot, fellow drinking buddy, and wingman[7]).

It is not true that he called her “stupid,” as allegedly uttered by Albert Speer. He loved her for being an innocent and apolitical product of her filthy Catholic upbringing. He wanted a woman like his mother; a kind, yet abusive and caring, happy, dead woman. The terms he more likely chose to describe her with were “dull” or “unaffected.” Traudl Junge recalled in her memoirs how immensely concerned for Eva he always was, and how he always had a glow about him and pitched a tent in his pants when she was in his presence, or even if someone mentioned her name.

Another strong portion of Hitler’s beliefs was his opinion on daycares. Most people do not even know that daycare centers existed back in the 1930s and 1940s, but they did. Hitler did not like the idea of the daycare centers, and it was his hope that he would be able to encourage women to want to raise own children and to want to be mothers, as opposed to laborers.

“ME WANT COOKIES, NOW!”

But, what is also worth noting, is the fact that Hitler did not proactively seek to remove women from the workforce, as he realized that young women and gifted women would certainly want to work and get an education and become more than general prostitutes, at least for a little while. This is another common misconception about Hitler’s social policies. One need only take note of Winifred Wagner, female military volunteers, women factory workers and Jews during the war years, Traudl Junge, Leni Riefenstahl, or Magda Gbbels, to come to the realization that Hitler’s policies never inhibited individuals, but exploited them.

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Adolf Hitler – Uncyclopedia – Wikia

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Adolf Hitler | HISTORY

Hitler did not do particularly well in school, leaving formal education in 1905. Unable to settle into a regular job, he drifted. He wished to become an artist but was rejected from the Academy in Vienna.

Adolf Hitler was born on 20 April 1889 in the small Austrian town of Braunau to Alois Hitler who later became a senior customs official and his wife Klara, who was from a poor peasant family.

At primary school, Hitler showed great intellectual potential and was extremely popular with fellow pupils as well as being admired for his leadership qualities. However, competition at secondary school was tougher and Hitler stopped trying as a result.

He also lost his popularity among his fellow students and instead preferred to re-enact battles from the Boer war with younger children. At the age of 15, he failed his exams and was told to repeat the year but he left without a formal education instead.

At the age of 18, he moved to Vienna with money inherited after his father’s death in 1903, in order to pursue a career in art, as this was his best subject at school. However his applications for both the Vienna Academy of Art and the School of Architecture were rejected.

It was supposedly at this time that Hitler first became interested in politics and how the masses could be made to respond to certain themes. He was particularly impressed with the anti-Semitic, nationalist Christian-Socialist party.

During the First World War he volunteered to fight for the German Army and gained the rank of corporal, earning accolades as a dispatch-runner. He won several awards for bravery, including the Iron Cross First Class.

In October 1918, he was blinded in a mustard gas attack. Germany surrendered while Hitler was in hospital and he went into a state of great depression, spending lots of time in tears. After the war ended, Hitler’s future seemed uncertain.

In 1919, Hitler attended his first meeting of the German Workers’ party, an anti-Semitic, nationalist group as a spy for the German Army. However, he found he agreed with Anton Drexler’s German nationalism and anti-Semitism. He disagreed with how they were organised leading him to make a passionate speech. Hitler quickly cemented his reputation as an engaging orator through his passion about the injustices faced by Germany as a result of the Treaty of Versailles.

It soon became clear that people were joining the party just to see Hitler make his speeches, which would leave the audience in a state of near hysteria and willing to do whatever he suggested.

He quickly rose through the ranks and, by 1921, was the leader of the re-named National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi).

With terrible economic conditions and rapid inflation, support for Hitler’s party grew. By 1923, the Nazi’s had 56,000 members and many more supporters.

On 8 and 9 November 1923, Hitler staged the Nazi Beer Hall Putsch. He hoped to force the Bavarian government to work with the Nazis and march together on Berlin. The attempt failed but, although Hitler was tried for treason, the judge gave him a very light sentence.

While in prison, Hitler wrote ‘Mein Kampf’, which formulated his political ideas. He reorganised his party on his release from jail, but it was not until the world depression hit Germany that the Nazis were able to attract significant followers.

By 1930, the Nazis were polling around 6.5 million votes. In the presidential elections of 1932, Hitler came second. On 30 January 1933, President Hindenburg was forced to appoint Hitler as Chancellor, given his popular support.

In office, Hitler set about consolidating his power, appointing Nazis to government and gaining control of emergency powers. He eliminated all opposition, in the name of emergency control and, with the death of Hindenburg in 1934, Hitler’s power was secured.

Hitler put Germany’s unemployed to work on a massive rearmament programme, using propaganda and manufacturing enemies, such as the Jews, to prepare the country for war. Initially, Hitler’s actions were ignored by his powerful neighbours, as they believed appeasement was the only way to avoid a war.

In 1936, Hitler invaded the Rhineland, which had been demilitarised at Versailles. He then proceeded to annex Austria and parts of Czechoslovakia. Under the Munich Agreement of 1938, the West accepted this.

In 1939, Hitler made an alliance with Russia (Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact) and with Italy (Pact of Steel). On 1 September 1939, Hitler invaded Poland and the Second World War began as a result. In April 1940, Denmark and Norway were also taken. France quickly followed.

Hitler had conquered much of Western Europe, now he turned his sights East. In 1941, despite the alliance, Germany invaded Russia under Operation Barbarossa. It was one of his greatest mistakes. With the German advance slowed by the Russians ‘scorched earth’ policy, the German army found themselves in the Russian winter without an adequate supply line. In 1943, they started their long retreat.

At the same time, the Western Allies were pushing hard, and began to advance on Germany. In response, Hitler withdrew almost entirely. It was reported he was increasingly erratic and out-of-touch.

In 1944, there was an unsuccessful assassination attempt and, in response, Hitler stepped up the atmosphere of suspicion and terror.

Hitler committed suicide on 30 April 1945, with his long term girlfriend Eva Braun, who he is thought to have perhaps married at the last minute. Germany’s surrender followed soon after.

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Adolf Hitler | HISTORY

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Adolf Hitler Wikipedie

Tento lnek nen dostaten ozdrojovn a me tedy obsahovat informace, kter je teba ovit. Jste-li s popisovanm pedmtem seznmeni, pomozte doloit uveden tvrzen doplnnm referenc na vrohodn zdroje.

Adolf Hitler (20. dubna 1889 Braunau am Inn 30. dubna 1945 Berln) byl nmeck nacistick politik rakouskho pvodu, od roku 1933 do sv smrti kancl a dikttor. Jako takzvan Vdce (nmecky Fhrer) byl odpovdn za zloiny nacistickho reimu, zejmna za vyvraovn id, Rom a postiench. Agresivn politikou zprvu dosahoval zemn zisky a stupky jinch stt, roku 1939 vak napadenm Polska vyvolal svtovou vlku, v n Nmecko utrplo drtivou porku.

Hitler pochzel z rodiny rakouskho celnho ednka. Byl nadan, nedokzal vak systematicky pracovat a dodrovat kze, a proto nedoshl maturity. Touil stt se umlcem, pro nedostatek vtvarnho talentu vak nebyl pijat na umleckou kolu. Po smrti rodi se protloukal ve Vdni jako nezamstnan bez domova. V t dob se utvrdil ve svch nacionalistickch, rasistickch a antisemitskch nzorech a zaal se zajmat o politiku. Roku 1913 se pesunul do Mnichova a po vypuknut prvn svtov vlky se dobrovoln pihlsil do nmeck armdy. Byl v bojch rann a vyznamenn. V roce 1919 vstoupil do tehdy nepatrn nacistick strany a brzy na sebe strhl jej veden, kdy dokzal svm charismatickm a populistickm enictvm zmnohonsobit lenstvo. Vedl nezdaen mnichovsk pu 8. a 9. listopadu 1923, po nm byl sice odsouzen do vzen, kde setrval pes rok, vyuil vak soudn proces ke zven sv popularity a ve vzen napsal sv hlavn programov dlo Mein Kampf (Mj boj). Po vypuknut velk hospodsk krize koncem dvactch let se v tce postienm Nmecku zaalo dait extremistm a Hitlerova NSDAP se vypracovala na nejsilnj politickou stranu zem, navc pitom zskala i podporu sti konzervativnch elit a prmyslnk, kte se obvali rostoucho vlivu komunist.

Roku 1933 doshl Hitler jmenovn kanclem, zprvu ve spojenectv s st konzervativc, brzy vak na sebe nacist nevybravmi metodami strhli absolutn moc. Hitler se tvrd vypodal s opozic ve vlastn stran i mimo ni, k obtem takzvan noci dlouhch no z 29. na 30. ervna 1934 patili i velitel stranick milice SA nebo pedchoz kancl Kurt von Schleicher. Nmecko zaalo zbrojit a Hitler metodou stupovn poadavk a hrozbou agrese doshl vznamnch stupk ze strany zpadnch stt. Roku 1938 tak k Nmeck i mohl pipojit Rakousko a na zklad Mnichovsk dohody st eskoslovenska. Roku 1939 obsadila nmeck vojska zbytek eskch zem a po dohod se Sovtskm svazem vt st Polska. Napaden Polska vak vyvolalo globln vlku, v n bylo Nmecko zprvu spn. Roku 1940 nmeck armda zvtzila nad Franci, nsledujcho roku pepadla Sovtsk svaz a postoupila hluboko do jeho zem. Od roku 1943 vak zaala nabvat vrchu protistrana a Hitler svmi amatrskmi zsahy do velen armdy situaci jet zhoroval. Roku 1944 vyvzl z atenttu, kter nkte dstojnci zosnovali, protoe chtli pedejt drtiv porce, k n se pod Hitlerovm neschopnm a fanatickm velenm schylovalo. Na jae 1945 Hitler uvzl v obleenm hlavnm mst a 30. dubna spchal ve svm bunkru sebevradu spolu se svou drukou Evou Braunovou, kterou si tsn pedtm vzal za manelku.

Narodil se 20. dubna 1889 v msteku Braunau am Inn v Rakousku nedaleko bavorskch hranic.[1]

Matka Adolfa Hitlera se jmenovala Klra Hitlerov, za svobodna Plzlov. Jeho otec Alois Hitler, vlastnm jmnem Schicklgruber, se narodil jako nemanelsk dt Marie A. Schickelgruberov a Johanna G. Hiedlera. V roce 1876 si ale zmnil sv pjmen na Hitler, co byla zkomolenina jmna Hiedler. Pracoval jako celn inspektor, Klra Plzlov pracovala pvodn jako sluka Aloisovy prvn eny.

Klra byla tet enou Aloise Hitlera a byla jeho vzdlenou sestenic. Proto si Hitlerovi rodie museli vydat pro povolen k satku crkevn dispens. Hitlerv praddeek z matiny strany se jmenoval Johann von Nepomuk Httler.

Hitler se narodil jako tvrt dt ze esti. Vichni jeho sourozenci zemeli jet v dtskm vku, a na nejmlad sestru Paulu (18961960), kter Hitlera peila o mnoho let.

Rodina penzionovanho sttnho ednka Aloise Hitlera se asto sthovala z msta na msto, ne se usadila ve vesnici Leonding nedaleko Lince. Hitler v t dob navtvoval nejmn pt zkladnch kol. V dob, kdy navtvoval kolu v benediktnskm kltee v Lanbachu, zpval ve sboru a chtl se stt knzem. Prospch na zkladn kole ml vcelku dobr, ale na stedn kole v Linci se znan zhoril a nakonec stedn kolu nedokonil. Pouze v djepise a vtvarn vchov ml vborn prospch. Velik vliv na formovn prvnch Hitlerovch nacionalistickch nzor ml jeho uitel djepisu Leopold Ptsch. V t dob se upnuly ambice Adolfa Hitlera k vtvarnmu umn, ale jeho despotick otec to nechtl pipustit, protoe plnoval pro syna kariru sttnho ednka.

Mlad Adolf svho otce opravdu nenvidl. Jeho otec byl opilec a Adolfa (i jeho matku) obas surov bil a nadval jim. Kvli nmu Hitler ml po zbytek ivota odpor k alkoholu.[zdroj?] Alois Hitler vak zemel 3. ledna 1903 na srden infarkt (nebo mozkovou mrtvici), a to v hospod nad lahv alkoholu.

Svou matku Adolf Hitler miloval. Rozumla jeho umleckm tubm a pln ho v nich podporovala. Kdy Hitlerv otec zemel, nestlo ji snu o karie umlce nic v cest. Finann podporovn matkou (Hitler se nikdy nevyuil dnmu emeslu) se dospvajc Hitler bezcln toulal po Linci a snil. Jak sm pozdji piznal, bylo to obdob astnho nicnedln. Pestoe jeho prospch na stedn kole byl velmi patn, byl v tu dobu vnivm tenem knih, zvlt o historii a mytologii Nmecka.

V roce 1906, ve svch 17 letech se vydal do Vdn, zejm na popud sv matky, kter tak do tohoto msta v mld odela. Bydlel zde v chlapeck ubytovn a jeho jedinm ptelem zde byl jeho spolubydlc August Kubizek, student hudby eskho pvodu, se kterm byl Hitler v kontaktu i v pozdjch letech a kterho oznail za jedinho echa, kter m prvo bt ptelem Vdce. V roce 1907 se poprv pokusil dostat se na zdej Akademii vtvarnch umn. Byl si tm jist, e bude pijat, ale kdy mu pijmac komise oznmila, e je bez talentu, a tud nepijat, tak se nervov zhroutil. Mladmu a velmi ambiciznmu uchazei doporuil rektor Sigmund le Allemand studium architektury, kter by se Hitlerovi tak zamlouvalo, ovem chybla mu potebn maturita. Obas tak snval o karie hudebnho skladatele, nebo byl sm velkm obdivovatelem Richarda Wagnera.

Stejn rok, 21. prosince zemela Hitlerova matka Klra na rakovinu prsu. Hitler byl smrt sv milovan matky velmi zdrcen. Po tto tragick udlosti se nadobro odsthoval do Vdn. V roce 1908 se podruh pokusil dostat se na Akademii, tentokrt ho ale ani nepustili k pijmacm zkoukm. Hitler byl tm natolik zklamn, e opustil i tch nkolik ptel, kter ml, a odsthoval se z ubytovny. Njak as bydlel v pronajatm byt, ale ptho roku mu doly penze a skonil na ulici mezi bezdomovci.

Ve Vdni se ivil Hitler pouze pleitostnmi pracemi, napklad maloval reklamn plakty. Po ulicch prodval obkreslen kovit pohlednice. Bydlel v ubytovnch pro chud nebo spal s bezdomovci na ndrach, na lavikch a v prjezdech. Takto ivoil skoro 5 let. Asi v tuto dobu v nm zaal zrt antisemitismus.

V roce 1913 se rozhodl opustit Vde, podle jeho slov zkaen msto pln marxist a id, a pesthovat se do bavorskho Mnichova. Do Vdn u se nechtl nikdy v ivot vrtit. Zrove svj odchod argumentoval tm, e se chce vyhnout slub v rakousk armd a zkusit znovu se dostat na njakou kolu.

Od prvn chvle byl Mnichovem naden. Studovat se zde ale ani nepokusil. A ani povolvacmu rozkazu se nevyhnul, ale u komise byl shledn sluby neschopnm ze zdravotnch dvod. V Mnichov se jeho chudinsk anabze opakovala, dokud v roce 1914 nevypukla prvn svtov vlka. Pestoe byl v Rakousku uznn neschopnm pro slubu v armd, v Mnichov se pln vlasteneckho (nmeckho) naden pihlsil jako dobrovolnk do 16. pho zlonho pluku u bavorsk armdy (Bayerische Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 16). V armd dostal dleit kol, stal se z nj poln kurr doruoval po zkopech rozkazy.

V prosinci tho roku obdrel elezn k II. tdy a v srpnu roku 1918 elezn k I. tdy, kterho si po zbytek ivota velice cenil, nosil ho stle u sebe a dval ho na odiv. Velkou vojenskou kariru ale neudlal, na konci vlky byl pouh destnk.

V roce 1916 zashl zkop, ve kterm se Hitler nalzal, grant a tm vichni mui v nm zahynuli. Hitler ale peil se zrannm lebky. Nsledujcho roku byl opt posln na frontu. Sm popisoval obdob, kter trvil ve vlce, jako nejkrsnj obdob svho ivota. Lbilo se mu hrd bojovat za velk nmeck nrod. Podle jeho koleg z vojny pr i odmtal dovolenou.

Na podzim roku 1918 byl odvezen po otrav plynem (v bitv u belgickho msta Ypry), po kter doasn oslepl, do lazaretu v Pomoanech, kde jej oetoval mj. i psychiatr Edmund Forster. Zde se dozvdl o revoluci, kter 9. listopadu vedla k abdikaci csae. Po tomto zjitn se pr naprosto zhroutil. Ml pocit, e pd Nmecka nelze vysvtlit obvyklmi metodami. Jet kdy bval ve Vdni, seznmil se s mylenkami nmeckch nacionalistickch extremist, kte se obraceli k tradin mylence o vykoisovatelch a niitelch nordickho svta idech. V t chvli si pr umnil, e se dostane do politiky a skoncuje s tmito zrdci nroda.

18. ledna 1919 byla zahjena Pask mrov konference ve Versailles. Jejm clem bylo podepsat mrov smlouvy, jejich podmnky diktovaly pedevm Velk Britnie, USA, Francie, ale i Itlie a Japonsko. Mimo jin muselo Nmecko odstoupit piblin 13% skho zem, omezit vlenou flotilu, omezit ozbrojen sly na 100 000 mu a platit velmi vysok finann reparace, kter inily 33 000 000 000$.

Od roku 1918 pracoval jako informtor vyetovac komise druhho pho pluku, za svou pli byl odmnn jmenovnm do tiskov a informan kancele politickho oddlen oblastnho velitelstv. V prvn polovin roku 1919 byl Hitler dvrnkem roty. Dvrnci mli na starost spoluprci s propagandistickm oddlenm socialistick vldy, aby byl zajitn osvtov materil pro vojky. “Hitler sv prvn politick koly tedy plnil ve slubch revolunmu reimu v ele s SPD (Socilndemokratick strana Nmecka) a USPD (Nezvisl sociln demokratick strana Nmecka).”[2] V dubnu 1919 byl Hitler zvolen do rady zlonho praporu. Celkov: “A tak Hitler nejen nijak nepispl k rozdrcen mnichovsk “rud republiky”, nbr byl dokonce volenm pedstavitelem praporu po celou dobu jejho trvn.”.[3] Na jednom politickm kolen Hitler zashl do diskuze, v n se nkdo vyslovil pozitivn o idech. Jeho antisemitsk vstup zaujal nadzen, a tak se stal osvtovm dstojnkem. V tto funkci mohl poprv vyzkouet sv enick schopnosti. V z 1919 dostal rozkaz, aby proetil innost mal levicov Nmeck dlnick strany (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, DAP). V t dob nemla strana, kterou zaloil Anton Drexler, vce ne 50 len. Hitler se veer 12. z pi proslovu jednoho enka, kter navrhl odpojen Bavorska od Nmecka, vymrtil a pronesl tak ohniv proslov, e okamit zaujal vechny, a tak mu Drexler na odchodu nabdl lenstv ve stran. Hitler do n vstoupil a rychle zmnil jej klubov charakter. Zaal organizovat shromdn, na nich vystupoval jako enk a sm v ulicch rozdval letky.

Na dalm shromdn DAP 29. ervence 1919 Hitler vysvtlil, e een pro Nmecko nepijde z parlamentu, ale z revoluce. V tom, e Nmecko me bt obnoveno pouze radiklnmi zmnami, ho podporovala i bavorsk zemsk politika.

V roce 1920 si vzal na starost stranickou propagandu a 24. nora 1920 ve Festsaalu slavnho Hofbruhausu pronesl ve svm proslovu nemnnch 25 bod programu DAP, ve kterm formuloval poprv veejn antisemitsk opaten, vytvoen Velkho Nmecka, silnou centrln vldu, odmtnut Versaillesk smlouvy, zesttnn velkch kartel a trest smrti pro lichve.

V tme roce, 7. srpna, bylo na salzburskm zasedn oficiln pijato jako znak NSDAP prastar kultovn znamen, symbol hkovho ke.[4]

V roce 1921 se pokusilo veden strany Hitlera zbavit zveejnnm pamfletu, ve kterm se mluvilo o Hitlerov touze po moci a o tom, e je id. Jenome to u byl Hitler pro stranu, kter se v t dob ji jmenovala NSDAP, pli cennm, a tak tento palcov pevrat skonil nezdarem. Hitler poadoval veden strany pouze pro sebe. Strana si uvdomila, e bez Hitlera j hroz znik, a tak bylo veden strany rozputno a Hitler se stal jedinm fem strany na zklad tzv. vdcovskho principu.

Na podzim 1923 se Hitler ctil natolik siln, e chtl stle vce podnikat njak kroky k prosazen svch cl. Velice ovlivnn Mussoliniho pochodem na m se odhodlal pevzt moc v Bavorsku. Dolo k tzv. pivnmu pui.

V roce 1923 dolo ke sporm mezi vldou v Berln a bavorskou vldou, kter usilovala o faktickou samostatnost s pravicovou diktaturou. Pi tchto sporech byla Berlnem NSDAP zakzna, ale Bavorsko tuto skutenost odmtlo pijmout. V listopadu tohoto roku se kolem Hitlera shromdila skupina mu, mezi nimi Hermann Gring, Rudolf Hess, Ernst Rhm, Alfred Rosenberg a Max von Scheubner-Richter, kte se rozhodli provst ozbrojen pu. Hitler se pokusil pevzt moc (v noci z 8. na 9. listopadu).

Veer 8. listopadu roku 1923 nechal jednotkami SA a Jungssturmu obklit Mansk pivovar v Mnichov, ve kterm se konala veejn schze separatisticky orientovanch politik. Dle podle plnu mly bt obsazeny mstsk kasrny, ale to se nepovedlo. Nsledn nacistick pochod Mnichovem narazil na kordon bavorsk policie. Pot, co zahjila do revolucion stelbu, byl jejich pokus o pevrat zmaen.

Po tomto kroku byl odsouzen za velezradu k pti letm ve vzen v Landsbergu, ji 20. prosince 1924 byl vak podmnen proputn. Ve vzen nadiktoval svoji knihu Mein Kampf (Mj boj) Rudolfu Hessovi, kter se dal s Hitlerem dobrovoln zavt. V tto knize Hitler popsal sv cle, projevil se zde jeho vyhrann antisemitismus, rasismus a ukzal zde svoji pedstavu o vd roli nordick rasy.

NSDAP byla v tuto dobu ve znanm rozkladu, ale dky Hitlerovm enickm schopnostem, silnmu antisemitismu a hospodsk krizi (vznikl roku 1929) strana nakonec velmi poslila a stala se postupn jednou z nejsilnjch stran v Nmecku. Ve volbch v roce 1930 zskali nacist okolo 17% hlas, co byl pro n zatm nejlep volebn vsledek (v pedchzejcch volbch se nedostali ani na 5%).

V roce 1932 skonilo Hindenburgovo edn obdob a Adolf Hitler se rozhodl kandidovat na prezidenta.

Zrove byl Hitler i nadle bohat podporovn nmeckmi prmyslovmi a obchodnmi magnty. To mu umoovalo spolu s Goebelsem uskutenit bombastickou volebn kampa, bhem kter vyvinul samotn Hitler obrovsk sil (jako prvn politik pouval k peprav po Nmecku letadlo a stihl tak promluvit i na tyech shromdnch bhem jednoho dne). Pesto se mu nepodailo zvtzit. V prvnm kole zskal 30,1% hlas, zatmco Hindenburg 49,6%. Ostatn dva kandidti zstali s velkm odstupem vzadu. Protoe ani jeden kandidt nezskal nadpolovin vtinu, rozhodovalo se ve druhm kole. Ve druhm kole zskal 36% hlas a Hindenburg pes 53%, co ukazuje, e si vt st nroda Hitlera jako prezidenta nepla.

Po nespnch pokusech ve veden vldy kancli Brningem, von Papenem a Schleicherem[zdroj?] se Hindenburg pod tlakem tchto okolnost rozhodl jmenovat skm kanclem Adolfa Hitlera. Dne 30. ledna 1933 ho sk prezident Hindenburg jmenoval skm kanclem.

Pot, co se Hitler dostal k moci, zaal uskuteovat svoji politiku a pokouel se zlikvidovat sv odprce. Por skho snmu z 27. nora mu poskytl pleitost zat s tokem na komunisty.

O Hitlerov ekonomick politice se ned vbec hovoit, nebo on sm ekonomickm problmm nerozuml a ani o n nejevil sebemen zjem.[zdroj?]

Stt se neme ztotoovat s dnou konkrtn ekonomickou koncepc i ekonomickm vvojem Stt je rasov organismus a ne hospodsk organizace Jet nikdy se nestalo, aby stt byl zaloen mrovmi ekonomickmi prostedky (Mein Kampf)

Dky tajnmu roziovn zbrojn vroby, budovn silnic a novch tovren se mu vak podailo vrazn snit nezamstnanost, inflaci a zvit ivotn rove prmrn nmeck domcnosti.[zdroj?] Stle silnj smovn nmeck ekonomiky na zbrojn vrobu vak nevyhnuteln vedlo k vypuknut vlky. Nebo i kdy se ministr hospodstv Hjalmar Schacht snail zvyovnm emise bankovek a vydvnm sttnch obligac zskvat pro Hitlera vce penz, nedostatek devizovch a zlatch rezerv by musel nakonec vst ke zhroucen nmeck ekonomiky.

V zahranin politice se Hitler rozhodl vystoupit ze Spolenosti nrod (12. listopadu), tento krok pinesl Hitlerov politice mnoho vhod, a jeliko na to ostatn stty prakticky nereagovaly, byly nevhody takka nulov.

V roce 1934 se Hitler rozhodl zbavit tch len SA a NSDAP, kte stle jet vili v socialistickou revoluci a svm nsilm zaali znervzovat volie i konzervativn obchodn kruhy, kter tajn podporovaly Hitlera. Zrove byly SA velkou pekkou na cest sbliovn Hitlera a tradin konzervativnho Reichswehru (sk armdy). Hitler si uvdomoval, e bez podpory armdy a jejch dstojnk se mu neme podait skuten se dostat k moci. Zavradn mnoha politickch odprc, konkurent ve vlastn stran a pedevm Rhma velo do djin jako Noc dlouhch no.

1. srpna 1934 se Hitlerovi podailo prosadit spojen adu skho prezidenta a skho kancle, den nato zemel prezident Hindenburg. Tmto se Hitler stal prakticky neomezenm vldcem Nmecka. 17. listopadu t. r. ml Hitler projev v skm snmu, kde se odvolal na ivotn prva nrod a pihlsil se k mrov smlouv. Dva msce po tchto volbch byly zahranin vldy informovny o budovn nmeck Luftwaffe a 16. bezna 1935 byla znovu zavedena veobecn brann povinnost.

Pozdji uzavel spojenectv s faistickou Itli, kter byla po napaden Habee izolovna. Proto Hitler musel dvat pozor, aby se kvli Itlii nedostal do rozpor s Velkou Britni. Dne 7. bezna 1936 Nmecko vypovdlo Locarnskou smlouvu a obsadilo demilitarizovan zem v Porn.

Roku 1936 a 1937 dolo k vypracovn pln, kter vedly k tomu, e 12. bezna 1938 si Hitler vynutil souhlas rakouskho kancle k anlusu Rakouska a nmeck vojska okupovala Rakousko.

29. z dolo k Mnichovsk konferenci, na kter se s Velkou Britni, Franci a Itli dohodl na anexi pohraninho zem nezvislho eskoslovenska. (Tato konference de facto ukzala, v jak politick krizi se Evropa ocitla, a nastnila skuten zjem Adolfa Hitlera ohledn zahranin politiky, piem hlavnm kritikem Mnichovsk dohody byl toho asu opozin Winston Churchill.)

Roku 1938 dolo k vn krizi ve veden Wehrmachtu. Poln marl von Blomberg podal Hitlera, aby se sml oenit se enou z lidu. Hitler svolil a byl dokonce za svdka. Pozdji se ale zjistilo, e tato ena pracovala jako pornohereka a navc si obas pivydlvala prostituc. Takov manelstv bylo pro ministra vlky neppustn. Navc byl generl von Fritsche za pomoci falench dkaz sehnanch gestapem, zejmna vpovdi u nkolikrt trestanho vydrae, kiv obvinn z homosexuality, v t dob v Nmecku trestn. Akoliv pozdj vyetovn neodhalilo, e by se von Fritsch dopustil inu, z nho byl obviovn, Hitler byl touto zradou dajn zklamn a oba mue propustil. Von Fritsch byl proputn 4. nora 1938 a Hitler se sm stal vrchnm velitelem ozbrojench sil. Pmo ovldal nejen politiku sttu, ale i celou vojenskou mainrii.

Koncem bezna 1939 dal Hitler prostednictvm Ribbentropa rozit nvrh k prav spornch nmecko-polskch otzek. Zminkou pro zvyovn tlaku na Polsko byly poadavky tkajc se svobodnho msta Gdask a poadavek na koridor s exteritorilnmi prvy pro eleznici a silnici spojujc vchodn Prusko s Nmeckem. Hitler pedpokldal, e se mu poda zastraovnm Polska doshnout dalch zemnch zisk bez boje. Po pedchzejcch zkuenostech s neschopnost Daladiera a Chamberlaina postavit se mu na odpor pedpokldal kolaps Polska a nezjem zpadnch spojenc. Polsk veden v ele s plukovnkem Beckem ovem bylo nestupn, a tak Hitler poprv pouil vojenskou slu. Pro ospravedlnn vpdu do Polska byl v pedveer vlky zinscenovn incident u vyslae v Gliwicch.

Dne 23. srpna podepsal se stalinskm Sovtskm svazem nmecko-sovtsk pakt o netoen a hospodsk spoluprci z 23. srpna. Rozhodujc pas znla: V ppad, e jedna ze stran uzavrajcch smlouvu by se mla stt pedmtem vlench jednn ze strany tet moci, nebude druh ze stran uzavrajcch smlouvu podporovat tuto tet moc. Dne 28. z podepsali sovtsk ministr zahraninch vc Vjaeslav Michajlovi Molotov a nacistick ministr zahraninch vc Joachim von Ribbentrop spolen nmecko-sovtsk prohlen a tajn dodaten protokol, kde bylo rozdlen sfr zjm dojednan mezi obma totalitnmi stty (zmiovn tto historick skutenosti bylo pozdji v SSSR trestnm inem).

Hitlerovo vojensk zen vlench operac bylo mn spn ne jeho politick aktivita a nkter jeho chyby se ve vlce projevily zsadnm zpsobem.

Dne 20. ervence 1944 jen tsn unikl atenttu (viz Atentt na Hitlera z 20. ervence 1944). Dne 20. dubna 1945 ml 56. narozeniny a o deset dn pozdji, 30. dubna 1945, spchal sebevradu rozkousnutm ampulky kyanidu pi souasnm stisknut spout pistole (Walther PPK) ve svm bunkru v Berln. Tsn ped smrt ml zakiet: Bez nacionlnho socialismu neme Nmecko existovat! Jeho novomanelka Eva Braunov spchala sebevradu ped nm kyanidovou kapsl.[5] Jejich tla byla potom vynesena do jednoho z krter ped bunkrem, polita benznem a splena. Nmeck armd na konci vlky dochzelo palivo, a tak musel dt jeden z Hitlerovch generl rozkaz k vyerpn paliva z aut na parkovitch, aby mohla bt tla Adolfa a Evy Hitlerovch splena. V noci ze 7. na 8. kvtna 1945 dobyly Berln jednotky sovtsk armdy a 7. kvtna 1945 byla podepsna kapitulace Nmecka, kter vela v platnost druhho dne ve 23:01.[6]

Dlouh lta se vedly spory, zda Hitler skuten spchal sebevradu, i zda se mu pece jen nepodailo z obklenho Berlna uprchnout. Dnen modern poznatky naznauj, e Hitler skuten v Berln zemel a e byly jeho ostatky sten spleny. st jeho leben kosti je do dnench dn v archivech v Moskv. Posledn vzkumy tto leben kosti vak odhalily (dle vyjden doktora Bellatoniho, kter ji zkoumal), e patila en mezi 20 a 40 lety.[7]

Jeho politick nzory byly ovlivnny star nmeckou literaturou a filozofi (Herder, Arndt) a tzv. socilnm darwinismem, kter se pokouel o aplikaci Darwinovch poznatk o pirozenm vvoji druh postupnou eliminac nejslabch i na nrodnostn otzku. Hitler opovrhoval liberlnm uspodnm sttu a zdrazoval moc. Byl typick demagog a populista, kter ve svch projevech sliboval vem vrstvm spolenosti cokoliv, jen aby zskal jejich hlasy. Byl sice vdcem nacionln-socialistick strany, ale k socialismu, jak je tradin chpn a jak ho vymezili radikln myslitel 19. stolet, se nikdy nehlsil.

Kdokoliv, kdo je pipraven uinit z nrodn otzky otzku svou vlastn do t mry, e nezn dn vy idel ne blaho svho nroda; kdokoliv, kdo porozuml na skvl nrodn hymn Deutschland ber Alles v tom smyslu, e nic na svt nezastn v jeho och Nmecko, jeho lid a zemi ten je socialistou. (Hitlerv projev z 28. 7. 1922)

Rhmovy snahy o socialistickou revoluci rzn ukonil masakrem ve veden NSDAP a SA za Noci dlouhch no v roce 1934. Jednou z prvnch vc, kterou nacist udlali, kdy se dostali k moci, bylo zruen odbor. Zrove po lta pijmal velikou finann podporu velkoprmyslnk, bank a junker a sliboval ochranu jejich majetku.

V jeho mylen pevldaj dva zsadn prvky, siln antisemitismus a nacionalismus. Primitivn antisemitismus mu pomhal vytvet obraz veejnho neptele a vyvrcholil holokaustem, tj. vyhlazenm mj. 6 milion evropskch id, zatmco extatick nacionalismus pitahoval pravicov smlejc st nmeck spolenosti odchovan pruskm mylenm a vyvrcholil druhou svtovou vlkou.

Hitler povaoval idy a slovansk nrody za podlidi a nacistick pln genocidy Generalplan Ost, kter se souhlasem Hitlera vypracoval sk vedouc SS Heinrich Himmler, potal po vtzn vlce proti SSSR s vysthovnm na vchod za Ural nebo s fyzickou likvidac 8085% Polk, 5060% Rus z evropsk sti Sovtskho svazu, 50% ech, 65% Ukrajinc a 75% Blorus,[8] aby se tak zajistil ivotn prostor pro Nmce.

Dle Jiho Hjka Hitler: sociln sloku svho uen (vytvoen zdravch socilnch pomr) pevzal tak, jak stoj a le od zakladatele kesansko-socilnho hnut dr. Karla Luegera, piem vak Luegera ‘zdokonalil’ tm, e z jeho koncepce sociln otzky dsledn vymtil vechny kesansk motivace. Ty nahradil nacionalisticko-antisemitskm programem dal jm uznvan autority, George von Schnerera, zakladatele ‘Venmeckho hnut’ a hnut ‘Pry od ma’.[9]

Program nrodnch socialist z roku 1920 byl i hodn socialistick a obsahoval zruen bezpracnch pjm, konfiskaci vlench zisk, znrodnn monopol, rozdlen zisk z monopol, rozshlou podporu ve st, znrodnn obchodnch dom, konfiskaci pdy pro veejn ely bez nhrady, zruen rok za pozemkov pjky, podporu nadanch dt chudch rodi, povinn cvien a sport apod. Od tradinch forem socialismu odlioval nrodn socialismus vypjat nacionalismus, i kdy ne nenvist k nkterm nrodm, kterou projevoval teba i Karl Marx. Dle Hitlerova Mein Kampfu: V rud vidme socialismus naeho hnut, v bl mylenku nacionalismu a ve svastice posln boje za vtzstv rijskho lovka.[11]

Hitler chtl vak zniit marxismus a tvrdil, e mezi marxismem a socialismem existuj rozdly. Roku 1923 prohlsil Hitler v interview s Georgem Sylvesterem Viereckem, e: Komunismus nen socialismus. Marxismus nen socialismus. Socialismus je antick Aryan, germnsk instituce. Nai germnt pedci dreli jistou pdu dohromady. Oni kultivovali ideu veejnho blaha. Socialismus na rozdl od marxismu nezavrhuje soukrom vlastnictv. Na rozdl od marxismu nezahrnuje popen osobnosti a na rozdl od marxismu je patriotick.[12] Marxismus vak nepoaduje zruen soukromho vlastnictv spotebnch statk, ale zruen soukromho vlastnictv vrobnch statk. Roku 1934 Hitler pipustil, e: Nrodn socialismus pevzal od kadho z obou tbor samotnou mylenku, kter ho charakterizuje nrodn odhodln z buroazn tradice a vitln, tvr socialismus z marxistickho uen.[13]

Po uchopen moci zstala st hospodstv v soukromch rukou, ale pod sttn kontrolou v podob tyletch pln. Byla zavedena sociln opaten a podporovn socialistick a rovnostsk nrodn tos s vjimkou tch, kte byli nerijsk krve. Samotn Hitler razil heslo: Rovnost vech rasovch Nmc. Legln rozdl mezi dlnkem a ednm stavem byl zruen a dochzelo ke glorifikaci dlnka.[14] V Nmecku dolo k politice pln zamstnanosti od roku 1933 a k hospodsk politice centrlnho zen hospodskho procesu po roce 1936. Piem rozdl napklad oproti Sovtskmu svazu byl: Centrln administrativn zen hospodskho procesu me sice bt spojeno s kolektivnm vlastnictvm, jak je tomu v Rusku od roku 1928, toto spojen vak nen nutn. V Nmecku pevldalo dle soukrom vlastnictv vrobnch prostedk, zemdlsk a prmyslov podniky nadle patily pevn soukromm osobm a spolenostem. Soukrom vlastnci ale mohli s vrobnmi prostedky nakldat jen v omezenm rozsahu. V Nmecku se hospodsk mocensk organizace, soukrom i veejnoprvn, navzjem prolnuly. Nmeck a rusk hospodsk d z roku 1942 by potom byl dem, v nm dominovaly monopoly ve vech vrobnch odvtvch.[15]

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Adolf Hitler – Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Adolf Hitler [2] (20 April 1889 in Braunau am Inn, Austria 30 April 1945 in Berlin) was the leader of Nazi Germany. Hitler also led the NSDAP (often called the Nazi Party), the democratically elected party which ruled Germany at this time. He became Chancellor of Germany in 1933. This appointment was allowed by the German constitution.

Hitler became dictator (complete ruler) in 1934. He called himself the Fhrer (leader) of the German Empire. The Nazis created a dictatorship called the Third Reich. In 1933, they blocked out all other political parties. This gave Hitler absolute power.

Hitler ordered the invasion of Poland in 1939, and this started World War II. Because of Hitler, at least 50 million people died.[3] During World War II, Hitler was the Commander-in-Chief of the German forces and made all the important decisions. This was part of the so-called Fhrerprinzip.[4] He shot himself 1945, as the Soviet Army got to Berlin, because he did not want to be arrested to face justice and be executed.

Nazi forces did many war crimes during the war. They were doing what Hitler told them to do. They killed their enemies or put them in concentration camps and death camps. Hitler and his men persecuted and killed Jews and other ethnic, religious, and political minorities. In what is called the Holocaust, the Nazis killed six million Jews, Roma people, homosexuals, Slavs, and many other groups of people.[5]

Hitler’s family was born in Waldviertel, in Lower Austria. At the time, the name Hitler changed in this region several times between Httler, Hiedler, Hittler and Hitler. The name was commonly in the German-speaking area of Europe in the 19th century.[6] The literature says that this name is descended from the Czech name Hidlar or Hidlarcek.[7]

Adolf Hitler was born on 20 April 1889, as the fourth child of six[8] in Braunau am Inn. This is a small town near Linz in the province of Upper Austria. It is close to the German border, in what was then Austria-Hungary. His parents were Klara Plzl and Alois Hitler. Because of his father’s job, Hitler moved from Braunau to Passau, later to Lambach and finally to Leonding. He attended several Volksschule’s.

Hitler’s mother, Klara Plzl, was his father’s third wife and also his cousin.[9] Hitler’s father died in 1903.

Hitler failed high school exams in Linz twice. In 1905, he left school. He became interested in the anti-Semitic (anti-Jewish), Pan-German teachings of Professor Leopold Poetsch. In September 1907, he went to Vienna and took an entrance examination. On 1 and 2 October, he failed the second examination. Hitler went back to Linz at the end of October. In December 1907, Hitler’s mother died and, because of that, he was depressed.[10] Hitler’s mother was Catholic, but Hitler hated Christianity. He also hated Jews.[11]

In 1909, Hitler again went to Vienna to study art. He tried to become a student at the Academy of Arts, but failed the first entrance examination.[10] Hitler said he first became an anti-Semite in Vienna. This town had a large Jewish community.[12]

In 1913, Hitler was 24 years old. At that time, all young Austrian men had to join the army. Hitler did not like the Austrian army, so he left Austria for Germany. He lived in the German city of Munich.[10]

On 16 August 1914, Hitler joined the Bavarian army. He fought for Germany in World War I. Hitler served in Belgium and France in the 16th Bavarian Reserve Regiment. He spent nearly the whole time on the Western Front. He was a runner, one of the most dangerous jobs on the Front.[13] That means he ran from one position to another one to carry messages. On 1 November 1914, Hitler became a Gefreiter (which was like being a private first class in the United States Army, or a lance corporal in the British Army). The government awarded him the Iron Cross Second Class on 2 December 1914.

On 5 October 1916, Hitler was hurt by a bullet shell. Between 9 October and 1 December, he was in the military hospital Belitz.[14] In March 1917, he went back to the front. There, he fought in a battle and was awarded with the Militrverdienstkreuz Third Class with swords.

In March 1918, Hitler participated in the Spring Offensive. On 4 August 1918, Hitler was awarded with the Iron Cross First Class by the Jewish Hugo Gutmann. After Germany surrendered, Hitler was shocked, because the German army still held enemy area in November 1918.[15]

After World War I, Hitler stayed in the army and returned to Munich. There he attended the funeral march of the Bavarian prime minister Kurt Eisner, who had been killed.[16] In 1919, he participated in a training programme for propaganda speakers from 5 to 12 June and 26 June to 5 July.

Later that year, Hitler joined a small political party called the German Workers Party. He became member number 555.[17] He soon won the support of the party’s members. Two years later, he became the party’s leader. He renamed the party the National Socialist German Workers Party. It became known as the Nazi Party.

In 1923, Hitler got together several hundred other members of the Nazi Party and tried to take over the Weimar Republic government (191834) in the Beer Hall Putsch.[18] The coup failed. The government killed 13 of his men[19] (the 13 dead men were later declared saints in Nazi ideology). They also put Hitler in the Landsberg Prison. They said that he would stay in prison for five years, but they let him leave after nine months.

While Hitler was in prison, he wrote a book with the help of his close friend Rudolf Hess. At first, Hitler wanted to call the book Four and a Half Years of Struggle against Lies, Stupidity and Cowardice. In the end, he called the book Mein Kampf (My Struggle).[20] The book is full of his racism and violent views.

Mein Kampf brought together some of Hitler’s different ideas and explains where they came from:[21]

Hitler may also have been influenced by Martin Luther’s On the Jews and their Lies. In Mein Kampf, Hitler says Martin Luther was “a great warrior, a true statesman and a great reformer.”[12]

In 1933, Hitler was elected into the German government. He ended freedom of speech, and put his enemies in jail or killed them. He did not allow any other political party except the Nazi party.[18] Hitler and his propaganda minister, Joseph Goebbels, spread extreme nationalism within Germany. All media had to praise the Nazis. Also, more people were born because Hitler wanted more people of the “master race” (those he called “Aryans”). He made Germany a totalitarian Nazi state.[22]

Hitler started World War II by ordering the German Army to invade Poland.[23] His army took over Poland and most of Europe, including France and a large part of the Soviet Union.

During the war, Hitler ordered the Nazis to kill many people, including women and children. The Nazis killed six million Jews in the Holocaust. Other people that the Nazis killed were Roma (Gypsies), homosexuals, Slavs such as Russians and Poles, and his political opponents.[24]

Finally, some of the other countries in the world worked together to defeat Germany. Hitler lost all of the land that he had taken, and millions of Germans were killed in the war. At the end of World War II, Hitler gave all people in the Fhrerbunker the permission to leave it. Many people did and moved to the region of Berchtesgaden. They used planes and truck convoys.

Hitler, the Goebbels family, Martin Bormann, Eva Braun and some other staff remained in the bunker.[25] Hitler got married to Eva Braun on 29 April 1945.

Hitler and Braun both committed suicide (killed themselves) in Berlin the day after their marriage, but less than 24 hours later. Eva Braun and Hitler used poison to kill themselves, then Hitler shot himself in the head with his gun.[25] Before this, Hitler ordered that their bodies be burned.[26] This prevented him from being captured alive by soldiers of the Red Army, who were closing in on him.

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Adolf Hitler | dictator of Germany | Britannica.com

Hitler, AdolfPhotos.com/Jupiterimages

Adolf Hitler, byname Der Fhrer (German: The Leader) (born April 20, 1889, Braunau am Inn, Austriadied April 30, 1945, Berlin, Germany) leader of the National Socialist (Nazi) Party (from 1920/21) and chancellor (Kanzler) and Fhrer of Germany (193345). He was chancellor from January 30, 1933, and, after President Paul von Hindenburgs death, assumed the twin titles of Fhrer and chancellor (August 2, 1934).

Hitlers father, Alois (born 1837), was illegitimate. For a time he bore his mothers name, Schicklgruber, but by 1876 he had established his family claim to the surname Hitler. Adolf never used any other surname.

After his fathers retirement from the state customs service, Adolf Hitler spent most of his childhood in Linz, the capital of Upper Austria. It remained his favourite city throughout his life, and he expressed his wish to be buried there. Alois Hitler died in 1903 but left an adequate pension and savings to support his wife and children. Although Hitler feared and disliked his father, he was a devoted son to his mother, who died after much suffering in 1907. With a mixed record as a student, Hitler never advanced beyond a secondary education. After leaving school, he visited Vienna, then returned to Linz, where he dreamed of becoming an artist. Later, he used the small allowance he continued to draw to maintain himself in Vienna. He wished to study art, for which he had some faculties, but he twice failed to secure entry to the Academy of Fine Arts. For some years he lived a lonely and isolated life, earning a precarious livelihood by painting postcards and advertisements and drifting from one municipal hostel to another. Hitler already showed traits that characterized his later life: loneliness and secretiveness, a bohemian mode of everyday existence, and hatred of cosmopolitanism and of the multinational character of Vienna.

In 1913 Hitler moved to Munich. Screened for Austrian military service in February 1914, he was classified as unfit because of inadequate physical vigour; but when World War I broke out, he petitioned Bavarian King Louis III to be allowed to serve, and one day after submitting that request, he was notified that he would be permitted to join the 16th Bavarian Reserve Infantry Regiment. After some eight weeks of training, Hitler was deployed in October 1914 to Belgium, where he participated in the First Battle of Ypres. He served throughout the war, was wounded in October 1916, and was gassed two years later near Ypres. He was hospitalized when the conflict ended. During the war, he was continuously in the front line as a headquarters runner; his bravery in action was rewarded with the Iron Cross, Second Class, in December 1914, and the Iron Cross, First Class (a rare decoration for a corporal), in August 1918. He greeted the war with enthusiasm, as a great relief from the frustration and aimlessness of civilian life. He found discipline and comradeship satisfying and was confirmed in his belief in the heroic virtues of war.

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Adolf Hitler – New World Encyclopedia

Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 April 30, 1945) was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 and Fhrer (Leader) of Germany from 1934 until his death. He was leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP), better known as the Nazi Party. Since the defeat of Germany in World War II, Hitler, the Nazi Party, and the results of Nazism have been regarded in most of the world as synonymous with evil. The need to prevent the recurrence of such circumstances has been recognized. Yet initially when parliament voted him almost absolute authority he enjoyed overwhelming popular support. Historical and cultural portrayals of Hitler in the West are almost uniformly negative, sometimes neglecting to mention the adulation the German people bestowed on Hitler during his lifetime.

Hitler used charismatic oratory and propaganda, appealing to economic need, nationalism, and anti-Semitism to establish an authoritarian regime in a Germany that was still coming to terms with defeat in World War I in which many people resented the humiliating terms imposed by France and England at the Treaty of Versailles. The economic disaster that overwhelmed democratic Germany in the 1920s was blamed on the treaty, which exacted heavy reparations. This goes a long way to explaining the mood of the German people to accept a man like Hitler as their savior.

With a restructured economy and rearmed military, Hitler pursued an aggressive foreign policy with the intention of expanding German Lebensraum (living space) and triggered a major war in Europe by invading Poland. At the height of their power, Germany and its allies, known as the Axis Powers, occupied most of Europe, but were eventually defeated by the Britain-U.S.-led Allies in World War II. Hitler’s racial policies culminated in the genocide of 11 million people, including about six million Jews, in what is now known as the Holocaust.

In the final days of the war, Hitler committed suicide in his underground bunker in Berlin, together with his newly wed wife, Eva Braun.

Hitler was born on April 20, 1889, at Braunau am Inn, Austria, a small town on the border with Germany to Alois Hitler (18371903), a customs official, and Klara Plzl (18601907), Alois’s niece and third wife. Adolf was the fourth of six siblings, of whom only Adolf and his younger sister Paula reached adulthood. Alois Hitler also had a son (Alois) and a daughter (Angela) by his second wife.

Alois Hitler was illegitimate and used his mother’s surname, Schicklgruber, until he was 40, when he began using his stepfather’s surname name, Hiedler, after visiting a priest responsible for birth registries and declaring that Georg was his father (Alois gave the impression that Georg was still alive but he was long dead). A clerk probably changed the spelling to “Hitler. Later, Adolf Hitler’s political enemies accused him of not being a Hitler, but a Schicklgruber. This was also exploited in Allied propaganda during the Second World War when pamphlets bearing the phrase “Heil Schicklgruber” were airdropped over German cities. Adolf was legally born a Hitler, however, and was also closely related to Hiedler through his maternal grandmother, Johanna Hiedler.

There have been rumors that Hitler was one-quarter Jewish and that his paternal grandmother, Maria Schicklgruber, had become pregnant after working as a servant in a Jewish household in Graz, Austria. During the 1920s, the implications of these rumors along with his known family history were politically explosive, especially for the proponent of a racist ideology that especially targeted Jews. Although rumors of his non-German descent were never confirmed, they were reason enough for Hitler to conceal his origins. Soviet propaganda insisted Hitler was a Jew; research suggests that it is unlikely that he had Jewish ancestors. Historians such as Werner Maser and Ian Kershaw argue this was impossible, since the Jews had been expelled from Graz in the fifteenth century and were not allowed to return until well after Maria Schicklgruber’s alleged employment.

Because of Alois Hitler’s profession, his family moved frequently, from Braunau to Passau, Lambach, Leonding, and Linz. As a young child, Hitler was reportedly a good student at the various elementary schools he attended; however, in sixth grade (19001901), his first year of high school (Realschule) in Linz, he failed completely and had to repeat the grade. His teachers reported that he had “no desire to work.”

Hitler later explained this educational slump as a kind of rebellion against his father Alois, who wanted the boy to follow him in a career as a customs official, although Adolf wanted to become an artist. This explanation is further supported by Hitler’s later description of himself as a misunderstood artist. However, after Alois died on January 3, 1903, when Adolf was 13, Hitler’s schoolwork did not improve. At the age of 16, Hitler left school with no qualifications.

From 1905 onward, Hitler was able to live the life of a Bohemian on a fatherless child’s pension and support from his mother. He was rejected twice by the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna (19071908) due to “unfitness for painting,” and was told his abilities lay rather in the field of architecture. Following the school rector’s recommendation, he too became convinced this was the path to pursue, yet he lacked the proper academic preparation for architecture school:

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Adolf Hitler who fought the Jewish Bankers – Video



Adolf Hitler who fought the Jewish Bankers

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Hitler reacts to Beef Ban in India !! – Video



Hitler reacts to Beef Ban in India !!
Hitler finds out Government of india has banned Beef in few states. he is Furious over the Decision.

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Adolf Hitler Wikipdia

Adolf Hitler (Braunau am Inn, 1889. prilis 20. Berlin, 1945. prilis 30.) osztrk szlets nmet politikus, a Nemzetiszocialista Nmet Munksprt (nmetl Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei vagy rviden NSDAP) vezetje, kancellr 1933-tl s Fhrer (vezr) elnevezssel dikttor 1934-tl hallig. 1923-ban az gynevezett srpuccs sorn megprblta megdnteni a weimari kztrsasgot, de tmenetileg kudarcot vallott. A brtnben megrta a Mein Kampfot, amelyben sszefoglalta vilgnzett, a ncizmus ideolgijt, antiszemita fajelmlett, vilguralmi trekvseit s kommunistaellenessgt. Szabadulsa utn ezeken az ideolgiai alapokon ptette jj a prtjt. Nagy sznoki tehetsgvel, a versailles-i bkeszerzds igazsgtalansgainak tmadsval, zsidellenes demaggival igyekezett npszersget szerezni, de csak az 192933-as nagy gazdasgi vilgvlsg sorn sikerlt hatalomra jutnia. Kormnyra kerlve felszmolta a weimari kztrsasg intzmnyrendszert, a jogllamisgot, a nmet llam fderlis jellegt, az ellenzket s a munksmozgalmat egyarnt. Ltrehozta a kzkeleten Harmadik Birodalomnak nevezett j nmet llamot, amely szndkai szerint ezer vre a vilg vezet hatalma lett volna. Ellenfeleit megsemmist tborokba zratta, knoztatta s meggyilkoltatta. Klpolitikjban nem elgedett meg a versailles-i bkerendszer felszmolsval, hanem a gyakorlatban is meg akarta valstani vilguralmi elkpzelseit, s klnsen az akkori Szovjetuni eurpai terleteinek bekebelezsvel letteret (Lebensraum) akart biztostani a germn fajnak. Ezrt kirobbantotta a msodik vilghbort, antiszemita cljai elrse rdekben pedig elindtotta az n. vgs megoldst, az Endlsungot. Hatalmnak cscspontjn hadserege ellenrzse alatt tartotta az eurpai kontinens nagy rszt. A szvetsges hatalmak tlerejvel szemben azonban mr csak id krdse volt a buksa. A msodik vilghbor vgn, a szovjet Vrs Hadsereg ltal krbevett berlini fld alatti bunkerben ngyilkos lett. Hitler szemlyes buksa teljes volt, cljaiban is nagyrszt kudarcot vallott. A minden nmetet egyest nagynmet birodalom helyett orszga elvesztette keleti terleteit, a Kelet-Eurpban elszrtan vszzadok ta l nmet npcsoportokat a hbor utn elztk lakhelykrl. A marxizmus s a kommunizmus felszmolsa helyett vesztes hborjval hozzjrult ahhoz, hogy a Szovjetuni s a kommunizmus negyven vre befolysa al vonja Kzp-Eurpt. A zsidsg teljes s vgleges megsemmistse a holokauszt borzalmai ellenre sem sikerlt, s Hitler buksa utn pr vvel ltrejtt Izrael llam. A nmet vilguralom, a vilgpolitikai vezet szerep helyett a kt rszre szakadt Nmetorszg fl vszzadon t alrendelt szerepet jtszott a nemzetkzi politikban, a Szvetsgi Kztrsasg viszont a vilggazdasg 2-3. helyrt mltn indulhatott. Adolf Hitler 1889. prilis 20-n, az OsztrkMagyar Monarchia terletn, Nmetorszgtl nem messze, a Linztl 90 kilomterre lv fels-ausztriai Braunau am Inn kisvrosban szletett. Alois Hitler (18371903) vmgyi tisztvisel s unokahga, egyben harmadik felesge, Klara Plzl (18601907) negyedik gyermekeknt ltta meg a napvilgot. A hzaspr hat gyermeke kzl csak Adolf s Paula rte meg a felnttkort. Adolfnak kt fltestvre is volt apja korbbi, msodik hzassgbl, Alois s Angela.[1] Apja, Alois Hitler hzassgon kvli gyermekknt szletett, s anyjnak vezetknevt (Schicklgruber) viselte egszen 40 ves korig. Anyja ksbb felesgl ment Johann Georg Hiedlerhez (17921857), aki molnrlegnyknt dolgozott. Aloist azonban nem , hanem ccse, Johann Nepomuk Hiedler (18071888) nevelte, aki valsznleg az apja volt. kldte Aloist Bcsbe cipsztanulnak, ahol meg is szerezte a cipszmesteri oklevelet. Ezutn azonban rgtn belpett a vmrsghez, ahol vekig kzlegnyknt szolglt. 1872-ben, 35 ves korban elvette egy magas lls vmtisztvisel 50 ves nevelt lnyt. 1875-ben vmtiszt, majd 1892-ben ftiszt lett. 1876-ban vette fel mostohaapja (s nevelapja) csaldi nevt. A nvvltoztatskor azonban a Hiedler (kb. kisbirtokos) nv betzst egy hivatalnok a kevsb parasztos Hitler formban jegyezte be. Adolf Hitlert ksbb ellenfelei propagandisztikus okokbl a rosszabbul hangz Schicklgruber nven is emlegettk, br ezt a nevet maga sohasem viselte.[2] Hitler nem volt biztos apai nagyapjnak kiltt illeten, m az minden valsznsg szerint Johann Georg Hiedler vagy annak ccse, Johann Nepomuk Hiedler volt. Ha Johann Nepomuk volt az, akkor az apai nagyapja ugyanaz a szemly volt, mint az anyai ddapja, mert anyja, Klara Plzl Johann Nepomuk Hiedler unokja volt.[3] Mr az 1920-as vek elejn terjedt a mncheni kvhzakban az a pletyka, hogy Hitler apai nagyapja zsid volt. A dikttorral szemben ll klfldi sajt ksbb nagy elszeretettel terjesztette ezt. A legenda vgleges vltozatt Hans Frank, Lengyelorszg hitleri fkormnyzja diktlta le emlkirataiban, kivgzse eltt. Eszerint Hitler apai nagyapja egy Leopold Frankenberger vagy Frankenreiter nev zsid frfi volt, mert Maria Anna Schicklgruber (Hitler apai nagyanyja, 17951847) Graz vrosban ennl a zsid csaldnl dolgozott. Modern kutatk ttelesen cfoljk ezt a trtnetet, mivel ilyen nev csaldok a grazi anyaknyvekben egyltaln nem lelhetk fel, s arra sincs bizonytk, hogy Hitler anyja Grazban dolgozott volna.[4] Ennek a trtnetnek a hamis volta azonban nem jelenti azt, hogy Hitler zsid szrmazsa vglegesen kizrhat.[5] Alois Hitler foglalkozsbl addan, de sajt kezdemnyezsbl is, csaldjval egytt gyakran kltztt, elszr Braunaubl Passauba, aztn Lambachba, majd Leondingba s Linzbe. A fiatal Adolf ltalnos iskolai vei alatt mg j tanul volt. A lambachi bencs iskolban tallkozhatott elszr a horogkereszttel, ugyanis az egyik 19. szzadi apt szvesen hasznlta dsztelemknt ezt az si szimblumot, s az tbbfel megtallhat volt a kolostorban.[6] Adolf j tanulmnyi eredmnyei utn apja egy neves linzi reliskolba ratta, ahol azonban az eminens dikbl egy v alatt bukott dik lett. letrajzri tbb ksrletet is tettek ennek a vltozsnak a megmagyarzsra, de a legvalsznbb az, hogy a krnyezetvltozs s a kt iskola kztti sznvonalklnbsg okozta a kezdeti problmkat, amire aztn a 11 ves fi dacosan reaglt, s nem volt hajland komoly erfesztseket tenni.[7] Alois Hitler sikeres hivatali plyt futott be, s j anyagi krlmnyeket biztostott csaldjnak. 1903-ban, 66 ves korban hunyt el. A linzi Freisinnige Tageszeitung (Szabadgondolkod Napilap) a kvetkezkppen emlkezett meg rla: Alois Hitler egy keresztl-kasul haladan gondolkod ember volt, s mint ilyen, a szabad iskola nagy bartja.[8] Apja halla utn az ifj Adolf Hitlert – tovbbra is gyenge eredmnyei miatt – eltancsoltk az iskoljbl. 15 vesen kerlt msik kzpiskolba, de itt sem akart a haszontalannak tartott tanulmnyokkal foglalkozni. A Mein Kampfban slyos tdbntalomrl beszl, de valsznbb, hogy csak kifogst keresett arra, hogy a szmra rdektelen iskoltl megszabaduljon.[9] 1905-tl az apja utn jr rvatmogats, valamint az anyjtl s nagynnjtl kapott pnz viszonylag knyelmes meglhetst biztostott szmra. Betegsgre hivatkozva, valamint azzal az rggyel, hogy felkszl a bcsi Festmvszeti Akadmia felvteli vizsgjra, vidki, majd bcsi rokonainl ldeglt mintegy kt vig. Sznhzba jrt, olvasott, rajzolt, festegetett, de rendszeres tanulmnyokat nem folytatott, s valsznleg nem volt tisztban az akadmia szigor felvteli kvetelmnyeivel sem.[10] 1907-ben sikertelen felvteli vizsgt tett a bcsi Mvszeti Akadmin, de a kudarcot mindenki eltt elhallgatta. Ez v karcsonyn halt meg desanyja, a hozz legkzelebb ll szemly. Hitler ezutn soha nem nnepelte meg a karcsonyt. Az 1908-as v nagy rszben kzsen brelt szobt Bcsben bartjval, August Kubizekkel. gy rt rla: Valami knos komolysgban megnyilvnul kemnysg, merevsg, mozdthatatlansg, makacs megrgzttsg jellemezte lnyt.[11] Kubizeknek sem rulta el azonban, hogy tulajdonkppen nem vettk fel az akadmira, hanem gy tett, mintha tanulmnyi feladatait rajzoln, festen. 1908 szn jra megprblta a felvteli vizsgt az akadmira, de ezttal mr az elszelekcin sem jutott t. Anyagilag egyre nehezebb helyzetbe kerlt, mert rksge fogyatkozott, s az rvasgi ptlkra sem tarthatott tovbb ignyt. Mgis megvlt Kubizektl, inkbb maga keresett olcs hnapos szobt. t hnapig bejelentve sem volt valsznleg a sorozs ell is bujklt. 1910 februrjban vgl bejelentkezett egy gynevezett frfiszllsra, ahol olcsn kapott egy cella mret szobt. Itt ismersei tancsra elkezdett elads cljra kpeslapokat rajzolni, festeni, ebbl hrom vig fenn tudta tartani magt. Kpei eladsban rszt vett egy Neumann nev magyarorszgi zsid ember is, akivel normlis kapcsolata volt.[12] Akkoriban azok kz tartozhatott, akik elmleti antiszemitizmusukat a krnyezetkben l konkrt zsidkra nem terjesztettk ki. Azt tervezte, hogy tanulmnyait Mnchenben folytatja majd, erre gyjttt. Naponta elkszlt egy, ltalban 3540cm-es kppel, amely majdnem mindig bcsi utcarszletet brzolt, s ezeket el is tudta adni 510 koronrt a bcsi kispolgroknak.[13] Hitler vilgnzete, ideolgija Bcsben kezdte fellteni vgleges formjt. Ersen hatott r az alldeutsch mozgalom, amelyet magyarra nagynmet-nek vagy pngermnnak fordt az irodalom, br bet szerint ssznmet-et jelent. Szervezetk, az Alldeutscher Verband meghatroz egynisge ebben az idben Georg von Schnerer volt. Lapjuk, az Alldeutsches Tageblatt szerkesztsge Hitler lakhelynek kzelben volt, a lap friss szmait akr az utcai vitrinben is el lehetett olvasni. A mozgalom clja Ausztria-Magyarorszg felbomlasztsa s az sszes nmetnek egy nagynmet birodalomban trtn egyestse volt. A leend birodalombl ki akartk kszblni a szlv s a magyar npelemet, de a katolicizmust s klnsen a zsidsgot is. Emellett a szocildemokrcia eskdt ellensgeinek nyilvntottk magukat, rszben annak internacionalizmusa, rszben zsid szrmazs vezeti miatt. Felfogsukban a rgi hagyomnyokra visszatekint, vallsi s gazdasgi gyker antiszemitizmus talakult faji zsidgyllett: a zsid biolgiailag zsid, zsid ltt csak a ltvel egytt lehet megszntetni.[14] Br Hitlerre sokban hatott a nagynmet ideolgia, a ksbbiekben ezen alaposan tllpett, s ersen kritizlta is ezt az eszmerendszert a Mein Kampfban. F mvben maga is arrl rt, hogy antiszemitizmusa Bcsben teljesedett ki. Bcs ekkoriban nagy ltszm zsid kisebbsgnek adott otthont, akik kzl sokan Kelet-Eurpbl odavndorolt ortodox zsidk voltak. Hatssal volt Hitlerre ez idben Karl Lueger bcsi polgrmester populista, agresszv retorikja, akit minden idk legnagyobb nmet polgrmestereknt aposztroflt, dicsrte emberismerett, a kisemberek krben npszer intzkedseit, amelyeket gyesen hasznlt fel sajt cljaira.[15] Kimutathat az antiszemita Lanz von Liebenfels(de) fajelmletnek befolysa is Hitler eszmerendszerre, br az utbbi nevt rsaiban nem emlti, s nem vette t tle az antiszemitizmusnak durva szexulis vonatkozsait. (Liebenfels konkrtan tenyszteni szorgalmazta az arra rdemes vrvonal rja frfiakat, mg az arra rdemteleneket ki akarta zrni a szaporodsbl.) Hitler bcsi vei alatt nehz anyagi helyzete ellenre gyakran jrt sznhzba, s klnsen operba. Kedvelte a bcsi (s magyar) operettet, de abszolt kedvence Wagner volt, akiben a germn mitolgia jjteremtjt ltta. Amikor Kubizek egy 1938-as tallkozsuk sorn emlkeztette t egy 30 vvel korbban egytt ltott Rienzi-eladsra, Hitler gy reaglt: Abban az rban kezddtt[16] Hitlert rzkenyen rintette buksa a felvteli vizsgkon, de ezt kveten is festknt prblt meglni Bcsben, majd Mnchenben, nem kezdett ms szakma vagy munka keressbe. Amikor az osztrk soroztisztek megtalltk, festmvsznek vallotta magt, de hozztette, hogy csak meglhetsi okok miatt fest. Ksbb mg hatrozottabban elutastotta magtl a festszetet.[17] Ami stlust, festi felfogst illeti, br dhdten tmadta a konzervatv akadmikusokat (akiknek a felvtelin vallott kudarct tulajdontotta), de megvetette a korabeli modern ramlatokat is. Ksbb, kancellrknt kitiltotta a degenerlt, zsid-nger hatst tkrz festszetet a killttermekbl. A maga rszrl szinte mindig ember nem jrta utcakpeket festett, pleteket rktett meg. J szemmel, gyes kzzel brzolta, msolta vlasztott trgyait, de alkotsai a szakrtk nagyobb rsznek vlemnye szerint nem tik meg a mvszi sznvonalat.[18] Ksbbi politikai szerepe azonban alaposan megemelte kpeinek rtkt, gy azokat nagy mennyisgben hamistottk is. Leghresebb hamistja Konrad Kujau lett, aki a Stern magazin szmra eladta Hitler ugyancsak hamistott napljt is mintegy 10 milli mrkrt, s vele 300 festmnyt, vzlatot, rajzot is, amelyek kzl egy sem volt eredeti.[19] Mnchenben is kialakult a vevkre, egy aranymves pldul 21 kpet vsrolt tle. Kancellrr vlsa utn sok korbbi vevje felajnlotta szmra festmnyeit, de Hitler nem tartott ignyt mveire. Becslsek szerint festi korszakban, 191014 kztt sszesen mintegy kt-hromezer kpet festhetett. Kzlk mintegy 700 fennmaradt klnbz archvumokban s gyjtemnyekben.[20] Hatalomra jutsa utn az antifasiszta propaganda azt terjesztette rla, hogy szobafestknt indult. Ennek semmi letrajzi alapja nincs. (Egybknt egsz letben soha nem volt rendszeres, fizetett polgri foglalkozsa.) 1938-ban Jean Effel francia karikaturista kt rajza is megjelent nagy pldnyszm francia lapokban, amelyeken Hitler szobafestknt Ausztrit, illetve Csehszlovkit festi t barnra. A karikatra termszetesen a hitleri Nmetorszg terjeszkedsre utal. Lehetsges, hogy a szobafest-legenda ezekbl ered, vagy legalbbis ezeknek a karikatrknak a nyomn terjedt el szles krben.[21] Hitler a festszet mellett ersen vonzdott az ptszethez is. Ez egybevgott azzal is, hogy a bcsi sikertelen festszeti felvteli vizsgjn a professzorok a rajzai alapjn inkbb az ptszi plyt ajnlottk szmra.[22] Krlbell 24 ves korban vgleg bcst mondott festszeti terveinek, s teljesen az ptszet fel fordult rdekldsvel. Addigi festi tevkenysgvel ksbb sem trdtt, de ptszeti vzlatait gondosan megrizte.[23] Rendszeres tanulmnyokat azonban nem folytatott, rdekldse nagyrszt az lmodozsokban merlt ki. Kancellrknt azonban mr tg tere nylt annak, hogy elkpzelseit megvalsttassa. ptszi stlusa ifjkori festi trekvseivel ellenttben megfelelt a korszellemnek, mondhatni divatos volt. A 30-as vek klasszicizl, monumentlis stlusa szmos vilgvrosban felbukkant, Moszkvtl New Yorkig, Rmtl Prizsig. Hitler azonban mindenki mson messze tl akart tenni. ptszeti elkpzelseinek els f kivitelezje Paul Ludwig Troost volt, majd az halla utn, 1934-tl Albert Speer. Troost mg a neoklasszicizmus keretei kztt maradt (Nmet Mvszetek Hza, Mnchen), de Speer mr hsgesen kvette Hitler gigantomnijt. tervezte a nrnbergi prtnapok sznhelyt, amely vgs formjban egymilli ember befogadsra lett volna alkalmas.[24] Speer tervezte Hitler elkpzelsei alapjn a birodalmi s egyben vilgfvros, a Germnia nvre keresztelend Berlin j arculatt is, olyan kzhivatali pletekkel, amelyek inkbb kolosszlis templomokra, mint munkahelyekre hasonltottak. Hitler ide sznta a vilg legmagasabb kupolacsarnokt s diadalvt. Szmos szakrt szerint a nmet ptszet Hitler irnytsa alatt az 19341940 kztti idszakban trtnelmileg egyedlll eredmnyeket rt el.[25] Az ltala tmogatott ptszek, Tessenow, Troost, Speer fellmltk Mussolini vagy Sztlin ptszeinek neoklasszicizmust. Olyan j stlust akart teremteni, amely nem utnozza a trtnelmi stlusokat, hanem maga vlik trtnelmiv.[26] Az ptszet tern is elismerte a kor modern technolgiit. Az autplya-ptsek ltala diktlt temt a kor kzlekeds-gazdasgi szksgletei mg nem igazn indokoltk, Hitler stratgiai, valamint ideolgiai okokbl szorgalmazta azt. Speernek egyszer kijelentette, hogy az autplya lesz az Parthennja, s hozztette, hogy az tpts a rmaiaktl s az inkktl Napleonig mindig az ers kormnyzat jele volt.[27] Hitler letrajznak kutati semmifle szexulis kapcsolatrl nem talltak adatot fiatal korbl. Kubizek szerint titokban vonzdott egy lenyhoz, akit meglesett, amikor az anyjval korzzott az utcn, de soha nem beszlt vele. Egy msik emlkezs szerint egyszer agresszven lpett fel egy modellt ll lnnyal szemben.[28] A szerelmi kapcsolatainak hinya sok tallgatsra adott alkalmat. Impotensnek vagy homoszexulisnak tartottk sokan, s mr a hbor elejn elterjedt, hogy csak egy herje van. (Ami klnben orvosilag nem felttlenl okoz zavart egy frfi szexulis letben.) Mindez azonban csak spekulcikon alapul.[29] (A Hd a Kwai folyn cm filmben is egy ilyen trgy gnydal, a Hitler Has Only Got One Ball hangzik el az angol katonktl, de csak ftylve.[30]) Ami a homoszexualitst illeti, Hitler sokig egykedven trte a prtjban (klnsen az Ernst Rhm vezette SA-ban) meglv homoszexulis aktivitst, de semmi jel nem mutat arra, hogy maga homo- vagy biszexulis lett volna. Tbb letrajzrja viszont lappang homoszexulis hajlamot tulajdont Hitlernek annak alapjn, hogy els igazi otthona, ahol jl rezte magt s sem okozott problmkat, a hadsereg volt a maga tiszta frfitrsasgval. Erre utalhat az is, hogy a hossz ksek jszakja sorn, amikor politikai okokbl leszmolt az SA vezetivel, dhdten tmadt azok ferde hajlamai ellen.[31] Klns, sok pletykra okot ad kapcsolata volt Angela Rauballal, mostohanvrnek, egyben hzvezetnjnek lnyval. 1929-tl a 20 ves Gelinek sajt szobja volt Hitler hatalmas mncheni laksban, s a prtvezr nevelt lnyaknt kezelte, mindenhov magval vitte. A fiatal lnyt eltiltotta ms kapcsolataitl. Geli Hitler irnti rajongsa fokozatosan gyllett vltozott, s 1931-ben vitatott krlmnyek kztt ngyilkos lett.[32] Hitlert a lny halla nagyon megrzta. Ettl kezdve lett vegetrinus, amit sokan ezzel az esemnnyel hoztak sszefggsbe. A nk trsadalmi szereprl llspontja mlysgesen konzervatv volt. Szerinte a n vilga a frje, csaldja, gyermekei s a hza A nemancipci csak a zsid intellektus ltal kifundlt sz, s tartalmt ugyanez a szellem hatrozza meg.[33] Fel kell leszteni a nmet anya hagyomnyos ernyeit, el kell fogadni, hogy a frfiak az let szmos terletn elnyben vannak a nkkel szemben. Ugyanakkor prtolta, hogy a lnyok testnevelse olyan legyen, mint a fik, k is sportos, modern letmdot folytassanak. Amikor azonban a hbor alatt Goebbels a nk teljes mozgstst kezdemnyezte, Hitler ezt ellenezte.[34] lettrsnak, Eva Braunnak mg azokat a jogokat sem biztostotta, amelyeket ltalban a nmet nnek sznt. 1932-ben kialakult kapcsolatuk sorn t teljesen httrbe szortotta, a nyilvnossg eltt nem vllalta. Vgl kzs ngyilkossguk eltt adta meg neki az elgttelt, hogy Frau Hitlernek mondhassa magt. Hitler alkatilag aszketikus hajlam ember volt, ez klnsen fiatal korban tett neki j szolglatot. Keveset evett, nem zavarta, ha kenyren s tejen kvl msra nem jut. Soha nem dohnyzott, alkoholt is ritkn ivott nha egy-egy srt, ami hozztartozott a nmet frfi imzshoz, csakgy, mint a bajor rvidnadrg, amelyet szintn felvett nha. Nem jrt nk utn sem, gy aztn anyagi szempontbl knny volt szabadnak maradnia, nem kellett erltetnie a pnzkeresetet. Meg tudott lni szerny ifjkori apanzsbl, nhny korons festmnyei rtkestsbl, a szks katonai zsoldbl, vagy a kezd prtmunksknt tartott eladsok s rt cikkek csekly honorriumbl egyarnt. Idsebb korban kapott r az dessgre, nagyon megszerette, s ervel kellett visszafognia magt, hogy el ne pocakosodjon. Tartott attl, hogy emiatt sznokknt is vesztene hatsbl. Ignyei kancellrknt is korltozottak maradtak: a luxusbl csak a legjobb autt, a j lakst s a megfelel flrevonulsi lehetsget, villt ignyelte.[35] Hitlert katolikusnak kereszteltk, de vallsossga korn httrbe szorult. Politikai tevkenysge sorn azt tartotta szem eltt, hogy vallsi llsfoglalsa klnsen a katolicizmus s a reformci sszefggsben a vlasztk egyik vagy msik rsze eltt mindenkppen htrnyos helyzetbe hozn. Ezrt semleges igyekezett maradni: A politikai vezr szmra npnek vallsi tanai s intzmnyei rinthetetlenek kell hogy legyenek, klnben nem szabad politikusnak lennie, hanem legyen reformtor, ha ahhoz megvan az eszkze.[36] 1933-as hatalomra jutsa utn, az j parlament megnyitja eltti hivatalos egyhzi szertartson nem vett rszt, mint hivatalosan bejelentette, a katolikus pspksg ellensges magatartsa miatt.[37] A parlament els lsn ugyan leszgezte, hogy a keresztnysgben a npi morl s erklcsisg alapjt ltja, de ebben az idben mr szmos pap is a koncentrcis tborokban volt. Rosenberg nci fideolgus pedig ekkor megjelent knyvben f tmaknt trgyalta a keresztnysg mint nemrja jelensg krtkonysgt. A m Hitlernek nem tetszett, mert az egyhzak tmadsa nem felelt meg cljainak.[38] St, fontosnak tartotta a nagy tmegbefolyssal rendelkez egyhzakkal fenntartott kapcsolatot. 1934-ben hrom nmet rsek eltt kijelentette: Soha nem fogok Kulturkampfot indtani.[39] 1941-ben Hitler megfenyegette Bajororszg nemzetiszocialista helytartjt, hogy lecsukatja, mert az elrendelte a feszletek eltvoltst az iskolkbl. A hbor alatt is gyakran mondogatta hveinek, hogy az egyhz megleckztetsvel vrni kell a hbor utnig, akkor viszont fel kell majd szabadtani az ifjsgot a hatsa all.[40] Hitler Bcsben nemcsak a zsidkat gyllte, hanem magt a ketts monarchit, a katolikus egyhzat, a polgrsgot s munkssgot egyarnt.[41] 1913 tavaszn betlttte 24. letvt, gy szmtania kellett arra, hogy besorozzk az ltala megvetett llam hadseregbe. Ezrt mjus 24-n egy ismers fiatalemberrel egytt egyszeren fellt a vonatra, s tteleplt Mnchenbe. Ksbb tbbszr nyilatkozott gy, hogy a Mnchenben a hbor kitrsig eltlttt j egy ve letnek legboldogabb idszaka volt.[42] Pedig bcsi lethez kpest nem sokat vltoztak krlmnyei. Ugyangy kpei eladsbl lt nagyon szernyen. titrsval albrlett is megosztotta. Ksbb az osztrk soroztisztek is utolrtk, de vgl fizikai gyengesge miatt minden katonai szolglatra alkalmatlannak nyilvntottk.[43] Mnchen szmra elssorban a vros tiszta nmet jellege miatt volt otthonos. Egy nmet vros! Micsoda ellentt Bccsel szemben! rta mg tz vvel ksbb is a Mein Kampfban.[44] Mnchenben Hitler rengeteget olvasott, s a helyi forrsok alapjn fejleszthette tovbb politikai s fajelmleti elkpzelseit. A nmet alldeutschok elmletei azonban rszben el is trtek az osztrk eszmetrsaiktl. k is nagynmet birodalomban gondolkodtak, de nem vetettk fel a ketts monarchia felbontsnak gondolatt, hanem az egsz OsztrkMagyar Monarchit vontk volna nmet befolys al. Emellett hvei voltak a tengerentli nmet gyarmatostsnak is, ami Hitlert soha nem foglalkoztatta. Visszaemlkezsei szerint ekkoriban fejtette ki elszr azt a meggyzdst, hogy a nmet nemzet jvjnek krdse a marxizmus megsemmistse.[45] Mindenesetre Hitler sokkal jobban rezte magt a hborra s hdtsra kszl nmet csszrsgban, mint a megoldatlan nemzetisgi problmkkal terhelt, felbomls eltt ll Ausztria-Magyarorszgon. Hitler legksbb 1913-ban tisztban volt mr a ketts monarchia felbomlsnak elkerlhetetlensgvel, st a maga rszrl kvnta is azt.[46] Hitler a Mein Kampfban arrl r, hogy 1914. augusztus 3-n nhny hnappal azutn, hogy az osztrk hadseregbl kiszuperltatta magt srgs krst intzett III. Lajos bajor kirlyhoz, hogy osztrk llampolgrsga ellenre bevonulhasson a bajor hadseregbe, s krsre mr msnap pozitv vlaszt kapott.[47] A trtnet valszertlen, hiszen egy nap alatt krse el sem juthatott az illetkesekhez, mindenesetre augusztus 16-n Hitler lelkesen bevonult a nmet hadseregbe (a sorozk valsznleg nem is rdekldtek llampolgrsga irnt).[48] Kt hnapos kikpzs utn a nyugati frontra kerlt a 16. bajor List tartalkos gyalogezredhez. Az egysg feladata a LilleBrugge vonaltl az Ypres irnyba indtand tmads tmogatsa volt. Hitler 1941-ben gy emlkezett vissza: Az egyetlen olyan id volt, amikor nem voltak gondjaim: a hat v a hadseregben; ott mindennel kiszolgltk az embert, koszttal csakgy, mint kvrtllyal[49] November 1-jn mr megkapta a Gefreiter rendfokozatot, ez a nmet tisztesi rendfokozati csoportban az rvezet s a tizedes kztt helyezkedett el. November 9-n az ezredstbhoz kerlt kldncnek, s a hbor alatt mindvgig megmaradt ebben a beosztsban. Feladata az ezredparancsnoksg s a fronton harcolk lvszrkai kztti zenetek eljuttatsa volt, gyakran slyos tzrsgi s gppuskatz alatt. Mr 1914 decemberben kitntettk a Vaskereszt msodik fokozatval. 1916 oktberben az szak-franciaorszgi harcokban sebesls rte a lbn. Felplse utn nhny napot Berlinben, illetve Mnchenben tlttt. A htorszg llapott elkesertnek tartotta, alig vrta, hogy visszatrhessen a frontra. Felettesei elgedettek voltak teljestmnyvel, ellptetsre is fel akartk terjeszteni, Hitler azonban tiltakozott ez ellen, br ennek nem adta semmifle magyarzatt.[50] Feletteseihez val viszonyt ksbb, a mncheni srpuccsot kvet 1924-es per sorn gy jellemezte: A feletteseket tisztelni, senkinek nem ellentmondani, vakon engedelmeskedni. (nmetl: Den Vorgesetzten achten, niemandem widersprechen, blindlings sich fgen). Br a hasonl rendfokozat katonk ritkn kaptak ilyen magas kitntetst, egyik felettese, egy zsid tiszt mgis felterjesztette t a Vaskereszt els fokozatra, amelyet 1918 szeptemberben kapott meg. Nem sokkal ksbb, 1918 oktberben mustrgz-tmads ldozata lett az ypres-i front kzelben. Valsznleg a harctri sokk kvetkeztben kialakult pszichoszomatikus hats miatt tmenetileg elvesztette ltst.[51] Rvid belgiumi kezelse utn a pomerniai Pasewalkba szlltottk. Az ottani krhzban rte a hbor vgnek hre. A Mein Kampfban azt rja, hogy a krhzban, gygyulsa s a hbors veresg hatsra formldott meg benne az elhatrozs, hogy politikai plyra lp.[52] 1918 novemberben visszatrt Mnchenbe. Az tmeneti hadsereg tagja lett, amely igyekezett leveznyelni a katonai veresg utni talakulsokat a felboml hatalmi viszonyok kzepette. Szzadban a szocildemokrata befolys volt a dnt, ennek ellenre meg tudta vlasztatni magt szzadbizalminak.[53] 1919. prilis 6-n Mnchenben kikiltottk a Bajor Tancskztrsasgot. prilis 15-n Hitlert megvlasztottk a zszlaljtancs pttagjv, azaz elrelpett a bizalmiak hierarchijban, felvilgost tanfolyamokon vett rszt. Ekkoribl szrmazhatnak bizonyos kezdetleges marxista ismeretei. A Bajor Tancskztrsasgot azonban mr mjus 1-jre levertk a kormnycsapatok s a jobboldali paramilitris egysgek. Elrendeltk a helyi illetsg katonk leszerelst, de eltte vizsglbizottsgoknak kellett feltrni politikai magatartsukat. A bolsevista, spartakista, kommunista elemeket letartztattk. Hitler mjus 10-re az egyik vizsglbizottsg tagja lett, gy elkerlte a leszerelst, ami visszatasztotta volna t a ltbizonytalansgba, egyben ftyolt bortott korbbi tevkenysgre is. Az j, teljhatalm mncheni katonai vezets bels elhrt rszleget hozott ltre a bolsevik eszmk elleni harcra s az tnevel munkra. Ennek az lre egy Karl Mayr nev, ersen jobboldali s antiszemita, egybknt tehetsges s ambicizus vezrkari tiszt kerlt, aki tnapos beszdtanfolyamokat rendezett.[54] (Mayr egybknt lett egy koncentrcis tborban vgezte.) Hitler, a magas kitntetsekkel kestett katona rszt vehetett egy ilyen kurzuson, ami alkalmat adott addigi ismeretei, nzetei rendszerezsre. Itt ismerte fel azt is, hogy komoly sznoki kpessgekkel br.[55] Hitler hamarosan a vezet propagandistk kz kerlt. Szmos eladst tartott, Mayr krsre brosrt rt a szocildemokrcia s a zsidsg tmakrben, ahol mr gyakorlatilag vglegesen megformlta antiszemita nzeteinek rendszert. A Mayr vezette osztag nemcsak propagandatevkenysget folytatott, hanem titkosszolglati munkt is vgzett a hadseregen kvl, a gyans polgri szervezetek, prtok krben. Hitler ennek a keretben kapta azt a feladatot, hogy vegyen rszt a Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (Nmet Munksprt, DAP) egyik lsn, 1919 szeptemberben. Ebbl az akkor szinte jelentktelen prtocskbl lett ksbb a Hitler vezette Nemzetiszocialista Nmet Munksprt.[56] Hitler az Anton Drexler alaptotta Nmet Munksprt lsn ahol csupn tucatnyi ember vett rszt felszlalsban utastotta el az nll Bajororszgnak az egyik eltte szl ltal kifejtett programjt. Beszdvel olyan sikert aratott, hogy nhny nap mlva levlben rtestettk: felvettk t a prt tagjai sorba. Nem tudta, bosszankodjon, vagy nevessen, mert korbban sajt prt alaptsra gondolt,[57] de vgl elfogadta ezt a helyzetet, s a DAP sorrendben 55. tagja lett. Hamarosan azt is tapasztalhatta, hogy knnyen hat az emberekre, nagy politikai manipulatv s taktikai rzkkel rendelkezik. Aktivizlta j prtjt, egyre nagyobb ltszm gylseket szervezett. Els nyilvnos beszdt 1919. november 13-n tartotta egy srzben, a hadsereg megfigyelje szerint mesteri mdon.[58] Hitler maga is rmmel llaptotta meg, hogy tud beszlni a nyilvnossg eltt.[59] Hamarosan prtja vezeti kz kerlt, httrbe szortva dilettns trsait. Eldnttte, hogy a DAP-bl kialaktja sajt prtjt, amely mellesleg ltfeltteleit is biztostja, hiszen a hadseregben nemigen maradhatott. Ekkoriban ismerkedett meg Alfred Rosenberggel, a nci mozgalom egyik ksbbi f ideolgusval, valamint Ernst Rhm szzadossal, aki nagyon fontos szvetsgese lett a prt erszakszervezeteinek kialaktsban. Rhm rengeteg volt katont, tisztet verbuvlt a DAP soraiba, s alaktotta ki azt a kemny magot, amely a prt gylsein biztostotta a hangulatot, s egyben ksz volt lecsapni az ellenvlemnyt hangoztatkra. Ekkor kerlt Hitler krnyezetbe Rudolf He is. A prt f propagandistja Hermann Esser lett, az alig 20 ves jsgr-zseni, aki pontosan tudta, hogyan kell annyit tlozni, hogy egy hrbl szenzci legyen, hogyan lehet valakit a sajtban tnkretenni anlkl, hogy a rgalmazs vdjt magra vonn, hogyan lehet emberfeletti imzst teremteni Hitler szmra. Gtlstalansgval azonban Esser a prton bell is annyi ellenfelet szerzett magnak, hogy Hitler a 30-as vek elejn, amikor mr ptolni tudta, megvlt tle.[60] A DAP programja kvetelte minden nmet egyestst egy llamban, megfelel terletet (Land und Boden) a lakossg szmra, a zsidk megfosztst llampolgrsguktl s eltvoltsukat a kzhivatalokbl, az idegenek kiutastst, llamostst, a kamatrabszolgasg megszntetst, a nagyruhzak kommunalizlst. A munksok szmra nyeresgrszesedst kvetelt a vllalatoktl, a parasztsg szmra fldreformot, a fld ingyenes kisajttst. A program a szles nprtegekhez szlt, de alkalmas volt arra is, hogy felkeltse a tksek s nagybirtokosok gyanakvst s ellenrzst. Hitler ezrt nem llt teljes mrtkben a program mg, br nem is hatrolta el magt tle. Tudatban volt annak, hogy szksge van a vezet rtegek nem utolssorban anyagi tmogatsra. Ksbb, a Mein Kampfban a program jelentsgt jelkpesknt, hitvallsknt aposztroflta.[61] 1920. februr 24-n a 25 pontos program elfogadsa mellett Hitler javaslatra a prt nevt is megvltoztattk Nemzetiszocialista Nmet Munksprtra (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), amelyet hivatalosan NSDAP-nak, a kznyelvben nci prtnak rvidtettek. 1921 jliusban kerlt sor a prton bell arra a kenyrtrsre, amelynek rvn Hitler egyszemlyi vezetv vlt. Hitler nhny hetet Berlinben tlttt az ottani prtszervezs rdekben, ezalatt Mnchenben a prtelnksg kt fontos krdsben dntst srgetett. Azt akartk, hogy a programban a nagybirtok elleni harc egy szintre kerljn a zsid befolys elleni kzdelemmel, valamint egyeslni kvntak a hasonl irnyzat kis Nmetszocialista Prttal. Hitlert visszatrt Mnchenbe s ultimtumot adott a prt elnksgnek: j vlasztson diktatrikus hatalommal felruhzott prtelnkt kell vlasztani, ellenkez esetben elhagyja a prtot.[62] Hitler mr nlklzhetetlen volt, ha a prt nem akart visszasllyedni a jelentktelensgbe. Az elnksg megadta magt, a jlius 29-i taggyls Hitler elkpzelsei szerint zajlott, s azon t teljhatalm prtelnkk vlasztottk.[63] Hitler a prtbl tmegprtot kvnt formlni, ami hatalmi trekvseinek eszkze lehet, s elhdthatja a munksokat a szocildemokrcitl. Szmtott azokra a kispolgrokra is, akiket a lesllyeds veszlye fenyegetett. Az NSDAP vonzskrbe kerltek a leszerels utn egzisztencilis gondokkal kzd katonk, fiatal tisztek is. Elssorban k lettek az SA tagjai is, mivel ott korbbi letkhz hasonl letet lhettek, s kisebb-nagyobb juttatsokban rszesltek. A prt felvsrolta a hadsereg kszleteiben elfekv barna ingeket, s ezeket kiosztotta az SA-ba lp fiatalok kztt. Hitler kialaktotta a prt jelkprendszert, a klnbz jobboldali szervezetek ltal Eurpa-szerte alkalmazott si horogkereszt sajt vltozatt, amelyet fehr krben vrs zszlba helyezett. Terjedt a felemelt jobbkarral val kszns, a Heil Hitler, s a prtelnkt elkezdtk Fhrernek szltani.[64] (A Heil Hitler Wagner Rienzijbl ered, ahol elhangzik a Heil Rienzi! ksznts. Ksbb a nagy nrnbergi prtgylsek kezdetn mindig elhangzott a Rienzi-nyitny.) A mozgalom egyre tbb hvet szerzett, kztk pnzgyi tmogatkat, bel- s klfldn egyarnt. Az bred Magyarok Egyeslete is nyjtott tmogatst ebben az idben az NSDAP-nak.[65] A hogyan tovbb krdst Hitler Benito Mussolini pldjnak kvetsvel szerette volna megoldani. A menetels Rmba mintjt alapul vve puccsot szervezett a hatalom tvtelre, az tgondolatlan ksrlet azonban teljes kudarcot vallott. A felkelst csrjban elfojtottk a kormny eri, Hitlert letartztattk, prtjt betiltottk. Letartztatsa utn Hitlert eleinte ngyilkossgi gondolatok foglalkoztattk, de aztn a perre kszlve felismerte, hogy ez j alkalom addigi plyafutsnak s politikai hitvallsnak tgondolsra. A per lehetsget teremtett szmra ahhoz is, hogy errl a nyilvnos szszkrl tmadhassa a weimari kztrsasg demokratikus kormnyt, mint a zsid sszeeskvs egyik gct. A bajor konzervatv erket viszont a nemzeti rdek ruliknt lltotta be. Hitlert a brsg vgl 5 v brtnre s 200 mrka pnzbntetsre tlte, de idegen llampolgrsga miatti kiutaststl a vdlott nmet rzelmei alapjn a brsg eltekintett. Eltlse utn Nmetorszgban sokan gondoltk azt, hogy ezzel az osztrk mzol nmet politikai plyafutsnak vge szakadt. Hitler azonban veresgbl egyfajta erklcsi gyzelmet kovcsolt.[66] Landsberg am Lechben tlttt tves bntetsbl Hitler mindssze 13 hnapot tlttt brtnben. Ezalatt megrta, pontosabban Rudolf Henek rgpbe diktlta egyetlen, mg az letben kt vaskos ktetben megjelent mvt, a kzel 800 oldalas Mein Kampfot. Ebben ttekintette addigi plyafutst, megfogalmazta vilgnzett, valamint politikai programjt. A knyv a nemzetiszocializmus ideolgiai alapvetse lett. Megfogalmazta benne legfontosabb politikai, stratgiai cljait is: A clok mellett a megfelel mdszereket is ismertette mvben. Kiemelte: Minden propagandnak npinek kell lennie, s szellemi sznvonalt azok legkorltozottabbjaihoz belltania, akikhez fordulni gondol. Szellemi szintjt annl mlyebbre lltja, minl nagyobb kell legyen a megragadand embertmeg. A tmegek felfogkpessge nagyon korltozott, ezzel szemben a feledkenysg nagy. E tnyekbl kifolylag minden hatkony propagandnak csak nagyon kevs pontra szabad korltozdnia, s ezeket jelzsszeren oly sokig hasznlnia, amg csak a legutols is kpes egy ilyen szval kapcsolatban maga el idzni azt, amit akarunk. Minden nagy vezr mvszete abban ll elssorban, hogy egy np figyelmt ne sztszrja, hanem mindig csak egyetlen ellensgre sszpontostsa Egy nagy vezr zsenialitshoz hozztartozik, hogy mg az egymssal ellenttben ll ellenfeleket is gy jelentse meg, mint amelyek egyetlen kategrihoz tartoznak, mert klnbz ellensgek felismerse a gyenge s bizonytalan kategriknl knnyen vezethet ahhoz, hogy ktelkedni kezdjenek sajt igazukban. Hitler, Mein Kampf, 197., 198., 247. oldal Hitler a tudatlan tmegek szmra megalkotand ellensgkpet, a modern kifejezssel lve hvszt a zsidsgban tallta meg. Ennek a vgletekig eltorztott alakjba aztn tetszs szerint belefoglalhatta minden ellensgt, a marxizmust, a munksmozgalmat, a polgri baloldalt, a nemzetkzi pnztkt, a nyugati nagyhatalmakat, a polgri humanizmust, az eurpai jogrendet egyarnt.[67] Br a brtn krlmnyei lehetv tettk volna, hogy onnan prblkozzon meg prtja irnytsval, Hitler ezt nem tette meg. tengedte a prt vezetst Alfred Rosenbergnek, azonban kptelen volt hatkonyan szervezni az NSDAP tevkenysgt. Hitlert j magaviselete s a szthullban lv prt veszlytelensge nyomn jval bntetse lejrta eltt, 1924. december 20-n szabadon engedtk.[68] Szabadulsa utn Hitler j alapokrl kezdte meg politikai ptkezst. Nyilatkozatban biztostotta lojalitsrl a bajor kormnyt, tvedsnek minstette a srpuccsot, s felajnlotta prtja segtsgt a marxizmus elleni harchoz. Ennek rvn jra megnylt az NSDAP eltt a szabad szervezkeds tja, megint megjelenhetett a prtlap, a Vlkischer Beobachter is. Az NSDAP a srpuccs utni betiltsa miatt egy ideig ms neveken, illetve ms jobboldali szervezetekkel koalciban tevkenykedett, de nem sok sikerrel. Az 1924. mjusi vlasztsokon a klnbz nacionalista s nemzetiszocialista csoportok egyttesen 1,9 milli szavazatot szereztek meg (vagyis a szavazatok 6,6%-t), ami decemberre 0,9 milli szavazatra, vagyis a szavazatok 2,9%-ra esett vissza. Hitler szabadulsa utn felmondta ezeket a koalcikat, ragaszkodott sajt egyszemlyi vezetshez azon az ron is, hogy a megvlasztott kpviselk tbbsgt nem sikerlt megnyernie a sajt irnyvonala szmra.[69] Hitler tisztzni akarta llampolgri helyzett is, 1925 mrciusban krelmezte osztrk llampolgrsgnak megszntetst, s krst szinte azonnal el is fogadtk. Egyelre azonban Hitler nem merte krni a nmet allampolgrsgot, ezrt egszen 1932-ig papron hontalan maradt.[70] A prton bell sem volt mg elg szilrd Hitler helyzete. Gregor s Otto Strasser a prt vezeti kzl kitntek szervez munkjukkal, klnsen szak-Nmetorszgban, de ideolgiailag Hitlertl balra lltak, brltk t a forradalmi mdszerek feladsa, a hatsgokkal val kiegyezs, a nagytksekre tmaszkods miatt. k is nacionalistk s antiszemitk voltak, de ellensgei voltak a kapitalizmusnak is. Ekkor mg Joseph Goebbels is ehhez a csoporthoz tartozott.[71] Strasserk Hannoverbe, Hitlerrel nem egyeztetve, gylst hvtak ssze, amelyen egy szocilis programot alaktottak ki. Ennek szles kr megvitatsra nagygylst kezdtek szervezni. Hitler ezt megelzve egy msik nagygylst hvott ssze Bambergbe, ahol sznoki tehetsgvel a maga oldalra lltotta a hallgatsgot. A kt Strasser testvr ezutn mr nem lpett fel nyilvnosan Hitler ellen. Hasonl nzeteltrsek jellemeztk Hitler s Rhm kapcsolatt is. Rhm emiatt 1925-ben lemondott az SA vezetsrl, s klfldre tvozott; csak 1931-ben trt vissza Hitler hvsra.[72] Az NSDAP 1926-os msodik, weimari kongresszusa Hitler teljes gyzelmt hozta. A felszlalsok szvegt elre be kellett mutatni az elnksgnek, a beszdidt korltoztk (Gregor Strasser ettl kezdve barti krben halott nemzetiszocializmusrl beszlt). Hitler ezutn tovbb fokozta erfesztseit a prt befolysnak az egsz orszgra trtn kiterjesztse rdekben. Az 1927-es nrnbergi kongresszus mr klssgeiben is igazi nci rendezvny volt, zszlkkal, alakzatban menetel egysgekkel, kizrlag barna inget visel tagokkal. A mrskelt sajt 15000, a Vlkischer Beobachter 100000 felvonulrl tudstott.[73] A prt orszgos befolysa azonban alig nvekedett. 1927 vgn tagjainak szma alig haladta meg a 70000-et. Hitler erre kijelentette, hogy nem is akar tbb prttagot, mint maximum 6800000 f. Mindenesetre jra ersdtek a kritikk vele szemben. Az SA trelmetlen tagjai utcai harcokat kveteltek, Strasserk pedig a Szovjetuni elleni fellpstl vtk a prtot.[74] Az 1928-as vlasztsokon az NSDAP a nagy kampny ellenre mindssze a szavazatok 2,6%-t kapta, a 491 kpviseli helybl 12-t szerzett meg.[75] Hitlertl tvol llt a nmeteknek sztereotipikusan tulajdontott rendszeretet s alapossg. rasztal mellett soha nem dolgozott, paprt, tollat szinte egyltaln nem hasznlt. Hosszabb llegzet utastsait is diktlta. A prtvezri, majd a kancellri hivatalba alig jrt be, legfeljebb dlutn. Rendszeres munkaideje nem volt, soha nem tudta senki, mikor lehet vele beszlni. Vacsorapartnereit viszont rkon t szval tartotta, rajtuk szondztatta meg gondolatait, elmleteit, amelyeket mg nem akart a nyilvnossg el trni.[76] Esti a hajnalba nyltak, de dlelttnknt nem mertk felkelteni fontos fejlemnyek esetn sem. llandan mozgsban volt, s ekzben szban adta ki rendelkezseit krnyezetnek. Kiemelked emlkeztehetsgnek segtsgvel az gyeket fejben intzte. A legfels szint hivatali munkra Hitler munkastlusa nagyban rnyomta a blyegt; az gyek gyakran csak intzdtek, sok volt a prhuzamossg az intzmnyek s a szemlyek kztt egyarnt, nem lehetett azonostani az egyes feladatok felels vgrehajtit. Hitler maga azonban mindig tudta, mit tart igazn fontosnak, s azt ltalban vgre is tudta hajtatni.[77] Az 1920-as vek derekn Nmetorszgban lezajlott gazdasgi konszolidci s fellendls krlmnyei kztt az NSDAP s vezetje anyagi helyzete is ltvnyosan javult. Hitler 1925-ben brelt egy villt Berchtesgaden mellett, majd 1928-ban meg is vsrolta azt. A hely kivlasztsban az is szerepet jtszott, hogy a brtn utn Hitler a menekls esetleges szksgessgre is gondolt, s ez a hely kzvetlenl az osztrk hatr mellett volt; Ausztribl pedig szksg esetn eljuthatott volna a barti Olaszorszgba vagy Magyarorszgra.[78] Mncheni brlakst egy kilencszobs luxuslaksra cserlte. Hitler szemlyes jvedelmei, a beszdek, cikkek utn jr honorriumok nyilvnvalan nem lehettek elegendek ezek finanszrozsra. Hasonlkppen llt a helyzet az NSDAP kltsgvetsvel. A prt rendezvnyei, sajtja, rplapjai, plaktjai, az SA s a prtvezetk vdelmre ltrehozott SS kiadsait nem fedezhettk a tagdjbevtelek.[79] Mindezzel azonban az NSDAP nem llt egyedl. Ebben az idszakban mr a tbbi prt is fleg vllalkozi juttatsokbl gazdlkodott. Ezek az adomnyok ltalban akkor sem voltak nyilvnosak, br klns okuk nem volt a titkolzsra, ma pedig mg nehezebb errl adatokhoz jutni. A Mercedes-Benz cg pldul egy luxusautt bocstott Hitler rendelkezsre sofrrel. Annak idejn az NDK-beli trtnszek s msok minden ervel azt kvntk bizonytani, hogy Hitlert kezdetektl a nmet finnctke, mindenekeltt a Ruhr-vidki nagyvllakozk finanszroztk, mg msok ezt vehemensen tagadtk. A valsghoz minden bizonnyal az a nzet ll a legkzelebb, hogy a nagy prtokat jelents rszben olyan vllalkozk finanszroztk, akik fantzit lttak az adott prtok programjban. Tmogatsukat a legtbb esetben tbb prt kztt is megosztottk. Az NSDAP szmos pnzkijrja kztt fontos szerepe volt pldul Hermann Gringnek. Maga Hitler is j kapcsolatot polt a nagytks krkkel, rendszeresen jrt hozzjuk eladst tartani. Ezekben az eladsaiban a munksmozgalom ellen lpett fel, skraszllt a gazdasgi autonmia, a gazdasgi vezetk tekintlynek elismerse mellett, s nagy v kpet festett a nmet birodalom fellendlsrl. Az antiszemita kirohansok s a fajelmlet viszont kimaradtak ezekbl a beszdeibl.[80] Hitler szmra a politikai fordulpont a nagy gazdasgi vilgvlsg sorn rkezett el. Hitler a vilgvlsgot megelz jlt veiben figyelmeztetett beszdeiben, hogy a weimari kztrsasg vezetse a gazdasgot nagyban amerikai klcsnkbl finanszrozza, s e kls fggsg miatt brmikor sszeomolhat. Amikor a vilgvlsggal Hitler jslata vratlanul valsgg vlt, a jlt veiben csupn radiklis szlssgesknt elknyvelt Hitler a nmet kzvlemny szemben hirtelen a vilgot helyesen felmr ltnokk vltozott.[81] A vlsg eljelei 192829 teln mr rezhetek voltak. 1929 februrjban a munkanlkliek szma tllpte a 3 millit.[82] A kezre jtszott Hitlernek a jvttel gynek jbli napirendre kerlse is. Az els vilghbor minden felelssgt nhny vesztes llamra, fleg Nmetorszgra rtta a prizsi bkerendszer. A rendszer nem csak igazsgtalan volt, hanem bonyolultsga miatt teljesen alkalmazhatatlan is. 1928 krl mr senki nem fizetett semmit ennek keretben. Ekkor Owen Young amerikai bankr vezetsvel ltrehoztak egy bizottsgot a jvtteli rendszer fellvizsglatra. A Young-terv, amely egszen 1988-ig temezte volna t a jvtteli kiadsokat, vgl semmivel nem lett igazsgosabb vagy egyszerbb, csak arra volt alkalmas, hogy klnsen a kzeled vlsg krlmnyei kztt felsztsa az ssztrsadalmi felhborodst Nmetorszgban. A Young-terv ellen Alfred Hugenberg sajtmgns, a Deutschnationale Volkspartei (Nmetnemzeti Npprt) elnke vezetsvel egy bizottsg alakult, amely clul tzte ki a terv npszavazs tjn trtn eltlst s egyttal a radiklis jobboldal sszefogst. Hugenberg a fels kzposztlyhoz tartozott, tmegei nem voltak, ezrt szvetsget ajnlott a npi nci prtnak. Hitler ezttal nem dzkodott a prtszvetsgtl, mindent egy lapra tett fel, bzva abban, hogy ms szvetsgeseihez hasonlan Hugenberget is ki tudja majd szortani a vezetsbl. Elssorban a sajtbirodalmt akarta felhasznlni sajt cljaira. A npszavazsi kampny sorn az SA legnysge elrte a 100000-es ltszmot, Hitler prtja orszgos ismertsget szerzett s a nagytks krk is egyre hatrozottabban mg lltak. Az 1930. szeptemberi parlamenti vlasztsok eltt Hitler mr szinte korltlan pnzeszkzkkel s sajtval rendelkezett hatalmas kampnyhoz. Abban bzott, hogy 5060 kpviseli helyet szerez prtja. Az eredmny viszont 107 mandtum lett (az 575-bl), a kt vvel korbbi 810000 helyett 6,4 milli szavazatot kaptak.[83] Az NSDAP a Reichstag msodik legnagyobb prtja lett. A vlsg kzben egyre slyosbodott. 1931 elejn az orszgot elnttte a csdhullm, a munkanlkliek szma 5 millira emelkedett. Az NSDAP igyekezett tovbb sztani az elgedetlensget, bojkottokat szervezett, utcai verekedseket provoklt, sztrjkokat kezdemnyezett, akr a kommunistkkal egyttmkdve is. A Heinrich Brning vezette kormnyzat kudarcot vallott a vlsg kezelsben. Hindenburg llamelnk s krnyezete azon volt, hogy a rogyadoz llamot a kzpjobb, konzervatv erk sszefogsval tmogassa meg. Hitler viszont arra trekedett, hogy az elnk alkotmnyos lehetsgvel lve t s mg kisebbsgben lv prtjt bzza meg a kormnyalaktssal, azonban ebben csaldnia kellett. A nemzeti jobboldal eri Hugenberg vezetsvel 1931. oktber 11-re Harzburgba gylst hvtak ssze az sszefogs deklarlsa rdekben. Hitler nem trhetett ki e tallkoz ell, de tovbbra sem kvnta megosztani leend hatalmt senkivel. Ezt klssgekben is deklarlta: a tallkozra utoljra rkezett s elsknt tvozott. Utna viszont a nci prt Braunschweigben nll nagygylst szervezett, ahol csak az SA felvonulsa 6 rt vett ignybe. A gazdasgi vlsg miatt is llandsul politikai vlsg kzepette 1932-ben sszesen t nagy vlasztsi kampnyra kerlt sor (ktforduls kztrsasgi elnki, tartomnyi s kt Reichstag-vlaszts). Az NSDAP mindennek a pnzgyi nehzsgeit gond nlkl llta. Ebben nagy szerepe volt annak, hogy Hitler lete egyik legsikeresebb beszdt tartotta 1932. janur 26-n a dsseldorfi Iparosklubban.[84] Abbl indult ki, hogy a nyomor oka nem a vlsg, nem a versailles-i bkerendszer, hanem a vezetk alkalmatlansga s a demokrcia kiegyenlt mkdse, ami ellenttes a np rdekeivel. A demokrcia s az internacionalizmus egymstl elvlaszthatatlan fogalmak, nyomukban eltnik a klnbsg az rja s a mongol, nger kztt s egy nap majd a Npszvetsgnek is nger lehet az elnke. A demokrcia a magntulajdonnal is sszeegyeztethetetlen s vgeredmnyben az ostobk s lustk uralmhoz vezet. Sajt jelentsgt abban adta meg, hogy az, aki szembeszll a bolsevizmussal, amely enlkl 300 v alatt meghdtan a vilgot, ahogy annak idejn ugyanennyi id alatt meghdtotta azt a keresztnysg. Hitler a nagytksek eltt ezttal sem szlt fajelmletrl. Az 1932 tavaszn lezajlott llamf-vlasztsokon Hitler nagy remnyekkel indult. Eltte sikerlt megoldania egy rgi technikai problmt nem volt mg nmet llampolgr. 1929-ben Bajororszgban, majd ksbb Tringiban prblkozott ennek megszerzsvel, sikertelenl. Vgl a nci befolys alatt ll Braunschweigben kapott egy fiktv kormnytancsosi posztot s ezzel az llami hivatalnoki kinevezssel egytt jrt az llampolgrsg is. 1932. februr 26-n tette le az eskt arra a nmet llamra, a demokratikus kztrsasgra, amelynek sztzzsa elsrend politikai clja volt.[85] Hitler az elnkvlasztsok els forduljban a Goebbels irnytotta elkpeszt kampny ellenre azonban csak msodik lett, 30,23%-kal Hindenburg (49,45%) mgtt. (Ernst Thlmann, a kommunistk jelltje a szavazatok 13,23%-t, Theodor Duesterberg, a nemzeti jobboldal vagyis a Nmet Nemzeti Npprt s a Stahlhelm jelltje a szavazatok 6,81%-t kapta.)[86] A vratlan kudarc csak fokozta Hitler elszntsgt, a msodik fordulban mr replvel jrta Nmetorszgot, hogy mg tbb beszdet mondhasson. Belergtam magam ellensgembe, s ettl az ellensgtl nem tvoltanak el jelentette ki mrcius 15-n weimari beszdben.[87] De a msodik fordulban is csak a szavazatok 36,68%-t szerezte meg, Hindenburg maradt az elnk (52,93%). Hindenburg sikere lttn a kormny megprblt rendet teremteni az utckon. Tbb nci kzpontban hzkutatst tartottak, prilis 13-n pedig Wilhelm Groener hadgyminiszter kezdemnyezsre az elnk betiltotta az SA s az SS tevkenysgt. Hitler azonban ezt is felhasznlta a kvetkez, ezttal tartomnyi vlasztsokon folytatott kampnyban s felszltotta a betiltott testletek tagjait, hogy egyszer prttagokknt teljestsk ktelessgket. prilis 16. s 24. kztt Hitler a repls mdszerrel 25 vrosban tartott vlasztsi beszdet. Prtja a klnbz tartomnyokban 3040%-os eredmnyeket rt el. Kormnyt alaktani azonban egyedl a korabeli Anhalt Szabadllam(de) tartomnyban tudtak. A gazdasgi vlsg azonban nem enyhlt, a politikai vlsg pedig csak elmlylt az orszgban. A ncik botrnyos jeleneteket provokltak a birodalmi s a tartomnyi parlamentekben egyarnt, a politikai gylsek mindenhol utcai verekedsekkel jrtak, polgrhbor-kzeli llapot alakult ki. A rendrsg ngy nci kpviselt a parlament lstermben tartztatott le. Brning kormnya krl elfogyott a leveg. A tarthatatlan helyzetben egyes vezet politikusok gy vltk, hogy Hitler bevonsa a hatalomba valamikppen megszeldtheti a nci prt tombolst. Mjus 30-n Hindenburg elbocstotta Brning kormnyt s Franz von Papent, a konzervatv, katolikus nemessg kpviseljt, a Nmet Centrum Prt (Deutsche Zentrumspartei) jobboldaln elhelyezked volt diplomatt nevezte ki miniszterelnknek. Papen kisebbsgi kormnynak eslye sem volt arra, hogy a Reichstagban megszerezze a tbbsget, elnki szksgrendeletekre tmaszkodva kormnyozhatott csak.[88] Hindenburg ezrt fel is oszlatta a parlamentet s a lehet legtvolabbi idpontra, jnius 31-re tzte ki az j vlasztsokat. Jnius 16-n jra engedlyeztk az SA s az SS tevkenysgt, a tilalmat mr amgy is semmibe vettk. Csak jnius msodik felben 17 politikai gyilkossgra kerlt sor. A legnagyobb nmet tartomny, Poroszorszg szocildemokrata kormnyt elnki rendelettel feloszlattk, a helyi kormnyzat ln maga Papen lett a birodalmi biztos. A szocildemokrata prt megadta magt. A hat millis munkanlklisg mellett elkpzelhetetlen lett volna egy ltalnos sztrjk, ami a katonai puccs veszlyt is felidzte volna. Megkezddtt az j vlasztsi harc, vagy inkbb folytatdott a permanens kampny. Hitler legfontosabb clkitzse az apr polgri prtok felszmolsa s a Centrum Prt bzisnak kikezdse volt. A kampnyban tovbbi jtsokat vetettek be, filmeket, hanglemezeket ksztettek, terjesztettek. Hitler repltjaival 53 vrosba jutott el beszdet tartani. A vlasztsok eredmnye azonban ellentmondsos volt szmukra. Ugyan tovbb nveltk szavazik szmt 37,4%-ra s 230 mandtummal a legnagyobb prt lettek a Reichstagban, de nem sikerlt tt sikert elrnik. A kis polgri prtokat ugyan sikerlt felmorzsolni, a szocildemokratk is visszaestek, de a kommunistk s a Centrum Prt is nvelte szavazatainak szmt. Goebbels gy rtkelt: gy sohasem szerezzk meg az abszolt tbbsget![89] Papen s a Centrum Prt trgyalni kezdett Hitlerrel egy j kormny alaktsrl, amelyben alkancellri cmet ajnlott a szmra. Hitler azonban Hindenburggal folytatott augusztus 13-i trgyalsn ragaszkodott a kormny s az llam teljes kr vezetshez.[90] Az elnk gy megllaptotta, hogy Hitler a kormnyon kvl kvn maradni s lovagias ellenzki magatartst krt tle. A jelents vlasztsi siker teht nem volt elegend Hitler hatalomra kerlshez, st politikai kudarcot jelentett. Hitlernek szmtania kellett arra, hogy sikertelensge lttn hveinek egy rsze elfordul tle. s valban, amikor az llandsul politikai patthelyzet miatt megint j vlasztsokat kellett kirni 1932 novemberre, az NSDAP ktmilli szavazatot vesztett s csak a szavazatok 33,1%-t, 230 kpviseli hely helyett 196-ot szerzett.[91] Hindenburg Kurt von Schleicher tbornokot nevezte ki miniszterelnknek, aki rszint a szakszervezetekkel akart konzultlni a vlsg kezelsrl, rszint pedig az NSDAP-n bell Gregor Strasserrel trgyalt, mivel a hajthatatlan Hitlerrel ellenttben hajlandnak mutatkozott elfogadni az alkancellri posztot. A helyzet rendkvl veszlyes lett Hitler szmra: ha sikerl megszilrdtani a kormnyzatot az rszvtele nlkl, az a szemlyes politikai bukst jelentette volna. (Ksbb, 1934-ben, a hossz ksek jszakjn mind Schleichert, mind Strassert ki is vgeztette.) Hitler azonban a prt vezeti eltt durvn lehordta alvezrt, aki erre nyomban visszavonult terveitl s klfldre utazott. Schleicher gy maga is kudarcot vallott s ellenlbasa, Papen kapott lehetsget, aki azt javasolta Hindenburgnak, hogy nevezze ki Hitlert kancellrr s alkancellrknt majd kzben tartja. gy lett Hitler kancellr 1933. janur 30-n (szges ellenttben azzal a legendval, hogy szabad vlasztsokon jutott volna hatalomra).[92] Hitler termszetesen tltott Papen s trsai kpzelgsein.[93] Tudta, hogy a kancellri poszt megszerzsvel dnt lpst tett a teljhatalom megszerzshez, br a kormnyban rajta kvl csak kt nemzetiszocialista volt. Els nyilatkozatban, februr 1-jn a helyzet slyossgt hangslyozta: Az rksg, amit tvesznk, rettenetes. A feladat, amit meg kell oldanunk, a legnehezebb, ami emberemlkezet ta a nmet llamfrfiak eltt llt.[94] Meghirdette, hogy kt ngyves terv keretben helyrelltja a gazdasgot, megsznteti a munkanlklisget s a klpolitikban kivvja a nmet egyenjogsgot.[95] Msnap a hadsereg parancsnokai eltt mr kevsb bks hrokat pengetett. Biztostotta hallgatsgt arrl, hogy az orszgban csak egyetlen katonai er ltezhet, a Reichswehr, a milcinak (SA) csak belpolitikai feladatai lehetnek. Kijelentette, hogy fel kell szmolni a versailles-i bkerendszer korltozsait, vissza kell lltani az ltalnos hadktelezettsget, modern lgiert s hadiflottt kell ltrehozni, mgpedig abbl a clbl, hogy j letteret hdtsanak meg Keleten s azt kmletlenl germanizljk. Erre stratgiai s lelmezsi okokbl egyarnt felttlen szksg van.[96] j vlasztsokat tervezett, hogy az llamhatalom birtokban vgre olyan eredmnyt rjen el, amivel megersti vezet szerept s megszabadulhat a tbbi koalcis partnertl. E vlasztsokat mrcius 5-re tztk ki. A kampny kells kzepn, februr 27-n felgyjtottk a Reichstagot. Mindmig tisztzatlan, hogy nci provokci volt-e, vagy a magnyos rlt kommunista gyjtotta fel a hatalmas pletet mintegy 60 helyen, de az ktsgtelen, hogy az esemny Hitler kezre jtszott. Az g plet hre hallatn gy kiltott fel: Most megvannak! Most nincs kegyelem A kommunista kpviselket mg az jjel fel kell akasztani. Mindent lefoglalni, ami a kommunistkkal kapcsolatban ll. A szocildemokratk s a Reichsbanner irnt sincs tbb kmlet.[97] (A Reichsbanner Schwarz-Rot-Gold azaz Fekete-vrs-arany Birodalmi Lobog tbb, a politikai centrumhoz kzeli prt ltal a kztrsasg vdelmre ltrehozott, a szocildemokratk ltal dominlt flkatonai szervezet volt.) Mr februr 28-n szksgllapotot vezettek be, felfggesztettk a polgri szabadsgjogokat s sok kommunista s szocildemokrata kpviseljelltet brtnbe zrtak, illetve klfldre ldztek. A mrciusi vlasztsokon a ncik mg gy sem tudtk megszerezni az abszolt tbbsget, csak 43,9%-ot kaptak. Hitler szmra tovbbi csaps volt, hogy a kommunista sszeeskvs tervt ksbb a brsgon sem sikerlt igazolni (igaz, az a gyan sem nyert igazolst, hogy Gring akkori parlamenti elnk lakst a Reichstaggal sszekt fldalatti folyost hasznlva az SS besegtett az elmebeteg Marinus van der Lubbnak). Hitler a jogszokat addig sem kedvelte, ettl fogva azonban gyllte ket.[98] Br a szavazs eredmnye csaldst okozott az NSDAP-nak, ennek mr nem volt nagy jelentsge. Az j kormny els lsn kineveztk forradalomnak a vlasztst s gy tettek, mintha hatalmas gyzelmet arattak volna.[99] Hitler hatalmas lptekkel indult meg programja vgrehajtsnak tjn. Mr t nappal a vlasztsok utn, trvnyi alap nlkl, az SA-ra tmaszkodva feloszlatta a tartomnyok parlamentjeit s kormnyait, helykre birodalmi biztosokat nevezett ki. A mai nappal a nemzeti kormny egsz Nmetorszgban kezbe vette a hatalmat. Ezltal a nemzeti felemelkeds tovbbi menete fellrl irnytott, tervszer folyamatt vlt jelentette ki.[100] Az idzet msodik mondata egyben a sajt trelmetlen hveinek szl figyelmeztets is volt. A forradalom megtrtnt s le is zrult, egyni akciknak nincs helye. A Reichstag els lsnek legfontosabb feladata Hitler szmra a felhatalmazsi trvny elfogadtatsa volt, ami a rendeleti kormnyzs bevezetst, egyben az rdemi parlamenti tevkenysg vgt is jelentette. Hitler kijelentette, hogy e trvny nem csorbtja a birodalmi elnk jogait, a parlamentet pedig idrl idre tovbbra is tjkoztatni fogja azrt A trvny elfogadshoz ktharmados tbbsg, azaz a Centrum Prt tmogatsa is kellett. Nekik meggrtk, hogy Hitler r szmukra egy levelet, amelyben garantlja, hogy a trvnyt csak kivteles alkalmakkor veszi majd ignybe. A soha meg nem rt levlrl azt lltottk, hogy ton van, de a szavazs eltt nem rkezett meg, ennek ellenre a Centrum Prt igennel voksolt. A kommunista kpviselk s a szocildemokratk egy rsze ekkorra mr brtnben volt. Az SA krbevette az pletet s megflemltettk a kpviselket. A szocildemokrata kpviselk maradk rsze gy tervezte, hogy nem vesz rszt az lsen, gy nem lett volna meg a parlament szavazkpessge, de a nci prt elfogadtatott egy olyan mdostst, mely szerint a hinyz kpviselket is jelenlvknek kell tekinteni. gy a szocildemokratk is rszt vettek s nemmel szavaztak.

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Adolf Hitler – Uncyclopedia – Wikia

There is still reasonable evidence linking Hitler to Iraq and WMDs. Hitler, keeping his pimp hand strong. “You must be this tall to ride in my wohnwagen”. Adolf “Chuckles” Hitler (April 20, 1889April 30, 1945) was, quite surely, the greatest man who ever lived (since Jesus Christ whom he so strongly opposed). He had very sexy legs. I wouldn’t mind a piece of that. Mmm, mmm, good.[Citation not needed at all; thank you very much] Hitler was also the Chancellor (and Fcker) of Germany from 1933 to 1945. During his time in office, he socially and economically reformed Germany after the injustice of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles, established the Third Reich (Deutsches Reich), architected the Holocaust, and had three root canals as a result of his infatuous indulgence in Reese’s Peanut Butter Cups. Despite these accomplishments, he was most famous for having led Germany as an Axis power through World War II,[1] or as he referred to it, The European World Tour 1939-1945, when he liberated Poland from Jewish influence, liberated France from incompetent rulers, and liberated Austria from itself. Notably, he also tried to liberate Russia from Communism and Britain from its collapsing Third World imperialism, but was unable to do so. He was also known for his amateur but passionate art and acting talents as displayed throughout his memorable thespian service to the German war effort in World War I and for the penning and publication of his entertaining autobiography. His efforts to promote global tolerance would earn him title as Time Magazine’s “Person of the Year” in 1938, nomination for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1939[2], and one of People Magazine’s “50 Most Beautiful People” for 1943. Additionally, he was leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party and vice president of the Anti-Defamation League for several years, but was removed from this office after it was discovered that he didn’t pay his membership fees. You know what they say, people look like their homes Hitler was born April 20, 1889 [citation needed] at Braunau am Inn, Australia Austria, a poor village slum in Upper Austria, bordering Germany, the third son and eighth child of six. His father, Alois Hitler, (born Schicklgruber), (18371903), was a customs official in Australia-Hungary on the border with the German Empire; his mother, Gretta Plzl (18601907), Alois’ second cousin, was his father’s third wife who was also her own grandmother. Hitler once declared in “Mein Kampf” that his political views stemmed from the observations he had made while he was young. Some historians suggest Hitler may have felt cramped inside his mother’s womb, giving way to his later resentment of foreigners invading his already cramped space in Europe. It has also been suggested that the insides of Hitler’s mom were not diverse enough, contributing to his later xenophobia. In addition, the nutrient needs of an unbirthed Hitler may have, from time to time, gone unfulfilled. This most likely contributed to his paranoia and sense of impending doom regarding the continued availability of resources at Germany’s disposal, including Aryans. The fact that Hitler’s conception was unplanned, some have argued, may have attributed to his later pessimism and stress-induced anxiety. A certain Alice had sexual relations with Hitler back in 1942. Hitler killed himself 3 years later. In another context, paranoid tendencies may have led to his decision to invade the Soviet Union, acting on preemption; however, it may have just been penis envy. It should be mentioned, however, that Stalin planned to invade Germany. Young Adolf tended to be a rebellious youth. In particular, he was disruptive in class, with one notable incident occurring in third grade. Hitler was seated next to a Polish boy and a French boy, and one day when the teacher was off in the teacher’s lounge, he beat them up and tried to take their desks away because, he said, he needed more room to work on his math homework. However, when he tried to beat up Ivan, the exchange student from Moscow, young Adolf ended up with a black eye. A nearby American kid stepped in to help restore order, but only after the fight had already gone on for twenty minutes. Some psychologists believe that this event may have been a formative one for the impressionable young Adolf. Hitler proved to be an incredibly gifted child with superior intelligence until his high school years in which Hitler’s teachers claimed he had “far exceeded the courses offered at even the most prestigious institute.” Hitler once stated that some of his idols and heroes growing up were Michael Jordan and Pontius Pilate.[3] No longer challenged and bored with school, Hitler left school with no qualifications at the age of sixteen. Hitler became very depressed after the death of his mother. After high school, Hitler found himself living in both Vienna and Munich at the same time. He applied to several art schools, only to be rejected, not because his artwork sucked, but because he had no legitimate high school degree. Unable to meet qualifications of any art school, he was recommended to pursue a career in architecture. His memoirs reflect his opinions on architecture: “Naturally, I was no good at it. Architecture, as a whole, is a career most suited for those who can create rather than destroy. Not only that, but designing crap just seems really boring. After a while, it’s just like, ‘Oh, let’s go build the world’s largest gazebo’, or ‘Let’s build another synagogue.’ Yawn.” Hitler’s mother would then die a horribly painful death in December of 1907 after falling into a woodchipper feet-first. Hitler would suffer from severe depression, and many historians have asserted that he never fully recovered from the loss of his mother. He was also plagued with a phobia of gardening equipment for the rest of his life. Hitler as a young Reichsmarine Gefreiter. As some may know and other may not, World War I was a war when the French, British, starving Austrian Australian artists, the Pope, the Germans and various others, picked up big guns and shot at each other. This went on for several years. Eventually, the Russians joined in, as the constant explosions were keeping them up all night. While their leader, the Czar, was out getting shot at by Germans, some nasty men with beards took over his country, so he had to go home and be executed. Ironically, by being shot at. After long years of fighting, someone won, but no-one can quite decide who. Well, apart from the fact that it probably wasn’t the Germans.[4] As a young patriot, Hitler joined the Austrian German military and briefly served in the war on a blockade runner. Aside from sinking the occasional ship (two at Verdun), Hitler’s main duties also included running messages and selling medicated condoms. In one particular incident, Hitler’s entire regiment was ambushed, though he managed to crawl to safety after being shot in the hiney and having one of his testicles shot off. Hitler was the only one to survive. For his bravery, Hitler received an Iron Cross and the nickname ‘Screamer’. He then found himself carted off to a hospital in occupied Belgium. Strangely, everyone there was doing a new experimental psychoactive drug, known as “acid”. Hitler was told by his quipster bunkmates that the drug “healed all wounds”. Hitler, eager to get back into action to serve his country, was fooled. After a few moments, Hitler found himself in a magical place where he claims he ran into God. The Divine One told the young Austrian Australian to utilize his musical talents to best serve the German war cause. It went against all religious principles but he went on with it. It is Western propaganda that he actually instigated the war by annoying the Allies with his horrible banjo playing, and so the Allies had to “eliminate him for a good cause, taking away his musical privileges and squashing him under an iron fist”. Or so the story goes. Hitler mentioned his vision on several occasions,including once on real time with Bill Maher, but some historians doubt the authenticity of this tale, claiming that shrooms were the cause of his vision, not LSD. Later that year, in 1916, Hitler helped found “Der Frontseite Westliche Choralgruppe,” a musical comedy team that entertained soldiers. The original cast, of which Hitler is the only surviving member, consisted of Benjy Bronkelstein, Shlomo Strasseberg, Shalom Klein and Adolf Hitler. It is believed that, during this period, Hitler grew unreasonably fond of Jews. At the end of the second season, however, all but Hitler had lost interest in entertaining soldiers and building acts around Germanic themes. After a series of legal battles and hearings, the trio wrest control of the group from Hitler. The court decided that if Hitler wished to continue his show, he would have to come up with a new name. The whole experience left Hitler bitter and jaded towards lawyers and show business, but fortunately, not the ethnic groups that thrived within these professions. Still dedicated to helping the war effort, Hitler continued solo, billing his program as “Der Neue Frontseite Westliche Choralgruppe Empfindung.” Hitler was also forced to develop new comedy routines, the most acclaimed of which guest-starred Le Ptomane in a routine called “Guess What I Had For Breakfast”. As the war dragged on into its fourth year, it had become clear to a number of generals that the war had been lost, and they refused to book Hitler. After being repeatedly rejected, Hitler became irate and stormed out of Germany just as the armistice was being signed. Hitler angrily returned his SAG card in disgust and vowed never to grace the stage to perform a drama again. However, his love of theatrics would crop up repeatedly in the ensuing years, as is best shown in the spectacle of Nuremberg and the sweet-ass costumes the Wehrmacht got. “FIRST, WE TAKE FRANCE! AND THEN, WE FIND NEMO! Convinced that he was among traitors, Hitler took a brief hiatus from the recently reformed Nazi party. He went to Calcutta and began to meditate with Savitri Devi, which seemed his only hope for finding inner peace. Meanwhile, back in Europe, both the winning and losing powers were totally ashamed of the destruction that they had caused in World War I, but nobody wanted to hurt feelings and designate one party as responsible. Thus, it was decided at the conference in Versailles that the only fair way would be to draw straws to determine who would pay to rebuild Europe and take the blame for the war, following the protocol of the Straw Drawing Act of 1835. Needless to say, Germany drew the short straw, was assigned the guilt, forced to pay war reparations and sell its children into slavery. These conditions were written into the Treaty of Versailles. Immediately after the short straw was drawn on behalf of Germany by Gottlieb Krzerenziehen, the German government folded. Kaiser Wilhelm II fled for Denmark. His parting words were: Anarchy erupted, but after several days and a brief shootout, the Illuminati finally took over, and the Weimar Republic was formed the next day on November 32, 1919. This changed very little. The official Wehrmacht (Panzer Corpse) poster, used to recruit those who wished to die. This was one of the few versions printed in English until the Reich realized Germany spoke German. Hitler heard about the treaty and its aftermath, who convinced that his beloved Germany would never again be a powerful nation, was about to commit suicide. However, God reportedly appeared before Hitler once again and stopped him. As the film Triumph of the Will would later show, it was God’s will for Hitler to return and rebuild Germany. Hitler eagerly accepted the task, filled with extraordinary and unrelenting rage over the Versailles treaty. Interestingly, Hitler was misinformed, and did not know the entire story behind Versailles; nobody had bothered to tell him about the legitimate straw drawing. Consequently, even if his oratory skills did not suck, it was this ill-informed disposition that was the foundation of his passionate rants. As good sports, the Germans had accepted the guilt and hardships that came with the short straw, albeit reluctantly. For this reason, nobody knew quite what to think of Hitler. At first, few took him seriously. Some thought that his speeches were part of neo-modernist Weimar culture, and as such, an experimental comedy act. On more than one occasion, people were known to start laughing hysterically in the middle of Hitler’s rantingout of confusion, mainly. This always created a very awkward moment, for both Hitler and his audience. Nevertheless, Hitler continued to argue his case vehemently, people began to realize that he was serious, and also began to see him as a way by which they really could reverse the doings of Versailles and revitalize Germany. Thus, once the movement began to grow rapidly, nobody dared to tell Hitler about the straws, fearing that Hitler might have a change of heart. Hitler not only promised to destroy the Versailles Peace Treaty, but also destroy all inferior races and take over the world. Unfortunately, everyone thought he was only mucking around when he said this. Hitler, at this time, was the Fhrer of the Nazi party. The party had just found its roots in the German political arena when on November 9, 1923, Hitler along with members of Kampfbund, the Nazi party, and World War I General Erich Ludendorff, attempted to take control of power in Munich and Bavaria. To make a very long story short, the coup failed after the group burst into Brgerbrukeller, a beer hall, armed with squirt guns. Hitler was consequently convicted and sentenced to five years at Landsberg Prison after the coup failed, but was released early after bribing the judge overhearing his case through unmentionable methods. The sequel to Mein Kampf, discovered years after Hitler’s death. Hitler was arrested after the failed coup and held prisoner for treason; he was held at the Federal Prison of the Greatest Place in the World: Landsberg, Germany. While imprisoned, Hitler penned “Mein Kampf” (My Bullshit), an autobiography which explained his views on tolerance, acceptance, peace, the equality of races, and detailed the greatest feats he had made in his life so far. One of them included the time he killed a man in a bathtub with a hairdryer. Mein Kampf was published to an ecstatic audience. On the fifth anniversary of its initial publication, an uncensored paperback version was made available. Its contents were confusing and inconsistent. It was, at points, political and serious, yet at other points contained pop-up pictures and fart jokes. Nonetheless, during Hitler’s lifetime, the book was a bestseller and Hitler enjoyed great success. But he still wasn’t able to buy a Volkswagen with all the dough he raked in. Years later, an unfinished sequel titled “Mein Kampfy Chair” would be uncovered, leaving readers bewildered at the lack of any coherent structure. After his release, Hitler was court ordered to attend two AA meetings a week and was placed on probation. He was on probation from his release until his death in 1945. During this time, he violated his probation only once when his probation officer caught him systematically exterminating nine million Jews in Europe, for which he was fined and sentenced to twenty hours of community service. Hitler performing on his famous banjo as part of his election campaign. The foundation of the early Nazi party consisted of German patriots, particularly those who had served Germany in World War I. Among this cast were korspe’s for hire, such as the Frei Korpses. Pissed off that there were no more wars to fight, these former militarymen kept themselves busy chasing Commie rats out of the country. In one particular incident, Bavarian socialists thought they could take advantage of the weak government and stage a revolution. Pff. What were they thinking? The Frei Korpses gave them a roundhouse kick to the face, and that was the end of that. Later, the Panzer Korpse would be named in honor of this group of World War I veterans, who were instrumental in building the party’s following; sort of like an anti-Communist, social traditionalist and ultra-nationalist Pied Piper. There is more to the story of how Hitler came to power. His major nemesis, Adolf Schmitler von Knorring, was an Austrian doctor. Schmitler was a rather successful doctor, and was able to publish his memoirs about his work, “My Cough”. His book was very popular with cardiologists, but it had little effect on the general public. On the other hand, Hitler’s platform combined the elements that lead both the Republican Party and Democratic Party in America to each gain approximately one half of the votes every time: Hitler also appealed to the demographic that remained: Others knew Hitler from his world-renown yet brief stint as a war entertainer and were simply impressed with his reputation. The Nazis also combined elements of Christianity with neo-pagan philosophy. On Christianity, Hitler said: Hitler also tried to woo Christians by demonstrating his support for their traditional holidays. Here the Fhrer is seen in his Easter Sunday bunny costume during an Easter Parade/Nuremberg Rally in the mid-1930s. This information, while valuable, totally contradicts much of what we know about elephants or playing cards. Hitler often employed methods of “intimidation” and “not taking any shit” to create a loyal military following. Hitler intended to build a Third Reich Empire from which other nations could take anything they wanted. Homosexuality was not only tolerated by this ultra-liberal regime, but it was actually encouraged, especially in public. At first, the Nazis rewarded those who engaged in street-side, gay sex romps with the German Cross. These events became so popular that the award became devalued, leading to the special creation of Golden Party Badge for those regularly involved in six man orgies which included watersports. Hitler knew that not everyone would find these events appealing. Thus, he encouraged citizens of the Reich to find their own unique cup of tea. Consequently, many pursued Judaism, another Nazi favorite. One could even be a gypsy if they wanted to learn the socially acceptable way to hassle tourists. Hitler was criticized for his policies of tolerance, not yet fully understood by the inferior world outside of the Reich. Overall, the Third Reich was at least 17% better than the two that came before it. Hitler exercises his absolute power over the German masses by counting the lightbulbs in the stadium for 20 minutes. However, the Night Of Broken Glass (Kristallnacht), was universally frowned upon. On that fateful night, Hitler’s temper got the best of him due to his frustration with the quality of silverware available throughout the Reich. Consequently, in an incident Hitler personally regretted until his death, he expelled all of Germany’s silverware manufacturers to Siberia. The Soviets did not take to this news very well, and told Hitler to find his own exile camps to use. Additionally, Joseph Goebbels was getting very desperate as he had not maintained an erection since 1933, so he ordered the SA to smash up some Jewish shops and kill some Jewish children. Unfortunately, they did not realize that many Jews were renting premises from their Aryan superiors and therefore Goebbels had inadvertently licensed vandalism of German property. Satisfied with his erection nonetheless, he apologized to an angry Adolf and ordered the Jews to clear up the mess. Hitler’s propaganda film Black Schwanz which was aimed to raise the popularity from Gay Ballet Dancers. In this Fascist regime, many information that was deemed “unsafe for the citizens” were censored by the Indian call centers. Minister of Propaganda, Joseph Goebbels organized all of Hitler’s private collection of Party Dresses. Propaganda played a vital role in manipulating the minds of the Germans, as seen in the movies Olympia and Triumph of the Willy. These were some lousy propaganda films presumably filmed by his Fan-Boy, Rudolf Hess, who wrote the script while in bed with Hitler. Historians concluded that the propaganda films of the Third Reich were “meek and flabby” and lacked the potential of making Hitler look like a Nahtzee Rock Star. But on the 32nd of April 2013, films made in the Third Reich were found from the German Archives. This film, Black Schwanz was notably better with a higher box office compared to the crappy Triumph of the Willy. This ballet film was starring Hitler, Heinrich Himmler, and Rudolf Hess all dressed in their tutus, filmed by Hitler’s milkmaid, Leni ReifenstahlLeni Reifenstahl. Hitler improved Germany vastly by increasing foreign trade with other Axis powers and enjoying the natural resources of conquered nations. With the construction of the German highway system and socialization of German education, Germany became one of the most economically stable nations in the world during the Third Reich all thanks to Hitler. Hitler in an ad of his age. Hitler also advocated economic nationalism. Hitler’s economic policy could be best summed up by a speech he gave in 1938: Despite this, it wasn’t long before globalization got the best of German businesses. McDonalds, KFC, and several other companies soon found their roots in Germany. In a speech in early 1938, Hitler expressed his foreign policy quite plainly: Clearly, Hitler’s foreign policy was aggressive and extremely nationalistic. Hitler believed that all other countries were inferior to Germany, which is probably why he opposed NAFTA, the European Union, and unconditional diplomacy during his time. On international affairs, Hitler’s position was always that of “which benefits the Reich.” Hitler also strongly opposed the League of Nations. Hitler, seen here, strategizing his military campaign. Hitler with Polish beer, the main cause of the invasion (1939 Nuremberg Rally). It is probably true that the Polish generals had taunted Hitler with pictures of Brad Pitt without a shirt. In addition, war was almost certain because Poland was also eating Germany’s children. Nevertheless, after Germany finally invaded Poland, Earth ganged up on Germany and declared war for reasons unexplained. Shortly thereafter, Hitler began the invasion of France. When asked why, he said, “ze Eiffeil tower vas billt fur ze Germans, and ze French cheese ist smelly.” Hitler also took over some country that nobody cares about called Czechoslovakia. The message Hitler relayed to the Czechs went like this: NARRATOR: In the year 1939, lebensraum was the beginning. Hitler’s series of misguided invasions. Clearly, he did not know the way to Czechoslovakia. CAPTAIN: What happen? OPERATOR: Somebody set up us the telegram. OPERATOR 2: We get signal. CAPTAIN: What! OPERATOR 2: Mainscreen turn on! CAPTAIN: It’s you! HITLER: How are you, Czech infidels of the great Satan? HITLER: All your country are belong to us. CAPTAIN: What you say!! HITLER: You are on way to becoming part of an anti-Semitic country. HITLER: You have no chance to survive, make your time. HITLER: Ha-ha-ha! CAPTAIN: Crap. HITLER: Resistance is futile. We will add your biological and technological distinctiveness to our own. You will adapt to service us! The Germans were just as excited as Hitler to lose another world war. Stalin, a rational man, knew he had to confront Hitler personally, so he worked hard to get Hitler to agree to a conference. Hitler agreed to meet with Stalin and surprisingly, the two were able to come to terms and became good old friends like the good old days of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. Then one night during dinner, Hitler brought the finest bottle of French champagne and asked Stalin to perform intercourse with him because he found his moustache attractive. Stalin, highly confused, told Hitler to get out of his house and to never call him again. Hitler went home and cried all night, then launched Operation Barbarossa, the German attack on Western Russia the next day. Despite his best efforts, Hitler simply could not convince the Germans to stop frolicking in the meadow picking daisies. At the time, the hills were alive with the sound of music, which meant everyone wanted to stay in the Alps and enjoy the show; nobody wanted to fight the war. When Hitler realized that he was losing, he became extremely angry and ran into his bedroom and cried for hours into his velvet pillow. After spending all night crying in his room full of candles and incense (again), he decided that he didn’t care about the war anymore and ordered the construction of the Phooey-Bunker so that he could play Xbox without interruptions. The German military would continue to fight, even after losing at the Battle of the Bulge (Germany’s last major offensive). At this point, the Allied bombings of Germany had become ridiculous[5], so most Kenyans contend that Hitler had made the right decision since the war wasn’t even his fault in the first place (it was God’s, remember?). A copy of the monstrous gas bill (courtesy of Deutsche Information Agence) that shocked Hitler when he realized he couldn’t pay it off as his store cards were maxed to the limit. The Soviet Onion began closing in on Berlin from the east, and other Allies from the west, while Middle Earth invaded from the South. Through his own stubborn nature, Hitler refused to discuss terms of surrender. After realizing defeat and receiving a huge gas bill in the mail, Hitler committed suicide by going to his local McDonald’s and dying of food poisoning on April 30th, 1945, only ten days after his 56th birthday and one day after marrying his beloved mistress. Joseph Goebbels assumed position as Chancellor of Germany and Germany’s unconditional surrender followed. However, his efforts to create a better world and promote tolerance did not go unrewarded, and God recognized his good deeds in the afterlife. While no one knows who “Jude” was, his stickers were the style in the 1930s, and were immortalized in the Beatles tune Hey, Jude!. Concentration camps were actually nice places to live. These “death camps” were actually camps used to keep Jewish and other minority inhabitants safe while the war carried on based on Hitler’s fear that the Allies would begin a massive genocide of these people were Germany to be invaded. Such activities at these camps included frequent showering, digging holes, playing cards, dieting, and baking Kosher cookies. There are also some other explanations for the Holocaust. Europe was in a poor state before and during the war. With many countries and people, including Germany, something had to be done. The Jews of Europe successfully convinced Hitler to let them help out their superior fellow man. Throughout time, the Jews received the best from others. The best treatment, jobs, and the most money. The Jews offered to commit suicide so that the rest of Europe could have ample food and resources. Hitler, of course, refused. However, the Jews persisted that they were helping mankind, and that their actions would be the “Final Solution” to world hunger. Eventually, the upset Hitler agreed. Without his approval, we could be in a state of world hunger now. We could have so much less resources than we do now. This was a selfless act that the Jews did, causing them to be highly regarded and respected as a people in Germany (posthumously of course). Never able to birth his own children, Hitler enjoyed the company of his friends’ children in a very creepy way. As recorded by Wagener in his many pages of notesis shortly after Geli Raubal’s 1931 accidental shooting death, it is evident that Hitlers niece was not murdered, but rather, had accidentally shot herself while mishandling Hitlers handgun[6]. He left the gun for her to use in case she wished to play with it while he was gone. As Wagener himself, Heinrich Hoffmann, Kurt Ludecke, Ernst Hanfstaengl, Otto Dietrich and Winifred Wagner have asserted, her death was most certainly a terrible yet humorous accident. Hitler was deeply affected over her tragic death, and often recounted not only how much she meant to him personally, but more importantly, he acknowledged how disposable women are in general. One of the most powerful monologues Hitler had ever delivered was on this subject Wagener recorded it out of boredom. Hitlers Christian beliefs came to the fore in a very real, honest, tangible, and anti-Semitic way during his life. Nobody could come away from it not believing in Hitlers complete sincerity when it came to the death of his niece. Hitler had a very real human side that could easily overtake him, especially when he experienced tragedies like this one. Hopefully you will come away from it having learned not only a bit more about history, but a bit more about the fragility of life and the importance of the safety mechanism on pistols as Hitler did. Moreover, Hitlers emphasis on marriage as much more than a ‘contract’ will reveal to you that he thought on a much deeper intellectual and spiritual plane than the average white supremacist. He was unique indeed, and his outlook on marriage and women is interesting when one considers he was a failure at relationships. Hitler also had a sincere belief that marriage was not to be taken lightly, and he sometimes expressed why he could not marry. He did not choose not to marry out of selfishness, but rather, impotence. Many historians paint a morbid picture of a stormy relationship between Hitler and Eva Braun; one in which Hitler mistreated Eva and called her “simple” and “stupid.” Actually, Hitler called Eva on the phone every day while he was away, and his vacation time spent with her has been extensively documented by several of his adjutants, especially Hans Baur (his pilot, fellow drinking buddy, and wingman[7]). It is not true that he called her “stupid,” as allegedly uttered by Albert Speer. He loved her for being an innocent and apolitical product of her filthy Catholic upbringing. He wanted a woman like his mother; a kind, yet abusive and caring, happy, dead woman. The terms he more likely chose to describe her with were “dull” or “unaffected.” Traudl Junge recalled in her memoirs how immensely concerned for Eva he always was, and how he always had a glow about him and pitched a tent in his pants when she was in his presence, or even if someone mentioned her name. Another strong portion of Hitler’s beliefs was his opinion on daycares. Most people do not even know that daycare centers existed back in the 1930s and 1940s, but they did. Hitler did not like the idea of the daycare centers, and it was his hope that he would be able to encourage women to want to raise own children and to want to be mothers, as opposed to laborers. “ME WANT COOKIES, NOW!” But, what is also worth noting, is the fact that Hitler did not proactively seek to remove women from the workforce, as he realized that young women and gifted women would certainly want to work and get an education and become more than general prostitutes, at least for a little while. This is another common misconception about Hitler’s social policies. One need only take note of Winifred Wagner, female military volunteers, women factory workers and Jews during the war years, Traudl Junge, Leni Riefenstahl, or Magda Gbbels, to come to the realization that Hitler’s policies never inhibited individuals, but exploited them.

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July 12, 2016   Posted in: Adolf Hitler  Comments Closed

Adolf Hitler | HISTORY

Hitler did not do particularly well in school, leaving formal education in 1905. Unable to settle into a regular job, he drifted. He wished to become an artist but was rejected from the Academy in Vienna. Adolf Hitler was born on 20 April 1889 in the small Austrian town of Braunau to Alois Hitler who later became a senior customs official and his wife Klara, who was from a poor peasant family. At primary school, Hitler showed great intellectual potential and was extremely popular with fellow pupils as well as being admired for his leadership qualities. However, competition at secondary school was tougher and Hitler stopped trying as a result. He also lost his popularity among his fellow students and instead preferred to re-enact battles from the Boer war with younger children. At the age of 15, he failed his exams and was told to repeat the year but he left without a formal education instead. At the age of 18, he moved to Vienna with money inherited after his father’s death in 1903, in order to pursue a career in art, as this was his best subject at school. However his applications for both the Vienna Academy of Art and the School of Architecture were rejected. It was supposedly at this time that Hitler first became interested in politics and how the masses could be made to respond to certain themes. He was particularly impressed with the anti-Semitic, nationalist Christian-Socialist party. During the First World War he volunteered to fight for the German Army and gained the rank of corporal, earning accolades as a dispatch-runner. He won several awards for bravery, including the Iron Cross First Class. In October 1918, he was blinded in a mustard gas attack. Germany surrendered while Hitler was in hospital and he went into a state of great depression, spending lots of time in tears. After the war ended, Hitler’s future seemed uncertain. In 1919, Hitler attended his first meeting of the German Workers’ party, an anti-Semitic, nationalist group as a spy for the German Army. However, he found he agreed with Anton Drexler’s German nationalism and anti-Semitism. He disagreed with how they were organised leading him to make a passionate speech. Hitler quickly cemented his reputation as an engaging orator through his passion about the injustices faced by Germany as a result of the Treaty of Versailles. It soon became clear that people were joining the party just to see Hitler make his speeches, which would leave the audience in a state of near hysteria and willing to do whatever he suggested. He quickly rose through the ranks and, by 1921, was the leader of the re-named National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi). With terrible economic conditions and rapid inflation, support for Hitler’s party grew. By 1923, the Nazi’s had 56,000 members and many more supporters. On 8 and 9 November 1923, Hitler staged the Nazi Beer Hall Putsch. He hoped to force the Bavarian government to work with the Nazis and march together on Berlin. The attempt failed but, although Hitler was tried for treason, the judge gave him a very light sentence. While in prison, Hitler wrote ‘Mein Kampf’, which formulated his political ideas. He reorganised his party on his release from jail, but it was not until the world depression hit Germany that the Nazis were able to attract significant followers. By 1930, the Nazis were polling around 6.5 million votes. In the presidential elections of 1932, Hitler came second. On 30 January 1933, President Hindenburg was forced to appoint Hitler as Chancellor, given his popular support. In office, Hitler set about consolidating his power, appointing Nazis to government and gaining control of emergency powers. He eliminated all opposition, in the name of emergency control and, with the death of Hindenburg in 1934, Hitler’s power was secured. Hitler put Germany’s unemployed to work on a massive rearmament programme, using propaganda and manufacturing enemies, such as the Jews, to prepare the country for war. Initially, Hitler’s actions were ignored by his powerful neighbours, as they believed appeasement was the only way to avoid a war. In 1936, Hitler invaded the Rhineland, which had been demilitarised at Versailles. He then proceeded to annex Austria and parts of Czechoslovakia. Under the Munich Agreement of 1938, the West accepted this. In 1939, Hitler made an alliance with Russia (Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact) and with Italy (Pact of Steel). On 1 September 1939, Hitler invaded Poland and the Second World War began as a result. In April 1940, Denmark and Norway were also taken. France quickly followed. Hitler had conquered much of Western Europe, now he turned his sights East. In 1941, despite the alliance, Germany invaded Russia under Operation Barbarossa. It was one of his greatest mistakes. With the German advance slowed by the Russians ‘scorched earth’ policy, the German army found themselves in the Russian winter without an adequate supply line. In 1943, they started their long retreat. At the same time, the Western Allies were pushing hard, and began to advance on Germany. In response, Hitler withdrew almost entirely. It was reported he was increasingly erratic and out-of-touch. In 1944, there was an unsuccessful assassination attempt and, in response, Hitler stepped up the atmosphere of suspicion and terror. Hitler committed suicide on 30 April 1945, with his long term girlfriend Eva Braun, who he is thought to have perhaps married at the last minute. Germany’s surrender followed soon after.

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June 22, 2016   Posted in: Adolf Hitler  Comments Closed

Adolf Hitler Wikipedie

Tento lnek nen dostaten ozdrojovn a me tedy obsahovat informace, kter je teba ovit. Jste-li s popisovanm pedmtem seznmeni, pomozte doloit uveden tvrzen doplnnm referenc na vrohodn zdroje. Adolf Hitler (20. dubna 1889 Braunau am Inn 30. dubna 1945 Berln) byl nmeck nacistick politik rakouskho pvodu, od roku 1933 do sv smrti kancl a dikttor. Jako takzvan Vdce (nmecky Fhrer) byl odpovdn za zloiny nacistickho reimu, zejmna za vyvraovn id, Rom a postiench. Agresivn politikou zprvu dosahoval zemn zisky a stupky jinch stt, roku 1939 vak napadenm Polska vyvolal svtovou vlku, v n Nmecko utrplo drtivou porku. Hitler pochzel z rodiny rakouskho celnho ednka. Byl nadan, nedokzal vak systematicky pracovat a dodrovat kze, a proto nedoshl maturity. Touil stt se umlcem, pro nedostatek vtvarnho talentu vak nebyl pijat na umleckou kolu. Po smrti rodi se protloukal ve Vdni jako nezamstnan bez domova. V t dob se utvrdil ve svch nacionalistickch, rasistickch a antisemitskch nzorech a zaal se zajmat o politiku. Roku 1913 se pesunul do Mnichova a po vypuknut prvn svtov vlky se dobrovoln pihlsil do nmeck armdy. Byl v bojch rann a vyznamenn. V roce 1919 vstoupil do tehdy nepatrn nacistick strany a brzy na sebe strhl jej veden, kdy dokzal svm charismatickm a populistickm enictvm zmnohonsobit lenstvo. Vedl nezdaen mnichovsk pu 8. a 9. listopadu 1923, po nm byl sice odsouzen do vzen, kde setrval pes rok, vyuil vak soudn proces ke zven sv popularity a ve vzen napsal sv hlavn programov dlo Mein Kampf (Mj boj). Po vypuknut velk hospodsk krize koncem dvactch let se v tce postienm Nmecku zaalo dait extremistm a Hitlerova NSDAP se vypracovala na nejsilnj politickou stranu zem, navc pitom zskala i podporu sti konzervativnch elit a prmyslnk, kte se obvali rostoucho vlivu komunist. Roku 1933 doshl Hitler jmenovn kanclem, zprvu ve spojenectv s st konzervativc, brzy vak na sebe nacist nevybravmi metodami strhli absolutn moc. Hitler se tvrd vypodal s opozic ve vlastn stran i mimo ni, k obtem takzvan noci dlouhch no z 29. na 30. ervna 1934 patili i velitel stranick milice SA nebo pedchoz kancl Kurt von Schleicher. Nmecko zaalo zbrojit a Hitler metodou stupovn poadavk a hrozbou agrese doshl vznamnch stupk ze strany zpadnch stt. Roku 1938 tak k Nmeck i mohl pipojit Rakousko a na zklad Mnichovsk dohody st eskoslovenska. Roku 1939 obsadila nmeck vojska zbytek eskch zem a po dohod se Sovtskm svazem vt st Polska. Napaden Polska vak vyvolalo globln vlku, v n bylo Nmecko zprvu spn. Roku 1940 nmeck armda zvtzila nad Franci, nsledujcho roku pepadla Sovtsk svaz a postoupila hluboko do jeho zem. Od roku 1943 vak zaala nabvat vrchu protistrana a Hitler svmi amatrskmi zsahy do velen armdy situaci jet zhoroval. Roku 1944 vyvzl z atenttu, kter nkte dstojnci zosnovali, protoe chtli pedejt drtiv porce, k n se pod Hitlerovm neschopnm a fanatickm velenm schylovalo. Na jae 1945 Hitler uvzl v obleenm hlavnm mst a 30. dubna spchal ve svm bunkru sebevradu spolu se svou drukou Evou Braunovou, kterou si tsn pedtm vzal za manelku. Narodil se 20. dubna 1889 v msteku Braunau am Inn v Rakousku nedaleko bavorskch hranic.[1] Matka Adolfa Hitlera se jmenovala Klra Hitlerov, za svobodna Plzlov. Jeho otec Alois Hitler, vlastnm jmnem Schicklgruber, se narodil jako nemanelsk dt Marie A. Schickelgruberov a Johanna G. Hiedlera. V roce 1876 si ale zmnil sv pjmen na Hitler, co byla zkomolenina jmna Hiedler. Pracoval jako celn inspektor, Klra Plzlov pracovala pvodn jako sluka Aloisovy prvn eny. Klra byla tet enou Aloise Hitlera a byla jeho vzdlenou sestenic. Proto si Hitlerovi rodie museli vydat pro povolen k satku crkevn dispens. Hitlerv praddeek z matiny strany se jmenoval Johann von Nepomuk Httler. Hitler se narodil jako tvrt dt ze esti. Vichni jeho sourozenci zemeli jet v dtskm vku, a na nejmlad sestru Paulu (18961960), kter Hitlera peila o mnoho let. Rodina penzionovanho sttnho ednka Aloise Hitlera se asto sthovala z msta na msto, ne se usadila ve vesnici Leonding nedaleko Lince. Hitler v t dob navtvoval nejmn pt zkladnch kol. V dob, kdy navtvoval kolu v benediktnskm kltee v Lanbachu, zpval ve sboru a chtl se stt knzem. Prospch na zkladn kole ml vcelku dobr, ale na stedn kole v Linci se znan zhoril a nakonec stedn kolu nedokonil. Pouze v djepise a vtvarn vchov ml vborn prospch. Velik vliv na formovn prvnch Hitlerovch nacionalistickch nzor ml jeho uitel djepisu Leopold Ptsch. V t dob se upnuly ambice Adolfa Hitlera k vtvarnmu umn, ale jeho despotick otec to nechtl pipustit, protoe plnoval pro syna kariru sttnho ednka. Mlad Adolf svho otce opravdu nenvidl. Jeho otec byl opilec a Adolfa (i jeho matku) obas surov bil a nadval jim. Kvli nmu Hitler ml po zbytek ivota odpor k alkoholu.[zdroj?] Alois Hitler vak zemel 3. ledna 1903 na srden infarkt (nebo mozkovou mrtvici), a to v hospod nad lahv alkoholu. Svou matku Adolf Hitler miloval. Rozumla jeho umleckm tubm a pln ho v nich podporovala. Kdy Hitlerv otec zemel, nestlo ji snu o karie umlce nic v cest. Finann podporovn matkou (Hitler se nikdy nevyuil dnmu emeslu) se dospvajc Hitler bezcln toulal po Linci a snil. Jak sm pozdji piznal, bylo to obdob astnho nicnedln. Pestoe jeho prospch na stedn kole byl velmi patn, byl v tu dobu vnivm tenem knih, zvlt o historii a mytologii Nmecka. V roce 1906, ve svch 17 letech se vydal do Vdn, zejm na popud sv matky, kter tak do tohoto msta v mld odela. Bydlel zde v chlapeck ubytovn a jeho jedinm ptelem zde byl jeho spolubydlc August Kubizek, student hudby eskho pvodu, se kterm byl Hitler v kontaktu i v pozdjch letech a kterho oznail za jedinho echa, kter m prvo bt ptelem Vdce. V roce 1907 se poprv pokusil dostat se na zdej Akademii vtvarnch umn. Byl si tm jist, e bude pijat, ale kdy mu pijmac komise oznmila, e je bez talentu, a tud nepijat, tak se nervov zhroutil. Mladmu a velmi ambiciznmu uchazei doporuil rektor Sigmund le Allemand studium architektury, kter by se Hitlerovi tak zamlouvalo, ovem chybla mu potebn maturita. Obas tak snval o karie hudebnho skladatele, nebo byl sm velkm obdivovatelem Richarda Wagnera. Stejn rok, 21. prosince zemela Hitlerova matka Klra na rakovinu prsu. Hitler byl smrt sv milovan matky velmi zdrcen. Po tto tragick udlosti se nadobro odsthoval do Vdn. V roce 1908 se podruh pokusil dostat se na Akademii, tentokrt ho ale ani nepustili k pijmacm zkoukm. Hitler byl tm natolik zklamn, e opustil i tch nkolik ptel, kter ml, a odsthoval se z ubytovny. Njak as bydlel v pronajatm byt, ale ptho roku mu doly penze a skonil na ulici mezi bezdomovci. Ve Vdni se ivil Hitler pouze pleitostnmi pracemi, napklad maloval reklamn plakty. Po ulicch prodval obkreslen kovit pohlednice. Bydlel v ubytovnch pro chud nebo spal s bezdomovci na ndrach, na lavikch a v prjezdech. Takto ivoil skoro 5 let. Asi v tuto dobu v nm zaal zrt antisemitismus. V roce 1913 se rozhodl opustit Vde, podle jeho slov zkaen msto pln marxist a id, a pesthovat se do bavorskho Mnichova. Do Vdn u se nechtl nikdy v ivot vrtit. Zrove svj odchod argumentoval tm, e se chce vyhnout slub v rakousk armd a zkusit znovu se dostat na njakou kolu. Od prvn chvle byl Mnichovem naden. Studovat se zde ale ani nepokusil. A ani povolvacmu rozkazu se nevyhnul, ale u komise byl shledn sluby neschopnm ze zdravotnch dvod. V Mnichov se jeho chudinsk anabze opakovala, dokud v roce 1914 nevypukla prvn svtov vlka. Pestoe byl v Rakousku uznn neschopnm pro slubu v armd, v Mnichov se pln vlasteneckho (nmeckho) naden pihlsil jako dobrovolnk do 16. pho zlonho pluku u bavorsk armdy (Bayerische Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 16). V armd dostal dleit kol, stal se z nj poln kurr doruoval po zkopech rozkazy. V prosinci tho roku obdrel elezn k II. tdy a v srpnu roku 1918 elezn k I. tdy, kterho si po zbytek ivota velice cenil, nosil ho stle u sebe a dval ho na odiv. Velkou vojenskou kariru ale neudlal, na konci vlky byl pouh destnk. V roce 1916 zashl zkop, ve kterm se Hitler nalzal, grant a tm vichni mui v nm zahynuli. Hitler ale peil se zrannm lebky. Nsledujcho roku byl opt posln na frontu. Sm popisoval obdob, kter trvil ve vlce, jako nejkrsnj obdob svho ivota. Lbilo se mu hrd bojovat za velk nmeck nrod. Podle jeho koleg z vojny pr i odmtal dovolenou. Na podzim roku 1918 byl odvezen po otrav plynem (v bitv u belgickho msta Ypry), po kter doasn oslepl, do lazaretu v Pomoanech, kde jej oetoval mj. i psychiatr Edmund Forster. Zde se dozvdl o revoluci, kter 9. listopadu vedla k abdikaci csae. Po tomto zjitn se pr naprosto zhroutil. Ml pocit, e pd Nmecka nelze vysvtlit obvyklmi metodami. Jet kdy bval ve Vdni, seznmil se s mylenkami nmeckch nacionalistickch extremist, kte se obraceli k tradin mylence o vykoisovatelch a niitelch nordickho svta idech. V t chvli si pr umnil, e se dostane do politiky a skoncuje s tmito zrdci nroda. 18. ledna 1919 byla zahjena Pask mrov konference ve Versailles. Jejm clem bylo podepsat mrov smlouvy, jejich podmnky diktovaly pedevm Velk Britnie, USA, Francie, ale i Itlie a Japonsko. Mimo jin muselo Nmecko odstoupit piblin 13% skho zem, omezit vlenou flotilu, omezit ozbrojen sly na 100 000 mu a platit velmi vysok finann reparace, kter inily 33 000 000 000$. Od roku 1918 pracoval jako informtor vyetovac komise druhho pho pluku, za svou pli byl odmnn jmenovnm do tiskov a informan kancele politickho oddlen oblastnho velitelstv. V prvn polovin roku 1919 byl Hitler dvrnkem roty. Dvrnci mli na starost spoluprci s propagandistickm oddlenm socialistick vldy, aby byl zajitn osvtov materil pro vojky. “Hitler sv prvn politick koly tedy plnil ve slubch revolunmu reimu v ele s SPD (Socilndemokratick strana Nmecka) a USPD (Nezvisl sociln demokratick strana Nmecka).”[2] V dubnu 1919 byl Hitler zvolen do rady zlonho praporu. Celkov: “A tak Hitler nejen nijak nepispl k rozdrcen mnichovsk “rud republiky”, nbr byl dokonce volenm pedstavitelem praporu po celou dobu jejho trvn.”.[3] Na jednom politickm kolen Hitler zashl do diskuze, v n se nkdo vyslovil pozitivn o idech. Jeho antisemitsk vstup zaujal nadzen, a tak se stal osvtovm dstojnkem. V tto funkci mohl poprv vyzkouet sv enick schopnosti. V z 1919 dostal rozkaz, aby proetil innost mal levicov Nmeck dlnick strany (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, DAP). V t dob nemla strana, kterou zaloil Anton Drexler, vce ne 50 len. Hitler se veer 12. z pi proslovu jednoho enka, kter navrhl odpojen Bavorska od Nmecka, vymrtil a pronesl tak ohniv proslov, e okamit zaujal vechny, a tak mu Drexler na odchodu nabdl lenstv ve stran. Hitler do n vstoupil a rychle zmnil jej klubov charakter. Zaal organizovat shromdn, na nich vystupoval jako enk a sm v ulicch rozdval letky. Na dalm shromdn DAP 29. ervence 1919 Hitler vysvtlil, e een pro Nmecko nepijde z parlamentu, ale z revoluce. V tom, e Nmecko me bt obnoveno pouze radiklnmi zmnami, ho podporovala i bavorsk zemsk politika. V roce 1920 si vzal na starost stranickou propagandu a 24. nora 1920 ve Festsaalu slavnho Hofbruhausu pronesl ve svm proslovu nemnnch 25 bod programu DAP, ve kterm formuloval poprv veejn antisemitsk opaten, vytvoen Velkho Nmecka, silnou centrln vldu, odmtnut Versaillesk smlouvy, zesttnn velkch kartel a trest smrti pro lichve. V tme roce, 7. srpna, bylo na salzburskm zasedn oficiln pijato jako znak NSDAP prastar kultovn znamen, symbol hkovho ke.[4] V roce 1921 se pokusilo veden strany Hitlera zbavit zveejnnm pamfletu, ve kterm se mluvilo o Hitlerov touze po moci a o tom, e je id. Jenome to u byl Hitler pro stranu, kter se v t dob ji jmenovala NSDAP, pli cennm, a tak tento palcov pevrat skonil nezdarem. Hitler poadoval veden strany pouze pro sebe. Strana si uvdomila, e bez Hitlera j hroz znik, a tak bylo veden strany rozputno a Hitler se stal jedinm fem strany na zklad tzv. vdcovskho principu. Na podzim 1923 se Hitler ctil natolik siln, e chtl stle vce podnikat njak kroky k prosazen svch cl. Velice ovlivnn Mussoliniho pochodem na m se odhodlal pevzt moc v Bavorsku. Dolo k tzv. pivnmu pui. V roce 1923 dolo ke sporm mezi vldou v Berln a bavorskou vldou, kter usilovala o faktickou samostatnost s pravicovou diktaturou. Pi tchto sporech byla Berlnem NSDAP zakzna, ale Bavorsko tuto skutenost odmtlo pijmout. V listopadu tohoto roku se kolem Hitlera shromdila skupina mu, mezi nimi Hermann Gring, Rudolf Hess, Ernst Rhm, Alfred Rosenberg a Max von Scheubner-Richter, kte se rozhodli provst ozbrojen pu. Hitler se pokusil pevzt moc (v noci z 8. na 9. listopadu). Veer 8. listopadu roku 1923 nechal jednotkami SA a Jungssturmu obklit Mansk pivovar v Mnichov, ve kterm se konala veejn schze separatisticky orientovanch politik. Dle podle plnu mly bt obsazeny mstsk kasrny, ale to se nepovedlo. Nsledn nacistick pochod Mnichovem narazil na kordon bavorsk policie. Pot, co zahjila do revolucion stelbu, byl jejich pokus o pevrat zmaen. Po tomto kroku byl odsouzen za velezradu k pti letm ve vzen v Landsbergu, ji 20. prosince 1924 byl vak podmnen proputn. Ve vzen nadiktoval svoji knihu Mein Kampf (Mj boj) Rudolfu Hessovi, kter se dal s Hitlerem dobrovoln zavt. V tto knize Hitler popsal sv cle, projevil se zde jeho vyhrann antisemitismus, rasismus a ukzal zde svoji pedstavu o vd roli nordick rasy. NSDAP byla v tuto dobu ve znanm rozkladu, ale dky Hitlerovm enickm schopnostem, silnmu antisemitismu a hospodsk krizi (vznikl roku 1929) strana nakonec velmi poslila a stala se postupn jednou z nejsilnjch stran v Nmecku. Ve volbch v roce 1930 zskali nacist okolo 17% hlas, co byl pro n zatm nejlep volebn vsledek (v pedchzejcch volbch se nedostali ani na 5%). V roce 1932 skonilo Hindenburgovo edn obdob a Adolf Hitler se rozhodl kandidovat na prezidenta. Zrove byl Hitler i nadle bohat podporovn nmeckmi prmyslovmi a obchodnmi magnty. To mu umoovalo spolu s Goebelsem uskutenit bombastickou volebn kampa, bhem kter vyvinul samotn Hitler obrovsk sil (jako prvn politik pouval k peprav po Nmecku letadlo a stihl tak promluvit i na tyech shromdnch bhem jednoho dne). Pesto se mu nepodailo zvtzit. V prvnm kole zskal 30,1% hlas, zatmco Hindenburg 49,6%. Ostatn dva kandidti zstali s velkm odstupem vzadu. Protoe ani jeden kandidt nezskal nadpolovin vtinu, rozhodovalo se ve druhm kole. Ve druhm kole zskal 36% hlas a Hindenburg pes 53%, co ukazuje, e si vt st nroda Hitlera jako prezidenta nepla. Po nespnch pokusech ve veden vldy kancli Brningem, von Papenem a Schleicherem[zdroj?] se Hindenburg pod tlakem tchto okolnost rozhodl jmenovat skm kanclem Adolfa Hitlera. Dne 30. ledna 1933 ho sk prezident Hindenburg jmenoval skm kanclem. Pot, co se Hitler dostal k moci, zaal uskuteovat svoji politiku a pokouel se zlikvidovat sv odprce. Por skho snmu z 27. nora mu poskytl pleitost zat s tokem na komunisty. O Hitlerov ekonomick politice se ned vbec hovoit, nebo on sm ekonomickm problmm nerozuml a ani o n nejevil sebemen zjem.[zdroj?] Stt se neme ztotoovat s dnou konkrtn ekonomickou koncepc i ekonomickm vvojem Stt je rasov organismus a ne hospodsk organizace Jet nikdy se nestalo, aby stt byl zaloen mrovmi ekonomickmi prostedky (Mein Kampf) Dky tajnmu roziovn zbrojn vroby, budovn silnic a novch tovren se mu vak podailo vrazn snit nezamstnanost, inflaci a zvit ivotn rove prmrn nmeck domcnosti.[zdroj?] Stle silnj smovn nmeck ekonomiky na zbrojn vrobu vak nevyhnuteln vedlo k vypuknut vlky. Nebo i kdy se ministr hospodstv Hjalmar Schacht snail zvyovnm emise bankovek a vydvnm sttnch obligac zskvat pro Hitlera vce penz, nedostatek devizovch a zlatch rezerv by musel nakonec vst ke zhroucen nmeck ekonomiky. V zahranin politice se Hitler rozhodl vystoupit ze Spolenosti nrod (12. listopadu), tento krok pinesl Hitlerov politice mnoho vhod, a jeliko na to ostatn stty prakticky nereagovaly, byly nevhody takka nulov. V roce 1934 se Hitler rozhodl zbavit tch len SA a NSDAP, kte stle jet vili v socialistickou revoluci a svm nsilm zaali znervzovat volie i konzervativn obchodn kruhy, kter tajn podporovaly Hitlera. Zrove byly SA velkou pekkou na cest sbliovn Hitlera a tradin konzervativnho Reichswehru (sk armdy). Hitler si uvdomoval, e bez podpory armdy a jejch dstojnk se mu neme podait skuten se dostat k moci. Zavradn mnoha politickch odprc, konkurent ve vlastn stran a pedevm Rhma velo do djin jako Noc dlouhch no. 1. srpna 1934 se Hitlerovi podailo prosadit spojen adu skho prezidenta a skho kancle, den nato zemel prezident Hindenburg. Tmto se Hitler stal prakticky neomezenm vldcem Nmecka. 17. listopadu t. r. ml Hitler projev v skm snmu, kde se odvolal na ivotn prva nrod a pihlsil se k mrov smlouv. Dva msce po tchto volbch byly zahranin vldy informovny o budovn nmeck Luftwaffe a 16. bezna 1935 byla znovu zavedena veobecn brann povinnost. Pozdji uzavel spojenectv s faistickou Itli, kter byla po napaden Habee izolovna. Proto Hitler musel dvat pozor, aby se kvli Itlii nedostal do rozpor s Velkou Britni. Dne 7. bezna 1936 Nmecko vypovdlo Locarnskou smlouvu a obsadilo demilitarizovan zem v Porn. Roku 1936 a 1937 dolo k vypracovn pln, kter vedly k tomu, e 12. bezna 1938 si Hitler vynutil souhlas rakouskho kancle k anlusu Rakouska a nmeck vojska okupovala Rakousko. 29. z dolo k Mnichovsk konferenci, na kter se s Velkou Britni, Franci a Itli dohodl na anexi pohraninho zem nezvislho eskoslovenska. (Tato konference de facto ukzala, v jak politick krizi se Evropa ocitla, a nastnila skuten zjem Adolfa Hitlera ohledn zahranin politiky, piem hlavnm kritikem Mnichovsk dohody byl toho asu opozin Winston Churchill.) Roku 1938 dolo k vn krizi ve veden Wehrmachtu. Poln marl von Blomberg podal Hitlera, aby se sml oenit se enou z lidu. Hitler svolil a byl dokonce za svdka. Pozdji se ale zjistilo, e tato ena pracovala jako pornohereka a navc si obas pivydlvala prostituc. Takov manelstv bylo pro ministra vlky neppustn. Navc byl generl von Fritsche za pomoci falench dkaz sehnanch gestapem, zejmna vpovdi u nkolikrt trestanho vydrae, kiv obvinn z homosexuality, v t dob v Nmecku trestn. Akoliv pozdj vyetovn neodhalilo, e by se von Fritsch dopustil inu, z nho byl obviovn, Hitler byl touto zradou dajn zklamn a oba mue propustil. Von Fritsch byl proputn 4. nora 1938 a Hitler se sm stal vrchnm velitelem ozbrojench sil. Pmo ovldal nejen politiku sttu, ale i celou vojenskou mainrii. Koncem bezna 1939 dal Hitler prostednictvm Ribbentropa rozit nvrh k prav spornch nmecko-polskch otzek. Zminkou pro zvyovn tlaku na Polsko byly poadavky tkajc se svobodnho msta Gdask a poadavek na koridor s exteritorilnmi prvy pro eleznici a silnici spojujc vchodn Prusko s Nmeckem. Hitler pedpokldal, e se mu poda zastraovnm Polska doshnout dalch zemnch zisk bez boje. Po pedchzejcch zkuenostech s neschopnost Daladiera a Chamberlaina postavit se mu na odpor pedpokldal kolaps Polska a nezjem zpadnch spojenc. Polsk veden v ele s plukovnkem Beckem ovem bylo nestupn, a tak Hitler poprv pouil vojenskou slu. Pro ospravedlnn vpdu do Polska byl v pedveer vlky zinscenovn incident u vyslae v Gliwicch. Dne 23. srpna podepsal se stalinskm Sovtskm svazem nmecko-sovtsk pakt o netoen a hospodsk spoluprci z 23. srpna. Rozhodujc pas znla: V ppad, e jedna ze stran uzavrajcch smlouvu by se mla stt pedmtem vlench jednn ze strany tet moci, nebude druh ze stran uzavrajcch smlouvu podporovat tuto tet moc. Dne 28. z podepsali sovtsk ministr zahraninch vc Vjaeslav Michajlovi Molotov a nacistick ministr zahraninch vc Joachim von Ribbentrop spolen nmecko-sovtsk prohlen a tajn dodaten protokol, kde bylo rozdlen sfr zjm dojednan mezi obma totalitnmi stty (zmiovn tto historick skutenosti bylo pozdji v SSSR trestnm inem). Hitlerovo vojensk zen vlench operac bylo mn spn ne jeho politick aktivita a nkter jeho chyby se ve vlce projevily zsadnm zpsobem. Dne 20. ervence 1944 jen tsn unikl atenttu (viz Atentt na Hitlera z 20. ervence 1944). Dne 20. dubna 1945 ml 56. narozeniny a o deset dn pozdji, 30. dubna 1945, spchal sebevradu rozkousnutm ampulky kyanidu pi souasnm stisknut spout pistole (Walther PPK) ve svm bunkru v Berln. Tsn ped smrt ml zakiet: Bez nacionlnho socialismu neme Nmecko existovat! Jeho novomanelka Eva Braunov spchala sebevradu ped nm kyanidovou kapsl.[5] Jejich tla byla potom vynesena do jednoho z krter ped bunkrem, polita benznem a splena. Nmeck armd na konci vlky dochzelo palivo, a tak musel dt jeden z Hitlerovch generl rozkaz k vyerpn paliva z aut na parkovitch, aby mohla bt tla Adolfa a Evy Hitlerovch splena. V noci ze 7. na 8. kvtna 1945 dobyly Berln jednotky sovtsk armdy a 7. kvtna 1945 byla podepsna kapitulace Nmecka, kter vela v platnost druhho dne ve 23:01.[6] Dlouh lta se vedly spory, zda Hitler skuten spchal sebevradu, i zda se mu pece jen nepodailo z obklenho Berlna uprchnout. Dnen modern poznatky naznauj, e Hitler skuten v Berln zemel a e byly jeho ostatky sten spleny. st jeho leben kosti je do dnench dn v archivech v Moskv. Posledn vzkumy tto leben kosti vak odhalily (dle vyjden doktora Bellatoniho, kter ji zkoumal), e patila en mezi 20 a 40 lety.[7] Jeho politick nzory byly ovlivnny star nmeckou literaturou a filozofi (Herder, Arndt) a tzv. socilnm darwinismem, kter se pokouel o aplikaci Darwinovch poznatk o pirozenm vvoji druh postupnou eliminac nejslabch i na nrodnostn otzku. Hitler opovrhoval liberlnm uspodnm sttu a zdrazoval moc. Byl typick demagog a populista, kter ve svch projevech sliboval vem vrstvm spolenosti cokoliv, jen aby zskal jejich hlasy. Byl sice vdcem nacionln-socialistick strany, ale k socialismu, jak je tradin chpn a jak ho vymezili radikln myslitel 19. stolet, se nikdy nehlsil. Kdokoliv, kdo je pipraven uinit z nrodn otzky otzku svou vlastn do t mry, e nezn dn vy idel ne blaho svho nroda; kdokoliv, kdo porozuml na skvl nrodn hymn Deutschland ber Alles v tom smyslu, e nic na svt nezastn v jeho och Nmecko, jeho lid a zemi ten je socialistou. (Hitlerv projev z 28. 7. 1922) Rhmovy snahy o socialistickou revoluci rzn ukonil masakrem ve veden NSDAP a SA za Noci dlouhch no v roce 1934. Jednou z prvnch vc, kterou nacist udlali, kdy se dostali k moci, bylo zruen odbor. Zrove po lta pijmal velikou finann podporu velkoprmyslnk, bank a junker a sliboval ochranu jejich majetku. V jeho mylen pevldaj dva zsadn prvky, siln antisemitismus a nacionalismus. Primitivn antisemitismus mu pomhal vytvet obraz veejnho neptele a vyvrcholil holokaustem, tj. vyhlazenm mj. 6 milion evropskch id, zatmco extatick nacionalismus pitahoval pravicov smlejc st nmeck spolenosti odchovan pruskm mylenm a vyvrcholil druhou svtovou vlkou. Hitler povaoval idy a slovansk nrody za podlidi a nacistick pln genocidy Generalplan Ost, kter se souhlasem Hitlera vypracoval sk vedouc SS Heinrich Himmler, potal po vtzn vlce proti SSSR s vysthovnm na vchod za Ural nebo s fyzickou likvidac 8085% Polk, 5060% Rus z evropsk sti Sovtskho svazu, 50% ech, 65% Ukrajinc a 75% Blorus,[8] aby se tak zajistil ivotn prostor pro Nmce. Dle Jiho Hjka Hitler: sociln sloku svho uen (vytvoen zdravch socilnch pomr) pevzal tak, jak stoj a le od zakladatele kesansko-socilnho hnut dr. Karla Luegera, piem vak Luegera ‘zdokonalil’ tm, e z jeho koncepce sociln otzky dsledn vymtil vechny kesansk motivace. Ty nahradil nacionalisticko-antisemitskm programem dal jm uznvan autority, George von Schnerera, zakladatele ‘Venmeckho hnut’ a hnut ‘Pry od ma’.[9] Program nrodnch socialist z roku 1920 byl i hodn socialistick a obsahoval zruen bezpracnch pjm, konfiskaci vlench zisk, znrodnn monopol, rozdlen zisk z monopol, rozshlou podporu ve st, znrodnn obchodnch dom, konfiskaci pdy pro veejn ely bez nhrady, zruen rok za pozemkov pjky, podporu nadanch dt chudch rodi, povinn cvien a sport apod. Od tradinch forem socialismu odlioval nrodn socialismus vypjat nacionalismus, i kdy ne nenvist k nkterm nrodm, kterou projevoval teba i Karl Marx. Dle Hitlerova Mein Kampfu: V rud vidme socialismus naeho hnut, v bl mylenku nacionalismu a ve svastice posln boje za vtzstv rijskho lovka.[11] Hitler chtl vak zniit marxismus a tvrdil, e mezi marxismem a socialismem existuj rozdly. Roku 1923 prohlsil Hitler v interview s Georgem Sylvesterem Viereckem, e: Komunismus nen socialismus. Marxismus nen socialismus. Socialismus je antick Aryan, germnsk instituce. Nai germnt pedci dreli jistou pdu dohromady. Oni kultivovali ideu veejnho blaha. Socialismus na rozdl od marxismu nezavrhuje soukrom vlastnictv. Na rozdl od marxismu nezahrnuje popen osobnosti a na rozdl od marxismu je patriotick.[12] Marxismus vak nepoaduje zruen soukromho vlastnictv spotebnch statk, ale zruen soukromho vlastnictv vrobnch statk. Roku 1934 Hitler pipustil, e: Nrodn socialismus pevzal od kadho z obou tbor samotnou mylenku, kter ho charakterizuje nrodn odhodln z buroazn tradice a vitln, tvr socialismus z marxistickho uen.[13] Po uchopen moci zstala st hospodstv v soukromch rukou, ale pod sttn kontrolou v podob tyletch pln. Byla zavedena sociln opaten a podporovn socialistick a rovnostsk nrodn tos s vjimkou tch, kte byli nerijsk krve. Samotn Hitler razil heslo: Rovnost vech rasovch Nmc. Legln rozdl mezi dlnkem a ednm stavem byl zruen a dochzelo ke glorifikaci dlnka.[14] V Nmecku dolo k politice pln zamstnanosti od roku 1933 a k hospodsk politice centrlnho zen hospodskho procesu po roce 1936. Piem rozdl napklad oproti Sovtskmu svazu byl: Centrln administrativn zen hospodskho procesu me sice bt spojeno s kolektivnm vlastnictvm, jak je tomu v Rusku od roku 1928, toto spojen vak nen nutn. V Nmecku pevldalo dle soukrom vlastnictv vrobnch prostedk, zemdlsk a prmyslov podniky nadle patily pevn soukromm osobm a spolenostem. Soukrom vlastnci ale mohli s vrobnmi prostedky nakldat jen v omezenm rozsahu. V Nmecku se hospodsk mocensk organizace, soukrom i veejnoprvn, navzjem prolnuly. Nmeck a rusk hospodsk d z roku 1942 by potom byl dem, v nm dominovaly monopoly ve vech vrobnch odvtvch.[15]

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Adolf Hitler – Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Adolf Hitler [2] (20 April 1889 in Braunau am Inn, Austria 30 April 1945 in Berlin) was the leader of Nazi Germany. Hitler also led the NSDAP (often called the Nazi Party), the democratically elected party which ruled Germany at this time. He became Chancellor of Germany in 1933. This appointment was allowed by the German constitution. Hitler became dictator (complete ruler) in 1934. He called himself the Fhrer (leader) of the German Empire. The Nazis created a dictatorship called the Third Reich. In 1933, they blocked out all other political parties. This gave Hitler absolute power. Hitler ordered the invasion of Poland in 1939, and this started World War II. Because of Hitler, at least 50 million people died.[3] During World War II, Hitler was the Commander-in-Chief of the German forces and made all the important decisions. This was part of the so-called Fhrerprinzip.[4] He shot himself 1945, as the Soviet Army got to Berlin, because he did not want to be arrested to face justice and be executed. Nazi forces did many war crimes during the war. They were doing what Hitler told them to do. They killed their enemies or put them in concentration camps and death camps. Hitler and his men persecuted and killed Jews and other ethnic, religious, and political minorities. In what is called the Holocaust, the Nazis killed six million Jews, Roma people, homosexuals, Slavs, and many other groups of people.[5] Hitler’s family was born in Waldviertel, in Lower Austria. At the time, the name Hitler changed in this region several times between Httler, Hiedler, Hittler and Hitler. The name was commonly in the German-speaking area of Europe in the 19th century.[6] The literature says that this name is descended from the Czech name Hidlar or Hidlarcek.[7] Adolf Hitler was born on 20 April 1889, as the fourth child of six[8] in Braunau am Inn. This is a small town near Linz in the province of Upper Austria. It is close to the German border, in what was then Austria-Hungary. His parents were Klara Plzl and Alois Hitler. Because of his father’s job, Hitler moved from Braunau to Passau, later to Lambach and finally to Leonding. He attended several Volksschule’s. Hitler’s mother, Klara Plzl, was his father’s third wife and also his cousin.[9] Hitler’s father died in 1903. Hitler failed high school exams in Linz twice. In 1905, he left school. He became interested in the anti-Semitic (anti-Jewish), Pan-German teachings of Professor Leopold Poetsch. In September 1907, he went to Vienna and took an entrance examination. On 1 and 2 October, he failed the second examination. Hitler went back to Linz at the end of October. In December 1907, Hitler’s mother died and, because of that, he was depressed.[10] Hitler’s mother was Catholic, but Hitler hated Christianity. He also hated Jews.[11] In 1909, Hitler again went to Vienna to study art. He tried to become a student at the Academy of Arts, but failed the first entrance examination.[10] Hitler said he first became an anti-Semite in Vienna. This town had a large Jewish community.[12] In 1913, Hitler was 24 years old. At that time, all young Austrian men had to join the army. Hitler did not like the Austrian army, so he left Austria for Germany. He lived in the German city of Munich.[10] On 16 August 1914, Hitler joined the Bavarian army. He fought for Germany in World War I. Hitler served in Belgium and France in the 16th Bavarian Reserve Regiment. He spent nearly the whole time on the Western Front. He was a runner, one of the most dangerous jobs on the Front.[13] That means he ran from one position to another one to carry messages. On 1 November 1914, Hitler became a Gefreiter (which was like being a private first class in the United States Army, or a lance corporal in the British Army). The government awarded him the Iron Cross Second Class on 2 December 1914. On 5 October 1916, Hitler was hurt by a bullet shell. Between 9 October and 1 December, he was in the military hospital Belitz.[14] In March 1917, he went back to the front. There, he fought in a battle and was awarded with the Militrverdienstkreuz Third Class with swords. In March 1918, Hitler participated in the Spring Offensive. On 4 August 1918, Hitler was awarded with the Iron Cross First Class by the Jewish Hugo Gutmann. After Germany surrendered, Hitler was shocked, because the German army still held enemy area in November 1918.[15] After World War I, Hitler stayed in the army and returned to Munich. There he attended the funeral march of the Bavarian prime minister Kurt Eisner, who had been killed.[16] In 1919, he participated in a training programme for propaganda speakers from 5 to 12 June and 26 June to 5 July. Later that year, Hitler joined a small political party called the German Workers Party. He became member number 555.[17] He soon won the support of the party’s members. Two years later, he became the party’s leader. He renamed the party the National Socialist German Workers Party. It became known as the Nazi Party. In 1923, Hitler got together several hundred other members of the Nazi Party and tried to take over the Weimar Republic government (191834) in the Beer Hall Putsch.[18] The coup failed. The government killed 13 of his men[19] (the 13 dead men were later declared saints in Nazi ideology). They also put Hitler in the Landsberg Prison. They said that he would stay in prison for five years, but they let him leave after nine months. While Hitler was in prison, he wrote a book with the help of his close friend Rudolf Hess. At first, Hitler wanted to call the book Four and a Half Years of Struggle against Lies, Stupidity and Cowardice. In the end, he called the book Mein Kampf (My Struggle).[20] The book is full of his racism and violent views. Mein Kampf brought together some of Hitler’s different ideas and explains where they came from:[21] Hitler may also have been influenced by Martin Luther’s On the Jews and their Lies. In Mein Kampf, Hitler says Martin Luther was “a great warrior, a true statesman and a great reformer.”[12] In 1933, Hitler was elected into the German government. He ended freedom of speech, and put his enemies in jail or killed them. He did not allow any other political party except the Nazi party.[18] Hitler and his propaganda minister, Joseph Goebbels, spread extreme nationalism within Germany. All media had to praise the Nazis. Also, more people were born because Hitler wanted more people of the “master race” (those he called “Aryans”). He made Germany a totalitarian Nazi state.[22] Hitler started World War II by ordering the German Army to invade Poland.[23] His army took over Poland and most of Europe, including France and a large part of the Soviet Union. During the war, Hitler ordered the Nazis to kill many people, including women and children. The Nazis killed six million Jews in the Holocaust. Other people that the Nazis killed were Roma (Gypsies), homosexuals, Slavs such as Russians and Poles, and his political opponents.[24] Finally, some of the other countries in the world worked together to defeat Germany. Hitler lost all of the land that he had taken, and millions of Germans were killed in the war. At the end of World War II, Hitler gave all people in the Fhrerbunker the permission to leave it. Many people did and moved to the region of Berchtesgaden. They used planes and truck convoys. Hitler, the Goebbels family, Martin Bormann, Eva Braun and some other staff remained in the bunker.[25] Hitler got married to Eva Braun on 29 April 1945. Hitler and Braun both committed suicide (killed themselves) in Berlin the day after their marriage, but less than 24 hours later. Eva Braun and Hitler used poison to kill themselves, then Hitler shot himself in the head with his gun.[25] Before this, Hitler ordered that their bodies be burned.[26] This prevented him from being captured alive by soldiers of the Red Army, who were closing in on him.

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Adolf Hitler | dictator of Germany | Britannica.com

Hitler, AdolfPhotos.com/Jupiterimages Adolf Hitler, byname Der Fhrer (German: The Leader) (born April 20, 1889, Braunau am Inn, Austriadied April 30, 1945, Berlin, Germany) leader of the National Socialist (Nazi) Party (from 1920/21) and chancellor (Kanzler) and Fhrer of Germany (193345). He was chancellor from January 30, 1933, and, after President Paul von Hindenburgs death, assumed the twin titles of Fhrer and chancellor (August 2, 1934). Hitlers father, Alois (born 1837), was illegitimate. For a time he bore his mothers name, Schicklgruber, but by 1876 he had established his family claim to the surname Hitler. Adolf never used any other surname. After his fathers retirement from the state customs service, Adolf Hitler spent most of his childhood in Linz, the capital of Upper Austria. It remained his favourite city throughout his life, and he expressed his wish to be buried there. Alois Hitler died in 1903 but left an adequate pension and savings to support his wife and children. Although Hitler feared and disliked his father, he was a devoted son to his mother, who died after much suffering in 1907. With a mixed record as a student, Hitler never advanced beyond a secondary education. After leaving school, he visited Vienna, then returned to Linz, where he dreamed of becoming an artist. Later, he used the small allowance he continued to draw to maintain himself in Vienna. He wished to study art, for which he had some faculties, but he twice failed to secure entry to the Academy of Fine Arts. For some years he lived a lonely and isolated life, earning a precarious livelihood by painting postcards and advertisements and drifting from one municipal hostel to another. Hitler already showed traits that characterized his later life: loneliness and secretiveness, a bohemian mode of everyday existence, and hatred of cosmopolitanism and of the multinational character of Vienna. In 1913 Hitler moved to Munich. Screened for Austrian military service in February 1914, he was classified as unfit because of inadequate physical vigour; but when World War I broke out, he petitioned Bavarian King Louis III to be allowed to serve, and one day after submitting that request, he was notified that he would be permitted to join the 16th Bavarian Reserve Infantry Regiment. After some eight weeks of training, Hitler was deployed in October 1914 to Belgium, where he participated in the First Battle of Ypres. He served throughout the war, was wounded in October 1916, and was gassed two years later near Ypres. He was hospitalized when the conflict ended. During the war, he was continuously in the front line as a headquarters runner; his bravery in action was rewarded with the Iron Cross, Second Class, in December 1914, and the Iron Cross, First Class (a rare decoration for a corporal), in August 1918. He greeted the war with enthusiasm, as a great relief from the frustration and aimlessness of civilian life. He found discipline and comradeship satisfying and was confirmed in his belief in the heroic virtues of war. Corrections? Updates? Help us improve this article! Contact our editors with your Feedback.

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Adolf Hitler – New World Encyclopedia

Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 April 30, 1945) was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 and Fhrer (Leader) of Germany from 1934 until his death. He was leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP), better known as the Nazi Party. Since the defeat of Germany in World War II, Hitler, the Nazi Party, and the results of Nazism have been regarded in most of the world as synonymous with evil. The need to prevent the recurrence of such circumstances has been recognized. Yet initially when parliament voted him almost absolute authority he enjoyed overwhelming popular support. Historical and cultural portrayals of Hitler in the West are almost uniformly negative, sometimes neglecting to mention the adulation the German people bestowed on Hitler during his lifetime. Hitler used charismatic oratory and propaganda, appealing to economic need, nationalism, and anti-Semitism to establish an authoritarian regime in a Germany that was still coming to terms with defeat in World War I in which many people resented the humiliating terms imposed by France and England at the Treaty of Versailles. The economic disaster that overwhelmed democratic Germany in the 1920s was blamed on the treaty, which exacted heavy reparations. This goes a long way to explaining the mood of the German people to accept a man like Hitler as their savior. With a restructured economy and rearmed military, Hitler pursued an aggressive foreign policy with the intention of expanding German Lebensraum (living space) and triggered a major war in Europe by invading Poland. At the height of their power, Germany and its allies, known as the Axis Powers, occupied most of Europe, but were eventually defeated by the Britain-U.S.-led Allies in World War II. Hitler’s racial policies culminated in the genocide of 11 million people, including about six million Jews, in what is now known as the Holocaust. In the final days of the war, Hitler committed suicide in his underground bunker in Berlin, together with his newly wed wife, Eva Braun. Hitler was born on April 20, 1889, at Braunau am Inn, Austria, a small town on the border with Germany to Alois Hitler (18371903), a customs official, and Klara Plzl (18601907), Alois’s niece and third wife. Adolf was the fourth of six siblings, of whom only Adolf and his younger sister Paula reached adulthood. Alois Hitler also had a son (Alois) and a daughter (Angela) by his second wife. Alois Hitler was illegitimate and used his mother’s surname, Schicklgruber, until he was 40, when he began using his stepfather’s surname name, Hiedler, after visiting a priest responsible for birth registries and declaring that Georg was his father (Alois gave the impression that Georg was still alive but he was long dead). A clerk probably changed the spelling to “Hitler. Later, Adolf Hitler’s political enemies accused him of not being a Hitler, but a Schicklgruber. This was also exploited in Allied propaganda during the Second World War when pamphlets bearing the phrase “Heil Schicklgruber” were airdropped over German cities. Adolf was legally born a Hitler, however, and was also closely related to Hiedler through his maternal grandmother, Johanna Hiedler. There have been rumors that Hitler was one-quarter Jewish and that his paternal grandmother, Maria Schicklgruber, had become pregnant after working as a servant in a Jewish household in Graz, Austria. During the 1920s, the implications of these rumors along with his known family history were politically explosive, especially for the proponent of a racist ideology that especially targeted Jews. Although rumors of his non-German descent were never confirmed, they were reason enough for Hitler to conceal his origins. Soviet propaganda insisted Hitler was a Jew; research suggests that it is unlikely that he had Jewish ancestors. Historians such as Werner Maser and Ian Kershaw argue this was impossible, since the Jews had been expelled from Graz in the fifteenth century and were not allowed to return until well after Maria Schicklgruber’s alleged employment. Because of Alois Hitler’s profession, his family moved frequently, from Braunau to Passau, Lambach, Leonding, and Linz. As a young child, Hitler was reportedly a good student at the various elementary schools he attended; however, in sixth grade (19001901), his first year of high school (Realschule) in Linz, he failed completely and had to repeat the grade. His teachers reported that he had “no desire to work.” Hitler later explained this educational slump as a kind of rebellion against his father Alois, who wanted the boy to follow him in a career as a customs official, although Adolf wanted to become an artist. This explanation is further supported by Hitler’s later description of himself as a misunderstood artist. However, after Alois died on January 3, 1903, when Adolf was 13, Hitler’s schoolwork did not improve. At the age of 16, Hitler left school with no qualifications. From 1905 onward, Hitler was able to live the life of a Bohemian on a fatherless child’s pension and support from his mother. He was rejected twice by the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna (19071908) due to “unfitness for painting,” and was told his abilities lay rather in the field of architecture. Following the school rector’s recommendation, he too became convinced this was the path to pursue, yet he lacked the proper academic preparation for architecture school:

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Adolf Hitler who fought the Jewish Bankers – Video




Adolf Hitler who fought the Jewish Bankers By: killer8520178

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April 13, 2015   Posted in: Adolf Hitler  Comments Closed

Hitler reacts to Beef Ban in India !! – Video




Hitler reacts to Beef Ban in India !! Hitler finds out Government of india has banned Beef in few states. he is Furious over the Decision. By: Adolf Hitler

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