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Anne Frank Tree at World Trade Center Dedicated on 70th Anniversary of Anne Frank’s Diary Publication – Untapped Cities

Yesterday, we attended a moving ceremony at the World Trade Center to mark the 70th Anniversary of the publication of Anne Franks Diarywhich included the dedication of a white chestnut tree, a clone grown from an original tree outside the hiding place of Anne Frank and her family in Amsterdam, 188 Keizersgracht. Anne wrote about her view from the annex window:As long as this exists, how can I be sad? and referred to the chestnut three three times in her diary. This tree in Liberty Park is the eleventh clone of the tree in the United States planted by the Anne Frank Center for Mutual Respect.The date, June 12th, also marks what would have been Annes88th birthday, sharing a birth year with Martin Luther King. Jr and Audrey Hepburn.

Members of Anne Franks family attended the memorial, including Monica Smith, her younger cousin who spoke of how Annebrought her food when she was interned in a refugee camp in Amsterdam, arriving with fingers full of ink and a lot of hope. Peter Kohnstam, a neighbor two doors downwho was babysat by Anne before she and her family went into hiding from 1942 to 1944. It was Kohnstams mother who suggested that Anne keep a diary. Also attending the event was the 23-year old survivor of the recent Portland train attacks,Micah David-Cole Fletcher. Official announcements were made bySteven Plate, Chief of Major CapitalProjects at the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, Latisha James, Public Advocate of the City of New York and Steven Goldstein,Executive Director of the Anne Frank Center for Mutual Respect.

Anne Franks cousin,Monica Smith, speaking to those gathered

The original chestnut tree lived until 170 years old, downed by moth and fungal infections. The Anne Frank House decided to use the chestnuts to create seedlings and saplings for clone trees to be planted to locations dedicated to Anne Frank now known as The Sapling Project. This tree at the World Trade Center was plantedon May 16th, 2016.

As The Sapling Project reports, Anne Franks father spoke of her love for the tree:

How could I have known, he asked how much it meant to Anne to see a patch of blue sky, to observe the seagulls as they flew, and how important the chestnut tree was for her, when I think that she never showed any interest in nature. Still, he acknowledged, she longed for it when she felt like a bird in a cage. Only the thought of the freedom of nature gave her comfort. But she kept all those feelings to herself.

The passages by Anne about the tree:

On February 23, 1944, she recorded her friendship with Peter and the peace she found by looking outside her window. The two of us looked out at the blue sky, the bare chestnut tree glistening with dew, the seagulls and other birds glinting with silver as they swooped through the air, and we were so moved and entranced that we couldnt speak.

Two months later, on April 18, 1944, she noted that April is glorious, not too hot and not too cold, with occasional light showers. Our chestnut tree is in leaf, and here and there you can already see a few small blossoms.

On May 13, 1944, she noted that Our chestnut tree is in full bloom. Its covered with leaves and is even more beautiful than last year.

The Anne Frank Tree may be just a sapling now, but with care, the tree should live into the hundreds of years.

Next, check out the Top 10 Secrets of the 9/11 Memorialand 8 Secrets of St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church, destroyed in 9/11 and now under construction anew at Liberty Park.

Anne Frank, Holocaust, Liberty Park, world trade center

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Anne Frank Tree at World Trade Center Dedicated on 70th Anniversary of Anne Frank’s Diary Publication – Untapped Cities

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Happy Birthday Anne Frank – HuffPost

Annelies or Anneliese Marie Frank sunrise 6/12/29 in Frankfurt, Germany, sunset February or March 1945 Bergen-Belsen Concentration Camp, Lower Saxony, Germany.

When she was 4.5 she moved to Amsterdam, Netherlands with her sister and parents.

She wanted to be a journalist or a writer when she grew up.

She received an autograph book on her thirteenth birthday which she used as a diary and Kitty was her nickname for the diary.

She and her family were captured by the Nazis in August of 1944 and she died from typhus while in a concentration camp.

She and her family went into hiding from the Nazis on 7/6/42 and her last entry in the diary was 8/1/1944.

Her father was the only family member to survive the camps, found her diary and had it translated from Dutch and published in 1952: Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl

On 6/12/2017 on what would have been her 88th birthday the United states Holocaust Memorial Museum started a 30 day Kickstarter campaign to have hers and others works digitized by cataloging, saving, and publishing them online. #SaveTheirStories.

Peace, love, joy, gratitude, faith, courage, compassion, and blessings.

Wake up to the day’s most important news.

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Anne Frank: History & Legacy – Live Science – Live Science

Anne Frank, 6, at school in Amsterdam in 1940.

Anne Frank was a teenage Jewish girl who kept a diary while her family was in hiding from the Nazis during World War II. For two years, she and seven others lived in a “Secret Annex” in Amsterdam before being discovered and sent to concentration camps. Anne died in the Bergen-Belsen camp in 1945.

Frank’s father was the family’s sole survivor. He decided to publish the diary, which gives a detailed account of Anne’s thoughts, feelings and experiences while she was in hiding. It has been an international bestseller for decades and a key part of Holocaust education programs. Several humanitarian organizations are devoted to her legacy.

“Anne was a lively and talented girl, expressing her observations, feelings, self-reflections, fears, hopes and dreams in her diary,” said Annemarie Bekker of theAnne Frank Housein Amsterdam. “Her words resonate with people all around the world.”

Anne Frank was born Annelies Marie Frank on June 12, 1929, in Frankfurt, Germany, to Otto and Edith Frank, according to theUnited States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Otto Frank had been a lieutenant in the German army in World War I and then became a businessman. Anne’s sister, Margot, was three years older.

The Franks were progressive Jews who lived in the religiously diverse outskirts of Frankfurt until the autumn of 1933. Anti-Semitism had been on the rise in Germany for several years. When the Nazi Party, led by Adolf Hitler, took control of the government in January 1933, the Franks relocated to Amsterdam. Anne described the move in her diary: “Because we’re Jewish, my father immigrated to Holland in 1933, where he became the managing director of the Dutch Opekta Company, which manufactures products used in making jam.”

The Franks enjoyed the freedom and acceptance they found in Amsterdam. Anne attended Amsterdam’s Sixth Montessori School, where she was a bright and inquisitive student with many friends of various backgrounds and faiths, according to “Anne Frank: The Biography” by Melissa Muller (Picador, 2014). Otto Frank founded a food ingredient wholesale company in Amsterdam.

In May 1940, the Nazis invaded Amsterdam and the Franks were put on edge again. Jews had to wear the yellow Star of David and observe a strict curfew. They were forbidden from owning businesses. Otto Frank transferred ownership of his company to Christian associates but ran it behind the scenes. Anne and Margot had to transfer to a segregated Jewish school, according to Muller. Anne wrote, “After May 1940, the good times were few and far between; first there was the war, then the capitulation and then the arrival of the Germans, which is when the trouble started for the Jews.”

On June 12, 1942, Anne’s 13th birthday, Otto gave her a red-and-white-checked notebook that she had previously picked out at a local shop. Anne decided to use it as a diary. Her first entry reads, “I hope I will be able to confide everything to you, as I have never been able to confide in anyone, and I hope you will be a great source of comfort and support.”

In July 1942, Germans began sending Dutch Jews to concentration camps. The Franks attempted to emigrate to the United States but were denied visas, according toThe Washington Post. The family began making plans to go into hiding.

Otto set up a hiding place in the rear annex of his firm, with the help of his Jewish business partner, Hermann van Pels, and his associates Johannes Kleiman and Victor Kugler, according to theAnne Frank House. The hiding place was at 263 Prinsengracht, an area with many small companies and warehouses.

On July 5, 1942, Margot received a summons to report to a concentration camp. The Frank family went into hiding the next day, a few weeks earlier than planned. A week later, the Van Pels family joined the Franks in what the families called the Secret Annex.

For two years, eight people lived in the Secret Annex, according to Muller. The four Franks were joined by Hermann and Auguste van Pels and their 16-year-old son, Peter. In November 1942, Fritz Pfeffer, a dentist and friend of the Frank family, moved in. Pfeffer is referred to as Albert Dussel in many editions of Anne’s diary because she sometimes used pseudonyms.

Kleiman and Kugler, as well as other friends and colleagues, including Jan Gies and Miep Gies, continued to help the Franks, according to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. These individuals helped manage the business, which continued running in the front of the building, and brought food, other necessities and news of the outside world to the Jews in hiding.

The manager of the company warehouse, Johann Voskuijl, built a moveable bookcase that concealed the entrance to the Secret Annex. Anne wrote, “Now our Secret Annex has truly become secret. Mr. Kugler thought it would be better to have a bookcase built in front of the entrance to our hiding place. It swings out on its hinges and opens like a door. Mr. Voskuijl did the carpentry work. (Mr. Voskuijl has been told that the seven of us are in hiding, and he’s been most helpful.)”

In her diary, Anne described the Secret Annex, saying it had several small rooms and narrow halls. According toAnne Frank Guide, Anne shared a room with Fritz Pfeffer; Otto, Edith and Margot shared another. Peter had his own small room, and Hermann and Auguste van Pels slept in the communal living room and kitchen area. There was also a bathroom, a small attic and a front office. The front office and attic had windows that Anne peered from during the evenings. From the attic, she could see a chestnut tree, which inspired her to reflect on nature in her diary.

The residents of the Secret Annex did a great deal of reading and studying to pass the time, including learning English and taking correspondence courses under the helpers’ names, according to the Anne Frank House. The residents followed a strict schedule that required them to be silent at certain times so the workers in the office wouldn’t hear them. During the day, they flushed the toilet as little as possible, worried that the workers would hear.

One of Anne’s primary pastimes was writing in her diary. She also composed short stories and a book of her favorite quotes.

Anne wanted to be a professional journalist when she grew up. She kept several notebooks when in hiding. While her first and most famous was the red-checked notebook, when that ran out of space, she moved on to others, according to the Anne Frank House. Anne made detailed entries throughout her time in the Secret Annex. She wrote, “The nicest part is being able to write down all my thoughts and feelings. Otherwise, I’d absolutely suffocate.”

Many of Anne’s entries were addressed to “Kitty.” Kitty was a character in a series of girl adventurer books by Cissy van Marxveldt. Anne was fond of the character, who was cheerful, funny and shrewd, said Bekker.

While Anne did describe life in the Secret Annex, she also wrote extensively about her thoughts, feelings, relationships and personal experiences that had nothing to do with the Holocaust or the Franks’ situation. We know from her diary that Anne sometimes disagreed with Margot, felt her mother didn’t understand her and had a crush on Peter. Sharing a room with Fritz Pfeffer, a middle-age man, was awkward for both Anne and Fritz, and Anne sometimes wrote about her struggles. Larisa Klebe, program manager of theJewish Womens Archive, said that this personal feature of her writing is part of its appeal.

“For a 13-year-old girl, she was extremely thoughtful, intelligent and well-spoken. She writes about her complicated relationship with her mother, her body going through changes as she hits puberty in hiding, her feelings for Peter,” Klebe told Live Science.

“Despite everything going on in the world around her, what she was going through as a developing teenager takes precedence in many parts of the diary. It is in the forefront of her mind, and it makes a statement that no matter what is going on, these are things that are important.”

On March 28, 1944, the residents of the Secret Annex heard a special news report on the radio. Dutch Cabinet Minister Gerrit Bolkestein announced that diaries and other documents would be collected when the war ended in order to preserve an account of what happened for future generations. Anne decided that she would submit her diary, and began revising it for future readers, Klebe said. She conceived of it has a novel about the Secret Annex.

Anne’s diary reveals an insightful, confident and direct young woman. Hoping to become a famous writer, she wrote, “I can’t imagine having to live like Mother, Mrs. van Pels and all the women who go about their work and are then forgotten. I need to have something besides a husband and children to devote myself to! I don’t want to have lived in vain like most people.”

This perspective has helped make Anne a role model for girls, said Klebe. “She was very honest in her writing. She was writing for a wider audience, and the image that she put out was often of someone sure of herself. She is a good model for how to present yourself well in writing and write for change.

“She talked very intimately about teenage girl things, and I think that’s important, too. It was a very radical act. It was something women were discouraged from doing. She emphasized that these things do matter.”

Anne also wrote about missing nature, Jewish ethics and her views on humanity. Her most famous passage is such a reflection. Anne wrote, “I still believe, in spite of everything, that people are truly good at heart.”

Anne’s last diary entry was made on Aug. 1, 1944.

On Aug. 4, 1944, German police stormed the Secret Annex. Everyone in hiding was arrested. It is unknown how the police discovered the annex. Theories include betrayal, perhaps by the warehouse staff or helper Bep Voskuijl’s sister Nelly. In December 2016, the Anne Frank House published anew theorybased on the organization’s investigations. This idea posits that illegal fraud with ration coupons was also taking place at 263 Prinsengracht, and the police were investigating it when they discovered the Secret Annex.

The residents of the Secret Annex were sent first to the Westerbork transit camp, where they were put in the punishment block. On Sept. 3, 1944, they were sent to Auschwitz. There, the men and women were separated. This was the last time that Anne saw her father. Anne, Margot and Edith remained together, doing hard labor, until Nov. 1, 1944, when Margot and Anne were transferred to Bergen-Belsen in Germany.

Bergen-Belsen was overcrowded, and infectious diseases were rampant. After three months, Anne and Margot developed typhus. Margot died in February 1945. Anne died a few days later. The exact dates of their deaths are unknown, according to Bekker.

Otto Frank was the sole survivor among the residents of the annex.

Miep Gies found Anne’s diary after the arrest. After hearing of Anne’s death, Gies gave the diary to Otto, who had returned to Amsterdam. According to the Anne Frank House, Otto read her diary, which he said was “a revelation. There, was revealed a completely different Anne to the child that I had lost. I had no idea of the depths of her thoughts and feelings.”

Otto knew that Anne had wanted to publish her diary and eventually decided to fulfill her wish. He combined selections of her original and edited diary because sections of her original diary were lost and the edited diary was incomplete, according to Bekker. Eventually, it was published in 1947, with some editorial changes and passages about Anne’s sexuality and negative feelings about Edith removed.

Different editions, including an unabridged version and a revised critical edition, have been published with Otto’s edits removed. Screen and stage adaptations of the diary have been produced. “The Diary of Anne Frank” has been translated into 70 languages, said Bekker.

“Anne’s descriptions of the time in hiding in the Secret Annex; her powers of observation and self-reflection; her fears, hopes and dreams still make a deep impression on readers worldwide,” Bekker told Live Science. “Through Anne’s diary, people begin to learn about the Second World War and the Holocaust, and they read about how it is to be excluded and persecuted. After all these years, Anne’s diary still has contemporary relevance.”

Anne Frank is extremely well-known and has become something of a sanctified figure, said Klebe. Several organizations do humanitarian work on her behalf.

People often focus solely on the humanitarian themes of Anne’s diary, but it is a mistake to ignore other parts, said Klebe. “She was positive and tried to see the good in things, but in a lot of ways she was just a teenage girl, trying to deal with being a teenage girl, but in extremity,” Klebe said. “I think that’s really what is so powerful and interesting about her story. It intersects with what so many people experience.”

The diary is fairly easy to read, which has made it a popular feature of grade school classrooms across the world, according to Bekker. It provides a different perspective on the Holocaust because it’s not about concentration camps and is about a child. Its raw honesty also differentiates it from other history books.

But Klebe cautioned against educators using only Anne Frank’s diary to teach about the Holocaust. “It’s a great entry point for talking about the Holocaust and about children’s experience,” Klebe said. “We have her diary, but we have to think about how many other little girls there were, and we do not have their diaries.”

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Anne Frank Day: How Her Diary Survived to Become a Book | Time … – TIME

Anne Frank as a 12-year old doing her homework – 1941 ullstein bild / Getty Images

It was 75 years ago on June 12, 1942 that Anne Frank received a diary for her 13th birthday. Within a few years, she would have died in a concentration camp, but her diary survived. The following is an excerpt from LIFEs new special edition, Anne Frank: The Diary at 70, available in the TIME Shop , on Amazon and at retailers everywhere.

During the years of the Holocaust, the Nazis systematically murdered six million Jews, as well as five million Roma, Sinti, priests, nuns, people with dis- abilities, homosexuals, and political prisoners. The killing took place throughout Europe in more than 40,000 concentration, labor, prisoner of war, and internment camps, as well as by the Einsatzgruppen, mobile killing squads, which machine-gunned entire communities or shoved residents into gas-asphyxiation vans.

Some 80 percent of Dutch Jews died in the Holocaust, giving Holland the highest death rate in western Europe. Of the 107,000 Dutch Jews sent to the camps, only 5,000 lived. The death toll at Auschwitz, where more than a million people died, proved especially high. Of the 60,000 Dutch Jews shipped to Auschwitz, just 673 survived, including 127 men and women who had been on the Frank familys transport there in September of 1944.

Otto Frank was one of them, having been spared because he had been placed in the sick barracks before the Russian army liberated the camp on January 27, 1945.

When the nearly six foot tall Otto left Poland, he weighed less than 115 pounds. He knew that Edith had died, but he was determined to make his way back to Amsterdam. All my hope is the children, he wrote to his mother in Switzerland. I cling to the conviction that they are alive and that we will be together again.

Miep Gies and Bep Voskuijl had kept the firm going during the war. Jo Kleiman, who was released from the Amerfoort concentration camp soon after his arrest because of his health, made it back to the firm too. Yet, as the war drew to an end and the Allies advanced, conditions throughout the Netherlands continued to deteriorate. Distribution of food and supplies was disrupted, and citizens chopped down trees and dismantled homes for fuel. Some resorted to eating tulip bulbs, and more than 20,000 Netherlanders starved to death during what became known as the Hunger Winter. All conversations centered on food, wrote Miep. Food obsessions were affecting all our minds. After Canadian troops liberated Amsterdam in May 1945, displaced residents staggered home. Victor Kugler, who escaped from the Nazis during a forced march, returned to work.

Then on June 3, Otto Frank rang Miep and Jan Giess doorbell.

Miep would later recall how, after standing speechless for a time, Otto released the thunderbolt of news that Edith would not return but that he held out hope for his daughters.

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Otto moved in with the Gieses, went back to Opekta, and put ads in papers seeking information on Anne and Margot. Finally, in July, he heard that Jannie Brandes-Brilleslijper might know of their fate. On the 18th of that month, he went to her home.

I could hardly speak because it was very difficult to tell someone that his children were not alive anymore, Jannie recalled. I said, They are no more. He turned deathly pale and slumped down into a chair.

After the Red Cross confirmed their deaths, and Miep knew that Anne would not be coming back for the diary, she told Otto that she had kept it and 327 loose papers safe. Though he was at first too overwhelmed to read the testament his daughter had left of her short life, eventually he girded himself to learn what Anne had written. What he found, he would recall, was so unbelievably exciting that he could barely put it down.

Not only the diary but also the revisions that Anne had made as she dreamed of creating a novel and launching her career had miraculously survived. This brilliant young girl revised her diary because she discovered that she had become a much better writer, the novelist Philip Roth, who conjured up Anne in his novels The Ghost Writer, Exit Ghost, and My Life as a Man, has observed. The fact that she rewrote it is one sign that, had she survived, she would have achieved an important literary career.

Otto reunited with old friends. Eva Schloss and her mother, Elfriede, survived Auschwitz. One day Otto came by with a small parcel under his arm and carefully took out Annes diary. It was very emotional, Schloss tells LIFE. He read a few sentences but he always broke into tears.

He had decided that it would be his mission to share Annes words with the world. Otto had the diary typed up, though he shifted a few entries and omitted sections that were critical of her mother and of Fritz Pfeffer, as well as certain entries that included Annes musings on her emerging sexuality. It proved difficult to find a publisher until one of Ottos friends showed it to the historian Jan Romein, who wrote a front-page article with the headline Kinderstem (A Childs Voice) for the April 3, 1946, edition of the newspaper Het Parool. To me, however, this apparently inconsequential diary by a child, Romein wrote, stammered out in a childs voice, embodies all the hideousness of fascism, more so than all the evidence at Nuremberg put together. Soon after, the Amsterdam publisher Contact agreed to publish the book, and on June 25, 1947, it appeared as Het Achterhuis ( The Secret Annex ). Otto gave copies to family, friends, the Dutch prime minister, and the royal family. (Miep Gies could not bring herself to read it until the second edition appeared.)

Only two years had passed since the end of the war, but for many the book by the 15-year-old who had written that she still believed that people are truly good at heart already proved useful as a way to personalize the Holocaust. Not only do you have a name and a face and a person in the case of Anne Frank, but you have a very well written diary. It is captivating, Professor Deborah Lipstadt, author of Denying the Holocaust, tells LIFE. She is a good writer and she knows how to express herself. She is expressing herself in something she doesnt even know will see the light of day.

Read more in LIFEs new special edition, Anne Frank: The Diary at 70, available in the TIME Shop , on Amazon and at retailers everywhere.

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On this day 75 years ago, Anne Frank started writing her diary – The Sunday Post

ON June 12, 1942, a little girl in Amsterdam received a special birthday present that would change how we see the world.

Anne Frank would use her new diary to detail her most-intimate thoughts, unaware that the whole world would read them one day and will probably keep reading them forever.

What they would reveal would break our hearts, knowing her situation while writing it, but the diary also shows what a kind, thoughtful, person she was.

Born in Frankfurt in 1929, she wrote what would become The Diary of a Young Girl between 1942 and 1944, while hiding from the Nazis.

Her family had moved to Amsterdam before Anne born Anneliese was five.

When the Germans occupied the Netherlands, Anne and her family hid in concealed rooms behind a bookcase in the building where her father, Otto, worked.

Mother Edith and sister Margot were there, too, and all were finally caught in August 1944. The sisters were sent to Bergen-Belsen, and within a few months, were dead, probably of typhus.

Otto would be the only one to survive, and found upon his return to the Netherlands that Miep Gies, one of their helpers, had managed to save Annes diary.

In translation, it was first published in 1952 and has been read in multiple languages ever since, one of the most-loved, best-known books of all time and the subject of films, books and plays.

The funny thing is, Annes birthday gift wasnt even meant to be a diary. She had pointed it out in a shop window to her dad a few days before her birthday, perhaps dropping heavy hints.

He got her the autograph book, bound in red-and-white checkered cloth, with a little lock on the front, and the birthday girl decided it ought to become her diary.

In an entry just over a week later, Anne listed many of the things Dutch Jews were prevented from doing, all the restrictions that made life so horrible.

Otto and Edith intended going into hiding in mid-July, but when Margot received notice to report for relocation to a work camp, they did so earlier.

Margot, too, kept a diary, although sadly no-one has ever found it.

Just before they hid themselves away, behind the bookcase entrance, Anne spoke to her friend, neighbour Toosje Kupers. She gave her a book, a tea seat, a tin of marbles and the family cat.

Im worried about my marbles, because Im scared they might fall into the wrong hands, Anne told her. Could you keep them for me for a little while?

Just three years ago, during a house move, the marbles were found again. It seems that Toosje offered them to Otto on his return, but he let her keep them.

It had been on Monday, July 6, 1942, that the Franks moved into a three-storey space entered from a landing above offices, with some of Ottos friends trusted to keep it secret.

They left their home in a mess so the Nazis would assume they had fled in a hurry, a note left that suggested they may have headed to Switzerland.

The Franks would be kept updated on how the war was going, but the supply of food and other necessities got harder as time went on.

The handful of people who knew they were in hiding would all be facing death penalties if they were uncovered, and you can only imagine how tense it was, for hiders and hidden.

Theres a lot, of course, that we dont have to imagine, because of that incredible diary written by the little girl.

For instance, entries like this leave readers in no doubt what it was like Not being able to go outside upsets me more than I can say, and Im terrified our hiding place will be discovered and that well be shot.

Not long before she was found and transported to certain death, she was still an optimistic girl, writing: Id like to spend a year in Paris and London learning the language and studying art history.

I still have visions of gorgeous dresses and fascinating people. I want to see the world and do all kinds of exciting things.

When they were arrested, along with their protectors, they were considered criminals because they had hidden, and were sent to hard labour punishment barracks.

Who gave them away?

This has never been proved, and while there have been theories and counter-theories, allegations and accusations, it looks like we will never know for sure.

What we do know is that a typhus epidemic spread through Bergen-Belsen early in 1945, killing 17,000 prisoners.

Witnesses said that a weak and sickly Margot fell from her bunk and died of the shock, with Anne dying a few days later.

Some said both girls had shown signs of typhus in February.

That year of course, the Second World War in Europe came to an end. We can only be grateful that we still have the most remarkable, heartbreaking diary ever written to remember Anne Frank and the millions who perished.

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Publication of Anne Frank’s diary saved her ‘Secret Annex’ from destruction – The Times of Israel

AMSTERDAM Although its difficult to fathom today, the building that concealed Anne Franks wartime hiding place was nearly toppled by a wrecking-ball in 1957. Six decades and millions of visitors later, the venerated Anne Frank House is undergoing another makeover in the Amsterdam edifices 382-year history.

The brick-faced canal-house at Prinsengracht 263 was where the diarist, her family, and four other Jews hid from the Nazis for two years during World War II. The main building dates to 1635, and its adjoining back-house, or annex, was added in 1740. At one time or another, the structure was a private home, a horse stable, an appliance store and just before Otto Frank purchased the premises for his spice business a piano-roll factory.

Its more like being on vacation in some strange pension, wrote Anne Frank on July 11, 1942, shortly after her family fled to the annex. The Annex is an ideal place to hide in. It may be damp and lopsided, but theres probably not a more comfortable hiding place in all of Amsterdam. No, in all of Holland.

Strewn upon the wooden floor following the Nazis August 4, 1944, raid on the hiding place, Anne Franks red-checkered diary and notebooks were rescued by the helpers who worked in the office. Events from every corner of the old house had been recorded, from romance in the attic to theft in the warehouse. More than 1.3 million people visit these rooms each year to honor Anne Frank, who would have been 88 on June 12.

Once settled into the hiding place, the diarist could open a window in the attic for fresh air. There was a view of a chestnut tree, and the majestic Westerkerk church bells could be heard throughout the day. Some annex inhabitants were unnerved by the frequent chiming, but not the hiding places youngest inhabitant.

Although the captive Jews spent most of their time in the annex, they made use of the full premises during evenings and weekends. Into Otto Franks former office with its pristine furniture, Anne Frank lugged water for her baths. At the other end of the building, facing the murky canal, one could peek through the office curtains to glimpse people roaming the Jordaan neighborhood, a hotbed of black-market activity.

The Secret Annex in which Anne Frank wrote her diary, Amsterdam, January 2017 (Matt Lebovic/The Times of Israel)

Also in the front-office, the Frank sisters were given filing work to do by Miep Gies and the other helpers. The girls became night fairies, appearing downstairs after dark to complete their assignments. Peter van Pels cat, Mouschi, also had run of the narrow house, and was described by Gies as a spritely, lean black tomcat, very, very friendly.

In hindsight, the annex members regular forays into the office and warehouse did not make for a tight security regime, with one suspicious employee setting traps to determine if people were hiding. In terms of noise, Peter van Pels parents had frequent shouting matches, while their son chopped wood and once spilled a large sack of beans down the stairs. The annex faced a courtyard shared by two-dozen buildings, making it difficult to conceal people indefinitely.

In Otto and Edith Franks bedroom, markings used to track the growth of their daughters were preserved on the wall, as was the diarists famous photo wall with movie stars and Britains young Princess Elizabeth. Visitors cannot climb up to the attic today, but a strategically placed mirror helps them see the famous window from below. The chestnut tree died several years ago, and saplings were taken to plant around the world.

Several episodes of panic shook the undergrounders, as people in hiding were called, including nighttime robberies with thieves roaming around the house. British air-raids were especially harrowing for people in hiding, unable to evacuate as fires ignited in the neighborhood. There was the constant fear of betrayal, growing hunger, and Allied armies who it seemed were never going to invade Europe.

Ultimately, it was the publication of Anne Franks diary in 1947 that rescued the house at Prinsengracht 263, inspiring a coalition of activists in Amsterdam and abroad to save this part of her story.

By the time Otto Frank the annexs only survivor returned to Holland in 1945, the house was in ill-repair. The leaky structure was not even standing on its own, and would have collapsed had one of the adjacent buildings been demolished. There was talk of repairs and opening a museum, but a distinct lack of funds to do so.

The swinging bookcase (1950s, left) in the Anne Frank House of Amsterdam, the Netherlands, behind which Anne Frank and seven other Jews hid from the Nazis (Matt Lebovic/The Times of Israel)

A decision was forced in 1955, when a Dutch business prepared to demolish the house and several adjacent buildings. Before developers could pounce on Prinsengracht 263, however, a prominent newspaper organized citizens to protest.

The Netherlands will be subject to a national scandal if this house is pulled down, wrote the editors of Het Vrij Volk. There is every reason, especially considering the enormous interest from both inside and outside the country, to correct this situation as quickly as possible. If there is one place where the fate of Dutch Jewry is most clearly revealed, it is here, wrote the editors.

Of 140,000 Jews who lived in the Netherlands before the war, more than 100,000 were murdered in Nazi-built death camps. Preserving the annex honored Dutch Jews, of course, and it also elevated the Dutch men and women who helped hide Jews from the Nazis. Intense post-war emotions were projected onto the endangered canal-house, and protests against the buildings demolition were held on-site.

In 1957, an alliance between Otto Franks foundation for the museum and the University of Amsterdam helped seal the deal. The canal-house would be repaired and opened to the public, and the university would build student dormitories next-door. By the time the Anne Frank House opened in 1960, the diary and a Hollywood film had made the secret annex familiar to millions of people.

The canal-side building at Prinsengracht 263 in Amsterdam (1950s, left) in whose annex Anne Frank and seven other Jews hid during the Nazi occupation (Matt Lebovic/The Times of Israel)

Approaching 60 years of operation in 2020, the museum is building new classrooms and tourist facilities during the next two years. Fresh content will be added to the exhibition about Anne Franks short life, including a focus on the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands.

Many of our visitors are aged under 25, and come from countries outside of Europe, said executive director Ronald Leopold. So its important to go deeper into the historical context and the background to the life story of Anne Frank in the museum. Well be giving more information on what happened during the Second World War and the Holocaust, how it could happen, and what this means for us today, said the museum head.

Illustrating the shrine-like role of the canal-house for diary fans, the museum bookstore sells more postcards featuring Prinsengracht 263 than of Anne Frank herself. Visitors can also purchase an intricate, do-it-yourself model of the phoenix-like structure, allowing them to hand-assemble the rescued hiding place.

Photograph taken in the Anne Frank House book shop with her image and translated copies of the diary in the background. (Matt Lebovic/The Times of Israel)

Anne Frank’s hiding place bedroom during the 1950s (left) and her restored bedroom at the Anne Frank House in Amsterdam today (Matt Lebovic/The Times of Israel)

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Anne Frank – – Biography.com

Quick Facts Name Anne Frank Birth Date June 12, 1929 Death Date March, 1945 Did You Know? Through a 2009 effort by the Anne Frank Center USA, saplings from a chestnut tree that Anne Frank loved were planted at 11 sites nationwide. Did You Know? Published in 1947, Anne Frank’s Diary of a Young Girl has since been translated in 67 languages. Education Sixth Montessori School Place of Birth Frankfurt, Germany Place of Death Lower Saxony, Germany AKA Anne Frank Annelies Frank Full Name Annelies Marie Frank

Anne Frank was a teen writer who went into hiding during the Holocaust, journaling her experiences in the renowned work The Diary of Anne Frank.

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It’s utterly impossible for me to build my life on a foundation of chaos, suffering and death. I see the world being slowly transformed into a wilderness; I hear the approaching thunder that, one day, will destroy us too. I feel the suffering of millions. And yet, when I look up at the sky, I somehow feel that everything will change for the better, that this cruelty too shall end, that peace and tranquility will return once more.

When I write, I can shake off all my cares.

Despite everything, I believe that people are really good at heart.

Think of all the beauty still left around you and be happy.

A quiet conscience makes one strong!

Although I’m only 14, I know quite well what I want. I know who is right and who is wrong. I have my opinions, my own ideas and principles, and although it might sound pretty mad from an adolescent, I feel more of a person than a child, I feel quite independent of anyone.

As long as this exists, this sunshine and this cloudless sky, and as long as I can enjoy it, how can I be sad?

The world will keep on turning without me, and I can’t do anything to change events anyway.

The weak die out, and the strong will survive, and live on forever.

In the long run, the sharpest weapon of all is a kind and gentle spirit.

People can tell you to keep your mouth shut but that doesn’t stop you from having your own opinion.

Whoever is happy will make others happy.

No one has ever become poor by giving.

I don’t think of all the misery, but the beauty that still remains.

It’s really a wonder that I haven’t dropped all my ideals, because they seem so absurd and impossible to carry out. Yet I keep them, because in spite of everything, I still believe that people are really good at heart.

After May 1940, the good times were few and far between; first there was the war, then the capitulation and then the arrival of the Germans, which is when the trouble started for the Jews.

Because we’re Jewish, my father immigrated to Holland in 1933, where he became the managing director of the Dutch Opekta Company, which manufactures products used in making jam.

Anne Frank

Born on June 12, 1929, in Frankfurt, Germany, Anne Frank lived in Amsterdam with her family during World War II. Fleeing Nazi persecution of Jews, the family went into hiding for two years; during this time, Frank wrote about her experiences and wishes. She was 15 when the family was found and sent to the camps, where she died. Her work, The Diary of Anne Frank, has gone on to be read by millions.

Holocaust victim and famous diarist Anne Frank was born Annelies Marie Frank on June 12, 1929, in Frankfurt, Germany. Her mother was Edith Frank, and her father, Otto Frank, was a lieutenant in the German army during World War I, later becoming a businessman in Germany and the Netherlands. Frank also had a sister named Margot who was three years her senior.

The Franks were a typical upper middle-class German-Jewish family living in a quiet, religiously diverse neighborhood near the outskirts of Frankfurt. However, Frank was born on the eve of dramatic changes in German society that would soon disrupt her family’s happy, tranquil life as well as the lives of all other German Jews.

Due in large part to the harsh sanctions imposed on Germany by the 1919 Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I, the German economy struggled terribly in the 1920s. During the late 1920s and early 1930s, the virulently anti-Semitic National German Socialist Workers Party (Nazi Party) led by Adolph Hitler became Germany’s leading political force, winning control of the government in 1933.

“I can remember that as early as 1932, groups of Storm Troopers came marching by, singing, ‘When Jewish blood splatters from the knife,'” Otto Frank later recalled. When Hitler became chancellor of Germany on January 20, 1933, the Frank family immediately realized that it was time to flee. Otto later said, “Though this did hurt me deeply, I realized that Germany was not the world, and I left my country forever.”

The Franks moved to Amsterdam, Netherlands, in the fall of 1933. Anne Frank described the circumstances of her family’s emigration years later in her diary: “Because we’re Jewish, my father immigrated to Holland in 1933, where he became the managing director of the Dutch Opekta Company, which manufactures products used in making jam.” After years of enduring anti-Semitism in Germany, the Franks were relieved to once again enjoy freedom in their new hometown of Amsterdam. “In those days, it was possible for us to start over and to feel free,” Otto recalled.

Anne Frank began attending Amsterdam’s Sixth Montessori School in 1934, and throughout the rest of the 1930s, she lived a relatively happy and normal childhood. Frank had many friends, Dutch and German, Jewish and Christian, and she was a bright and inquisitive student.

But that would all change on September 1, 1939, when Nazi Germany invaded Poland, igniting a global conflict that would grow to become World War II. On May 10, 1940, the German army invaded the Netherlands, defeating overmatched Dutch forces after just a few days of fighting. The Dutch surrendered on May 15, 1940, marking the beginning of the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands. As Frank later wrote in her diary, “After May 1940, the good times were few and far between; first there was the war, then the capitulation and then the arrival of the Germans, which is when the trouble started for the Jews.”

Beginning in October 1940, the Nazi occupiers imposed anti-Jewish measures on the Netherlands. Jews were required to wear a yellow Star of David at all times and observe a strict curfew; they were also forbidden from owning businesses. Frank and her sister were forced to transfer to a segregated Jewish school. Otto Frank managed to keep control of his company by officially signing ownership over to two of his Christian associates, Jo Kleiman and Victor Kugler, while continuing to run the company from behind the scenes.

On June 12, 1942, Frank’s parents gave her a red checkered diary for her 13th birthday. She wrote her first entry, addressed to an imaginary friend named Kitty, that same day: “I hope I will be able to confide everything to you, as I have never been able to confide in anyone, and I hope you will be a great source of comfort and support.”

Weeks later, on July 5, 1942, Margot received an official summons to report to a Nazi work camp in Germany. The very next day, the family went into hiding in makeshift quarters in an empty space at the back of Otto Frank’s company building, which they referred to as the Secret Annex. They were accompanied in hiding by Otto’s business partner Hermann van Pels as well as his wife, Auguste, and son, Peter. Otto’s employees Kleiman and Kugler, as well as Jan and Miep Gies and Bep Voskuijl, provided food and information about the outside world.

The families spent two years in hiding, never once stepping outside the dark, damp, sequestered portion of the building. To pass the time, Frank wrote extensive daily entries in her diary. Some betrayed the depth of despair into which she occasionally sunk during day after day of confinement. “I’ve reached the point where I hardly care whether I live or die,” she wrote on February 3, 1944. “The world will keep on turning without me, and I can’t do anything to change events anyway.” However, the act of writing allowed Frank to maintain her sanity and her spirits. “When I write, I can shake off all my cares,” she wrote on April 5, 1944.

In addition to her diary, Frank filled a notebook with quotes from her favorite authors, original stories and the beginnings of a novel about her time in the Secret Annex. Her writings reveal a teenage girl with creativity, wisdom, depth of emotion and rhetorical power far beyond her years.

On August 4, 1944, a German secret police officer accompanied by four Dutch Nazis stormed into the Secret Annex, arresting everyone that was hiding there. They had been betrayed by an anonymous tip, and the identity of their betrayer remains unknown to this day. The residents of the Secret Annex were shipped off to Camp Westerbork, a concentration camp in the northeastern Netherlands, and arrived by passenger train on August 8, 1944. They were transferred to the Auschwitz death camp in Poland in the middle of the night on September 3, 1944. Upon arriving at Auschwitz, the men and women were separated. This was the last time that Otto Frank ever saw his wife or daughters.

After several months of hard labor hauling heavy stones and grass mats, Anne and Margot were again transferred during the winter to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in Germany. Their mother was not allowed to go with them, and Edith Frank fell ill and died at Auschwitz shortly thereafter, on January 6, 1945.

At Bergen-Belsen, food was scarce, sanitation was awful and disease ran rampant. Frank and her sister both came down with typhus in the early spring and died within a day of each other sometime in March 1945, only a few weeks before British soldiers liberated the camp. Anne Frank was just 15 years old at the time of her death, one of more than 1 million Jewish children who died in the Holocaust.

Otto Frank was the only member of his immediate family to survive. At the end of the war, he returned home to Amsterdam, searching desperately for news of his family. On July 18, 1945, he met two sisters who had been with Anne and Margot at Bergen-Belsen and delivered the tragic news of their deaths.

When Otto returned to Amsterdam, he found Anne’s diary, which had been saved by Miep Gies. He eventually gathered the strength to read it and was awestruck by what he discovered. “There was revealed a completely different Anne to the child that I had lost,” Otto wrote in a letter to his mother. “I had no idea of the depths of her thoughts and feelings.”

Otto sought to have selections from his daughter’s diary published as a book, and The Secret Annex: Diary Letters from June 14, 1942 to August 1, 1944 was published on June 25, 1947. “If she had been here, Anne would have been so proud,” he said. The Diary of a Young Girl, as it’s typically called in English, has since been published in 67 languages. Countless editions, as well as screen and stage adaptations, of the work have been created around the world. The Diary of a Young Girl remains one of the most moving and widely read firsthand accounts of the Jewish experience during the Holocaust.

Anne Frank’s diary endures, not only because of the remarkable events she described, but due to her extraordinary gifts as a storyteller and her indefatigable spirit through even the most horrific of circumstances. For all its passages of despair, Frank’s diary is essentially a story of faith, hope and love in the face of hate. “It’s utterly impossible for me to build my life on a foundation of chaos, suffering and death,” she wrote on July 15, 1944. “I see the world being slowly transformed into a wilderness; I hear the approaching thunder that, one day, will destroy us too. I feel the suffering of millions. And yet, when I look up at the sky, I somehow feel that everything will change for the better, that this cruelty too shall end, that peace and tranquility will return once more.”

In 2009, the Anne Frank Center USA launched a national initiative called the Sapling Project, planting saplings from a 170-year-old chestnut tree that Anne had long loved (as denoted in her diary) at 11 different sites nationwide.In more recent news, the Anne Frank House lost a lawsuit to the Anne Frank Fonds in June 2013, after the Fonds sued the House for the return of documents linked to Anne and Otto Frank.

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Windham Theatre Guild stages ‘Diary of Anne Frank’ – Norwich Bulletin – Norwich Bulletin

The Windham Theatre Guild will present an extraordinary theatrical event for its final Main Stage production of the season.

The Diary of Anne Frank, by Frances Goodrich and Albert Hackett, based on Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl, and newly adapted by Wendy Kesselman, opens Friday at the Guilds Burton Leavitt Theatre in Willimantic.

In 1942, 13-year-old Anne Frank and her family German-born Jews were driven into hiding from the Nazis in Amsterdam, Netherlands.

The Frank family spent two years living in a cramped annex with several other Jews before they were arrested by the Gestapo in 1944.All except Annes father, Otto, perished in Nazi concentration camps.

During those two years in hiding, Anne Frank kept a remarkably witty, insightful and moving diary about her life and the world around her.From that journal comes the play,The Diary of Anne Frank, winner of the 1956 Pulitzer Prize in Drama.

Above all, the play is a celebration of the lively mind of Frank and thecomplex human spirits of those with whom she shared the annex.

David Smith returns to direct his second show for the Guild. As a University of Connecticut graduate, he brings his theatrical skills of acting and directing to the Guild stage.

If you go

What: The Diary of Anne Frank

When: 8 p.m. June 2, 3, 9 and 10; 2 p.m. June 4 and 11; 7:30 p.m. June 8

Where: Burton Leavitt Theatre, 779 Main St., Willimantic

Tickets: $19 for adults; $16 for students/seniors; $12 for children under 12; $14 for all UConn, ECSU and QVCC students

Special night: Anyone who buys a ticketat the door on June 8 will pay the childrens price of $12

Information: windhamtheatreguild.org, (860) 423-2245

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JD Salinger’s Holocaust Story Eerily Echoes Anne Frank – Forward

The great J.D. Salinger is not a writer we associate with the Holocaust, but as we approach 70th anniversary of The Diary of Anne Frank, June 25, theres a neglected Salinger short story, A Girl I Knew, worth recalling as a companion piece to Franks memoir.

A Girl I Knew first appeared in the February 1948 issue of Good Housekeeping at a time when no English translation of The Diary of Anne Frank existed. In Salingers story, Leah, the girl referred to in his title, is 16, a year older than Anne Frank at the time of her death, but Leahs doomed life in pre-World War II Vienna carries with it the same poignancy that Annes will a few years later.

Salinger did not include A Girl I Knew in the Nine Stories collection he published in 1953, two years after The Catcher in the Rye, and so A Girl I Knew is not well known, even among Salinger admirers. But the story is one that follows events in Salingers life closely. It parallels both his time as a college dropout in Europe in the late 1930s and his military service during and after WWII.

After Salinger flunked out of New York University in 1936, his father sent his son to Europe in 1937 and 1938, ostensibly to learn French and German, but as Salingers chief biographer, Kenneth Slawenski, points out, in hopes that Salinger would interest himself in the family import business.

Most of Salingers time in Europe was spent in Vienna with a Jewish family whose daughter he fondly recalled years later. In a 1945 letter to Ernest Hemingway, Salinger wrote of a girl in Vienna whose ice skates he would like to go back and tie on.

There is no record of how Salingers romance with his Viennese familys daughter went. In A Girl I Knew, what makes the romance so touching is that it exists largely in the head of John, Salingers narrator, who is telling Leahs story in the wake of WWII when he is a member of the U.S. Army while in Europe.

In A Girl I Knew, John makes friends with Leah, whose family has an apartment in the same building in which he is living, after he hears her singing tunes from a record he has been playing. He invites Leah to visit him on the grounds that he will help her with her English and she will help him with his German. They meet over the course of four months several times a week in Johns sitting room.

Their knowledge of each others language is so minimal that they can never get past formalities, and to make matters worse for John, Leah has a fianc. Her father has promised her to a Polish suitor, whom she is expected to marry when she turns 17. When John leaves Vienna for Paris, all that has changed in his chaste relationship with Leah is that his longing for her has increased. The following year, when she writes him (without providing a return address), he learns that she is living in Vienna with her husband.

A Girl I Knew then shifts to the end of the war, when John is stationed in Nuremberg doing intelligence work, as Salinger did in 1945 and 46. John is given the opportunity to take some military papers to Vienna, and he leaps at the chance, hoping to find Leah. He never does. Instead, he discovers that the Nazis have killed her. Neighbors and a doctor who was in Buchenwald all tell him the same sad news.

But Salingers story does not end at this obvious stopping point. It concludes on Johns return to his old apartment. The apartment has been taken over by the Army, and only after great effort does John persuade the sergeant in charge of who goes in and out of the apartment to let him have a look around.

The exchange John and the sergeant have marks the true end to A Girl I Knew. After John tells the sergeant that he wants to go back to his old apartment because that is where he met with a girl before the war, the sergeant asks what happened to the girl.

She and her family were burned to death in an incinerator, Im told, John answers.

Yeah? What was she, a Jew or something? the sergeant replies, and when John says yes, their conversation ends. Very visibly, the sergeants interest in the affair waned, John observes.

The sergeants response, devoid of sympathy and shock, is the key to A Girl I Knew. The sergeant thrusts us into a world where, with the war barely over, the Holocaust is already a matter of indifference to the average soldier.

For Salinger, by contrast, the horror of the Holocaust stayed. Years later, his daughter would recall him telling her in an unguarded moment, You never really get the smell of burning flesh out of your nose entirely, no matter how long you live.

Nicolaus Mills chairs the literature department at Sarah Lawrence College. He is currently at work on a book about Ernest Hemingway and his World War II circle.

The views and opinions expressed in this article are the authors own and do not necessarily reflect those of the Forward.

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Anne Frank Tree at World Trade Center Dedicated on 70th Anniversary of Anne Frank’s Diary Publication – Untapped Cities

Yesterday, we attended a moving ceremony at the World Trade Center to mark the 70th Anniversary of the publication of Anne Franks Diarywhich included the dedication of a white chestnut tree, a clone grown from an original tree outside the hiding place of Anne Frank and her family in Amsterdam, 188 Keizersgracht. Anne wrote about her view from the annex window:As long as this exists, how can I be sad? and referred to the chestnut three three times in her diary. This tree in Liberty Park is the eleventh clone of the tree in the United States planted by the Anne Frank Center for Mutual Respect.The date, June 12th, also marks what would have been Annes88th birthday, sharing a birth year with Martin Luther King. Jr and Audrey Hepburn. Members of Anne Franks family attended the memorial, including Monica Smith, her younger cousin who spoke of how Annebrought her food when she was interned in a refugee camp in Amsterdam, arriving with fingers full of ink and a lot of hope. Peter Kohnstam, a neighbor two doors downwho was babysat by Anne before she and her family went into hiding from 1942 to 1944. It was Kohnstams mother who suggested that Anne keep a diary. Also attending the event was the 23-year old survivor of the recent Portland train attacks,Micah David-Cole Fletcher. Official announcements were made bySteven Plate, Chief of Major CapitalProjects at the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, Latisha James, Public Advocate of the City of New York and Steven Goldstein,Executive Director of the Anne Frank Center for Mutual Respect. Anne Franks cousin,Monica Smith, speaking to those gathered The original chestnut tree lived until 170 years old, downed by moth and fungal infections. The Anne Frank House decided to use the chestnuts to create seedlings and saplings for clone trees to be planted to locations dedicated to Anne Frank now known as The Sapling Project. This tree at the World Trade Center was plantedon May 16th, 2016. As The Sapling Project reports, Anne Franks father spoke of her love for the tree: How could I have known, he asked how much it meant to Anne to see a patch of blue sky, to observe the seagulls as they flew, and how important the chestnut tree was for her, when I think that she never showed any interest in nature. Still, he acknowledged, she longed for it when she felt like a bird in a cage. Only the thought of the freedom of nature gave her comfort. But she kept all those feelings to herself. The passages by Anne about the tree: On February 23, 1944, she recorded her friendship with Peter and the peace she found by looking outside her window. The two of us looked out at the blue sky, the bare chestnut tree glistening with dew, the seagulls and other birds glinting with silver as they swooped through the air, and we were so moved and entranced that we couldnt speak. Two months later, on April 18, 1944, she noted that April is glorious, not too hot and not too cold, with occasional light showers. Our chestnut tree is in leaf, and here and there you can already see a few small blossoms. On May 13, 1944, she noted that Our chestnut tree is in full bloom. Its covered with leaves and is even more beautiful than last year. The Anne Frank Tree may be just a sapling now, but with care, the tree should live into the hundreds of years. Next, check out the Top 10 Secrets of the 9/11 Memorialand 8 Secrets of St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church, destroyed in 9/11 and now under construction anew at Liberty Park. Anne Frank, Holocaust, Liberty Park, world trade center

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Happy Birthday Anne Frank – HuffPost

Annelies or Anneliese Marie Frank sunrise 6/12/29 in Frankfurt, Germany, sunset February or March 1945 Bergen-Belsen Concentration Camp, Lower Saxony, Germany. When she was 4.5 she moved to Amsterdam, Netherlands with her sister and parents. She wanted to be a journalist or a writer when she grew up. She received an autograph book on her thirteenth birthday which she used as a diary and Kitty was her nickname for the diary. She and her family were captured by the Nazis in August of 1944 and she died from typhus while in a concentration camp. She and her family went into hiding from the Nazis on 7/6/42 and her last entry in the diary was 8/1/1944. Her father was the only family member to survive the camps, found her diary and had it translated from Dutch and published in 1952: Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl On 6/12/2017 on what would have been her 88th birthday the United states Holocaust Memorial Museum started a 30 day Kickstarter campaign to have hers and others works digitized by cataloging, saving, and publishing them online. #SaveTheirStories. Peace, love, joy, gratitude, faith, courage, compassion, and blessings. Wake up to the day’s most important news.

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Anne Frank: History & Legacy – Live Science – Live Science

Anne Frank, 6, at school in Amsterdam in 1940. Anne Frank was a teenage Jewish girl who kept a diary while her family was in hiding from the Nazis during World War II. For two years, she and seven others lived in a “Secret Annex” in Amsterdam before being discovered and sent to concentration camps. Anne died in the Bergen-Belsen camp in 1945. Frank’s father was the family’s sole survivor. He decided to publish the diary, which gives a detailed account of Anne’s thoughts, feelings and experiences while she was in hiding. It has been an international bestseller for decades and a key part of Holocaust education programs. Several humanitarian organizations are devoted to her legacy. “Anne was a lively and talented girl, expressing her observations, feelings, self-reflections, fears, hopes and dreams in her diary,” said Annemarie Bekker of theAnne Frank Housein Amsterdam. “Her words resonate with people all around the world.” Anne Frank was born Annelies Marie Frank on June 12, 1929, in Frankfurt, Germany, to Otto and Edith Frank, according to theUnited States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Otto Frank had been a lieutenant in the German army in World War I and then became a businessman. Anne’s sister, Margot, was three years older. The Franks were progressive Jews who lived in the religiously diverse outskirts of Frankfurt until the autumn of 1933. Anti-Semitism had been on the rise in Germany for several years. When the Nazi Party, led by Adolf Hitler, took control of the government in January 1933, the Franks relocated to Amsterdam. Anne described the move in her diary: “Because we’re Jewish, my father immigrated to Holland in 1933, where he became the managing director of the Dutch Opekta Company, which manufactures products used in making jam.” The Franks enjoyed the freedom and acceptance they found in Amsterdam. Anne attended Amsterdam’s Sixth Montessori School, where she was a bright and inquisitive student with many friends of various backgrounds and faiths, according to “Anne Frank: The Biography” by Melissa Muller (Picador, 2014). Otto Frank founded a food ingredient wholesale company in Amsterdam. In May 1940, the Nazis invaded Amsterdam and the Franks were put on edge again. Jews had to wear the yellow Star of David and observe a strict curfew. They were forbidden from owning businesses. Otto Frank transferred ownership of his company to Christian associates but ran it behind the scenes. Anne and Margot had to transfer to a segregated Jewish school, according to Muller. Anne wrote, “After May 1940, the good times were few and far between; first there was the war, then the capitulation and then the arrival of the Germans, which is when the trouble started for the Jews.” On June 12, 1942, Anne’s 13th birthday, Otto gave her a red-and-white-checked notebook that she had previously picked out at a local shop. Anne decided to use it as a diary. Her first entry reads, “I hope I will be able to confide everything to you, as I have never been able to confide in anyone, and I hope you will be a great source of comfort and support.” In July 1942, Germans began sending Dutch Jews to concentration camps. The Franks attempted to emigrate to the United States but were denied visas, according toThe Washington Post. The family began making plans to go into hiding. Otto set up a hiding place in the rear annex of his firm, with the help of his Jewish business partner, Hermann van Pels, and his associates Johannes Kleiman and Victor Kugler, according to theAnne Frank House. The hiding place was at 263 Prinsengracht, an area with many small companies and warehouses. On July 5, 1942, Margot received a summons to report to a concentration camp. The Frank family went into hiding the next day, a few weeks earlier than planned. A week later, the Van Pels family joined the Franks in what the families called the Secret Annex. For two years, eight people lived in the Secret Annex, according to Muller. The four Franks were joined by Hermann and Auguste van Pels and their 16-year-old son, Peter. In November 1942, Fritz Pfeffer, a dentist and friend of the Frank family, moved in. Pfeffer is referred to as Albert Dussel in many editions of Anne’s diary because she sometimes used pseudonyms. Kleiman and Kugler, as well as other friends and colleagues, including Jan Gies and Miep Gies, continued to help the Franks, according to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. These individuals helped manage the business, which continued running in the front of the building, and brought food, other necessities and news of the outside world to the Jews in hiding. The manager of the company warehouse, Johann Voskuijl, built a moveable bookcase that concealed the entrance to the Secret Annex. Anne wrote, “Now our Secret Annex has truly become secret. Mr. Kugler thought it would be better to have a bookcase built in front of the entrance to our hiding place. It swings out on its hinges and opens like a door. Mr. Voskuijl did the carpentry work. (Mr. Voskuijl has been told that the seven of us are in hiding, and he’s been most helpful.)” In her diary, Anne described the Secret Annex, saying it had several small rooms and narrow halls. According toAnne Frank Guide, Anne shared a room with Fritz Pfeffer; Otto, Edith and Margot shared another. Peter had his own small room, and Hermann and Auguste van Pels slept in the communal living room and kitchen area. There was also a bathroom, a small attic and a front office. The front office and attic had windows that Anne peered from during the evenings. From the attic, she could see a chestnut tree, which inspired her to reflect on nature in her diary. The residents of the Secret Annex did a great deal of reading and studying to pass the time, including learning English and taking correspondence courses under the helpers’ names, according to the Anne Frank House. The residents followed a strict schedule that required them to be silent at certain times so the workers in the office wouldn’t hear them. During the day, they flushed the toilet as little as possible, worried that the workers would hear. One of Anne’s primary pastimes was writing in her diary. She also composed short stories and a book of her favorite quotes. Anne wanted to be a professional journalist when she grew up. She kept several notebooks when in hiding. While her first and most famous was the red-checked notebook, when that ran out of space, she moved on to others, according to the Anne Frank House. Anne made detailed entries throughout her time in the Secret Annex. She wrote, “The nicest part is being able to write down all my thoughts and feelings. Otherwise, I’d absolutely suffocate.” Many of Anne’s entries were addressed to “Kitty.” Kitty was a character in a series of girl adventurer books by Cissy van Marxveldt. Anne was fond of the character, who was cheerful, funny and shrewd, said Bekker. While Anne did describe life in the Secret Annex, she also wrote extensively about her thoughts, feelings, relationships and personal experiences that had nothing to do with the Holocaust or the Franks’ situation. We know from her diary that Anne sometimes disagreed with Margot, felt her mother didn’t understand her and had a crush on Peter. Sharing a room with Fritz Pfeffer, a middle-age man, was awkward for both Anne and Fritz, and Anne sometimes wrote about her struggles. Larisa Klebe, program manager of theJewish Womens Archive, said that this personal feature of her writing is part of its appeal. “For a 13-year-old girl, she was extremely thoughtful, intelligent and well-spoken. She writes about her complicated relationship with her mother, her body going through changes as she hits puberty in hiding, her feelings for Peter,” Klebe told Live Science. “Despite everything going on in the world around her, what she was going through as a developing teenager takes precedence in many parts of the diary. It is in the forefront of her mind, and it makes a statement that no matter what is going on, these are things that are important.” On March 28, 1944, the residents of the Secret Annex heard a special news report on the radio. Dutch Cabinet Minister Gerrit Bolkestein announced that diaries and other documents would be collected when the war ended in order to preserve an account of what happened for future generations. Anne decided that she would submit her diary, and began revising it for future readers, Klebe said. She conceived of it has a novel about the Secret Annex. Anne’s diary reveals an insightful, confident and direct young woman. Hoping to become a famous writer, she wrote, “I can’t imagine having to live like Mother, Mrs. van Pels and all the women who go about their work and are then forgotten. I need to have something besides a husband and children to devote myself to! I don’t want to have lived in vain like most people.” This perspective has helped make Anne a role model for girls, said Klebe. “She was very honest in her writing. She was writing for a wider audience, and the image that she put out was often of someone sure of herself. She is a good model for how to present yourself well in writing and write for change. “She talked very intimately about teenage girl things, and I think that’s important, too. It was a very radical act. It was something women were discouraged from doing. She emphasized that these things do matter.” Anne also wrote about missing nature, Jewish ethics and her views on humanity. Her most famous passage is such a reflection. Anne wrote, “I still believe, in spite of everything, that people are truly good at heart.” Anne’s last diary entry was made on Aug. 1, 1944. On Aug. 4, 1944, German police stormed the Secret Annex. Everyone in hiding was arrested. It is unknown how the police discovered the annex. Theories include betrayal, perhaps by the warehouse staff or helper Bep Voskuijl’s sister Nelly. In December 2016, the Anne Frank House published anew theorybased on the organization’s investigations. This idea posits that illegal fraud with ration coupons was also taking place at 263 Prinsengracht, and the police were investigating it when they discovered the Secret Annex. The residents of the Secret Annex were sent first to the Westerbork transit camp, where they were put in the punishment block. On Sept. 3, 1944, they were sent to Auschwitz. There, the men and women were separated. This was the last time that Anne saw her father. Anne, Margot and Edith remained together, doing hard labor, until Nov. 1, 1944, when Margot and Anne were transferred to Bergen-Belsen in Germany. Bergen-Belsen was overcrowded, and infectious diseases were rampant. After three months, Anne and Margot developed typhus. Margot died in February 1945. Anne died a few days later. The exact dates of their deaths are unknown, according to Bekker. Otto Frank was the sole survivor among the residents of the annex. Miep Gies found Anne’s diary after the arrest. After hearing of Anne’s death, Gies gave the diary to Otto, who had returned to Amsterdam. According to the Anne Frank House, Otto read her diary, which he said was “a revelation. There, was revealed a completely different Anne to the child that I had lost. I had no idea of the depths of her thoughts and feelings.” Otto knew that Anne had wanted to publish her diary and eventually decided to fulfill her wish. He combined selections of her original and edited diary because sections of her original diary were lost and the edited diary was incomplete, according to Bekker. Eventually, it was published in 1947, with some editorial changes and passages about Anne’s sexuality and negative feelings about Edith removed. Different editions, including an unabridged version and a revised critical edition, have been published with Otto’s edits removed. Screen and stage adaptations of the diary have been produced. “The Diary of Anne Frank” has been translated into 70 languages, said Bekker. “Anne’s descriptions of the time in hiding in the Secret Annex; her powers of observation and self-reflection; her fears, hopes and dreams still make a deep impression on readers worldwide,” Bekker told Live Science. “Through Anne’s diary, people begin to learn about the Second World War and the Holocaust, and they read about how it is to be excluded and persecuted. After all these years, Anne’s diary still has contemporary relevance.” Anne Frank is extremely well-known and has become something of a sanctified figure, said Klebe. Several organizations do humanitarian work on her behalf. People often focus solely on the humanitarian themes of Anne’s diary, but it is a mistake to ignore other parts, said Klebe. “She was positive and tried to see the good in things, but in a lot of ways she was just a teenage girl, trying to deal with being a teenage girl, but in extremity,” Klebe said. “I think that’s really what is so powerful and interesting about her story. It intersects with what so many people experience.” The diary is fairly easy to read, which has made it a popular feature of grade school classrooms across the world, according to Bekker. It provides a different perspective on the Holocaust because it’s not about concentration camps and is about a child. Its raw honesty also differentiates it from other history books. But Klebe cautioned against educators using only Anne Frank’s diary to teach about the Holocaust. “It’s a great entry point for talking about the Holocaust and about children’s experience,” Klebe said. “We have her diary, but we have to think about how many other little girls there were, and we do not have their diaries.”

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June 12, 2017   Posted in: Anne Frank  Comments Closed

Anne Frank Day: How Her Diary Survived to Become a Book | Time … – TIME

Anne Frank as a 12-year old doing her homework – 1941 ullstein bild / Getty Images It was 75 years ago on June 12, 1942 that Anne Frank received a diary for her 13th birthday. Within a few years, she would have died in a concentration camp, but her diary survived. The following is an excerpt from LIFEs new special edition, Anne Frank: The Diary at 70, available in the TIME Shop , on Amazon and at retailers everywhere. During the years of the Holocaust, the Nazis systematically murdered six million Jews, as well as five million Roma, Sinti, priests, nuns, people with dis- abilities, homosexuals, and political prisoners. The killing took place throughout Europe in more than 40,000 concentration, labor, prisoner of war, and internment camps, as well as by the Einsatzgruppen, mobile killing squads, which machine-gunned entire communities or shoved residents into gas-asphyxiation vans. Some 80 percent of Dutch Jews died in the Holocaust, giving Holland the highest death rate in western Europe. Of the 107,000 Dutch Jews sent to the camps, only 5,000 lived. The death toll at Auschwitz, where more than a million people died, proved especially high. Of the 60,000 Dutch Jews shipped to Auschwitz, just 673 survived, including 127 men and women who had been on the Frank familys transport there in September of 1944. Otto Frank was one of them, having been spared because he had been placed in the sick barracks before the Russian army liberated the camp on January 27, 1945. When the nearly six foot tall Otto left Poland, he weighed less than 115 pounds. He knew that Edith had died, but he was determined to make his way back to Amsterdam. All my hope is the children, he wrote to his mother in Switzerland. I cling to the conviction that they are alive and that we will be together again. Miep Gies and Bep Voskuijl had kept the firm going during the war. Jo Kleiman, who was released from the Amerfoort concentration camp soon after his arrest because of his health, made it back to the firm too. Yet, as the war drew to an end and the Allies advanced, conditions throughout the Netherlands continued to deteriorate. Distribution of food and supplies was disrupted, and citizens chopped down trees and dismantled homes for fuel. Some resorted to eating tulip bulbs, and more than 20,000 Netherlanders starved to death during what became known as the Hunger Winter. All conversations centered on food, wrote Miep. Food obsessions were affecting all our minds. After Canadian troops liberated Amsterdam in May 1945, displaced residents staggered home. Victor Kugler, who escaped from the Nazis during a forced march, returned to work. Then on June 3, Otto Frank rang Miep and Jan Giess doorbell. Miep would later recall how, after standing speechless for a time, Otto released the thunderbolt of news that Edith would not return but that he held out hope for his daughters. Get your history fix in one place: sign up for the weekly TIME History newsletter Otto moved in with the Gieses, went back to Opekta, and put ads in papers seeking information on Anne and Margot. Finally, in July, he heard that Jannie Brandes-Brilleslijper might know of their fate. On the 18th of that month, he went to her home. I could hardly speak because it was very difficult to tell someone that his children were not alive anymore, Jannie recalled. I said, They are no more. He turned deathly pale and slumped down into a chair. After the Red Cross confirmed their deaths, and Miep knew that Anne would not be coming back for the diary, she told Otto that she had kept it and 327 loose papers safe. Though he was at first too overwhelmed to read the testament his daughter had left of her short life, eventually he girded himself to learn what Anne had written. What he found, he would recall, was so unbelievably exciting that he could barely put it down. Not only the diary but also the revisions that Anne had made as she dreamed of creating a novel and launching her career had miraculously survived. This brilliant young girl revised her diary because she discovered that she had become a much better writer, the novelist Philip Roth, who conjured up Anne in his novels The Ghost Writer, Exit Ghost, and My Life as a Man, has observed. The fact that she rewrote it is one sign that, had she survived, she would have achieved an important literary career. Otto reunited with old friends. Eva Schloss and her mother, Elfriede, survived Auschwitz. One day Otto came by with a small parcel under his arm and carefully took out Annes diary. It was very emotional, Schloss tells LIFE. He read a few sentences but he always broke into tears. He had decided that it would be his mission to share Annes words with the world. Otto had the diary typed up, though he shifted a few entries and omitted sections that were critical of her mother and of Fritz Pfeffer, as well as certain entries that included Annes musings on her emerging sexuality. It proved difficult to find a publisher until one of Ottos friends showed it to the historian Jan Romein, who wrote a front-page article with the headline Kinderstem (A Childs Voice) for the April 3, 1946, edition of the newspaper Het Parool. To me, however, this apparently inconsequential diary by a child, Romein wrote, stammered out in a childs voice, embodies all the hideousness of fascism, more so than all the evidence at Nuremberg put together. Soon after, the Amsterdam publisher Contact agreed to publish the book, and on June 25, 1947, it appeared as Het Achterhuis ( The Secret Annex ). Otto gave copies to family, friends, the Dutch prime minister, and the royal family. (Miep Gies could not bring herself to read it until the second edition appeared.) Only two years had passed since the end of the war, but for many the book by the 15-year-old who had written that she still believed that people are truly good at heart already proved useful as a way to personalize the Holocaust. Not only do you have a name and a face and a person in the case of Anne Frank, but you have a very well written diary. It is captivating, Professor Deborah Lipstadt, author of Denying the Holocaust, tells LIFE. She is a good writer and she knows how to express herself. She is expressing herself in something she doesnt even know will see the light of day. Read more in LIFEs new special edition, Anne Frank: The Diary at 70, available in the TIME Shop , on Amazon and at retailers everywhere.

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June 12, 2017   Posted in: Anne Frank  Comments Closed

On this day 75 years ago, Anne Frank started writing her diary – The Sunday Post

ON June 12, 1942, a little girl in Amsterdam received a special birthday present that would change how we see the world. Anne Frank would use her new diary to detail her most-intimate thoughts, unaware that the whole world would read them one day and will probably keep reading them forever. What they would reveal would break our hearts, knowing her situation while writing it, but the diary also shows what a kind, thoughtful, person she was. Born in Frankfurt in 1929, she wrote what would become The Diary of a Young Girl between 1942 and 1944, while hiding from the Nazis. Her family had moved to Amsterdam before Anne born Anneliese was five. When the Germans occupied the Netherlands, Anne and her family hid in concealed rooms behind a bookcase in the building where her father, Otto, worked. Mother Edith and sister Margot were there, too, and all were finally caught in August 1944. The sisters were sent to Bergen-Belsen, and within a few months, were dead, probably of typhus. Otto would be the only one to survive, and found upon his return to the Netherlands that Miep Gies, one of their helpers, had managed to save Annes diary. In translation, it was first published in 1952 and has been read in multiple languages ever since, one of the most-loved, best-known books of all time and the subject of films, books and plays. The funny thing is, Annes birthday gift wasnt even meant to be a diary. She had pointed it out in a shop window to her dad a few days before her birthday, perhaps dropping heavy hints. He got her the autograph book, bound in red-and-white checkered cloth, with a little lock on the front, and the birthday girl decided it ought to become her diary. In an entry just over a week later, Anne listed many of the things Dutch Jews were prevented from doing, all the restrictions that made life so horrible. Otto and Edith intended going into hiding in mid-July, but when Margot received notice to report for relocation to a work camp, they did so earlier. Margot, too, kept a diary, although sadly no-one has ever found it. Just before they hid themselves away, behind the bookcase entrance, Anne spoke to her friend, neighbour Toosje Kupers. She gave her a book, a tea seat, a tin of marbles and the family cat. Im worried about my marbles, because Im scared they might fall into the wrong hands, Anne told her. Could you keep them for me for a little while? Just three years ago, during a house move, the marbles were found again. It seems that Toosje offered them to Otto on his return, but he let her keep them. It had been on Monday, July 6, 1942, that the Franks moved into a three-storey space entered from a landing above offices, with some of Ottos friends trusted to keep it secret. They left their home in a mess so the Nazis would assume they had fled in a hurry, a note left that suggested they may have headed to Switzerland. The Franks would be kept updated on how the war was going, but the supply of food and other necessities got harder as time went on. The handful of people who knew they were in hiding would all be facing death penalties if they were uncovered, and you can only imagine how tense it was, for hiders and hidden. Theres a lot, of course, that we dont have to imagine, because of that incredible diary written by the little girl. For instance, entries like this leave readers in no doubt what it was like Not being able to go outside upsets me more than I can say, and Im terrified our hiding place will be discovered and that well be shot. Not long before she was found and transported to certain death, she was still an optimistic girl, writing: Id like to spend a year in Paris and London learning the language and studying art history. I still have visions of gorgeous dresses and fascinating people. I want to see the world and do all kinds of exciting things. When they were arrested, along with their protectors, they were considered criminals because they had hidden, and were sent to hard labour punishment barracks. Who gave them away? This has never been proved, and while there have been theories and counter-theories, allegations and accusations, it looks like we will never know for sure. What we do know is that a typhus epidemic spread through Bergen-Belsen early in 1945, killing 17,000 prisoners. Witnesses said that a weak and sickly Margot fell from her bunk and died of the shock, with Anne dying a few days later. Some said both girls had shown signs of typhus in February. That year of course, the Second World War in Europe came to an end. We can only be grateful that we still have the most remarkable, heartbreaking diary ever written to remember Anne Frank and the millions who perished.

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June 11, 2017   Posted in: Anne Frank  Comments Closed

Publication of Anne Frank’s diary saved her ‘Secret Annex’ from destruction – The Times of Israel

AMSTERDAM Although its difficult to fathom today, the building that concealed Anne Franks wartime hiding place was nearly toppled by a wrecking-ball in 1957. Six decades and millions of visitors later, the venerated Anne Frank House is undergoing another makeover in the Amsterdam edifices 382-year history. The brick-faced canal-house at Prinsengracht 263 was where the diarist, her family, and four other Jews hid from the Nazis for two years during World War II. The main building dates to 1635, and its adjoining back-house, or annex, was added in 1740. At one time or another, the structure was a private home, a horse stable, an appliance store and just before Otto Frank purchased the premises for his spice business a piano-roll factory. Its more like being on vacation in some strange pension, wrote Anne Frank on July 11, 1942, shortly after her family fled to the annex. The Annex is an ideal place to hide in. It may be damp and lopsided, but theres probably not a more comfortable hiding place in all of Amsterdam. No, in all of Holland. Strewn upon the wooden floor following the Nazis August 4, 1944, raid on the hiding place, Anne Franks red-checkered diary and notebooks were rescued by the helpers who worked in the office. Events from every corner of the old house had been recorded, from romance in the attic to theft in the warehouse. More than 1.3 million people visit these rooms each year to honor Anne Frank, who would have been 88 on June 12. Once settled into the hiding place, the diarist could open a window in the attic for fresh air. There was a view of a chestnut tree, and the majestic Westerkerk church bells could be heard throughout the day. Some annex inhabitants were unnerved by the frequent chiming, but not the hiding places youngest inhabitant. Although the captive Jews spent most of their time in the annex, they made use of the full premises during evenings and weekends. Into Otto Franks former office with its pristine furniture, Anne Frank lugged water for her baths. At the other end of the building, facing the murky canal, one could peek through the office curtains to glimpse people roaming the Jordaan neighborhood, a hotbed of black-market activity. The Secret Annex in which Anne Frank wrote her diary, Amsterdam, January 2017 (Matt Lebovic/The Times of Israel) Also in the front-office, the Frank sisters were given filing work to do by Miep Gies and the other helpers. The girls became night fairies, appearing downstairs after dark to complete their assignments. Peter van Pels cat, Mouschi, also had run of the narrow house, and was described by Gies as a spritely, lean black tomcat, very, very friendly. In hindsight, the annex members regular forays into the office and warehouse did not make for a tight security regime, with one suspicious employee setting traps to determine if people were hiding. In terms of noise, Peter van Pels parents had frequent shouting matches, while their son chopped wood and once spilled a large sack of beans down the stairs. The annex faced a courtyard shared by two-dozen buildings, making it difficult to conceal people indefinitely. In Otto and Edith Franks bedroom, markings used to track the growth of their daughters were preserved on the wall, as was the diarists famous photo wall with movie stars and Britains young Princess Elizabeth. Visitors cannot climb up to the attic today, but a strategically placed mirror helps them see the famous window from below. The chestnut tree died several years ago, and saplings were taken to plant around the world. Several episodes of panic shook the undergrounders, as people in hiding were called, including nighttime robberies with thieves roaming around the house. British air-raids were especially harrowing for people in hiding, unable to evacuate as fires ignited in the neighborhood. There was the constant fear of betrayal, growing hunger, and Allied armies who it seemed were never going to invade Europe. Ultimately, it was the publication of Anne Franks diary in 1947 that rescued the house at Prinsengracht 263, inspiring a coalition of activists in Amsterdam and abroad to save this part of her story. By the time Otto Frank the annexs only survivor returned to Holland in 1945, the house was in ill-repair. The leaky structure was not even standing on its own, and would have collapsed had one of the adjacent buildings been demolished. There was talk of repairs and opening a museum, but a distinct lack of funds to do so. The swinging bookcase (1950s, left) in the Anne Frank House of Amsterdam, the Netherlands, behind which Anne Frank and seven other Jews hid from the Nazis (Matt Lebovic/The Times of Israel) A decision was forced in 1955, when a Dutch business prepared to demolish the house and several adjacent buildings. Before developers could pounce on Prinsengracht 263, however, a prominent newspaper organized citizens to protest. The Netherlands will be subject to a national scandal if this house is pulled down, wrote the editors of Het Vrij Volk. There is every reason, especially considering the enormous interest from both inside and outside the country, to correct this situation as quickly as possible. If there is one place where the fate of Dutch Jewry is most clearly revealed, it is here, wrote the editors. Of 140,000 Jews who lived in the Netherlands before the war, more than 100,000 were murdered in Nazi-built death camps. Preserving the annex honored Dutch Jews, of course, and it also elevated the Dutch men and women who helped hide Jews from the Nazis. Intense post-war emotions were projected onto the endangered canal-house, and protests against the buildings demolition were held on-site. In 1957, an alliance between Otto Franks foundation for the museum and the University of Amsterdam helped seal the deal. The canal-house would be repaired and opened to the public, and the university would build student dormitories next-door. By the time the Anne Frank House opened in 1960, the diary and a Hollywood film had made the secret annex familiar to millions of people. The canal-side building at Prinsengracht 263 in Amsterdam (1950s, left) in whose annex Anne Frank and seven other Jews hid during the Nazi occupation (Matt Lebovic/The Times of Israel) Approaching 60 years of operation in 2020, the museum is building new classrooms and tourist facilities during the next two years. Fresh content will be added to the exhibition about Anne Franks short life, including a focus on the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands. Many of our visitors are aged under 25, and come from countries outside of Europe, said executive director Ronald Leopold. So its important to go deeper into the historical context and the background to the life story of Anne Frank in the museum. Well be giving more information on what happened during the Second World War and the Holocaust, how it could happen, and what this means for us today, said the museum head. Illustrating the shrine-like role of the canal-house for diary fans, the museum bookstore sells more postcards featuring Prinsengracht 263 than of Anne Frank herself. Visitors can also purchase an intricate, do-it-yourself model of the phoenix-like structure, allowing them to hand-assemble the rescued hiding place. Photograph taken in the Anne Frank House book shop with her image and translated copies of the diary in the background. (Matt Lebovic/The Times of Israel) Anne Frank’s hiding place bedroom during the 1950s (left) and her restored bedroom at the Anne Frank House in Amsterdam today (Matt Lebovic/The Times of Israel)

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June 10, 2017   Posted in: Anne Frank  Comments Closed

Anne Frank – – Biography.com

Quick Facts Name Anne Frank Birth Date June 12, 1929 Death Date March, 1945 Did You Know? Through a 2009 effort by the Anne Frank Center USA, saplings from a chestnut tree that Anne Frank loved were planted at 11 sites nationwide. Did You Know? Published in 1947, Anne Frank’s Diary of a Young Girl has since been translated in 67 languages. Education Sixth Montessori School Place of Birth Frankfurt, Germany Place of Death Lower Saxony, Germany AKA Anne Frank Annelies Frank Full Name Annelies Marie Frank Anne Frank was a teen writer who went into hiding during the Holocaust, journaling her experiences in the renowned work The Diary of Anne Frank. 1 of 17 quotes It’s utterly impossible for me to build my life on a foundation of chaos, suffering and death. I see the world being slowly transformed into a wilderness; I hear the approaching thunder that, one day, will destroy us too. I feel the suffering of millions. And yet, when I look up at the sky, I somehow feel that everything will change for the better, that this cruelty too shall end, that peace and tranquility will return once more. When I write, I can shake off all my cares. Despite everything, I believe that people are really good at heart. Think of all the beauty still left around you and be happy. A quiet conscience makes one strong! Although I’m only 14, I know quite well what I want. I know who is right and who is wrong. I have my opinions, my own ideas and principles, and although it might sound pretty mad from an adolescent, I feel more of a person than a child, I feel quite independent of anyone. As long as this exists, this sunshine and this cloudless sky, and as long as I can enjoy it, how can I be sad? The world will keep on turning without me, and I can’t do anything to change events anyway. The weak die out, and the strong will survive, and live on forever. In the long run, the sharpest weapon of all is a kind and gentle spirit. People can tell you to keep your mouth shut but that doesn’t stop you from having your own opinion. Whoever is happy will make others happy. No one has ever become poor by giving. I don’t think of all the misery, but the beauty that still remains. It’s really a wonder that I haven’t dropped all my ideals, because they seem so absurd and impossible to carry out. Yet I keep them, because in spite of everything, I still believe that people are really good at heart. After May 1940, the good times were few and far between; first there was the war, then the capitulation and then the arrival of the Germans, which is when the trouble started for the Jews. Because we’re Jewish, my father immigrated to Holland in 1933, where he became the managing director of the Dutch Opekta Company, which manufactures products used in making jam. Anne Frank Born on June 12, 1929, in Frankfurt, Germany, Anne Frank lived in Amsterdam with her family during World War II. Fleeing Nazi persecution of Jews, the family went into hiding for two years; during this time, Frank wrote about her experiences and wishes. She was 15 when the family was found and sent to the camps, where she died. Her work, The Diary of Anne Frank, has gone on to be read by millions. Holocaust victim and famous diarist Anne Frank was born Annelies Marie Frank on June 12, 1929, in Frankfurt, Germany. Her mother was Edith Frank, and her father, Otto Frank, was a lieutenant in the German army during World War I, later becoming a businessman in Germany and the Netherlands. Frank also had a sister named Margot who was three years her senior. The Franks were a typical upper middle-class German-Jewish family living in a quiet, religiously diverse neighborhood near the outskirts of Frankfurt. However, Frank was born on the eve of dramatic changes in German society that would soon disrupt her family’s happy, tranquil life as well as the lives of all other German Jews. Due in large part to the harsh sanctions imposed on Germany by the 1919 Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I, the German economy struggled terribly in the 1920s. During the late 1920s and early 1930s, the virulently anti-Semitic National German Socialist Workers Party (Nazi Party) led by Adolph Hitler became Germany’s leading political force, winning control of the government in 1933. “I can remember that as early as 1932, groups of Storm Troopers came marching by, singing, ‘When Jewish blood splatters from the knife,'” Otto Frank later recalled. When Hitler became chancellor of Germany on January 20, 1933, the Frank family immediately realized that it was time to flee. Otto later said, “Though this did hurt me deeply, I realized that Germany was not the world, and I left my country forever.” The Franks moved to Amsterdam, Netherlands, in the fall of 1933. Anne Frank described the circumstances of her family’s emigration years later in her diary: “Because we’re Jewish, my father immigrated to Holland in 1933, where he became the managing director of the Dutch Opekta Company, which manufactures products used in making jam.” After years of enduring anti-Semitism in Germany, the Franks were relieved to once again enjoy freedom in their new hometown of Amsterdam. “In those days, it was possible for us to start over and to feel free,” Otto recalled. Anne Frank began attending Amsterdam’s Sixth Montessori School in 1934, and throughout the rest of the 1930s, she lived a relatively happy and normal childhood. Frank had many friends, Dutch and German, Jewish and Christian, and she was a bright and inquisitive student. But that would all change on September 1, 1939, when Nazi Germany invaded Poland, igniting a global conflict that would grow to become World War II. On May 10, 1940, the German army invaded the Netherlands, defeating overmatched Dutch forces after just a few days of fighting. The Dutch surrendered on May 15, 1940, marking the beginning of the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands. As Frank later wrote in her diary, “After May 1940, the good times were few and far between; first there was the war, then the capitulation and then the arrival of the Germans, which is when the trouble started for the Jews.” Beginning in October 1940, the Nazi occupiers imposed anti-Jewish measures on the Netherlands. Jews were required to wear a yellow Star of David at all times and observe a strict curfew; they were also forbidden from owning businesses. Frank and her sister were forced to transfer to a segregated Jewish school. Otto Frank managed to keep control of his company by officially signing ownership over to two of his Christian associates, Jo Kleiman and Victor Kugler, while continuing to run the company from behind the scenes. On June 12, 1942, Frank’s parents gave her a red checkered diary for her 13th birthday. She wrote her first entry, addressed to an imaginary friend named Kitty, that same day: “I hope I will be able to confide everything to you, as I have never been able to confide in anyone, and I hope you will be a great source of comfort and support.” Weeks later, on July 5, 1942, Margot received an official summons to report to a Nazi work camp in Germany. The very next day, the family went into hiding in makeshift quarters in an empty space at the back of Otto Frank’s company building, which they referred to as the Secret Annex. They were accompanied in hiding by Otto’s business partner Hermann van Pels as well as his wife, Auguste, and son, Peter. Otto’s employees Kleiman and Kugler, as well as Jan and Miep Gies and Bep Voskuijl, provided food and information about the outside world. The families spent two years in hiding, never once stepping outside the dark, damp, sequestered portion of the building. To pass the time, Frank wrote extensive daily entries in her diary. Some betrayed the depth of despair into which she occasionally sunk during day after day of confinement. “I’ve reached the point where I hardly care whether I live or die,” she wrote on February 3, 1944. “The world will keep on turning without me, and I can’t do anything to change events anyway.” However, the act of writing allowed Frank to maintain her sanity and her spirits. “When I write, I can shake off all my cares,” she wrote on April 5, 1944. In addition to her diary, Frank filled a notebook with quotes from her favorite authors, original stories and the beginnings of a novel about her time in the Secret Annex. Her writings reveal a teenage girl with creativity, wisdom, depth of emotion and rhetorical power far beyond her years. On August 4, 1944, a German secret police officer accompanied by four Dutch Nazis stormed into the Secret Annex, arresting everyone that was hiding there. They had been betrayed by an anonymous tip, and the identity of their betrayer remains unknown to this day. The residents of the Secret Annex were shipped off to Camp Westerbork, a concentration camp in the northeastern Netherlands, and arrived by passenger train on August 8, 1944. They were transferred to the Auschwitz death camp in Poland in the middle of the night on September 3, 1944. Upon arriving at Auschwitz, the men and women were separated. This was the last time that Otto Frank ever saw his wife or daughters. After several months of hard labor hauling heavy stones and grass mats, Anne and Margot were again transferred during the winter to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in Germany. Their mother was not allowed to go with them, and Edith Frank fell ill and died at Auschwitz shortly thereafter, on January 6, 1945. At Bergen-Belsen, food was scarce, sanitation was awful and disease ran rampant. Frank and her sister both came down with typhus in the early spring and died within a day of each other sometime in March 1945, only a few weeks before British soldiers liberated the camp. Anne Frank was just 15 years old at the time of her death, one of more than 1 million Jewish children who died in the Holocaust. Otto Frank was the only member of his immediate family to survive. At the end of the war, he returned home to Amsterdam, searching desperately for news of his family. On July 18, 1945, he met two sisters who had been with Anne and Margot at Bergen-Belsen and delivered the tragic news of their deaths. When Otto returned to Amsterdam, he found Anne’s diary, which had been saved by Miep Gies. He eventually gathered the strength to read it and was awestruck by what he discovered. “There was revealed a completely different Anne to the child that I had lost,” Otto wrote in a letter to his mother. “I had no idea of the depths of her thoughts and feelings.” Otto sought to have selections from his daughter’s diary published as a book, and The Secret Annex: Diary Letters from June 14, 1942 to August 1, 1944 was published on June 25, 1947. “If she had been here, Anne would have been so proud,” he said. The Diary of a Young Girl, as it’s typically called in English, has since been published in 67 languages. Countless editions, as well as screen and stage adaptations, of the work have been created around the world. The Diary of a Young Girl remains one of the most moving and widely read firsthand accounts of the Jewish experience during the Holocaust. Anne Frank’s diary endures, not only because of the remarkable events she described, but due to her extraordinary gifts as a storyteller and her indefatigable spirit through even the most horrific of circumstances. For all its passages of despair, Frank’s diary is essentially a story of faith, hope and love in the face of hate. “It’s utterly impossible for me to build my life on a foundation of chaos, suffering and death,” she wrote on July 15, 1944. “I see the world being slowly transformed into a wilderness; I hear the approaching thunder that, one day, will destroy us too. I feel the suffering of millions. And yet, when I look up at the sky, I somehow feel that everything will change for the better, that this cruelty too shall end, that peace and tranquility will return once more.” In 2009, the Anne Frank Center USA launched a national initiative called the Sapling Project, planting saplings from a 170-year-old chestnut tree that Anne had long loved (as denoted in her diary) at 11 different sites nationwide.In more recent news, the Anne Frank House lost a lawsuit to the Anne Frank Fonds in June 2013, after the Fonds sued the House for the return of documents linked to Anne and Otto Frank. We strive for accuracy and fairness. If you see something that doesn’t look right, contact us! Anne Frank Biography.com Biography.com Editors The Biography.com website June 10, 2017 A&E Television Networks April 27, 2017 n/a

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June 8, 2017   Posted in: Anne Frank  Comments Closed

Windham Theatre Guild stages ‘Diary of Anne Frank’ – Norwich Bulletin – Norwich Bulletin

The Windham Theatre Guild will present an extraordinary theatrical event for its final Main Stage production of the season. The Diary of Anne Frank, by Frances Goodrich and Albert Hackett, based on Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl, and newly adapted by Wendy Kesselman, opens Friday at the Guilds Burton Leavitt Theatre in Willimantic. In 1942, 13-year-old Anne Frank and her family German-born Jews were driven into hiding from the Nazis in Amsterdam, Netherlands. The Frank family spent two years living in a cramped annex with several other Jews before they were arrested by the Gestapo in 1944.All except Annes father, Otto, perished in Nazi concentration camps. During those two years in hiding, Anne Frank kept a remarkably witty, insightful and moving diary about her life and the world around her.From that journal comes the play,The Diary of Anne Frank, winner of the 1956 Pulitzer Prize in Drama. Above all, the play is a celebration of the lively mind of Frank and thecomplex human spirits of those with whom she shared the annex. David Smith returns to direct his second show for the Guild. As a University of Connecticut graduate, he brings his theatrical skills of acting and directing to the Guild stage. If you go What: The Diary of Anne Frank When: 8 p.m. June 2, 3, 9 and 10; 2 p.m. June 4 and 11; 7:30 p.m. June 8 Where: Burton Leavitt Theatre, 779 Main St., Willimantic Tickets: $19 for adults; $16 for students/seniors; $12 for children under 12; $14 for all UConn, ECSU and QVCC students Special night: Anyone who buys a ticketat the door on June 8 will pay the childrens price of $12 Information: windhamtheatreguild.org, (860) 423-2245

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May 31, 2017   Posted in: Anne Frank  Comments Closed

JD Salinger’s Holocaust Story Eerily Echoes Anne Frank – Forward

The great J.D. Salinger is not a writer we associate with the Holocaust, but as we approach 70th anniversary of The Diary of Anne Frank, June 25, theres a neglected Salinger short story, A Girl I Knew, worth recalling as a companion piece to Franks memoir. A Girl I Knew first appeared in the February 1948 issue of Good Housekeeping at a time when no English translation of The Diary of Anne Frank existed. In Salingers story, Leah, the girl referred to in his title, is 16, a year older than Anne Frank at the time of her death, but Leahs doomed life in pre-World War II Vienna carries with it the same poignancy that Annes will a few years later. Salinger did not include A Girl I Knew in the Nine Stories collection he published in 1953, two years after The Catcher in the Rye, and so A Girl I Knew is not well known, even among Salinger admirers. But the story is one that follows events in Salingers life closely. It parallels both his time as a college dropout in Europe in the late 1930s and his military service during and after WWII. After Salinger flunked out of New York University in 1936, his father sent his son to Europe in 1937 and 1938, ostensibly to learn French and German, but as Salingers chief biographer, Kenneth Slawenski, points out, in hopes that Salinger would interest himself in the family import business. Most of Salingers time in Europe was spent in Vienna with a Jewish family whose daughter he fondly recalled years later. In a 1945 letter to Ernest Hemingway, Salinger wrote of a girl in Vienna whose ice skates he would like to go back and tie on. There is no record of how Salingers romance with his Viennese familys daughter went. In A Girl I Knew, what makes the romance so touching is that it exists largely in the head of John, Salingers narrator, who is telling Leahs story in the wake of WWII when he is a member of the U.S. Army while in Europe. In A Girl I Knew, John makes friends with Leah, whose family has an apartment in the same building in which he is living, after he hears her singing tunes from a record he has been playing. He invites Leah to visit him on the grounds that he will help her with her English and she will help him with his German. They meet over the course of four months several times a week in Johns sitting room. Their knowledge of each others language is so minimal that they can never get past formalities, and to make matters worse for John, Leah has a fianc. Her father has promised her to a Polish suitor, whom she is expected to marry when she turns 17. When John leaves Vienna for Paris, all that has changed in his chaste relationship with Leah is that his longing for her has increased. The following year, when she writes him (without providing a return address), he learns that she is living in Vienna with her husband. A Girl I Knew then shifts to the end of the war, when John is stationed in Nuremberg doing intelligence work, as Salinger did in 1945 and 46. John is given the opportunity to take some military papers to Vienna, and he leaps at the chance, hoping to find Leah. He never does. Instead, he discovers that the Nazis have killed her. Neighbors and a doctor who was in Buchenwald all tell him the same sad news. But Salingers story does not end at this obvious stopping point. It concludes on Johns return to his old apartment. The apartment has been taken over by the Army, and only after great effort does John persuade the sergeant in charge of who goes in and out of the apartment to let him have a look around. The exchange John and the sergeant have marks the true end to A Girl I Knew. After John tells the sergeant that he wants to go back to his old apartment because that is where he met with a girl before the war, the sergeant asks what happened to the girl. She and her family were burned to death in an incinerator, Im told, John answers. Yeah? What was she, a Jew or something? the sergeant replies, and when John says yes, their conversation ends. Very visibly, the sergeants interest in the affair waned, John observes. The sergeants response, devoid of sympathy and shock, is the key to A Girl I Knew. The sergeant thrusts us into a world where, with the war barely over, the Holocaust is already a matter of indifference to the average soldier. For Salinger, by contrast, the horror of the Holocaust stayed. Years later, his daughter would recall him telling her in an unguarded moment, You never really get the smell of burning flesh out of your nose entirely, no matter how long you live. Nicolaus Mills chairs the literature department at Sarah Lawrence College. He is currently at work on a book about Ernest Hemingway and his World War II circle. The views and opinions expressed in this article are the authors own and do not necessarily reflect those of the Forward.

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May 31, 2017   Posted in: Anne Frank  Comments Closed


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