Archive for the ‘Anti-Jewish’ Category

The mother of allanti-Jew sites

Despite the prominent display of the words No hate, no violence, an anti-Jewish website provides plenty of opportunities in several different languages to read about the evils of the Jews and how the deception of the Holocaust is being used as a propaganda tool by Zionists.

Radio Islam is named for a radio station of the same name in Stockholm, Sweden, begun in 1987, according to the site. The website creators say its goal is to combat Jewish racism and the Zionist ideology by information in order to reveal the simple propaganda lies that Zionists use in order to promote their ideology and political aims lies which thereby become an instrument of oppression of people. This site is a forum for information about Zionism, Jewish racism, and the so-called holocaust (i.e., about what really did happen to the Jews during the Second World War, as this is one of the main themes of Zionist propaganda).

Ahmed Rami, whom the site describes as a former Moroccan officer living in exile in Sweden, is said to have started the radio station to present the other side of the Zionist medal. Ramis writings and philosophy heavily influence the websites content.

Rami, according to the site, fled Morocco after participating in military coups to overthrow the monarchy there and establish an Islamic state.

Today, this sympathetic, youthful and incredibly energetic man is one of the most popular persons in Sweden, but at the same time one of the most hated ones, explains the site. His political views are discussed in the Swedish parliament, and also they tell us in government circles.

Says Rami in a question-and-answer section, I am striving for what in my opinion every man should be striving for, namely freedom and justice. In this world, created by Allah, nobody should have enormous privileges, and that includes the Zionist mafia, which has appropriated for itself immeasurable wealth through lies, insidiousness, fraud and trickery. Let Palestinians, Swedes, Russians, Arabs and other peoples be the equals of those who have declared themselves to be the chosen ones and superior to all other peoples!

Proclaims the site, Radio Islam encompasses all who want to combat racial hatred, propaganda, oppression, historical lies and the intellectual terror of the Zionists.

While supporters of Israel speak in favor of the Jewish states right to exist something routinely denied in the Arab world the Radio Islam website says it is Israels opponents whose right to exist is being trampled.

The totalitarian Zionism of today is the only ideology that systematically wants to make the very existence of an opposition a criminal offense! says the site. Before we can coexist, we must first be able to exist. That right is denied those who are opposed to the Jewish domination. This fanaticism and obscurantism is a serious threat against our civilization and against world peace. Each one of us should do something concrete to defend freedom!

The website includes countless links in up to 16 languages, including columns, statements and other documents supporting an unwavering position against Jews worldwide.

One page features a letter from former KKK activist David Duke in which he urges President Bush to defy the power of the Zionist lobby.

A list of scores of topics is displayed prominently on the home page. This includes a Hitler page, complete with links to Mein Kampf and The Political Testament of Adolf Hitler, each in six languages.

Another page displays a photo of Hitler under the headline, If only you had done it, brother. It features the text of an Egyptian commentary that the site lifted from a story in WorldNetDaily. (Radio Islam included the Web address of the story in WND in small font at the bottom.)

The site also proudly features an article on the Holocaust entitled Did 6 million really die? by Richard E. Harwood. In his introduction, Harwood proclaims that the ensuing pages will reveal this claim to be the most colossal piece of fiction and the most successful of deceptions.

A main theme woven throughout the site is the claim that Jews control the United States. A questionable quote the site attributes to Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon says: We, the Jewish people, control America, and the Americans know it.

Another page features a list of Jews in the Bush administration, including photos, while still another is titled, USAs Rulers: All Are Jews!

On the lighter side, Radio Islam includes dozens of political cartoons, all degrading Jews, most of whom are portrayed as buffoons with huge noses.

The site, it turns out, does not present Islam as the only vicitim of Judaism, but speaks of other religions whose followers allegedly have been persecuted by Jews. One column by Professor Israel Shahak, for example, discusses a supposed Jewish tradition of spitting on the Christian cross, a practice he contends has gone on since 200 A.D. and continues to grow in popularity.

The spitting on the cross for converts from Christianity to Judaism, organized in Kibbutz Saad and financed by the Israeli government, is a an act of traditional Jewish piety, Shahak writes.

Although WND has run stories about Islamic websites in the past, none has the sophistication or depth of Radio Islam.

Nowhere on the site is it revealed how the operation is funded, and no advertising appears on the pages.

Surmises one page on the site, speaking of Radio Islams founder, Ahmed Rami cannot be bought. For this reason he is hated and dangerous to all those who advocate the New World Order, both in Sweden and elsewhere.

Related stories:

Islamic website: U.S. forces wiped out

Islamacist terror still promoted on Web

IslamicTerror.com

Islamic Jihad website hosted by U.S. company

Jihad site closed after WND story

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The mother of allanti-Jew sites

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February 3, 2017   Posted in: Anti-Jewish  Comments Closed

Anti-Jewish violence in Poland, 194446 – Wikipedia

The anti-Jewish violence in Poland from 1944 to 1946 refers to a series of violent incidents in Poland that immediately followed the end of World War II in Europe and influenced the postwar history of the Jews as well as Polish-Jewish relations. The exact number of Jewish victims is a subject of debate with 327 documented cases,[1] and the range, estimated by different writers, from 1,000[2] to 2,000 (an undocumented minority view).[3] Jews constituted between 2% and 3% of the total number of victims of postwar violence in the country,[3][4][5] including the Polish Jews who managed to escape the Holocaust on territories of Poland annexed by the Soviet Union.[6] The incidents ranged from individual attacks to pogroms. Reports of political repressions by the communist forces in Poland and the wave of political murders by the security forces under Soviet control were mounting.[7] The ambassador to Poland, Arthur Bliss Lane, was troubled by the mass arrests of Polish non-communists, and their terrorization by the security police.[7] The wave of state-sponsored terror and large-scale deportations was followed by the nationalization decree of January 1946.[7] In response to his protests, Bierut told Lane to “mind its own business.”[7]

Jewish emigration from Poland surged partly as a result of this violence, but also because Poland was the only Eastern Bloc country to allow free Jewish emigration (aliyah) to Mandate Palestine.[8] Many Jews did not wish to remain where their previously large communities in Poland had been decimated by the German occupation; many fled Soviet-backed communism which persecuted the bourgeoisie and religion, including Judaism; many aimed to pursue the Zionist objectives in Palestine.[9] Uninterrupted traffic across the Polish borders intensified with many Jews passing through on their way west. In January 1946, there were 86,000 survivors registered with the Central Committee of Polish Jews (CKP). By the end of summer, the number had risen to about 205,000210,000 (with 240,000 registrations and over 30,000 duplicates).[10] About 180,000 Jewish refugees came from the Soviet Union after the repatriation agreement.[10] Most left without visas or exit permits thanks to a decree of General Marian Spychalski.[8][11] A group of 435 Jews returned from Palestine to Poland in 1946, believing that the latter was actually safer, wrote Gazeta Ludowa of the Polish People’s Party (PSL) on October 1, 1946.[12] By the spring of 1947 only 90,000 Jews resided in Poland.[13][14][15][16]

Reasons for violent deaths have been attributed to usually indiscriminate postwar lawlessness as well as the raging anti-communist insurrection against the new pro-Soviet government, which cost the lives of tens of thousand of people. Among the Jewish victims of violence were numerous functionaries of the new Stalinist regime, assassinated by the anti-communist underground without racial motives, but simply due to their political loyalties.[2][17]Jan T. Gross noted that “only a fraction of [the Jewish] deaths could be attributed to anti-semitism”,[17] and Jewish resistance fighter Marek Edelman said: “murdering Jews was pure banditry, and I wouldn’t explain it as anti-Semitism”.[18] But sometimes Jews were targeted due to their ethnicity, because of the pre-war and Nazi German propaganda, including the blood libel rumors.[19][20][21][22] The resentment towards returning Jews among some local Poles included concerns that they would reclaim their property.[19] They were sometimes seen as supporting the consolidation of power in the hands of the Soviet and Polish Stalinist regimes.[19][23][24]

After the war, Poles and Jews constituted two communities with two different but tragic war experiences, however the relations between Polish and Jewish communities worsened after the Soviet takeover of Poland in 1945.[25] Polish Jewish survivors of the Nazi Holocaust returning home were confronted with fears of being physically assaulted, robbed and even murdered by certain elements in the society.[26][27] The situation was further complicated by the fact that there were more Jewish survivors returning from the Soviet Union than those who managed to survive in occupied Poland,[6] thus leading to stereotypes holding Jews responsible for the imposition of Communism in Stalinist Poland.

Members of the former Communist Party of Poland (KPP) were returning home from the Soviet Union as prominent functionaries of the new regime. Among them was a highly visible number of Poles of Jewish origin, who became active in the new Polish United Workers’ Party and the Ministry of Public Security of Poland, among them Hilary Minc, the third in command in Bolesaw Bierut’s political apparatus and Jakub Berman, head of State Security Services (UB, Urzd Bezpieczestwa) considered Joseph Stalin’s right hand in Poland between 1944 and 1953.[28] Jewish representation in Bolesaw Bierut’s apparatus of political oppression was considerably higher than their share in the general Polish population.[29] Hypothesis emerged that Stalin had intentionally employed some of them in positions of repressive authority (see Gen. Roman Romkowski, Dir. Anatol Fejgin and others) in order to put Poles and Jews “on a collision course.”[5] Study by the Polish Institute of National Remembrance showed that between 1944 and 1954 out of 450 people in director positions in the Ministry, 37.1% (or 167) were Jewish.[29] The underground anti-communist press held them responsible for the murder of Polish opponents of the new regime.[21] Historian Marek Jan Chodakiewicz estimates that in the first years after the war, the Jewish denunciations and direct involvement in the pro-Soviet wave of terror, resulted in the killing of approximately 3,500 to 6,500 non-Jewish Poles including members of the Home Army and National Armed Forces.[30][31]

As the victory over Nazi Germany was celebrated in the West, in May 1945, Polish partisans attacked country offices of the PUBP, MO (communist state police), UB and NKVD employing numerous Jewish functionaries (up to 80% officers and 50% militiamen in Lublin alone).[32] In May 1945, public security offices were destroyed in Krasnosielc and Annwka (May 1), Kurywka (May 7), Grajewo and Biaystok (May 9), Siemiatycze and Wyrzyki (May 11), Ostroka and Rembertw (May 1821), Biaa Podlaska (May 21, May 24), Majdan-Topio (Biaowiea Forest, May 28), Kotki (Busko-Zdrj) (May 28). Political prisoners were freed sometimes up to several hundred or more (see, e.g. the attack on Rembertw) many of whom were later recaptured and murdered.[33] The human rights law violations and the abuse of power by the Ministry only strengthened the anti-Jewish sentiments in Poland, adding to the ‘myth’ of “ydokomuna” among ordinary Poles who in general had anti-Communist and anti-Soviet attitudes.[34] Accusations that Jews are being supportive of the new communist regime, and constituted a threat to Poland, came also from some high officials of the Roman Catholic Church.[35]

The provisions of Yalta agreement allowed Stalin to forcibly repatriate Jews along with all Soviet nationals back to USSR “irrespective of their personal wishes”.[36] The former Polish citizens, second largest refugee group in the West, did not even began to return until late 1946. PolishJewish DPs (25% of their grand total in the beginning of 1947) were declared nonrepatriable due in part to the US pressure which forced the British government to open the borders of Palestine.[37] By the spring of 1947 the number of Jews in Poland in large part arriving from the Soviet Union declined from 240,000 to 90,000 due to mass migration and the post-Holocaust absence of Jewish life in Poland.[6] “The flight” (Berihah) of Jews was motivated by the raging civil war on Polish lands, in as much as the efforts of strong Polish-Jewish lobby at the Jewish Agency working towards the higher standard of living and special privileges for the immigrants from Poland. Yitzhak Raphael, director of the Immigration Department who lobbied on behalf of Polish refugees insisted on their preferential treatment in Israel.[8]

Sporadic public anti-Jewish disturbances or riots were enticed by spread of false blood libel accusations against Jews in a dozen Polish towns Krakw, Kielce, Bytom, Biaystok, Bielawa, Czstochowa, Legnica, Otwock, Rzeszw, Sosnowiec, Szczecin, Tarnw[38][39][40] Acts of anti-Jewish violence were also recorded in villages and small towns of central Poland, where the overwhelming majority of attacks occurred.[1][41] According to Szaynok, the perpetrators of the anti-Jewish actions were seldom punished.[42] Shortly after the Kielce pogrom, violence against Jews in Poland had ceased.[43]

The Krakw pogrom of August 11, 1945, was the first anti-Jewish riot in postwar Poland, resulting in one death.[44][45] The immediate pretext for it were rumours of alleged attempt by a Jewish woman to kidnap and murder a Polish child, and the alleged discovery of thirteen (or even eighty) corpses of Christian children that supposedly had been found in Kupa Synagogue.[46] During the riot, Jews were attacked in Kazimierz, and other parts of Old Town. Fire was set in Kupa Synagogue.

A pogrom (the causes of which are still very controversial),[47] erupted in Kielce on July 4, 1946.[48] The rumour that a Polish boy had been kidnapped by Jews but had managed to escape, and that other Polish children had been ritually murdered by Jews according to Pynsent ignited a violent public reaction directed at the Jewish Center.[48][verification needed] Attacks on Jewish residents of Kielce were provoked by units of the communist militia and the Soviet-controlled Polish Army who confirmed the rumors of the kidnapping. Police and soldiers were also the first to fire shots at Jews according to Szaynok, thus “giving civilians a pretext to join the fray.”[49]

Analyzing Kielce pogrom for years, author Krzysztof Kkolewski (Umary cmentarz), came to the conclusion that Russian NKVD had planned the pogrom in Kielce ahead of time. As he pointed out, there were two very important occasions to be considered that day. In the Nuremberg tribunal, the Katyn massacre committed against the Polish officers was being investigated, a Russian war crime which the Russians held Germans responsible for. Also, there was a celebration of the United States Day taking place, attended in Warsaw by many foreign officials and journalists. It was a perfect time for the NKWD to paint a picture of Poland as being antisemitic, and to blame the Home Army (AK) for the violence. At the time of the pogrom in Kielce, Kkolewski was 16 years old and lived just few hundred meters from the crime scene. He claims that it was impossible for people to gather out on the street; the police immediately approached any group of 3-4 persons for identification. Furthermore, Kkolewski claims that the ordinary people were turned away by an army unit that set up a street blockade. The second part of the same building housed members of the communist party, most of them of Jewish origin, who were not attacked at all. Kkolewski emphasized also that there were more than 300 members of the secret police and army, present at the scene, of whom many were wearing civilian clothes, not to mention some Russian-speaking soldiers that participated in the pogrom. The fact that the high-ranking officials from NKWD were in the town at the moment would also support this theory. Of the 12 persons who faced trial, 9 were sentenced to death. According to Kkolewski, none of them was responsible for the crime; they have been picked up from the watching crowd by the secret police.[50][51]

The pogrom in Kielce resulted in 42 people being murdered and about 50 seriously injured,[4][40] yet the number of victims does not reflect the impact of the atrocities committed. The Kielce pogrom was a turning point for the postwar history of Polish Jews according to Michael R. Marrus, as the Zionist underground concluded that there was no future for Jews in Europe.[52] Soon after, Gen. Spychalski signed a decree allowing Jews to leave Poland without visas or exit permits;[53] and the Jewish emigration from Poland increased dramatically.[52] In July 1946, almost 20,000 Jews left Poland. By September, there were approximately 12,000 Jews left.[54] Britain demanded from Poland (among others) to halt the Jewish exodus, but their pressure was largely unsuccessful.[55]

A statistical compendium of “Jewish deaths by violence for which specific record is extant, by month and province” was compiled by the Yad Vashem Shoah Resource Center’s International School for Holocaust Studies.[1] The study used as a starting point a 1973 report by historian Lucjan Dobroszycki, who wrote that he had “analyzed records, reports, cables, protocols and press-cuttings of the period pertaining to anti-Jewish assaults and murders in 115 localities” in which approximately 300 Jewish deaths had been documented.[56]

A number of historians, including Antony Polonsky and Jan T. Gross[57] cite the figures originating from Dobroszycki’s 1973 work.[58] Dobroszycki wrote that “according to general estimates 1500 Jews lost their lives in Poland from liberation until the summer of 1947”,[59] but Jan Gross, the author who cites Dobroszycki, says that only a fraction of these deaths can be attributed to antisemitism and that most were due to general post war disorder, political violence and banditry.[17] David Engel of New York University stated that Dobroszycki “offered no reference for such ‘general estimates'” which “have not been confirmed by any other investigator” and “no proof-text for this figure” exists, not even a smaller one of 1000 claimed by Gutman.[60] Engel wrote that “both estimates seem high.”[1] Other estimates include those of Anna Cichopek claiming more than 1000 Jews murdered in Poland between 1944 and 1947[61] while Dr Lidiya Milyakova of Russian Academy of Sciences placed that number at 1500-1800.[45] Similarly, according to a Jewish historian Stefan Grajek around 1000 Jews were murdered in the first half of year 1946.[62] Polish historian Tadeusz Piotrowski cites 1500-2000 victims between the years 1944 and 1947 due to general civil strife that came about with Soviet consolidation of power, constituting 2 to 3 percent of the total number of victims of postwar violence in the country.[63]

In the Yad Vashem Studies report, Holocaust scholar David Engel writes

[Dobroszycki] did not report the results of that analysis except in the most general terms, nor did he indicate the specific sources from which he had compiled his list of cases. Nevertheless, a separate, systematic examination of the relevant files in the archive of the Polish Ministry of Public Administration, supplemented by reports prepared by the United States embassy in Warsaw and by Jewish sources in Poland, as well as by bulletins published by the Central Committee of Polish Jews and the Jewish Telegraphic Agency, has lent credibility to Dobroszycki’s claim: it has turned up more or less detailed descriptions of 130 incidents in 102 locations between September 1944 and September 1946, in which 327 Jews lost their lives.

The data from the Yad Vashem study are reproduced in the table below.

Engel wrote that the compilation of cases is not exhaustive, suggesting that cases of anti-Jewish violence were selectively reported and recorded, and that there was no centralized, systematic effort record these cases. He cites numerous incidental reports of killings of Jews that for which no official reporting has survived. He concludes that these figures have “obvious weaknesses” and that the detailed records used to compile them are clearly deficient and lacking data from Biaystok region. For example, Engel cites one source that shows a total of 108 Jewish deaths during March 1945, and another source that shows 351 deaths between November 1944 and December 1945.[1]

Chodakiewicz’s estimates for Jewish deaths in Poland after World War II are somewhat higher than Engel’s. In “After the Holocaust,” Chodakiewicz states: “In sum, probably a minimum of 400 and a maximum of 700 Jews and persons of Jewish origin perished in Poland from July 1944 to January 1947.”[64]

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Roseanne Barr: Obamas Anti-Israel UN Action Like Nazis …

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Barr compared Obamas abstention, which allowed the anti-Israel resolution to pass, with Nazis who enacted anti-Jewish laws on the eve of Jewish holidays-exactly as @POTUS has done on eve of Hanukkah.

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She sent out the following tweets:

Barr visited the Jewish state last March to keynote a Jerusalem conference exposing the anti-Israel Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions (BDS) campaign.

The text of the resolution repeatedly and wrongly refers to the West Bank and eastern sections of Jerusalemas Palestinian territory occupied since 1967. The Western Wall and Temple Mount plaza are located in eastern Jerusalem. In actuality, the Palestinians never had a state in either the West Bank or eastern Jerusalem and they are not legally recognized as the undisputed authority in those areas.

Jordan occupied and annexed the West Bank and eastern Jerusalem from 1948 until Israel captured the lands in a defensive war in 1967 after Arab countries used the territories to launch attacks against the Jewish state. In 1988 Jordan officially renounced its claims to the West Bank and eastern Jerusalem.

The text of the resolution declares that the Israeli settlement enterprise has no legal validity and constitutes a flagrant violation under international law and a major obstacle to the achievement of the two-state solution and a just, lasting and comprehensive peace.

It calls for Israel to immediately and completely cease all settlement activities in the occupied Palestinian territory, including East Jerusalem.

As the Committee for Accuracy for Middle East Reporting in America (CAMERA) pointed out in an email blast, international law does not make Israeli settlements illegal.

CAMERA notes:

Article 49 of the Fourth Geneva Conventions, which is relied upon by those who claim the settlements are illegal, does not apply in the case of the West Bank. This is because the West Bank was never under self-rule by a nation that was a party to the Convention, and therefore there is no partial or total occupation of the territory of a High Contracting Party, as Article 2 of the Convention specifies. Moreover, even if it did apply, by its plain terms, it applies only to forcible transfers and not to voluntary movement. Therefore, it cant prohibit Jews from choosing to move to areas of great historical and religious significance to them.

The resolution contradicts a Bush administration commitment to allowing some existing Jewish settlements to remain under a future Israeli-Palestinian deal.

That U.S. commitment, which the Obama administration has repeatedly violated by condemning settlement activity, was reportedly a key element in Israels decision to unilaterally evacuate the Gaza Strip in 2005.

The UN draft resolution text states that cessation of all Israeli settlement activities is essential for salvaging the two-State solution, and it calls for affirmative steps to be taken immediately to reverse the negative trends on the ground that are imperiling the two-State solution.

In 2004, just prior to the Gaza evacuation, President Bush issued a declarative letter stating that it is unrealistic to expect that Israel will not retain some Jewish settlements in a final-status deal with the Palestinians.

The letter stated:

In light of new realities on the ground, including already existing major Israeli populations centers, it is unrealistic to expect that the outcome of final status negotiations will be a full and complete return to the armistice lines of 1949, and all previous efforts to negotiate a two-state solution have reached the same conclusion. It is realistic to expect that any final status agreement will only be achieved on the basis of mutually agreed changes that reflect these realities.

Elliott Abrams, the Deputy National Security Adviser for Global Democracy Strategy during Bushs second term, was instrumental in brokering understandings between the U.S. and Israel on settlements. In a June 2009 piece published by the Wall Street Journal, Abrams accused the Obama administration of abandoning those U.S.-Israel understandings by taking positions critical of all settlement activity.

Abrams wrote:

There were indeed agreements between Israel and the United States regarding the growth of Israeli settlements on the West Bank principles that would permit some continuing growth. They emerged from discussions with American officials and were discussed by Messrs. Sharon and Bush at their Aqaba meeting in June 2003. The prime minister of Israel relied on them in undertaking a wrenching political reorientation the dissolution of his government, the removal of every single Israeli citizen, settlement and military position in Gaza, and the removal of four small settlements in the West Bank. For reasons that remain unclear, the Obama administration has decided to abandon the understandings about settlements reached by the previous administration with the Israeli government. We may be abandoning the deal now, but we cannot rewrite history and make believe it did not exist.

Aaron Klein is Breitbarts Jerusalem bureau chief and senior investigative reporter. He is a New York Times bestselling author and hosts the popular weekend talk radio program, Aaron Klein Investigative Radio. Follow him onTwitter @AaronKleinShow.Follow him onFacebook.

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Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire – Wikipedia

The term “pogrom” in the meaning of large-scale, targeted, and repeated anti-Jewish rioting, saw its first use in the 19th century, in reference to the anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire. Pogroms began occurring after the Russian Empire, which previously had very few Jews, acquired territories with large Jewish populations during 1791-1835. These territories were designated “the Pale of Settlement” by the Russian government, within which Jews were reluctantly permitted to live, and it was within them that the pogroms largely took place. Most Jews were forbidden from moving to other parts of the Empire, unless they converted to the Russian Orthodox state religion.

The first pogrom is sometimes considered to be the 1821 Odessa pogroms after the execution of the Greek Orthodox patriarch Gregory V in Constantinople, in which 14 Jews were killed.[1] The initiators of the 1821 pogroms were the local Greeks, who used to have a substantial diaspora in the port cities of what was known as Novorossiya.[2] Some sources consider the first pogrom to be the 1859 riots in Odessa.

The term “pogrom” became commonly used in English after a large-scale wave of anti-Jewish riots swept through south-western Imperial Russia (present-day Ukraine and Poland) from 1881 to 1884 (in that period over 200 anti-Jewish events occurred in the Russian Empire, notably the Kiev, Warsaw and Odessa pogroms).[3]

The trigger for these pogroms was the assassination of Tsar Alexander II, for which some blamed “the Jews”.[4] The extent to which the Russian press was responsible for encouraging perceptions of the assassination as a Jewish act has been disputed.[5] Local economic conditions (such as ancestral debts owed to moneylenders) are thought to have contributed significantly to the rioting, especially with regard to the participation of the business competitors of local Jews and the participation of railroad workers. It has been argued that this was actually more important than rumours of Jewish responsibility for the death of the Tsar.[6] These rumours, however, were clearly of some importance, if only as a trigger, and they drew upon a small kernel of truth: one of the close associates of the assassins, Gesya Gelfman, was born into a Jewish home. The fact that the other assassins were all atheists and that the wider Jewish community had nothing to do with the assassination had little impact on the spread of such antisemitic rumours. Nonetheless, the assassination inspired “retaliatory” attacks on Jewish communities. During these pogroms thousands of Jewish homes were destroyed, many families were reduced to poverty, and large numbers of men, women, and children were injured in 166 towns in the southwest provinces of the Empire such as Ukraine.

There also was a large pogrom on the night of 1516 April 1881 (the day of Eastern Orthodox Easter) in the city of Yelizavetgrad (now Kropyvnytskyi). On April 17 the Army units were dispatched and were forced to use firearms to extinguish the riot. However, that only incited the whole situation in the region and a week later series of pogroms rolled through parts of the Kherson Governorate.

On April 26, 1881 even bigger disorder engulfed the city of Kiev. The Kiev pogrom of 1881 is considered the worst one that took place in 1881.[7] The pogroms of 1881 did not stop then. They continued on through the summer, spreading across a big territory of modern-day Ukraine: (Podolie Governorate, Volyn Governorate, Chernigov Governorate, Yekaterinoslav Governorate, and others). During these pogroms the first local Jewish self-defense organizations started to form, the most prominent one in Odessa. It was organized by the Jewish students of the Novorossiysk University.

The new Tsar Alexander III initially blamed revolutionaries and the Jews themselves for the riots and in May 1882 issued the May Laws, a series of harsh restrictions on Jews.

The pogroms continued for more than three years and were thought to have benefited from at least the tacit support of the authorities, although there were also attempts by the Russian government to end the rioting.[6]

The pogroms and the official reaction to them led many Russian Jews to reassess their perceptions of their status within the Russian Empire, and so to significant Jewish emigration, mostly to the United States.

These pogroms were referred to among Jews as the ‘storms in the negev’, negev being a Biblical word for the south. Changed perceptions among Russian Jews also indirectly gave a significant boost to the early Zionist movement.[8]

At least 40 Jews were killed during pogroms during April to December 1881.[9] Of these, 17 were reportedly killed while being raped. An additional 225 incidents of Jewish women being raped were reported.

The leaders of the Jewish community in London were slow to speak out. It was only after Louisa Goldsmid’s support following leadership from an anonymous writer named “Juriscontalus” and the editor of the Jewish Chronicle that action was taken in 1881. Public meetings were held across the country and Jewish and Christian leaders in Britain spoke out against the atrocities.[10]

A much bloodier wave of pogroms broke out from 1903 to 1906, leaving an estimated 2,000 Jews dead and many more wounded, as the Jews took to arms to defend their families and property from the attackers. The 1905 pogrom against Jews in Odessa was the most serious pogrom of the period, with reports of up to 2,500 Jews killed.[11]

The New York Times described the First Kishinev pogrom of Easter, 1903:

“The anti-Jewish riots in Kishinev, Bessarabia [modern Moldova], are worse than the censor will permit to publish. There was a well laid-out plan for the general massacre of Jews on the day following the Orthodox Easter. The mob was led by priests, and the general cry, “Kill the Jews”, was taken up all over the city. The Jews were taken wholly unaware and were slaughtered like sheep. The dead number 120 [Note: the actual number of dead was 4748[12]] and the injured about 500. The scenes of horror attending this massacre are beyond description. Babies were literally torn to pieces by the frenzied and bloodthirsty mob. The local police made no attempt to check the reign of terror. At sunset the streets were piled with corpses and wounded. Those who could make their escape fled in terror, and the city is now practically deserted of Jews.”[13]

This series of pogroms affected 64 towns (including Odessa, Yekaterinoslav, Kiev, Kishinev, Simferopol, Romny, Kremenchug, Nikolayev, Chernigov, Kamenets-Podolski, Yelizavetgrad), and 626 small towns (Russian: ) and villages, mostly in Ukraine and Bessarabia.

Historians such as Edward Radzinsky suggest that many pogroms were incited by authorities, even if some happened spontaneously,[14] supported by the Tsarist Russian secret police (the Okhrana). Those perpetrators who were prosecuted usually received clemency by Tsar’s decree.[15]

Even outside these main outbreaks, pogroms remained common; there was an anti-Jewish riot in Odessa in 1905 in which thousands were killed in total.[citation needed]

The 1903 Kishinev pogrom, also known as the Kishinev Massacre, in present-day Moldova killed 4749 persons. It provoked an international outcry after it was publicized by The Times and The New York Times. There was a second, smaller Kishinev pogrom in 1905.

A pogrom on July 20, 1905, in Yekaterinoslav (present-day Dnipro, Ukraine), was stopped by the Jewish self-defense group (one man in the group killed).

On July 31, 1905, there was the first pogrom outside the Pale of Settlement, in the town of Makariev (near Nizhni Novgorod), where a patriotic procession led by the mayor turned violent.

At a pogrom in Kerch in Crimea on 31 July 1905,[16] the mayor ordered the police to fire at the self-defence group, and two fighters were killed (one of them, P. Kirilenko, was a Ukrainian who joined the Jewish defence group). The pogrom was conducted by the port workers apparently brought in for the purpose.

After the publication of the Tsar’s Manifesto of October 17, 1905, pogroms erupted in 660 towns mainly in the present-day Ukraine, in the Southern and Southeastern areas of the Pale of Settlement. In contrast, there were no pogroms either in present-day Poland or Lithuania. There were also very few incidents in Belarus or Russia proper. There were 24 pogroms outside of the Pale of Settlement, but those were directed at the revolutionaries rather than Jews.

The greatest number of pogroms were registered in the Chernigov gubernia in northern Ukraine. The pogroms there in October 1905 took 800 Jewish lives, the material damages estimated at 70,000,000 rubles. 400 were killed in Odessa, over 150 in Rostov-on-Don, 67 in Yekaterinoslav, 54 in Minsk, 30 in Simferopolover 40, in Orshaover 30.

In 1906, the pogroms continued: January in Gomel, June in Belostok (ca. 80 dead), in August in Siedlce (ca. 30 dead). The police and the military personnel were among the perpetrators.

In many of these incidents the most prominent participants were railway workers, industrial workers, and small shopkeepers and craftsmen, and (if the town was a river port (e.g. Dnipro) or a seaport (e.g. Kerch)), waterfront workmen; peasants mainly joined in to loot.[17]

The pogroms are generally thought to have been either organized or at least condoned by the authorities.[18][19][20][21] This view was challenged by Hans Rogger, I. Michael Aronson and John Klier, who couldn’t find such sanctions documented in the state archives.[22][23] However, the antisemitic policy that was carried out from 1881 to 1917 made them possible. Official persecution and harassment of Jews influenced numerous antisemites to presume that their violence was legitimate, and this sentiment was reinforced by the active participation of a few high and many minor officials in fomenting attacks, as well as by the reluctance of the government to stop pogroms and to punish those responsible for them.

The pogroms of the 1880s caused a worldwide outcry and, along with harsh laws, propelled mass Jewish emigration. Two million Jews fled the Russian Empire between 1880 and 1914, with many going to the United Kingdom and United States.

In reaction to the pogroms and other oppressions of the Tsarist period, Jews increasingly became politically active. Jewish participation in The General Jewish Labor Bund, colloquially known as The Bund, and in the Bolshevik movements, was directly influenced by the pogroms. Similarly, the organization of Jewish self-defense leagues (which stopped the pogromists in certain areas during the second Kishinev pogrom), such as Hovevei Zion, led to a strong embrace of Zionism, especially by Russian Jews.

In 1903, Hebrew poet Hayyim Nahman Bialik wrote the poem In the City of Slaughter[24] in response to the Kishinev pogrom.

Elie Wiesel’s The Trial of God depicts Jews fleeing a pogrom and setting up a fictitious “trial of God” for His negligence in not assisting them against the bloodthirsty mobs. In the end, it turns out that the mysterious stranger who has argued as God’s advocate is none other than Lucifer. The experience of a Russian Jew is also depicted in Elie Wiesel’s The Testament.

A pogrom is one of the central events in the play Fiddler on the Roof, which is adapted from Russian author Sholem Aleichem’s Tevye the Dairyman stories. Aleichem writes about the pogroms in a story called “Lekh-Lekho”.[25] The famous Broadway musical and film Fiddler on the Roof showed the cruelty of the Russian pogroms on the Jews in Anatevka in the early 20th century.

In the animated film An American Tail, set during and after the 1880s pogroms, Fievel and his family’s village is destroyed by a pogrom. (Fievel and his family are mice, and their Cossack attackers are cats.)

The novel The Sacrifice by Adele Wiseman also deals with a family that is displaced after a pogrom in their home country and who emigrate to Canada after losing two sons to the riot and barely surviving themselves. The loss and murder of the sons haunts the entire story.

Mark Twain gives graphic descriptions of the Russian pogroms in Reflections on Religion, Part 3, published in 1906.[26]

Joseph Joffo describes the early history of his mother, a Jew in the Russia of Tsar Nicholas II, in the biographical ‘Anna and her Orchestra’. He describes the raids by Cossacks on Jewish quarters and the eventual retribution inflicted by Anna’s father and brothers on the Cossacks who murdered and burnt homes at the behest of the tsar.

In Bernard Malamud’s novel The Fixer, set in Czarist Russia around 1911, a Russian-Jewish handyman, Yakov Bog, is wrongly imprisoned for a most unlikely crime. It was later made into a film directed by John Frankenheimer with a screenplay by Dalton Trumbo.

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Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire – Wikipedia

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Patterns Of Anti-Jewish Violence In Poland, 1944-1946 …

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Patterns Of Anti-Jewish Violence In Poland, 1944-1946 …

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International Jewish conspiracy – RationalWiki

The existence of an international Jewish conspiracy is an antisemitic canard which regularly features in various racist conspiracy theories.

The blood libel, or conspiratorial slur that Jews kill gentile babies to use their blood in the preparation of Passover matzos, goes back to antiquity (even back to before the advent of Christianity). In medieval Europe, outbreaks of disease were commonly blamed on Jews poisoning wells, which led to pogroms, murders, and the Jews being forced by the governing authorities to live in segregated areas of cities called ghettos.

It was only in modern times that the Catholic Church stopped assigning blame to the Jews for their purported deicide of Jesus Christ. In medieval Europe, Jews were accused of re-enacting Jesus’s crucifixion and death by stabbing or mutilating the host, which Catholics believe are transubstantiated into the body of Christ.

In 1934, an American magazine published that Benjamin Franklin delivered an anti-Semitic speech at the 1787 Constitutional Convention urging that Jews not be admitted to the United States.[1] Franklin’s purported rationale included that Jews: refuse to assimilate wherever they move, are vampires who must live among Christians, will attempt to financially strangle the country, will stream into the United States in such numbers that they will take over and rule the country (Sound familiar?). Franklin’s so-called prophecy was allegedly recorded in a “private diary” of Charles Pinckney, Constitutional Convention delegate from South Carolina, that is now in the possession of the Franklin Institute. The Anti-Defamation League exposed the fraud in 1954, yet references to the “prophecy” still persist on neo-Nazi messageboards and on Usenet.

The language is characteristic of late-nineteenth-century and early-twentieth century Antisemites and thus contains anachronisms that Franklin could have never written, [2] as Benjamin Franklin died in 1790. In addition Franklin himself was a contributor to the building fund for Congregation Mikveh Israel, Philadelphia’s oldest synagogue.[3]

Similar anti-Semitic sentiments have been falsely ascribed to George Washington.[citationneeded] Like Franklin, George Washington was sympathetic to Jews — indeed, writing a sympathetic letter to a Jewish congregation in Rhode Island in 1790:

… the Government of the United States … gives to bigotry no sanction, to persecution no assistance. … May the children of the Stock of Abraham, who dwell in this land, continue to merit and enjoy the good will of the other Inhabitants; while every one shall sit in safety under his own vine and fig tree, and there shall be none to make him afraid. May the father of all mercies scatter light and not darkness in our paths, and make us all in our several vocations useful here, and in his own due time and way everlastingly happy.” [4]

However a lengthy segment of Thomas Paine’s famous tract some halfway through does go on a lengthy anti-Semitic tangent.

Modern anti-Semitic conspiracy theories depicting an elaborate secret hierarchy of controlling Jewish influences largely take their cue from The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion, a 1903 tract purporting to be the manual of a Jewish secret society planning world domination. It is still widely circulated and occasionally cited as “evidence” by various clueless anti-Semites despite being exposed as a fraud as early as 1921.

Max Weber (1864-1920), one of the founders of sociology, believed that antisemitism was abhorrent but also expressed concern that the over-representation of Jews in the leadership of European radical groups would inflame anti-Jewish sentiment.[5]

Automobile manufacturer Henry Ford further popularized the conspiracy during the 1920s by publishing the Protocols and anti-Semitic articles in his newspaper, The Dearborn Independent, and distributing hundreds of thousands of copies of the Protocols. Ford’s anti-Semitic articles were later collected and published as a four-volume treatise entitled The International Jew: The World’s Foremost Problem.[6]

Ford’s enthusiastic endorsement of an international Jewish conspiracy proved extremely popular in Weimar-era Germany. Ford provided substantial financial backing to Adolf Hitler in the 1920’s and his writings were a significant influence on the formation of the Nazi party and its grassroots support. By 1933, when the Nazi Party came to power in Germany, The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion was standard reading in German schools. Hitler admired Henry Ford and even emulated him by creating his own automobile, the Volkswagen. Hitler further propagated the Jewish conspiracy in Mein Kampf and other propaganda blaming Jews for the rise of both communism and capitalism, and for Germany’s economic decline following the First World War.

Spanish fascist dictator Francisco Franco similarly believed in a conspiracy of Jews, Freemasons and communists intending to establish a world government. He often made reference to a vast “Judeo-Masonic conspiracy.”[7]

Fundamentalist Christians of an anti-Semitic bent have promoted theories that intermingle the End Times with a worldwide Jewish conspiracy where the anti-Christ is believed to be a Jew. Perhaps the most popular promoter of this lunacy was Nazi sympathizer Gordon Winrod.[8] Winrod explained this brand of the conspiracy thusly:

After the defeat of Nazi Germany, anti-Semitic conspiracy theories, along with anti-Semitism itself, have become increasingly marginalized. However, the myth of an international Jewish conspiracy remains common among right-wing conspiracy theorists, Neo-Nazis, some hardline communists, Islamic extremists, black supremacists and other racist lunatics, and has been further perpetuated in recent years by these lunatics’ rantings through the ease of posting on the Internet.

In Mein Kampf, Hitler outlined the notion that Jews were the driving force behind both International Communism and International finance-capitalism.

In Bobby Fischer’s later years, he became a very vocal believer that the Jews controlled the United States and that they should be rounded up, executed, and those that remain made slaves.

Anti-communists in Europe and North America often associated Jews with Bolshevism, particularly European fascists, who believed that Jews were peddling Marxism, since the founder of Communism was Jewish and since several prominent Communist leaders during the Russian Revolution were Jewish, like Leon Trotsky. The advent of Rosa Luxemburg in Germany seemed to lend credence to this notion. David Duke also claims communism is a Jewish conspiracy.[10]

This canard is also common in parts of the Islamic world, especially among Palestinian resistance movements. For example, the founding charter of Hamas asserts the existence of a Zionist conspiracy, working internationally through secret organizations such as the Freemasons as well as the government of Israel, and cites the Protocols of the Elders of Zion as the embodiment of their plans.[11]

Anti-Semitic conspiracy theorists often focus on Zionism and the founding of Israel, or on denying the existence or scale of the Holocaust and claiming it is a myth fabricated or exaggerated to serve Jewish interests. Believers in an international conspiracy often claim that Jews are secretly running the United States government in collaboration with Israel. They point to examples of wealthy Jews in the financial sector and other industries (the Rothschild family regularly appears in these theories), and to the apparently disproportionate numbers of Jews involved in the movie industry in Hollywood.

If it is even true that Jews are disproportionately represented in business, one must be careful to note that correlation does not equal causation. In the Western world until the 19th century, the largely Christian populations obeyed a religiously-motivated prohibition on charging interest on loans, with the role of banker historically falling on Jewish businessmen who were sometimes even specifically licensed by sovereigns to charge interest. To assume that the disproportionate number of Jews involved in finance proves they’re engaging in a Zionist conspiracy through manipulation of capitalism is to ignore the historic role of Jews in banking due to the Christian prohibition against usury. This is reflected in Shakespeare’s “The Merchant of Venice” where the villain Shylock is a Jewish money lender demanding the exorbitant price of a pound of flesh for defaulting on his loan.

Individual theories vary widely. Many claim that “international Jewry” is in control of the Freemasons, Illuminati, and other real or perceived secret societies. Often the international Jewish conspiracy is portrayed as an active part of, or the major power behind, that greatest of all conspiracies, the New World Order.

Various anti-Semitic 9/11 conspiracy theories sprang up in the wake of the 9/11 attacks – especially among Neo-Nazis and Islamists – claiming that a Jewish or Israeli conspiracy was behind the attacks, or that the whole incident was faked in order to serve Jewish and Zionist interests. A common myth, spread by racist websites and chain emails, is that hundreds or even thousands of Jewish employees in the World Trade Center were forewarned of the attacks missed work on September 11th 2001.

Variations on these conspiracies that may not appear overtly anti-Semitic often have a latent Antisemitism about them as the words “Illuminati,” “New World Order,” “Zionists”, “international bankers,” “international monetary elite” and “financiers”, “Cultural Marxists”, “cultural elites” are Mad Libbed in for “Jews” and “international Jewry.”

Much as many religious fundamentalists often use “Goddidit” to explain that which they cannot explain, conspiracy theorists will often use “Jewsdidit.”

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International Jewish conspiracy – RationalWiki

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November 22, 2016   Posted in: Anti-Jewish  Comments Closed

The Top Ten Anti-Israel Groups in America – ADL

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Fair Usage Law

October 25, 2016   Posted in: Anti-Jewish  Comments Closed

Antisemitism – Wikipedia

Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.[1][2][3] A person who holds such positions is called an antisemite. Antisemitism is widely considered to be a form of racism.[4][5]

The root word Semite gives the false impression that antisemitism is directed against all Semitic people. However, the compound word antisemite was popularized in Germany in 1879 as a scientific-sounding term for Judenhass “Jew-hatred”,[11] and that has been its common use since then.[13]

Antisemitism may be manifested in many ways, ranging from expressions of hatred of or discrimination against individual Jews to organized pogroms by mobs, state police, or even military attacks on entire Jewish communities. Although the term did not come into common usage until the 19th century, it is now also applied to historic anti-Jewish incidents. Notable instances of persecution include the Rhineland massacres preceding the First Crusade in 1096, the Edict of Expulsion from England in 1290, the massacres of Spanish Jews in 1391, the persecutions of the Spanish Inquisition, the expulsion from Spain in 1492, the Cossack massacres in Ukraine from 1648 to 1657, various anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire between 1821 and 1906, the 18941906 Dreyfus affair in France, the Holocaust in German-occupied Europe, official Soviet anti-Jewish policies, and Arab and Muslim involvement in the Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries.

The origin of “antisemitic” terminologies is found in the responses of Moritz Steinschneider to the views of Ernest Renan. As Alex Bein writes: “The compound anti-Semitism appears to have been used first by Steinschneider, who challenged Renan on account of his ‘anti-Semitic prejudices’ [i.e., his derogation of the “Semites” as a race].”[14]Avner Falk similarly writes: ‘The German word antisemitisch was first used in 1860 by the Austrian Jewish scholar Moritz Steinschneider (1816-1907) in the phrase antisemitische Vorurteile (antisemitic prejudices). Steinschneider used this phrase to characterise the French philosopher Ernest Renan’s false ideas about how “Semitic races” were inferior to “Aryan races”‘.[15]

Pseudoscientific theories concerning race, civilization, and “progress” had become quite widespread in Europe in the second half of the 19th century, especially as Prussian nationalistic historian Heinrich von Treitschke did much to promote this form of racism. He coined the phrase “the Jews are our misfortune” which would later be widely used by Nazis.[16] According to Avner Falk, Treitschke uses the term “Semitic” almost synonymously with “Jewish”, in contrast to Renan’s use of it to refer to a whole range of peoples,[17] based generally on linguistic criteria.[18]

According to Jonathan M. Hess, the term was originally used by its authors to “stress the radical difference between their own ‘antisemitism’ and earlier forms of antagonism toward Jews and Judaism.”[19]

In 1879 German journalist Wilhelm Marr published a pamphlet, Der Sieg des Judenthums ber das Germanenthum. Vom nicht confessionellen Standpunkt aus betrachtet (The Victory of the Jewish Spirit over the Germanic Spirit. Observed from a non-religious perspective) in which he used the word Semitismus interchangeably with the word Judentum to denote both “Jewry” (the Jews as a collective) and “jewishness” (the quality of being Jewish, or the Jewish spirit).[20][21][22]

This use of Semitismus was followed by a coining of “Antisemitismus” which was used to indicate opposition to the Jews as a people[citation needed] and opposition to the Jewish spirit, which Marr interpreted as infiltrating German culture. His next pamphlet, Der Weg zum Siege des Germanenthums ber das Judenthum (The Way to Victory of the Germanic Spirit over the Jewish Spirit, 1880), presents a development of Marr’s ideas further and may present the first published use of the German word Antisemitismus, “antisemitism”.

The pamphlet became very popular, and in the same year he founded the Antisemiten-Liga (League of Antisemites),[23] apparently named to follow the “Anti-Kanzler-Liga” (Anti-Chancellor League).[24] The league was the first German organization committed specifically to combating the alleged threat to Germany and German culture posed by the Jews and their influence, and advocating their forced removal from the country.

So far as can be ascertained, the word was first widely printed in 1881, when Marr published Zwanglose Antisemitische Hefte, and Wilhelm Scherer used the term Antisemiten in the January issue of Neue Freie Presse.

The Jewish Encyclopedia reports, “In February 1881, a correspondent of the Allgemeine Zeitung des Judentums speaks of ‘Anti-Semitism’ as a designation which recently came into use (“Allg. Zeit. d. Jud.” 1881, p.138). On 19 July 1882, the editor says, ‘This quite recent Anti-Semitism is hardly three years old.'”[25]

The related term “philosemitism” was coined around 1885.[citation needed]

From the outset the term anti-Semitism bore special racial connotations and meant specifically prejudice against Jews.[2][13] The term is confusing, for in modern usage ‘Semitic’ designates a language group, not a race. In this sense, the term is a misnomer, since there are many speakers of Semitic languages (e.g. Arabs, Ethiopians, and Assyrians) who are not the objects of anti-Semitic prejudices, while there are many Jews who do not speak Hebrew, a Semitic language. Though ‘antisemitism’ has been used to describe bigotry against people who speak other Semitic languages, the validity of such usage has been questioned.[26][27][28]

The term may be spelled with or without a hyphen (antisemitism or anti-Semitism). Some scholars favor the unhyphenated form because, “If you use the hyphenated form, you consider the words ‘Semitism’, ‘Semite’, ‘Semitic’ as meaningful” whereas “in antisemitic parlance, ‘Semites’ really stands for Jews, just that.”[29][30][31][32] For example, Emil Fackenheim supported the unhyphenated spelling, in order to “[dispel] the notion that there is an entity ‘Semitism’ which ‘anti-Semitism’ opposes.”[33] Others endorsing an unhyphenated term for the same reason include Padraic O’Hare, professor of Religious and Theological Studies and Director of the Center for the Study of Jewish-Christian-Muslim Relations at Merrimack College; Yehuda Bauer, professor of Holocaust Studies at the Avraham Harman Institute of Contemporary Jewry at Hebrew University of Jerusalem; and James Carroll, historian and novelist. According to Carroll, who first cites O’Hare and Bauer on “the existence of something called ‘Semitism'”, “the hyphenated word thus reflects the bipolarity that is at the heart of the problem of antisemitism”.[34]

Objections to the usage of the term, such as the obsolete nature of the term Semitic as a racial term, have been raised since at least the 1930s.[24][35]

Though the general definition of antisemitism is hostility or prejudice against Jews, and, according to Olaf Blaschke, has become an “umbrella term for negative stereotypes about Jews”,[36] a number of authorities have developed more formal definitions.

Holocaust scholar and City University of New York professor Helen Fein defines it as “a persisting latent structure of hostile beliefs towards Jews as a collective manifested in individuals as attitudes, and in culture as myth, ideology, folklore and imagery, and in actionssocial or legal discrimination, political mobilization against the Jews, and collective or state violencewhich results in and/or is designed to distance, displace, or destroy Jews as Jews.”

Elaborating on Fein’s definition, Dietz Bering of the University of Cologne writes that, to antisemites, “Jews are not only partially but totally bad by nature, that is, their bad traits are incorrigible. Because of this bad nature: (1) Jews have to be seen not as individuals but as a collective. (2) Jews remain essentially alien in the surrounding societies. (3) Jews bring disaster on their ‘host societies’ or on the whole world, they are doing it secretly, therefore the anti-Semites feel obliged to unmask the conspiratorial, bad Jewish character.”[37]

For Sonja Weinberg, as distinct from economic and religious anti-Judaism, antisemitism in its modern form shows conceptual innovation, a resort to ‘science’ to defend itself, new functional forms and organisational differences. It was anti-liberal, racialist and nationalist. It promoted the myth that Jews conspired to ‘judaise’ the world; it served to consolidate social identity; it channeled dissatisfactions among victims of the capitalist system; and it was used as a conservative cultural code to fight emancipation and liberalism.[38]

Bernard Lewis defines antisemitism as a special case of prejudice, hatred, or persecution directed against people who are in some way different from the rest. According to Lewis, antisemitism is marked by two distinct features: Jews are judged according to a standard different from that applied to others, and they are accused of “cosmic evil.” Thus, “it is perfectly possible to hate and even to persecute Jews without necessarily being anti-Semitic” unless this hatred or persecution displays one of the two features specific to antisemitism.[39]

There have been a number of efforts by international and governmental bodies to define antisemitism formally. The United States Department of State states that “while there is no universally accepted definition, there is a generally clear understanding of what the term encompasses.” For the purposes of its 2005 Report on Global Anti-Semitism, the term was considered to mean “hatred toward Jewsindividually and as a groupthat can be attributed to the Jewish religion and/or ethnicity.”[40]

In 2005, the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (now Fundamental Rights Agency), then an agency of the European Union, developed a more detailed working definition, which states: “Antisemitism is a certain perception of Jews, which may be expressed as hatred toward Jews. Rhetorical and physical manifestations of antisemitism are directed toward Jewish or non-Jewish individuals and/or their property, toward Jewish community institutions and religious facilities.” It also adds that “such manifestations could also target the state of Israel, conceived as a Jewish collectivity,” but that “criticism of Israel similar to that leveled against any other country cannot be regarded as antisemitic.” It provides contemporary examples of ways in which antisemitism may manifest itself, including: promoting the harming of Jews in the name of an ideology or religion; promoting negative stereotypes of Jews; holding Jews collectively responsible for the actions of an individual Jewish person or group; denying the Holocaust or accusing Jews or Israel of exaggerating it; and accusing Jews of dual loyalty or a greater allegiance to Israel than their own country. It also lists ways in which attacking Israel could be antisemitic, and states that denying the Jewish people their right to self-determination, e.g. by claiming that the existence of a state of Israel is a racist endeavor, can be a manifestation of antisemitismas can applying double standards by requiring of Israel a behavior not expected or demanded of any other democratic nation, or holding Jews collectively responsible for the actions of the State of Israel.[41] Late in 2013, the definition was removed from the website of the Fundamental Rights Agency. A spokesperson said that it had never been regarded as official and that the agency did not intend to develop its own definition.[42] However, despite its disappearance from the website of the Fundamental Rights Agency, the definition has gained widespread international use. The definition has been adopted by the European Parliament Working Group on Antisemitism,[43] in 2010 it was adopted by the United States Department of State,[44] in 2014 it was adopted in the Operational Hate Crime Guidance of the UK College of Policing[45] and was also adopted by the Campaign Against Antisemitism,[46] and in 2016 it was adopted by the 31 member states of the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance,[47] making it the most widely adopted definition of antisemitism around the world.

In 1879, Wilhelm Marr founded the Antisemiten-Liga (Anti-Semitic League).[48] Identification with antisemitism and as an antisemite was politically advantageous in Europe during the late 19th century. For example, Karl Lueger, the popular mayor of fin de sicle Vienna, skillfully exploited antisemitism as a way of channeling public discontent to his political advantage.[49] In its 1910 obituary of Lueger, The New York Times notes that Lueger was “Chairman of the Christian Social Union of the Parliament and of the Anti-Semitic Union of the Diet of Lower Austria.[50] In 1895 A. C. Cuza organized the Alliance Anti-semitique Universelle in Bucharest. In the period before World War II, when animosity towards Jews was far more commonplace, it was not uncommon for a person, an organization, or a political party to self-identify as an antisemite or antisemitic.

In 1882, the early Zionist pioneer Judah Leib Pinsker wrote that antisemitism was a psychological response rooted in fear and was an inherited predisposition. He named the condition Judeophobia.[51]

Judeophobia is a variety of demonopathy with the distinction that it is not peculiar to particular races but is common to the whole of mankind.’…’Judeophobia is a psychic aberration. As a psychic aberration it is hereditary, and as a disease transmitted for two thousand years it is incurable.’… ‘In this way have Judaism and Anti-Semitism passed for centuries through history as inseparable companions.’……’Having analyzed Judeophobia as an hereditary form of demonopathy, peculiar to the human race, and having represented Anti-Semitism as proceeding from an inherited aberration of the human mind, we must draw the important conclusion that we must give’ up contending against these hostile impulses as we must against every other inherited predisposition. (translation from German)[52]

In the aftermath of the Kristallnacht pogrom in 1938, German propaganda minister Goebbels announced: “The German people is anti-Semitic. It has no desire to have its rights restricted or to be provoked in the future by parasites of the Jewish race.”[53]

After the 1945 victory of the Allies over Nazi Germany, and particularly after the full extent of the Nazi genocide against the Jews became known, the term “anti-Semitism” acquired pejorative connotations. This marked a full circle shift in usage, from an era just decades earlier when “Jew” was used as a pejorative term.[54][55] Yehuda Bauer wrote in 1984: “There are no anti-Semites in the world… Nobody says, ‘I am anti-Semitic.’ You cannot, after Hitler. The word has gone out of fashion.”[56]

Antisemitism manifests itself in a variety of ways. Ren Knig mentions social antisemitism, economic antisemitism, religious antisemitism, and political antisemitism as examples. Knig points out that these different forms demonstrate that the “origins of anti-Semitic prejudices are rooted in different historical periods.” Knig asserts that differences in the chronology of different antisemitic prejudices and the irregular distribution of such prejudices over different segments of the population create “serious difficulties in the definition of the different kinds of anti-Semitism.”[57] These difficulties may contribute to the existence of different taxonomies that have been developed to categorize the forms of antisemitism. The forms identified are substantially the same; it is primarily the number of forms and their definitions that differ. Bernard Lazare identifies three forms of antisemitism: Christian antisemitism, economic antisemitism, and ethnologic antisemitism.[58]William Brustein names four categories: religious, racial, economic and political.[59] The Roman Catholic historian Edward Flannery distinguished four varieties of antisemitism:[60]

Louis Harap separates “economic antisemitism” and merges “political” and “nationalistic” antisemitism into “ideological antisemitism”. Harap also adds a category of “social antisemitism”.[66]

Gustavo Perednik has argued that what he terms “Judeophobia” has a number of unique traits which set it apart from other forms of racism, including permanence, depth, obsessiveness, irrationality, endurance, ubiquity, and danger.[67] He also wrote in his book The Judeophobia that “The Jews were accused by the nationalists of being the creators of Communism; by the Communists of ruling Capitalism. If they live in non-Jewish countries, they are accused of double-loyalties; if they live in the Jewish country, of being racists. When they spend their money, they are reproached for being ostentatious; when they don’t spend their money, of being avaricious. They are called rootless cosmopolitans or hardened chauvinists. If they assimilate, they are accused of being fifth-columnists, if they don’t, of shutting themselves away.”[68][69]

Louis Harap defines cultural antisemitism as “that species of anti-Semitism that charges the Jews with corrupting a given culture and attempting to supplant or succeeding in supplanting the preferred culture with a uniform, crude, “Jewish” culture.[70] Similarly, Eric Kandel characterizes cultural antisemitism as being based on the idea of “Jewishness” as a “religious or cultural tradition that is acquired through learning, through distinctive traditions and education.” According to Kandel, this form of antisemitism views Jews as possessing “unattractive psychological and social characteristics that are acquired through acculturation.”[71] Niewyk and Nicosia characterize cultural antisemitism as focusing on and condemning “the Jews’ aloofness from the societies in which they live.”[72] An important feature of cultural antisemitism is that it considers the negative attributes of Judaism to be redeemable by education or by religious conversion.[73]

Religious antisemitism, also known as anti-Judaism, is antipathy towards Jews because of their perceived religious beliefs. In theory, antisemitism and attacks against individual Jews would stop if Jews stopped practicing Judaism or changed their public faith, especially by conversion to the official or right religion. However, in some cases discrimination continues after conversion, as in the case of Christianized Marranos or Iberian Jews in the late 15th century and 16th century who were suspected of secretly practising Judaism or Jewish customs.[60]

Although the origins of antisemitism are rooted in the Judeo-Christian conflict, other forms of antisemitism have developed in modern times. Frederick Schweitzer asserts that, “most scholars ignore the Christian foundation on which the modern antisemitic edifice rests and invoke political antisemitism, cultural antisemitism, racism or racial antisemitism, economic antisemitism and the like.”[74] William Nichols draws a distinction between religious antisemitism and modern antisemitism based on racial or ethnic grounds: “The dividing line was the possibility of effective conversion… a Jew ceased to be a Jew upon baptism.” From the perspective of racial antisemitism, however, “… the assimilated Jew was still a Jew, even after baptism…. From the Enlightenment onward, it is no longer possible to draw clear lines of distinction between religious and racial forms of hostility towards Jews… Once Jews have been emancipated and secular thinking makes its appearance, without leaving behind the old Christian hostility towards Jews, the new term antisemitism becomes almost unavoidable, even before explicitly racist doctrines appear.”

The underlying premise of economic antisemitism is that Jews perform harmful economic activities or that economic activities become harmful when they are performed by Jews.[75]

Linking Jews and money underpins the most damaging and lasting Antisemitic canards.[76] Antisemites claim that Jews control the world finances, a theory promoted in the fraudulent Protocols of the Elders of Zion, and later repeated by Henry Ford and his Dearborn Independent. In the modern era, such myths continue to be spread in books such as The Secret Relationship Between Blacks and Jews published by the Nation of Islam, and on the internet. Derek Penslar writes that there are two components to the financial canards:[77]

Abraham Foxman describes six facets of the financial canards:

Gerald Krefetz summarizes the myth as “[Jews] control the banks, the money supply, the economy, and businessesof the community, of the country, of the world”.[84] Krefetz gives, as illustrations, many slurs and proverbs (in several different languages) which suggest that Jews are stingy, or greedy, or miserly, or aggressive bargainers.[85] During the nineteenth century, Jews were described as “scurrilous, stupid, and tight-fisted”, but after the Jewish Emancipation and the rise of Jews to the middle- or upper-class in Europe were portrayed as “clever, devious, and manipulative financiers out to dominate [world finances]”.[86]

Lon Poliakov asserts that economic antisemitism is not a distinct form of antisemitism, but merely a manifestation of theologic antisemitism (because, without the theological causes of the economic antisemitism, there would be no economic antisemitism). In opposition to this view, Derek Penslar contends that in the modern era, the economic antisemitism is “distinct and nearly constant” but theological antisemitism is “often subdued”.[87]

An academic study by Francesco DAcunto, Marcel Prokopczuk, and Michael Weber showed that people who live in areas of Germany that contain the most brutal history of anti-Semitic persecution are more likely to be distrustful of finance in general. Therefore, they tended to invest less money in the stock market and make poor financial decisions. The study concluded “that the persecution of minorities reduces not only the long-term wealth of the persecuted, but of the persecutors as well.”[88]

Racial antisemitism is prejudice against Jews as a racial/ethnic group, rather than Judaism as a religion.[89]

Racial antisemitism is the idea that the Jews are a distinct and inferior race compared to their host nations. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, it gained mainstream acceptance as part of the eugenics movement, which categorized non-Europeans as inferior. It more specifically claimed that Northern Europeans, or “Aryans”, were superior. Racial antisemites saw the Jews as part of a Semitic race and emphasized their non-European origins and culture. They saw Jews as beyond redemption even if they converted to the majority religion.[citation needed]

Racial antisemitism replaced the hatred of Judaism with the hatred of Jews as a group. In the context of the Industrial Revolution, following the Jewish Emancipation, Jews rapidly urbanized and experienced a period of greater social mobility. With the decreasing role of religion in public life tempering religious antisemitism, a combination of growing nationalism, the rise of eugenics, and resentment at the socio-economic success of the Jews led to the newer, and more virulent, racist antisemitism.[citation needed]

According to William Nichols, religious antisemitism may be distinguished from modern antisemitism based on racial or ethnic grounds. “The dividing line was the possibility of effective conversion… a Jew ceased to be a Jew upon baptism.” However, with racial antisemitism, “Now the assimilated Jew was still a Jew, even after baptism…. From the Enlightenment onward, it is no longer possible to draw clear lines of distinction between religious and racial forms of hostility towards Jews… Once Jews have been emancipated and secular thinking makes its appearance, without leaving behind the old Christian hostility towards Jews, the new term antisemitism becomes almost unavoidable, even before explicitly racist doctrines appear.”[90]

In the early 19th century, a number of laws enabling emancipation of the Jews were enacted in Western European countries.[91][92] The old laws restricting them to ghettos, as well as the many laws that limited their property rights, rights of worship and occupation, were rescinded. Despite this, traditional discrimination and hostility to Jews on religious grounds persisted and was supplemented by racial antisemitism, encouraged by the work of racial theorists such as Joseph Arthur de Gobineau and particularly his Essay on the Inequality of the Human Race of 18535. Nationalist agendas based on ethnicity, known as ethnonationalism, usually excluded the Jews from the national community as an alien race.[93] Allied to this were theories of Social Darwinism, which stressed a putative conflict between higher and lower races of human beings. Such theories, usually posited by northern Europeans, advocated the superiority of white Aryans to Semitic Jews.[94]

William Brustein defines political antisemitism as hostility toward Jews based on the belief that Jews seek national and/or world power.” Yisrael Gutman characterizes political antisemitism as tending to “lay responsibility on the Jews for defeats and political economic crises” while seeking to “exploit opposition and resistance to Jewish influence as elements in political party platforms.”[96]

According to Viktor Kardy, political antisemitism became widespread after the legal emancipation of the Jews and sought to reverse some of the consequences of that emancipation. [97]

Holocaust denial and Jewish conspiracy theories are also considered forms of antisemitism.[98][99][100][101][102][102][103][104]Zoological conspiracy theories have been propagated by the Arab media and Arabic language websites, alleging a “Zionist plot” behind the use of animals to attack civilians or to conduct espionage.[105]

Starting in the 1990s, some scholars have advanced the concept of new antisemitism, coming simultaneously from the left, the right, and radical Islam, which tends to focus on opposition to the creation of a Jewish homeland in the State of Israel,[106] and they argue that the language of anti-Zionism and criticism of Israel are used to attack Jews more broadly. In this view, the proponents of the new concept believe that criticisms of Israel and Zionism are often disproportionate in degree and unique in kind, and they attribute this to antisemitism. Jewish scholar Gustavo Perednik has posited that anti-Zionism in itself represents a form of discrimination against Jews, in that it singles out Jewish national aspirations as an illegitimate and racist endeavor, and “proposes actions that would result in the death of millions of Jews”.[107] It is asserted that the new antisemitism deploys traditional antisemitic motifs, including older motifs such as the blood libel.[106]

Critics of the concept view it as trivializing the meaning of antisemitism, and as exploiting antisemitism in order to silence debate and to deflect attention from legitimate criticism of the State of Israel, and, by associating anti-Zionism with antisemitism, misused to taint anyone opposed to Israeli actions and policies.[108]

German indologists arbitrarily identified “layers” in the Mahabharata and Bhagavad Gita with the objective of fueling European anti-Semitism via the Indo-Aryan migration theory.[109] This identification required equating Brahmins with Jews, resulting in anti-Brahmanism.[109]

Many authors see the roots of modern antisemitism in both pagan antiquity and early Christianity. Jerome Chanes identifies six stages in the historical development of antisemitism:[110]

Chanes suggests that these six stages could be merged into three categories: “ancient antisemitism, which was primarily ethnic in nature; Christian antisemitism, which was religious; and the racial antisemitism of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.”[111]

The first clear examples of anti-Jewish sentiment can be traced back to Alexandria in the 3rd century BCE.[60] Alexandria was home to the largest Jewish diaspora community in the world at the time and the Septuagint, a Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, was produced there. Manetho, an Egyptian priest and historian of that era, wrote scathingly of the Jews. His themes are repeated in the works of Chaeremon, Lysimachus, Poseidonius, Apollonius Molon, and in Apion and Tacitus.[112]Agatharchides of Cnidus ridiculed the practices of the Jews and the “absurdity of their Law”, making a mocking reference to how Ptolemy Lagus was able to invade Jerusalem in 320 BCE because its inhabitants were observing the Shabbat.[112] One of the earliest anti-Jewish edicts, promulgated by Antiochus IV Epiphanes in about 170167 BCE, sparked a revolt of the Maccabees in Judea.

In view of Manetho’s anti-Jewish writings, antisemitism may have originated in Egypt and been spread by “the Greek retelling of Ancient Egyptian prejudices”.[113] The ancient Jewish philosopher Philo of Alexandria describes an attack on Jews in Alexandria in 38 CE in which thousands of Jews died.[114][115] The violence in Alexandria may have been caused by the Jews being portrayed as misanthropes.[116] Tcherikover argues that the reason for hatred of Jews in the Hellenistic period was their separateness in the Greek cities, the poleis.[117] Bohak has argued, however, that early animosity against the Jews cannot be regarded as being anti-Judaic or antisemitic unless it arose from attitudes that were held against the Jews alone, and that many Greeks showed animosity toward any group they regarded as barbarians.[118] Statements exhibiting prejudice against Jews and their religion can be found in the works of many pagan Greek and Roman writers.[119] Edward Flannery writes that it was the Jews’ refusal to accept Greek religious and social standards that marked them out. Hecataetus of Abdera, a Greek historian of the early third century BCE, wrote that Moses “in remembrance of the exile of his people, instituted for them a misanthropic and inhospitable way of life.” Manetho, an Egyptian historian, wrote that the Jews were expelled Egyptian lepers who had been taught by Moses “not to adore the gods.” Edward Flannery describes antisemitism in ancient times as essentially “cultural, taking the shape of a national xenophobia played out in political settings.”[60]

There are examples of Hellenistic rulers desecrating the Temple and banning Jewish religious practices, such as circumcision, Shabbat observance, study of Jewish religious books, etc. Examples may also be found in anti-Jewish riots in Alexandria in the 3rd century BCE.

The Jewish diaspora on the Nile island Elephantine, which was founded by mercenaries, experienced the destruction of its temple in 410 BCE.[120]

Relationships between the Jewish people and the occupying Roman Empire were at times antagonistic and resulted in several rebellions. According to Suetonius, the emperor Tiberius expelled from Rome Jews who had gone to live there. The 18th-century English historian Edward Gibbon identified a more tolerant period in Roman-Jewish relations beginning in about 160 CE.[60] However, when Christianity became the state religion of the Roman Empire, the state’s attitude towards the Jews gradually worsened.

James Carroll asserted: “Jews accounted for 10% of the total population of the Roman Empire. By that ratio, if other factors such as pogroms and conversions had not intervened, there would be 200 million Jews in the world today, instead of something like 13 million.”[121][122]

In the late 6th century CE, the newly Catholicised Visigothic kingdom in Hispania issued a series of anti-Jewish edicts which forbad Jews from marrying Christians, practicing circumcision, and observing Jewish holy days.[123] Continuing throughout the 7th century, both Visigothic kings and the Church were active in creating social aggression and towards Jews with “civic and ecclesiastic punishments”,[124] ranging between forced conversion, slavery, exile and death.[125]

From the 9th century, the medieval Islamic world classified Jews (and Christians) as dhimmi, and allowed Jews to practice their religion more freely than they could do in medieval Christian Europe. Under Islamic rule, there was a Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain that lasted until at least the 11th century.[126] It ended when several Muslim pogroms against Jews took place on the Iberian Peninsula, including those that occurred in Crdoba in 1011 and in Granada in 1066.[127][128][129] Several decrees ordering the destruction of synagogues were also enacted in Egypt, Syria, Iraq and Yemen from the 11th century. In addition, Jews were forced to convert to Islam or face death in some parts of Yemen, Morocco and Baghdad several times between the 12th and 18th centuries.[130] The Almohads, who had taken control of the Almoravids’ Maghribi and Andalusian territories by 1147,[131] were far more fundamentalist in outlook compared to their predecessors, and they treated the dhimmis harshly. Faced with the choice of either death or conversion, many Jews and Christians emigrated.[132][133][134] Some, such as the family of Maimonides, fled east to more tolerant Muslim lands,[132] while some others went northward to settle in the growing Christian kingdoms.[135]

During the Middle Ages in Europe there was persecution against Jews in many places, with blood libels, expulsions, forced conversions and massacres. A main justification of prejudice against Jews in Europe was religious.

The persecution hit its first peak during the Crusades. In the First Crusade (1096) hundreds or even thousands of Jews were killed as the crusaders arrived.[136] This was the first major outbreak of anti-Jewish violence Christian Europe outside Spain and was cited by Zionists in the 19th century as indicating the need for a state of Israel.[137]

In the Second Crusade (1147) the Jews in Germany were subject to several massacres. The Jews were also subjected to attacks by the Shepherds’ Crusades of 1251 and 1320. The Crusades were followed by expulsions, including, in 1290, the banishing of all English Jews; in 1394, the expulsion of 100,000[citation needed] Jews in France; and in 1421, the expulsion of thousands from Austria. Many of the expelled Jews fled to Poland.[138] In medieval and Renaissance Europe, a major contributor to the deepening of antisemitic sentiment and legal action among the Christian populations was the popular preaching of the zealous reform religious orders, the Franciscans (especially Bernardino of Feltre) and Dominicans (especially Vincent Ferrer), who combed Europe and promoted antisemitism through their often fiery, emotional appeals.[139]

As the Black Death epidemics devastated Europe in the mid-14th century, causing the death of a large part of the population, Jews were used as scapegoats. Rumors spread that they caused the disease by deliberately poisoning wells. Hundreds of Jewish communities were destroyed. Although Pope Clement VI tried to protect them by issuing two papal bulls in 1348, the first on 6 July and an additional one several months later, 900 Jews were burned alive in Strasbourg, where the plague had not yet affected the city.[140]

During the mid-to-late 17th century the PolishLithuanian Commonwealth was devastated by several conflicts, in which the Commonwealth lost over a third of its population (over 3 million people), and Jewish losses were counted in the hundreds of thousands. The first of these conflicts was the Khmelnytsky Uprising, when Bohdan Khmelnytsky’s supporters massacred tens of thousands of Jews in the eastern and southern areas he controlled (today’s Ukraine). The precise number of dead may never be known, but the decrease of the Jewish population during that period is estimated at 100,000 to 200,000, which also includes emigration, deaths from diseases and captivity in the Ottoman Empire, called jasyr.[141][142]

European immigrants to the United States brought antisemitism to the country as early as the 17th century. Peter Stuyvesant, the Dutch governor of New Amsterdam, implemented plans to prevent Jews from settling in the city. During the Colonial Era, the American government limited the political and economic rights of Jews. It was not until the Revolutionary War that Jews gained legal rights, including the right to vote. However, even at their peak, the restrictions on Jews in the United States were never as stringent as they had been in Europe.[143]

In the Zaydi imamate of Yemen, Jews were also singled out for discrimination in the 17th century, which culminated in the general expulsion of all Jews from places in Yemen to the arid coastal plain of Tihamah and which became known as the Mawza Exile.[144]

In 1744, Frederick II of Prussia limited the number of Jews allowed to live in Breslau to only ten so-called “protected” Jewish families and encouraged a similar practice in other Prussian cities. In 1750 he issued the Revidiertes General Privilegium und Reglement vor die Judenschaft: the “protected” Jews had an alternative to “either abstain from marriage or leave Berlin” (quoting Simon Dubnow). In the same year, Archduchess of Austria Maria Theresa ordered Jews out of Bohemia but soon reversed her position, on the condition that Jews pay for their readmission every ten years. This extortion was known as malke-geld (queen’s money). In 1752 she introduced the law limiting each Jewish family to one son. In 1782, Joseph II abolished most of these persecution practices in his Toleranzpatent, on the condition that Yiddish and Hebrew were eliminated from public records and that judicial autonomy was annulled. Moses Mendelssohn wrote that “Such a tolerance… is even more dangerous play in tolerance than open persecution.”

In 1772, the empress of Russia Catherine II forced the Jews of the Pale of Settlement to stay in their shtetls and forbade them from returning to the towns that they occupied before the partition of Poland.[145]

According to Arnold Ages, Voltaire’s “Lettres philosophiques, Dictionnaire philosophique, and Candide, to name but a few of his better known works, are saturated with comments on Jews and Judaism and the vast majority are negative”.[146] Paul H. Meyer adds: “There is no question but that Voltaire, particularly in his latter years, nursed a violent hatred of the Jews and it is equally certain that his animosity…did have a considerable impact on public opinion in France.”[147] Thirty of the 118 articles in Voltaire’s Dictionnaire Philosophique concerned Jews and described them in consistently negative ways,[148]

Historian Martin Gilbert writes that it was in the 19th century that the position of Jews worsened in Muslim countries. Benny Morris writes that one symbol of Jewish degradation was the phenomenon of stone-throwing at Jews by Muslim children. Morris quotes a 19th-century traveler: “I have seen a little fellow of six years old, with a troop of fat toddlers of only three and four, teaching [them] to throw stones at a Jew, and one little urchin would, with the greatest coolness, waddle up to the man and literally spit upon his Jewish gaberdine. To all this the Jew is obliged to submit; it would be more than his life was worth to offer to strike a Mahommedan.”[149]

In the middle of the 19th century, J. J. Benjamin wrote about the life of Persian Jews, describing conditions and beliefs that went back to the 16th century: “they are obliged to live in a separate part of town Under the pretext of their being unclean, they are treated with the greatest severity and should they enter a street, inhabited by Mussulmans, they are pelted by the boys and mobs with stones and dirt.”[150]

In 1850 the German composer Richard Wagner who has been called “the inventor of modern antisemitism”[151] published Das Judenthum in der Musik (roughly “Jewishness in Music”[151]) under a pseudonym in the Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik. The essay began as an attack on Jewish composers, particularly Wagner’s contemporaries, and rivals, Felix Mendelssohn and Giacomo Meyerbeer, but expanded to accuse Jews of being a harmful and alien element in German culture, who corrupted morals and were, in fact, parasites incapable of creating truly “German” art. The crux was, of course, the manipulation and control by the Jews of the money economy:[151]

According to the present constitution of this world, the Jew in truth is already more than emancipated: he rules, and will rule, so long as Money remains the power before which all our doings and our dealings lose their force.[151]

Although originally published anonymously, when the essay was republished 19 years later, in 1869, the concept of the corrupting Jew had become so widely held that Wagner’s name was affixed to it.[151]

Antisemitism can also be found in many of the Grimms’ Fairy Tales by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, published from 1812 to 1857. It is mainly characterized by Jews being the villain of a story, such as in “The Good Bargain” (“Der gute Handel”) and “The Jew Among Thorns” (“Der Jude im Dorn”).

The middle 19th century saw continued official harassment of the Jews, especially in Eastern Europe under Czarist influence. For example, in 1846, 80 Jews approached the governor in Warsaw to retain the right to wear their traditional dress, but were immediately rebuffed by having their hair and beards forcefully cut, at their own expense.[152]

In America, even such influential figures as Walt Whitman tolerated bigotry toward the Jews. During his time as editor of the Brooklyn Eagle (1846-1848), the newspaper published historical sketches casting Jews in a bad light.[153]

The Dreyfus Affair was an infamous antisemitic event of the late 19th century and early 20th century. Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish artillery captain in the French Army, was accused in 1894 of passing secrets to the Germans. As a result of these charges, Dreyfus was convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment on Devil’s Island. The actual spy, Marie Charles Esterhazy, was acquitted. The event caused great uproar among the French, with the public choosing sides on the issue of whether Dreyfus was actually guilty or not. mile Zola accused the army of corrupting the French justice system. However, general consensus held that Dreyfus was guilty: 80% of the press in France condemned him. This attitude among the majority of the French population reveals the underlying antisemitism of the time period.[154]

Adolf Stoecker (18351909), the Lutheran court chaplain to Kaiser Wilhelm I, founded in 1878 an antisemitic, anti-liberal political party called the Christian Social Party.[155][156] This party always remained small, and its support dwindled after Stoecker’s death, with most of its members eventually joining larger conservative groups such as the German National People’s Party.

Some scholars view Karl Marx’s essay On The Jewish Question as antisemitic, and argue that he often used antisemitic epithets in his published and private writings.[157][158][159] These scholars argue that Marx equated Judaism with capitalism in his essay, helping to spread that idea. Some further argue that the essay influenced National Socialist, as well as Soviet and Arab antisemites.[160][161][162] Marx himself had Jewish ancestry, and Albert Lindemann and Hyam Maccoby have suggested that he was embarrassed by it.[163][164] Others argue that Marx consistently supported Prussian Jewish communities’ struggles to achieve equal political rights. These scholars argue that “On the Jewish Question” is a critique of Bruno Bauer’s arguments that Jews must convert to Christianity before being emancipated, and is more generally a critique of liberal rights discourses and capitalism.[165][166][167][168] Iain Hamphsher-Monk wrote that “This work [On The Jewish Question] has been cited as evidence for Marx’s supposed anti-semitism, but only the most superficial reading of it could sustain such an interpretation.”[169] David McLellan and Francis Wheen argue that readers should interpret On the Jewish Question in the deeper context of Marx’s debates with Bruno Bauer, author of The Jewish Question, about Jewish emancipation in Germany. Wheen says that “Those critics, who see this as a foretaste of ‘Mein Kampf’, overlook one, essential point: in spite of the clumsy phraseology and crude stereotyping, the essay was actually written as a defense of the Jews. It was a retort to Bruno Bauer, who had argued that Jews should not be granted full civic rights and freedoms unless they were baptised as Christians”.[170] According to McLellan, Marx used the word Judentum colloquially, as meaning commerce, arguing that Germans must be emancipated from the capitalist mode of production not Judaism or Jews in particular. McLellan concludes that readers should interpret the essay’s second half as “an extended pun at Bauer’s expense”.[171]

Between 1900 and 1924, approximately 1.75 million Jews migrated to America, the bulk from Eastern Europe. Before 1900 American Jews had always amounted to less than 1% of America’s total population, but by 1930 Jews formed about 3.5%. This increase, combined with the upward social mobility of some Jews, contributed to a resurgence of antisemitism. In the first half of the 20th century, in the USA, Jews were discriminated against in employment, access to residential and resort areas, membership in clubs and organizations, and in tightened quotas on Jewish enrolment and teaching positions in colleges and universities. The lynching of Leo Frank by a mob of prominent citizens in Marietta, Georgia in 1915 turned the spotlight on antisemitism in the United States.[172] The case was also used to build support for the renewal of the Ku Klux Klan which had been inactive since 1870.[173]

At the beginning of the 20th century, the Beilis Trial in Russia represented incidents of blood-libel in Europe. Christians used allegations of Jews killing Christians as a justification for the killing of Jews.

Antisemitism in America reached its peak during the interwar period. The pioneer automobile manufacturer Henry Ford propagated antisemitic ideas in his newspaper The Dearborn Independent (published by Ford from 1919 to 1927). The radio speeches of Father Coughlin in the late 1930s attacked Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal and promoted the notion of a Jewish financial conspiracy. Some prominent politicians shared such views: Louis T. McFadden, Chairman of the United States House Committee on Banking and Currency, blamed Jews for Roosevelt’s decision to abandon the gold standard, and claimed that “in the United States today, the Gentiles have the slips of paper while the Jews have the lawful money”.[174]

In the early 1940s the aviator Charles Lindbergh and many prominent Americans led The America First Committee in opposing any involvement in the war against Fascism. During his July 1936 visit to Germany, Lindbergh wrote letters saying that there was “more intelligent leadership in Germany than is generally recognized”. The German American Bund held parades in New York City during the late 1930s, where members wore Nazi uniforms and raised flags featuring swastikas alongside American flags. Sometimes race riots, as in Detroit in 1943, targeted Jewish businesses for looting and burning.[175]

In Germany, Nazism led Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party, who came to power on 30 January 1933 and instituted repressive legislation which denied the Jews basic civil rights. In 1935, the Nuremberg Laws prohibited sexual relations and marriages between “Aryans” and Jews as Rassenschande (“race disgrace”) and stripped all German Jews, even quarter- and half-Jews, of their citizenship, (their official title became “subjects of the state”). It instituted a pogrom on the night of 910 November 1938, dubbed Kristallnacht, in which Jews were killed, their property destroyed and their synagogues torched.[176] Antisemitic laws, agitation and propaganda were extended to German-occupied Europe in the wake of conquest, often building on local antisemitic traditions. In the east the Third Reich forced Jews into ghettos in Warsaw, Krakw, Lvov, Lublin and Radom.[177] After the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 a campaign of mass murder, conducted by the Einsatzgruppen, culminated from 1942 to 1945 in systematic genocide: the Holocaust.[178] Eleven million Jews were targeted for extermination by the Nazis, and some six million were eventually killed.[178][179][180]

Antisemitism was commonly used as an instrument for settling personal conflicts in the Soviet Union, starting with the conflict between Joseph Stalin and Leon Trotsky and continuing through numerous conspiracy-theories spread by official propaganda. Antisemitism in the USSR reached new heights after 1948 during the campaign against the “rootless cosmopolitan” (euphemism for “Jew”) in which numerous Yiddish-language poets, writers, painters and sculptors were killed or arrested.[181][182] This culminated in the so-called Doctors’ Plot (19521953). Similar antisemitic propaganda in Poland resulted in the flight of Polish Jewish survivors from the country.[182]

After the war, the Kielce pogrom and the “March 1968 events” in communist Poland represented further incidents of antisemitism in Europe. The anti-Jewish violence in postwar Poland has a common theme of blood libel rumours.[183][184]

Robert Bernstein, founder of Human Rights Watch, says that antisemitism is “deeply ingrained and institutionalized” in “Arab nations in modern times.”[185]

In a 2011 survey by the Pew Research Center, all of the Muslim-majority Middle Eastern countries polled held strongly negative views of Jews. In the questionnaire, only 2% of Egyptians, 3% of Lebanese Muslims, and 2% of Jordanians reported having a positive view of Jews. Muslim-majority countries outside the Middle East held similarly negative views, with 4% of Turks and 9% of Indonesians viewing Jews favorably.[186]

According to a 2011 exhibition at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, United States, some of the dialogue from Middle East media and commentators about Jews bear a striking resemblance to Nazi propaganda.[187] According to Josef Joffe of Newsweek, “anti-Semitismthe real stuff, not just bad-mouthing particular Israeli policiesis as much part of Arab life today as the hijab or the hookah. Whereas this darkest of creeds is no longer tolerated in polite society in the West, in the Arab world, Jew hatred remains culturally endemic.”[188]

Muslim clerics in the Middle East have frequently referred to Jews as descendants of apes and pigs, which are conventional epithets for Jews and Christians.[189][190][191]

According to professor Robert Wistrich, director of the Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism (SICSA), the calls for the destruction of Israel by Iran or by Hamas, Hezbollah, Islamic Jihad, or the Muslim Brotherhood, represent a contemporary mode of genocidal antisemitism.[192]

Antisemitism has been explained in terms of racism, xenophobia, projected guilt, displaced aggression, and the search for a scapegoat.[193]

It has been theorized that parts of antisemitism has resulted from a perception of Jewish people as unsociable. Such a perception may have arisen by many Jews having strictly kept to their own communities, with their own practices and laws.[194]

It has also been suggested that parts of antisemitism arose from a perception of Jewish people as greedy (as often used in stereotypes of Jews), and this perception has probably evolved in Europe during Medieval times where a large portion of money lending was operated by Jews.[195] Factors contributing to this situation included that Jews were restricted from other professions,[195] while the Christian Church declared for their followers that money lending constituted immoral “usury”.[196]

There are a number of antisemitic canards which are used to fuel and justify antisemitic sentiment and activities. These include conspiracy theories and myths such as: that Jews killed Christ, poisoned wells, killed Christian children to use their blood for making matzos (the Blood libel), or “made up” the Holocaust, plot to control the world (the Protocols of the Elders of Zion), harvest organs, and other invented stories. A number of conspiracy theories also include accusations that Jews control the media or global financial institutions.[citation needed]

A March 2008 report by the U.S. State Department found that there was an increase in antisemitism across the world, and that both old and new expressions of antisemitism persist.[197] A 2012 report by the U.S. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor also noted a continued global increase in antisemitism, and found that Holocaust denial and opposition to Israeli policy at times was used to promote or justify blatant antisemitism.[198]

In Egypt, Dar al-Fadhilah published a translation of Henry Ford’s antisemitic treatise, The International Jew, complete with distinctly antisemitic imagery on the cover.[199]

On 5 May 2001, after Shimon Peres visited Egypt, the Egyptian al-Akhbar internet paper said that “lies and deceit are not foreign to Jews[…]. For this reason, Allah changed their shape and made them into monkeys and pigs.”[200]

Continued here:

Antisemitism – Wikipedia

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Anti-Judaism – Wikipedia

Anti-Judaism is the “total or partial opposition to Judaism and to Jews as adherents of it by persons who accept a competing system of beliefs and practices and consider certain genuine Judaic beliefs and practices as inferior.”[1]

Anti-Judaism, as a rejection of a particular way of thinking about God, is distinct from antisemitism, which is more akin to a form of racism. Scholars wishing to blur the line between theology and racism have since coined the term religious antisemitism.

Nevertheless, the concept of Judaism has been challenged over the past two thousand years by scholars of both Christendom and Islam; those mere intellectual exercises on the part of theologians ultimately always had real world consequences.

In Ancient Rome, religion was an integral part of the civil government (see Religion in ancient Rome). Some Emperors were proclaimed gods on Earth, and demanded to be worshiped accordingly[2] throughout the Roman Empire. This created religious difficulties for monotheistic Jews and worshipers of Mithras, Sabazius and Early Christians.[3] Jews were prohibited by their biblical commandments from worshiping any other god than that of the Torah (see Shema, God in Judaism, Idolatry in Judaism).

The Crisis under Caligula (37-41) has been proposed as the “first open break between Rome and the Jews”, even though problems were already evident during the Census of Quirinius in 6 and under Sejanus (before 31).[a]

After the Jewish-Roman wars (66-135), Hadrian changed the name of Iudaea province to Syria Palaestina and Jerusalem to Aelia Capitolina in an attempt to erase the historical ties of the Jewish people to the region.[b] In addition, after 70, Jews and Jewish Proselytes were only allowed to practice their religion if they paid the Jewish tax, and after 135 were barred from Jerusalem except for the day of Tisha B’Av.

Flavius Clemens was put to death for “living a Jewish life” or “drifting into Jewish ways” in the year 95 CE, which may well have been related to the administration of the Jewish tax under Domitian.[c]

The Roman Empire adopted Christianity as its state religion with the Edict of Thessalonica on 27 February 380, see State church of the Roman Empire.

Christianity commenced as a sect within Judaism, so-called Jewish Christianity. It was seen as such by the early Christians, as well as Jews in general. The wider Roman administration most likely would not have understood any distinction. Historians debate whether or not the Roman government distinguished between Christians and Jews before 96 CE, when Christians successfully petitioned Nerva to exempt them from the Jewish tax (the Fiscus Judaicus) on the basis that they were not Jews. From then on, practising Jews paid the tax while Christians did not.[7][8][9] Christianity is based on Jewish monotheism, scriptures (generally the Greek Old Testament or Targum translations of the Hebrew Bible), liturgy, and morality.

The main distinction of the Early Christian community from its Jewish roots was the belief that Jesus was the long awaited Messiah,[d] as in the Confession of Peter, but that in itself would not have severed the Jewish connection. Another point of divergence was the questioning by Christians of the continuing applicability of the Law of Moses (the Torah),[11] though the Apostolic Decree of the Apostolic Age of Christianity appears to parallel the Noahide Law of Judaism. The two issues came to be linked in a theological discussion within the Christian community as to whether the coming of the Messiah (First or Second Coming) annulled either some (Supersessionism), or all (Abrogation of Old Covenant laws), of the Judaic laws in what came to be called a New Covenant.

The circumcision controversy was probably the second issue (after the issue of Jesus as messiah) during which the theological argument was conducted in terms of anti-Judaism, with those who argued for the view that biblical law continued to be applicable being labelled “Judaizers” or “Pharisees” (e.g. Acts 15:5).[e][12] The teachings of Paul (d. ~67 CE), whose letters comprise much of the New Testament demonstrate a “long battle against Judaizing.”[13] However, James the Just, who after Jesus’s death was widely acknowledged as the leader of the Jerusalem Christians, worshiped at the Second Temple in Jerusalem until his death in 62, thirty years after Jesus’ death.[14]

The destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE would lead Christians to “doubt the efficacy of the ancient law”,[15] though Ebionism would linger on until the 5th century. However, Marcion of Sinope, who advocated rejecting the entirety of Judaic influence on the Christian faith,[16] would be excommunicated by the Church in Rome in 144 CE.[17]

Anti-Judaic works of this period include De Adversus Iudeaos by Tertullian, Octavius by Minucius Felix, De Catholicae Ecclesiae Unitate[f] by Cyprian of Carthage, and Instructiones Adversus Gentium Deos by Lactantius.[18] The traditional hypothesis holds that the anti-Judaism of these early fathers of the Church “were inherited from the Christian tradition of Biblical exegesis” though a second hypothesis holds that early Christian anti-Judaism was inherited from the pagan world.[19]

Taylor has observed that theological Christian anti-Judaism “emerge[d] from the church’s efforts to resolve the contradictions inherent in its simultaneous appropriation and rejection of different elements of the Jewish tradition.”[20]

Modern scholars believe that Judaism may have been a missionary religion in the early centuries of the Christian or common era, converting so-called proselytes,[21] and thus competition for the religious loyalties of gentiles drove anti-Judaism.[22] The debate and dialogue moved from polemic to bitter verbal and written attacks one against the other. To Tarfon (died 135 CE) is attributed a statement about whether scrolls could be left to burn in a fire on the Sabbath. A disputed[23][24][25][26] interpretation identifies these books with the Gospels (see Gilyonim): “The Gospels must be burned for paganism is not as dangerous to the Jewish faith as Jewish Christian sects.”[13] The anonymous Letter to Diognetus was the earliest apologetic work in the early Church to address Judaism.[27]Saint Justin Martyr (died 165 CE) wrote the apologetic Dialogue with Trypho,[28] a polemical debate giving the Christian assertions for the Messiahship of Jesus by making use of the Old Testament contrasted with counter-arguments from a fictionalized version of Tarphon.[29] “For centuries defenders of Christ and the enemies of the Jews employed no other method” than these apologetics.[27] Apologetics were difficult as gentile converts could not be expected to understand Hebrew; translations of the Septuagint into Greek prior to Aquila would serve as a flawed basis for such cross-cultural arguments,[30] as demonstrated by Origen’s difficulties debating Rabbi Simlai.[30]

Though Emperor Hadrian was an “enemy of the synagogue”, the reign of Antonius began a period of Roman benevolence toward the Jewish faith.[31] Meanwhile, imperial hostility toward Christianity continued to crystallize; after Decius, the empire was at war with it.[32] An unequal power relationship between Jews and Christians in the context of the Greco-Roman world generated anti-Jewish feelings among the early Christians.[33] Feelings of mutual hatred arose, driven in part by Judaism’s legality in the Roman Empire; in Antioch, where the rivalry was most bitter, Jews most likely demanded the execution of Polycarp.[34]

When Constantine and Licinius were issuing the Edict of Milan, the influence of Judaism was fading in the Land of Israel (in favor of Christianity) and seeing a rebirth outside the Roman Empire in Babylonia.[2] By the 3rd century the Judaizing heresies were nearly extinct in Christianity.

After his defeat of Licinius in 323 CE, Constantine showed Christians marked political preference. He repressed Jewish proselytism and forbade Jews from circumcising their slaves.[35] Jews were barred from Jerusalem except on the anniversary of the Second Temple’s destruction (Tisha B’Av) and then only after paying a special tax (probably the Fiscus Judaicus) in silver.[35] He also promulgated a law which condemned to the stake Jews who persecuted their apostates by stoning.[36]Christianity became the state religion of the Roman Empire (see Christendom). “No sooner was [the Church] armed than it forgot its most elementary principles, and directed the secular arm against its enemies.”[36] Animosity existed on both sides, and in 351 the Jews of Palestine revolted against Constantine’s son in the Jewish revolt against Constantius Gallus.

From the middle of the 5th century, apologetics ceased with Cyril of Alexandria.[37] This form of anti-Judaism had proven futile and often served to strengthen Jewish faith.[37] With Christianity ascendant in the Empire, the “Fathers, the bishops, and the priest who had to contend against the Jews treated them very badly. Hosius in Spain; Pope Sylvester I; Eusebius of Caesaria call them ‘a perverse, dangerous, and criminal sect.'”[38] While Gregory of Nyssa merely reproaches Jews as infidels, other teachers are more vehement.[38]Saint Augustine labels the Talmudists as falsifiers; Saint Ambrose recycled the earlier anti-Christian trope and accuses Jews of despising Roman law. Saint Jerome claims Jews were possessed by an impure spirit.[38]Saint Cyril of Jerusalem claimed the Jewish Patriarchs, or Nasi, were a low race.[38]

All these theological and polemical attacks combined in Saint John Chrysostom’s six sermons delivered at Antioch.[38] Chrysostom, an archbishop of Constantinople, (died 407 CE) is very negative in his treatment of Judaism, though much more hyperbolic in expression.[39] While Saint Justin’s Dialogue is a philosophical treatise, Saint Chrysostom’s homilies Against the Jews are a more informal and rhetorically forceful set of sermons preached in church. Delivered while Chrysostom was still a priest in Antioch, his homilies deliver a scathing critique of Jewish religious and civil life, warning Christians not to have any contact with Judaism or the synagogue and to keep away from the rival religion’s festivals.

“There are legions of theologians, historians and writers who write about the Jews the same as Chrysostom: Epiphanius, Diodorus of Tarsus, Theodore of Mopsuestia, Theodoret of Cyprus, Cosmas Indicopleustes, Athanasius the Sinaite among the Greeks; Hilarius of Poitiers, Prudentius, Paulus Orosius, Sulpicius Severus, Gennadius, Venantius Fortunatus, Isidore of Seville, among the Latins.”[40]

From the 4th to 7th centuries, while the bishops opposed Judaism in writing, the Empire enacted a variety of civil laws against Jews, such as forbidding them from holding public office, and an oppressive curial tax.[36] Laws were enacted to harass their free observance of religion; Justinian went so far as to enact a law against Jewish daily prayers.[36] Both Christians and Jews engaged in recorded mob violence in the waning days of the Empire.[41]

Through this period Jewish revolts continued. During the ByzantineSasanian War of 602628 many Jews sided against the Byzantine Empire in the Jewish revolt against Heraclius, which successfully assisted the invading Persian Sassanids in conquering all of Roman Egypt and Syria. In reaction to this further anti-Jewish measures were enacted throughout the Byzantine realm and as far away as Merovingian France.[42] Soon thereafter, 634, the Muslim conquests began, during which many Jews initially rose up again against their Byzantine rulers.[43]

The pattern wherein Jews were relatively free under pagan rulers until the Christian conversion of the leadership, as seen with Constantine, would be repeated in the lands beyond the now collapsed Roman Empire. Sigismund of Burgundy enacted laws against Jews after coming to the throne after his conversion in 514;[44] likewise after the conversion of Reccared, king of the Visigoths in 589, which would have lasting effect when codified by Reccesuinth in the Visigothic Code of Law.[45] This code inspired Jews to aid Tariq ibn-Ziyad (a Muslim) in his overthrow of Roderick, and under the Moors (also Muslims), Jews regained their usurped religious freedoms.[44]

Beginning with the 8th century, legislation against heresies grew more severe. The Church, once confining itself to only the powers of canon law, increasingly appealed to secular powers. Heretics such as the Vaudois, Albigenses, Beghards, Apostolic Brothers, and Luciferians were thus “treated with cruelty”[46] which culminated in the 13th century establishment of the Inquisition by Pope Innocent III.[46] Jews were not ignored by such legislation, either, as they allegedly instigated Christians to judaizations, either directly or unconsciously, by their existence. They sent forth metaphysicians such as Amaury de Bne and David de Dinan; the Pasagians followed Mosaic Law; the Orleans heresy was a Jewish heresy; the Albigens taught Jewish doctrine as superior to Christian; the Dominicans preached against both the Hussites and their Jewish supporters, and thus the imperial army sent to advance on Jan Ziska massacred Jews along the way.[46] In Spain, where Castilian custom (fueros) had granted equal rights to Muslims, Christians, and Jews, Gregory XI instituted the Spanish Inquisition to spy on Jews and Moors wherever “by words or writings they urged the Catholics to embrace their faith”.[46]

Usury became a proximate cause of much anti-Jewish sentiment during the Middle Ages.[47] In Italy and later Poland and Germany, John of Capistrano stirred up the poor against the usury of the Jews; Bernardinus of Feltre, aided by the practical notion of establishing mont-de-pits, called for the expulsion of Jews all over Italy and Tyrol and caused the massacre of the Jews at Trent.[48] Kings, nobles, and bishops discouraged this behavior, protecting Jews from the monk Radulphe in Germany and countering the preachings of Bernardinus in Italy.[48] These reactions were from knowing the history of mobs, incited against Jews, continuing attacks against their rich co-religionists.[48] Anti-Judaism was a dynamic in the early Spanish colonies in the Americas, where Europeans used anti-Judaic memes and forms of thinking against Native and African peoples, in effect transferring anti-Judaism onto other peoples.[49]

The Church kept to its theological anti-Judaism and, favoring the mighty and rich, was careful not to encourage the passions of the people.[48] But while it sometimes interfered on behalf of the Jews when they were the objects of mob fury, it was at the same time fueled the fury by combating Judaism.[48]

Martin Luther has been accused of antisemitism, primarily in relation to his statements about Jews in his book On the Jews and their Lies, which describes the Jews in extremely harsh terms, excoriating them, and providing detailed recommendation for a pogrom against them and their permanent oppression and/or expulsion. According to Paul Johnson, it “may be termed the first work of modern anti-Semitism, and a giant step forward on the road to the Holocaust”.[50] In contrast, Roland Bainton, noted church historian and Luther biographer, wrote “One could wish that Luther had died before ever this tract was written. His position was entirely religious and in no respect racial”.[51]

Peter Martyr Vermigli, a shaper of Reformed Protestantism, took pains to maintain the contradiction, going back to Paul of Tarsus, of Jews being both enemy and friend, writing: “The Jews are not odious to God for the very reason they are Jews; for how could this have happened since they were embellished with so many great gifts….”[52]

“The terms ‘anti-Judaism’ (the Christian aversion toward the Jewish religion) and ‘anti-Semitism’ (aversion toward the Jews as a racial group) are omnipresent in the controversies over the churches responsibility with regard to the extermination of the Jews” and “since 1945, most of the works on ‘anti-Semitism’ have contrasted this term with ‘anti-Judaism'”.[53][54]

According to Jeanne Favret-Saada, the scientificial analysis of the links and difference between both terms is made difficult for two reasons. First is the definition: some scholars argue that “anti-Judaic” refers to Christian theology and to Christian theology only while others argue that the term applies also to the discriminatory policy of the churches (…). Some authors also advance that eighteenth-century catechisms were “antisemitic” and others argue that the term cannot be used before the date of its first appearance in 1879. The second difficulty is the fact these to concepts place themselves in different contexts: the old and religious for the “anti-Judaism”; the new and political for “anti-Semitism”.[53]

As examples regarding the nuances put forward by scholars:

Anti-Judaism has also been distinguished from antisemitism based upon racial or ethnic grounds (racial antisemitism). “The dividing line [is] the possibility of effective conversion (…). [A] Jew ceases[] to be a Jew upon baptism.” However, with racial antisemitism, “the assimilated Jew [is] still a Jew, even after baptism (…). Anyway, according to William Nichols, “[f]rom the Enlightenment onward, it is no longer possible to draw clear lines of distinction between religious and racial forms of hostility towards Jews (…). Once Jews have been emancipated and secular thinking makes its appearance without leaving behind the old Christian hostility towards Jews, the new term antisemitism becomes almost unavoidable, even before explicitly racist doctrines appear.”[57]

A prominent place in the Qur’anic polemic against the Jews is given to the conception of the religion of Abraham. The Qur’an presents Muslims as neither Jews nor Christians but followers of Abraham who was in a physical sense the father of the Jews and the Arabs and lived before the revelation of Torah. In order to show that the religion practiced by the Jews is not the pure religion of Abraham, the Qur’an mentions the incident of worshiping of the calf, argues that Jews do not believe in part of the revelation given to them, and that their taking of usury shows their worldliness and disobedience of God. Furthermore, the Quran claim they attribute to God what he has not revealed. In his polemic against Judaism, Ibn Hazm provided a polemical list of what he considered “chronological and geographical inaccuracies and contradictions; theological impossibilities (anthropomorphic expressions, stories of fornication and whoredom, and the attributing of sins to prophets), as well as lack of reliable transmission (tawatur) of the text”.[58][59][undue weight? discuss]

Throughout the Islamic Golden Age, the relatively tolerant societies of the various caliphates were still, on occasion, driven to enforce discriminatory laws against members of the Jewish faith. Examples of these and more extreme persecutions occurred under the authority of multiple, radical Muslim Movements such as that of the Fatimid Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah in the 11th century, the Almohad Caliphate in the 12th century, and in the 1160s CE Shiite Abd al-Nabi ibn Mahdi who was an Imam of Yemen.[60]

Differentiation laws were enforced much more regularly following the decline of secular influence within Islamic society and external threats posed by non-Muslims.[60]

Read more here:

Anti-Judaism – Wikipedia

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October 21, 2016   Posted in: Anti-Jewish  Comments Closed

The mother of allanti-Jew sites

Despite the prominent display of the words No hate, no violence, an anti-Jewish website provides plenty of opportunities in several different languages to read about the evils of the Jews and how the deception of the Holocaust is being used as a propaganda tool by Zionists. Radio Islam is named for a radio station of the same name in Stockholm, Sweden, begun in 1987, according to the site. The website creators say its goal is to combat Jewish racism and the Zionist ideology by information in order to reveal the simple propaganda lies that Zionists use in order to promote their ideology and political aims lies which thereby become an instrument of oppression of people. This site is a forum for information about Zionism, Jewish racism, and the so-called holocaust (i.e., about what really did happen to the Jews during the Second World War, as this is one of the main themes of Zionist propaganda). Ahmed Rami, whom the site describes as a former Moroccan officer living in exile in Sweden, is said to have started the radio station to present the other side of the Zionist medal. Ramis writings and philosophy heavily influence the websites content. Rami, according to the site, fled Morocco after participating in military coups to overthrow the monarchy there and establish an Islamic state. Today, this sympathetic, youthful and incredibly energetic man is one of the most popular persons in Sweden, but at the same time one of the most hated ones, explains the site. His political views are discussed in the Swedish parliament, and also they tell us in government circles. Says Rami in a question-and-answer section, I am striving for what in my opinion every man should be striving for, namely freedom and justice. In this world, created by Allah, nobody should have enormous privileges, and that includes the Zionist mafia, which has appropriated for itself immeasurable wealth through lies, insidiousness, fraud and trickery. Let Palestinians, Swedes, Russians, Arabs and other peoples be the equals of those who have declared themselves to be the chosen ones and superior to all other peoples! Proclaims the site, Radio Islam encompasses all who want to combat racial hatred, propaganda, oppression, historical lies and the intellectual terror of the Zionists. While supporters of Israel speak in favor of the Jewish states right to exist something routinely denied in the Arab world the Radio Islam website says it is Israels opponents whose right to exist is being trampled. The totalitarian Zionism of today is the only ideology that systematically wants to make the very existence of an opposition a criminal offense! says the site. Before we can coexist, we must first be able to exist. That right is denied those who are opposed to the Jewish domination. This fanaticism and obscurantism is a serious threat against our civilization and against world peace. Each one of us should do something concrete to defend freedom! The website includes countless links in up to 16 languages, including columns, statements and other documents supporting an unwavering position against Jews worldwide. One page features a letter from former KKK activist David Duke in which he urges President Bush to defy the power of the Zionist lobby. A list of scores of topics is displayed prominently on the home page. This includes a Hitler page, complete with links to Mein Kampf and The Political Testament of Adolf Hitler, each in six languages. Another page displays a photo of Hitler under the headline, If only you had done it, brother. It features the text of an Egyptian commentary that the site lifted from a story in WorldNetDaily. (Radio Islam included the Web address of the story in WND in small font at the bottom.) The site also proudly features an article on the Holocaust entitled Did 6 million really die? by Richard E. Harwood. In his introduction, Harwood proclaims that the ensuing pages will reveal this claim to be the most colossal piece of fiction and the most successful of deceptions. A main theme woven throughout the site is the claim that Jews control the United States. A questionable quote the site attributes to Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon says: We, the Jewish people, control America, and the Americans know it. Another page features a list of Jews in the Bush administration, including photos, while still another is titled, USAs Rulers: All Are Jews! On the lighter side, Radio Islam includes dozens of political cartoons, all degrading Jews, most of whom are portrayed as buffoons with huge noses. The site, it turns out, does not present Islam as the only vicitim of Judaism, but speaks of other religions whose followers allegedly have been persecuted by Jews. One column by Professor Israel Shahak, for example, discusses a supposed Jewish tradition of spitting on the Christian cross, a practice he contends has gone on since 200 A.D. and continues to grow in popularity. The spitting on the cross for converts from Christianity to Judaism, organized in Kibbutz Saad and financed by the Israeli government, is a an act of traditional Jewish piety, Shahak writes. Although WND has run stories about Islamic websites in the past, none has the sophistication or depth of Radio Islam. Nowhere on the site is it revealed how the operation is funded, and no advertising appears on the pages. Surmises one page on the site, speaking of Radio Islams founder, Ahmed Rami cannot be bought. For this reason he is hated and dangerous to all those who advocate the New World Order, both in Sweden and elsewhere. Related stories: Islamic website: U.S. forces wiped out Islamacist terror still promoted on Web IslamicTerror.com Islamic Jihad website hosted by U.S. company Jihad site closed after WND story

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February 3, 2017   Posted in: Anti-Jewish  Comments Closed

Anti-Jewish violence in Poland, 194446 – Wikipedia

The anti-Jewish violence in Poland from 1944 to 1946 refers to a series of violent incidents in Poland that immediately followed the end of World War II in Europe and influenced the postwar history of the Jews as well as Polish-Jewish relations. The exact number of Jewish victims is a subject of debate with 327 documented cases,[1] and the range, estimated by different writers, from 1,000[2] to 2,000 (an undocumented minority view).[3] Jews constituted between 2% and 3% of the total number of victims of postwar violence in the country,[3][4][5] including the Polish Jews who managed to escape the Holocaust on territories of Poland annexed by the Soviet Union.[6] The incidents ranged from individual attacks to pogroms. Reports of political repressions by the communist forces in Poland and the wave of political murders by the security forces under Soviet control were mounting.[7] The ambassador to Poland, Arthur Bliss Lane, was troubled by the mass arrests of Polish non-communists, and their terrorization by the security police.[7] The wave of state-sponsored terror and large-scale deportations was followed by the nationalization decree of January 1946.[7] In response to his protests, Bierut told Lane to “mind its own business.”[7] Jewish emigration from Poland surged partly as a result of this violence, but also because Poland was the only Eastern Bloc country to allow free Jewish emigration (aliyah) to Mandate Palestine.[8] Many Jews did not wish to remain where their previously large communities in Poland had been decimated by the German occupation; many fled Soviet-backed communism which persecuted the bourgeoisie and religion, including Judaism; many aimed to pursue the Zionist objectives in Palestine.[9] Uninterrupted traffic across the Polish borders intensified with many Jews passing through on their way west. In January 1946, there were 86,000 survivors registered with the Central Committee of Polish Jews (CKP). By the end of summer, the number had risen to about 205,000210,000 (with 240,000 registrations and over 30,000 duplicates).[10] About 180,000 Jewish refugees came from the Soviet Union after the repatriation agreement.[10] Most left without visas or exit permits thanks to a decree of General Marian Spychalski.[8][11] A group of 435 Jews returned from Palestine to Poland in 1946, believing that the latter was actually safer, wrote Gazeta Ludowa of the Polish People’s Party (PSL) on October 1, 1946.[12] By the spring of 1947 only 90,000 Jews resided in Poland.[13][14][15][16] Reasons for violent deaths have been attributed to usually indiscriminate postwar lawlessness as well as the raging anti-communist insurrection against the new pro-Soviet government, which cost the lives of tens of thousand of people. Among the Jewish victims of violence were numerous functionaries of the new Stalinist regime, assassinated by the anti-communist underground without racial motives, but simply due to their political loyalties.[2][17]Jan T. Gross noted that “only a fraction of [the Jewish] deaths could be attributed to anti-semitism”,[17] and Jewish resistance fighter Marek Edelman said: “murdering Jews was pure banditry, and I wouldn’t explain it as anti-Semitism”.[18] But sometimes Jews were targeted due to their ethnicity, because of the pre-war and Nazi German propaganda, including the blood libel rumors.[19][20][21][22] The resentment towards returning Jews among some local Poles included concerns that they would reclaim their property.[19] They were sometimes seen as supporting the consolidation of power in the hands of the Soviet and Polish Stalinist regimes.[19][23][24] After the war, Poles and Jews constituted two communities with two different but tragic war experiences, however the relations between Polish and Jewish communities worsened after the Soviet takeover of Poland in 1945.[25] Polish Jewish survivors of the Nazi Holocaust returning home were confronted with fears of being physically assaulted, robbed and even murdered by certain elements in the society.[26][27] The situation was further complicated by the fact that there were more Jewish survivors returning from the Soviet Union than those who managed to survive in occupied Poland,[6] thus leading to stereotypes holding Jews responsible for the imposition of Communism in Stalinist Poland. Members of the former Communist Party of Poland (KPP) were returning home from the Soviet Union as prominent functionaries of the new regime. Among them was a highly visible number of Poles of Jewish origin, who became active in the new Polish United Workers’ Party and the Ministry of Public Security of Poland, among them Hilary Minc, the third in command in Bolesaw Bierut’s political apparatus and Jakub Berman, head of State Security Services (UB, Urzd Bezpieczestwa) considered Joseph Stalin’s right hand in Poland between 1944 and 1953.[28] Jewish representation in Bolesaw Bierut’s apparatus of political oppression was considerably higher than their share in the general Polish population.[29] Hypothesis emerged that Stalin had intentionally employed some of them in positions of repressive authority (see Gen. Roman Romkowski, Dir. Anatol Fejgin and others) in order to put Poles and Jews “on a collision course.”[5] Study by the Polish Institute of National Remembrance showed that between 1944 and 1954 out of 450 people in director positions in the Ministry, 37.1% (or 167) were Jewish.[29] The underground anti-communist press held them responsible for the murder of Polish opponents of the new regime.[21] Historian Marek Jan Chodakiewicz estimates that in the first years after the war, the Jewish denunciations and direct involvement in the pro-Soviet wave of terror, resulted in the killing of approximately 3,500 to 6,500 non-Jewish Poles including members of the Home Army and National Armed Forces.[30][31] As the victory over Nazi Germany was celebrated in the West, in May 1945, Polish partisans attacked country offices of the PUBP, MO (communist state police), UB and NKVD employing numerous Jewish functionaries (up to 80% officers and 50% militiamen in Lublin alone).[32] In May 1945, public security offices were destroyed in Krasnosielc and Annwka (May 1), Kurywka (May 7), Grajewo and Biaystok (May 9), Siemiatycze and Wyrzyki (May 11), Ostroka and Rembertw (May 1821), Biaa Podlaska (May 21, May 24), Majdan-Topio (Biaowiea Forest, May 28), Kotki (Busko-Zdrj) (May 28). Political prisoners were freed sometimes up to several hundred or more (see, e.g. the attack on Rembertw) many of whom were later recaptured and murdered.[33] The human rights law violations and the abuse of power by the Ministry only strengthened the anti-Jewish sentiments in Poland, adding to the ‘myth’ of “ydokomuna” among ordinary Poles who in general had anti-Communist and anti-Soviet attitudes.[34] Accusations that Jews are being supportive of the new communist regime, and constituted a threat to Poland, came also from some high officials of the Roman Catholic Church.[35] The provisions of Yalta agreement allowed Stalin to forcibly repatriate Jews along with all Soviet nationals back to USSR “irrespective of their personal wishes”.[36] The former Polish citizens, second largest refugee group in the West, did not even began to return until late 1946. PolishJewish DPs (25% of their grand total in the beginning of 1947) were declared nonrepatriable due in part to the US pressure which forced the British government to open the borders of Palestine.[37] By the spring of 1947 the number of Jews in Poland in large part arriving from the Soviet Union declined from 240,000 to 90,000 due to mass migration and the post-Holocaust absence of Jewish life in Poland.[6] “The flight” (Berihah) of Jews was motivated by the raging civil war on Polish lands, in as much as the efforts of strong Polish-Jewish lobby at the Jewish Agency working towards the higher standard of living and special privileges for the immigrants from Poland. Yitzhak Raphael, director of the Immigration Department who lobbied on behalf of Polish refugees insisted on their preferential treatment in Israel.[8] Sporadic public anti-Jewish disturbances or riots were enticed by spread of false blood libel accusations against Jews in a dozen Polish towns Krakw, Kielce, Bytom, Biaystok, Bielawa, Czstochowa, Legnica, Otwock, Rzeszw, Sosnowiec, Szczecin, Tarnw[38][39][40] Acts of anti-Jewish violence were also recorded in villages and small towns of central Poland, where the overwhelming majority of attacks occurred.[1][41] According to Szaynok, the perpetrators of the anti-Jewish actions were seldom punished.[42] Shortly after the Kielce pogrom, violence against Jews in Poland had ceased.[43] The Krakw pogrom of August 11, 1945, was the first anti-Jewish riot in postwar Poland, resulting in one death.[44][45] The immediate pretext for it were rumours of alleged attempt by a Jewish woman to kidnap and murder a Polish child, and the alleged discovery of thirteen (or even eighty) corpses of Christian children that supposedly had been found in Kupa Synagogue.[46] During the riot, Jews were attacked in Kazimierz, and other parts of Old Town. Fire was set in Kupa Synagogue. A pogrom (the causes of which are still very controversial),[47] erupted in Kielce on July 4, 1946.[48] The rumour that a Polish boy had been kidnapped by Jews but had managed to escape, and that other Polish children had been ritually murdered by Jews according to Pynsent ignited a violent public reaction directed at the Jewish Center.[48][verification needed] Attacks on Jewish residents of Kielce were provoked by units of the communist militia and the Soviet-controlled Polish Army who confirmed the rumors of the kidnapping. Police and soldiers were also the first to fire shots at Jews according to Szaynok, thus “giving civilians a pretext to join the fray.”[49] Analyzing Kielce pogrom for years, author Krzysztof Kkolewski (Umary cmentarz), came to the conclusion that Russian NKVD had planned the pogrom in Kielce ahead of time. As he pointed out, there were two very important occasions to be considered that day. In the Nuremberg tribunal, the Katyn massacre committed against the Polish officers was being investigated, a Russian war crime which the Russians held Germans responsible for. Also, there was a celebration of the United States Day taking place, attended in Warsaw by many foreign officials and journalists. It was a perfect time for the NKWD to paint a picture of Poland as being antisemitic, and to blame the Home Army (AK) for the violence. At the time of the pogrom in Kielce, Kkolewski was 16 years old and lived just few hundred meters from the crime scene. He claims that it was impossible for people to gather out on the street; the police immediately approached any group of 3-4 persons for identification. Furthermore, Kkolewski claims that the ordinary people were turned away by an army unit that set up a street blockade. The second part of the same building housed members of the communist party, most of them of Jewish origin, who were not attacked at all. Kkolewski emphasized also that there were more than 300 members of the secret police and army, present at the scene, of whom many were wearing civilian clothes, not to mention some Russian-speaking soldiers that participated in the pogrom. The fact that the high-ranking officials from NKWD were in the town at the moment would also support this theory. Of the 12 persons who faced trial, 9 were sentenced to death. According to Kkolewski, none of them was responsible for the crime; they have been picked up from the watching crowd by the secret police.[50][51] The pogrom in Kielce resulted in 42 people being murdered and about 50 seriously injured,[4][40] yet the number of victims does not reflect the impact of the atrocities committed. The Kielce pogrom was a turning point for the postwar history of Polish Jews according to Michael R. Marrus, as the Zionist underground concluded that there was no future for Jews in Europe.[52] Soon after, Gen. Spychalski signed a decree allowing Jews to leave Poland without visas or exit permits;[53] and the Jewish emigration from Poland increased dramatically.[52] In July 1946, almost 20,000 Jews left Poland. By September, there were approximately 12,000 Jews left.[54] Britain demanded from Poland (among others) to halt the Jewish exodus, but their pressure was largely unsuccessful.[55] A statistical compendium of “Jewish deaths by violence for which specific record is extant, by month and province” was compiled by the Yad Vashem Shoah Resource Center’s International School for Holocaust Studies.[1] The study used as a starting point a 1973 report by historian Lucjan Dobroszycki, who wrote that he had “analyzed records, reports, cables, protocols and press-cuttings of the period pertaining to anti-Jewish assaults and murders in 115 localities” in which approximately 300 Jewish deaths had been documented.[56] A number of historians, including Antony Polonsky and Jan T. Gross[57] cite the figures originating from Dobroszycki’s 1973 work.[58] Dobroszycki wrote that “according to general estimates 1500 Jews lost their lives in Poland from liberation until the summer of 1947”,[59] but Jan Gross, the author who cites Dobroszycki, says that only a fraction of these deaths can be attributed to antisemitism and that most were due to general post war disorder, political violence and banditry.[17] David Engel of New York University stated that Dobroszycki “offered no reference for such ‘general estimates'” which “have not been confirmed by any other investigator” and “no proof-text for this figure” exists, not even a smaller one of 1000 claimed by Gutman.[60] Engel wrote that “both estimates seem high.”[1] Other estimates include those of Anna Cichopek claiming more than 1000 Jews murdered in Poland between 1944 and 1947[61] while Dr Lidiya Milyakova of Russian Academy of Sciences placed that number at 1500-1800.[45] Similarly, according to a Jewish historian Stefan Grajek around 1000 Jews were murdered in the first half of year 1946.[62] Polish historian Tadeusz Piotrowski cites 1500-2000 victims between the years 1944 and 1947 due to general civil strife that came about with Soviet consolidation of power, constituting 2 to 3 percent of the total number of victims of postwar violence in the country.[63] In the Yad Vashem Studies report, Holocaust scholar David Engel writes [Dobroszycki] did not report the results of that analysis except in the most general terms, nor did he indicate the specific sources from which he had compiled his list of cases. Nevertheless, a separate, systematic examination of the relevant files in the archive of the Polish Ministry of Public Administration, supplemented by reports prepared by the United States embassy in Warsaw and by Jewish sources in Poland, as well as by bulletins published by the Central Committee of Polish Jews and the Jewish Telegraphic Agency, has lent credibility to Dobroszycki’s claim: it has turned up more or less detailed descriptions of 130 incidents in 102 locations between September 1944 and September 1946, in which 327 Jews lost their lives. The data from the Yad Vashem study are reproduced in the table below. Engel wrote that the compilation of cases is not exhaustive, suggesting that cases of anti-Jewish violence were selectively reported and recorded, and that there was no centralized, systematic effort record these cases. He cites numerous incidental reports of killings of Jews that for which no official reporting has survived. He concludes that these figures have “obvious weaknesses” and that the detailed records used to compile them are clearly deficient and lacking data from Biaystok region. For example, Engel cites one source that shows a total of 108 Jewish deaths during March 1945, and another source that shows 351 deaths between November 1944 and December 1945.[1] Chodakiewicz’s estimates for Jewish deaths in Poland after World War II are somewhat higher than Engel’s. In “After the Holocaust,” Chodakiewicz states: “In sum, probably a minimum of 400 and a maximum of 700 Jews and persons of Jewish origin perished in Poland from July 1944 to January 1947.”[64]

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January 12, 2017   Posted in: Anti-Jewish  Comments Closed

Roseanne Barr: Obamas Anti-Israel UN Action Like Nazis …

SIGN UP FOR OUR NEWSLETTER Barr compared Obamas abstention, which allowed the anti-Israel resolution to pass, with Nazis who enacted anti-Jewish laws on the eve of Jewish holidays-exactly as @POTUS has done on eve of Hanukkah. SIGN UP FOR OUR NEWSLETTER She sent out the following tweets: Barr visited the Jewish state last March to keynote a Jerusalem conference exposing the anti-Israel Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions (BDS) campaign. The text of the resolution repeatedly and wrongly refers to the West Bank and eastern sections of Jerusalemas Palestinian territory occupied since 1967. The Western Wall and Temple Mount plaza are located in eastern Jerusalem. In actuality, the Palestinians never had a state in either the West Bank or eastern Jerusalem and they are not legally recognized as the undisputed authority in those areas. Jordan occupied and annexed the West Bank and eastern Jerusalem from 1948 until Israel captured the lands in a defensive war in 1967 after Arab countries used the territories to launch attacks against the Jewish state. In 1988 Jordan officially renounced its claims to the West Bank and eastern Jerusalem. The text of the resolution declares that the Israeli settlement enterprise has no legal validity and constitutes a flagrant violation under international law and a major obstacle to the achievement of the two-state solution and a just, lasting and comprehensive peace. It calls for Israel to immediately and completely cease all settlement activities in the occupied Palestinian territory, including East Jerusalem. As the Committee for Accuracy for Middle East Reporting in America (CAMERA) pointed out in an email blast, international law does not make Israeli settlements illegal. CAMERA notes: Article 49 of the Fourth Geneva Conventions, which is relied upon by those who claim the settlements are illegal, does not apply in the case of the West Bank. This is because the West Bank was never under self-rule by a nation that was a party to the Convention, and therefore there is no partial or total occupation of the territory of a High Contracting Party, as Article 2 of the Convention specifies. Moreover, even if it did apply, by its plain terms, it applies only to forcible transfers and not to voluntary movement. Therefore, it cant prohibit Jews from choosing to move to areas of great historical and religious significance to them. The resolution contradicts a Bush administration commitment to allowing some existing Jewish settlements to remain under a future Israeli-Palestinian deal. That U.S. commitment, which the Obama administration has repeatedly violated by condemning settlement activity, was reportedly a key element in Israels decision to unilaterally evacuate the Gaza Strip in 2005. The UN draft resolution text states that cessation of all Israeli settlement activities is essential for salvaging the two-State solution, and it calls for affirmative steps to be taken immediately to reverse the negative trends on the ground that are imperiling the two-State solution. In 2004, just prior to the Gaza evacuation, President Bush issued a declarative letter stating that it is unrealistic to expect that Israel will not retain some Jewish settlements in a final-status deal with the Palestinians. The letter stated: In light of new realities on the ground, including already existing major Israeli populations centers, it is unrealistic to expect that the outcome of final status negotiations will be a full and complete return to the armistice lines of 1949, and all previous efforts to negotiate a two-state solution have reached the same conclusion. It is realistic to expect that any final status agreement will only be achieved on the basis of mutually agreed changes that reflect these realities. Elliott Abrams, the Deputy National Security Adviser for Global Democracy Strategy during Bushs second term, was instrumental in brokering understandings between the U.S. and Israel on settlements. In a June 2009 piece published by the Wall Street Journal, Abrams accused the Obama administration of abandoning those U.S.-Israel understandings by taking positions critical of all settlement activity. Abrams wrote: There were indeed agreements between Israel and the United States regarding the growth of Israeli settlements on the West Bank principles that would permit some continuing growth. They emerged from discussions with American officials and were discussed by Messrs. Sharon and Bush at their Aqaba meeting in June 2003. The prime minister of Israel relied on them in undertaking a wrenching political reorientation the dissolution of his government, the removal of every single Israeli citizen, settlement and military position in Gaza, and the removal of four small settlements in the West Bank. For reasons that remain unclear, the Obama administration has decided to abandon the understandings about settlements reached by the previous administration with the Israeli government. We may be abandoning the deal now, but we cannot rewrite history and make believe it did not exist. Aaron Klein is Breitbarts Jerusalem bureau chief and senior investigative reporter. He is a New York Times bestselling author and hosts the popular weekend talk radio program, Aaron Klein Investigative Radio. Follow him onTwitter @AaronKleinShow.Follow him onFacebook.

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December 27, 2016   Posted in: Anti-Jewish  Comments Closed

Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire – Wikipedia

The term “pogrom” in the meaning of large-scale, targeted, and repeated anti-Jewish rioting, saw its first use in the 19th century, in reference to the anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire. Pogroms began occurring after the Russian Empire, which previously had very few Jews, acquired territories with large Jewish populations during 1791-1835. These territories were designated “the Pale of Settlement” by the Russian government, within which Jews were reluctantly permitted to live, and it was within them that the pogroms largely took place. Most Jews were forbidden from moving to other parts of the Empire, unless they converted to the Russian Orthodox state religion. The first pogrom is sometimes considered to be the 1821 Odessa pogroms after the execution of the Greek Orthodox patriarch Gregory V in Constantinople, in which 14 Jews were killed.[1] The initiators of the 1821 pogroms were the local Greeks, who used to have a substantial diaspora in the port cities of what was known as Novorossiya.[2] Some sources consider the first pogrom to be the 1859 riots in Odessa. The term “pogrom” became commonly used in English after a large-scale wave of anti-Jewish riots swept through south-western Imperial Russia (present-day Ukraine and Poland) from 1881 to 1884 (in that period over 200 anti-Jewish events occurred in the Russian Empire, notably the Kiev, Warsaw and Odessa pogroms).[3] The trigger for these pogroms was the assassination of Tsar Alexander II, for which some blamed “the Jews”.[4] The extent to which the Russian press was responsible for encouraging perceptions of the assassination as a Jewish act has been disputed.[5] Local economic conditions (such as ancestral debts owed to moneylenders) are thought to have contributed significantly to the rioting, especially with regard to the participation of the business competitors of local Jews and the participation of railroad workers. It has been argued that this was actually more important than rumours of Jewish responsibility for the death of the Tsar.[6] These rumours, however, were clearly of some importance, if only as a trigger, and they drew upon a small kernel of truth: one of the close associates of the assassins, Gesya Gelfman, was born into a Jewish home. The fact that the other assassins were all atheists and that the wider Jewish community had nothing to do with the assassination had little impact on the spread of such antisemitic rumours. Nonetheless, the assassination inspired “retaliatory” attacks on Jewish communities. During these pogroms thousands of Jewish homes were destroyed, many families were reduced to poverty, and large numbers of men, women, and children were injured in 166 towns in the southwest provinces of the Empire such as Ukraine. There also was a large pogrom on the night of 1516 April 1881 (the day of Eastern Orthodox Easter) in the city of Yelizavetgrad (now Kropyvnytskyi). On April 17 the Army units were dispatched and were forced to use firearms to extinguish the riot. However, that only incited the whole situation in the region and a week later series of pogroms rolled through parts of the Kherson Governorate. On April 26, 1881 even bigger disorder engulfed the city of Kiev. The Kiev pogrom of 1881 is considered the worst one that took place in 1881.[7] The pogroms of 1881 did not stop then. They continued on through the summer, spreading across a big territory of modern-day Ukraine: (Podolie Governorate, Volyn Governorate, Chernigov Governorate, Yekaterinoslav Governorate, and others). During these pogroms the first local Jewish self-defense organizations started to form, the most prominent one in Odessa. It was organized by the Jewish students of the Novorossiysk University. The new Tsar Alexander III initially blamed revolutionaries and the Jews themselves for the riots and in May 1882 issued the May Laws, a series of harsh restrictions on Jews. The pogroms continued for more than three years and were thought to have benefited from at least the tacit support of the authorities, although there were also attempts by the Russian government to end the rioting.[6] The pogroms and the official reaction to them led many Russian Jews to reassess their perceptions of their status within the Russian Empire, and so to significant Jewish emigration, mostly to the United States. These pogroms were referred to among Jews as the ‘storms in the negev’, negev being a Biblical word for the south. Changed perceptions among Russian Jews also indirectly gave a significant boost to the early Zionist movement.[8] At least 40 Jews were killed during pogroms during April to December 1881.[9] Of these, 17 were reportedly killed while being raped. An additional 225 incidents of Jewish women being raped were reported. The leaders of the Jewish community in London were slow to speak out. It was only after Louisa Goldsmid’s support following leadership from an anonymous writer named “Juriscontalus” and the editor of the Jewish Chronicle that action was taken in 1881. Public meetings were held across the country and Jewish and Christian leaders in Britain spoke out against the atrocities.[10] A much bloodier wave of pogroms broke out from 1903 to 1906, leaving an estimated 2,000 Jews dead and many more wounded, as the Jews took to arms to defend their families and property from the attackers. The 1905 pogrom against Jews in Odessa was the most serious pogrom of the period, with reports of up to 2,500 Jews killed.[11] The New York Times described the First Kishinev pogrom of Easter, 1903: “The anti-Jewish riots in Kishinev, Bessarabia [modern Moldova], are worse than the censor will permit to publish. There was a well laid-out plan for the general massacre of Jews on the day following the Orthodox Easter. The mob was led by priests, and the general cry, “Kill the Jews”, was taken up all over the city. The Jews were taken wholly unaware and were slaughtered like sheep. The dead number 120 [Note: the actual number of dead was 4748[12]] and the injured about 500. The scenes of horror attending this massacre are beyond description. Babies were literally torn to pieces by the frenzied and bloodthirsty mob. The local police made no attempt to check the reign of terror. At sunset the streets were piled with corpses and wounded. Those who could make their escape fled in terror, and the city is now practically deserted of Jews.”[13] This series of pogroms affected 64 towns (including Odessa, Yekaterinoslav, Kiev, Kishinev, Simferopol, Romny, Kremenchug, Nikolayev, Chernigov, Kamenets-Podolski, Yelizavetgrad), and 626 small towns (Russian: ) and villages, mostly in Ukraine and Bessarabia. Historians such as Edward Radzinsky suggest that many pogroms were incited by authorities, even if some happened spontaneously,[14] supported by the Tsarist Russian secret police (the Okhrana). Those perpetrators who were prosecuted usually received clemency by Tsar’s decree.[15] Even outside these main outbreaks, pogroms remained common; there was an anti-Jewish riot in Odessa in 1905 in which thousands were killed in total.[citation needed] The 1903 Kishinev pogrom, also known as the Kishinev Massacre, in present-day Moldova killed 4749 persons. It provoked an international outcry after it was publicized by The Times and The New York Times. There was a second, smaller Kishinev pogrom in 1905. A pogrom on July 20, 1905, in Yekaterinoslav (present-day Dnipro, Ukraine), was stopped by the Jewish self-defense group (one man in the group killed). On July 31, 1905, there was the first pogrom outside the Pale of Settlement, in the town of Makariev (near Nizhni Novgorod), where a patriotic procession led by the mayor turned violent. At a pogrom in Kerch in Crimea on 31 July 1905,[16] the mayor ordered the police to fire at the self-defence group, and two fighters were killed (one of them, P. Kirilenko, was a Ukrainian who joined the Jewish defence group). The pogrom was conducted by the port workers apparently brought in for the purpose. After the publication of the Tsar’s Manifesto of October 17, 1905, pogroms erupted in 660 towns mainly in the present-day Ukraine, in the Southern and Southeastern areas of the Pale of Settlement. In contrast, there were no pogroms either in present-day Poland or Lithuania. There were also very few incidents in Belarus or Russia proper. There were 24 pogroms outside of the Pale of Settlement, but those were directed at the revolutionaries rather than Jews. The greatest number of pogroms were registered in the Chernigov gubernia in northern Ukraine. The pogroms there in October 1905 took 800 Jewish lives, the material damages estimated at 70,000,000 rubles. 400 were killed in Odessa, over 150 in Rostov-on-Don, 67 in Yekaterinoslav, 54 in Minsk, 30 in Simferopolover 40, in Orshaover 30. In 1906, the pogroms continued: January in Gomel, June in Belostok (ca. 80 dead), in August in Siedlce (ca. 30 dead). The police and the military personnel were among the perpetrators. In many of these incidents the most prominent participants were railway workers, industrial workers, and small shopkeepers and craftsmen, and (if the town was a river port (e.g. Dnipro) or a seaport (e.g. Kerch)), waterfront workmen; peasants mainly joined in to loot.[17] The pogroms are generally thought to have been either organized or at least condoned by the authorities.[18][19][20][21] This view was challenged by Hans Rogger, I. Michael Aronson and John Klier, who couldn’t find such sanctions documented in the state archives.[22][23] However, the antisemitic policy that was carried out from 1881 to 1917 made them possible. Official persecution and harassment of Jews influenced numerous antisemites to presume that their violence was legitimate, and this sentiment was reinforced by the active participation of a few high and many minor officials in fomenting attacks, as well as by the reluctance of the government to stop pogroms and to punish those responsible for them. The pogroms of the 1880s caused a worldwide outcry and, along with harsh laws, propelled mass Jewish emigration. Two million Jews fled the Russian Empire between 1880 and 1914, with many going to the United Kingdom and United States. In reaction to the pogroms and other oppressions of the Tsarist period, Jews increasingly became politically active. Jewish participation in The General Jewish Labor Bund, colloquially known as The Bund, and in the Bolshevik movements, was directly influenced by the pogroms. Similarly, the organization of Jewish self-defense leagues (which stopped the pogromists in certain areas during the second Kishinev pogrom), such as Hovevei Zion, led to a strong embrace of Zionism, especially by Russian Jews. In 1903, Hebrew poet Hayyim Nahman Bialik wrote the poem In the City of Slaughter[24] in response to the Kishinev pogrom. Elie Wiesel’s The Trial of God depicts Jews fleeing a pogrom and setting up a fictitious “trial of God” for His negligence in not assisting them against the bloodthirsty mobs. In the end, it turns out that the mysterious stranger who has argued as God’s advocate is none other than Lucifer. The experience of a Russian Jew is also depicted in Elie Wiesel’s The Testament. A pogrom is one of the central events in the play Fiddler on the Roof, which is adapted from Russian author Sholem Aleichem’s Tevye the Dairyman stories. Aleichem writes about the pogroms in a story called “Lekh-Lekho”.[25] The famous Broadway musical and film Fiddler on the Roof showed the cruelty of the Russian pogroms on the Jews in Anatevka in the early 20th century. In the animated film An American Tail, set during and after the 1880s pogroms, Fievel and his family’s village is destroyed by a pogrom. (Fievel and his family are mice, and their Cossack attackers are cats.) The novel The Sacrifice by Adele Wiseman also deals with a family that is displaced after a pogrom in their home country and who emigrate to Canada after losing two sons to the riot and barely surviving themselves. The loss and murder of the sons haunts the entire story. Mark Twain gives graphic descriptions of the Russian pogroms in Reflections on Religion, Part 3, published in 1906.[26] Joseph Joffo describes the early history of his mother, a Jew in the Russia of Tsar Nicholas II, in the biographical ‘Anna and her Orchestra’. He describes the raids by Cossacks on Jewish quarters and the eventual retribution inflicted by Anna’s father and brothers on the Cossacks who murdered and burnt homes at the behest of the tsar. In Bernard Malamud’s novel The Fixer, set in Czarist Russia around 1911, a Russian-Jewish handyman, Yakov Bog, is wrongly imprisoned for a most unlikely crime. It was later made into a film directed by John Frankenheimer with a screenplay by Dalton Trumbo.

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December 11, 2016   Posted in: Anti-Jewish  Comments Closed

Patterns Of Anti-Jewish Violence In Poland, 1944-1946 …

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November 22, 2016   Posted in: Anti-Jewish  Comments Closed

International Jewish conspiracy – RationalWiki

The existence of an international Jewish conspiracy is an antisemitic canard which regularly features in various racist conspiracy theories. The blood libel, or conspiratorial slur that Jews kill gentile babies to use their blood in the preparation of Passover matzos, goes back to antiquity (even back to before the advent of Christianity). In medieval Europe, outbreaks of disease were commonly blamed on Jews poisoning wells, which led to pogroms, murders, and the Jews being forced by the governing authorities to live in segregated areas of cities called ghettos. It was only in modern times that the Catholic Church stopped assigning blame to the Jews for their purported deicide of Jesus Christ. In medieval Europe, Jews were accused of re-enacting Jesus’s crucifixion and death by stabbing or mutilating the host, which Catholics believe are transubstantiated into the body of Christ. In 1934, an American magazine published that Benjamin Franklin delivered an anti-Semitic speech at the 1787 Constitutional Convention urging that Jews not be admitted to the United States.[1] Franklin’s purported rationale included that Jews: refuse to assimilate wherever they move, are vampires who must live among Christians, will attempt to financially strangle the country, will stream into the United States in such numbers that they will take over and rule the country (Sound familiar?). Franklin’s so-called prophecy was allegedly recorded in a “private diary” of Charles Pinckney, Constitutional Convention delegate from South Carolina, that is now in the possession of the Franklin Institute. The Anti-Defamation League exposed the fraud in 1954, yet references to the “prophecy” still persist on neo-Nazi messageboards and on Usenet. The language is characteristic of late-nineteenth-century and early-twentieth century Antisemites and thus contains anachronisms that Franklin could have never written, [2] as Benjamin Franklin died in 1790. In addition Franklin himself was a contributor to the building fund for Congregation Mikveh Israel, Philadelphia’s oldest synagogue.[3] Similar anti-Semitic sentiments have been falsely ascribed to George Washington.[citationneeded] Like Franklin, George Washington was sympathetic to Jews — indeed, writing a sympathetic letter to a Jewish congregation in Rhode Island in 1790: … the Government of the United States … gives to bigotry no sanction, to persecution no assistance. … May the children of the Stock of Abraham, who dwell in this land, continue to merit and enjoy the good will of the other Inhabitants; while every one shall sit in safety under his own vine and fig tree, and there shall be none to make him afraid. May the father of all mercies scatter light and not darkness in our paths, and make us all in our several vocations useful here, and in his own due time and way everlastingly happy.” [4] However a lengthy segment of Thomas Paine’s famous tract some halfway through does go on a lengthy anti-Semitic tangent. Modern anti-Semitic conspiracy theories depicting an elaborate secret hierarchy of controlling Jewish influences largely take their cue from The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion, a 1903 tract purporting to be the manual of a Jewish secret society planning world domination. It is still widely circulated and occasionally cited as “evidence” by various clueless anti-Semites despite being exposed as a fraud as early as 1921. Max Weber (1864-1920), one of the founders of sociology, believed that antisemitism was abhorrent but also expressed concern that the over-representation of Jews in the leadership of European radical groups would inflame anti-Jewish sentiment.[5] Automobile manufacturer Henry Ford further popularized the conspiracy during the 1920s by publishing the Protocols and anti-Semitic articles in his newspaper, The Dearborn Independent, and distributing hundreds of thousands of copies of the Protocols. Ford’s anti-Semitic articles were later collected and published as a four-volume treatise entitled The International Jew: The World’s Foremost Problem.[6] Ford’s enthusiastic endorsement of an international Jewish conspiracy proved extremely popular in Weimar-era Germany. Ford provided substantial financial backing to Adolf Hitler in the 1920’s and his writings were a significant influence on the formation of the Nazi party and its grassroots support. By 1933, when the Nazi Party came to power in Germany, The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion was standard reading in German schools. Hitler admired Henry Ford and even emulated him by creating his own automobile, the Volkswagen. Hitler further propagated the Jewish conspiracy in Mein Kampf and other propaganda blaming Jews for the rise of both communism and capitalism, and for Germany’s economic decline following the First World War. Spanish fascist dictator Francisco Franco similarly believed in a conspiracy of Jews, Freemasons and communists intending to establish a world government. He often made reference to a vast “Judeo-Masonic conspiracy.”[7] Fundamentalist Christians of an anti-Semitic bent have promoted theories that intermingle the End Times with a worldwide Jewish conspiracy where the anti-Christ is believed to be a Jew. Perhaps the most popular promoter of this lunacy was Nazi sympathizer Gordon Winrod.[8] Winrod explained this brand of the conspiracy thusly: After the defeat of Nazi Germany, anti-Semitic conspiracy theories, along with anti-Semitism itself, have become increasingly marginalized. However, the myth of an international Jewish conspiracy remains common among right-wing conspiracy theorists, Neo-Nazis, some hardline communists, Islamic extremists, black supremacists and other racist lunatics, and has been further perpetuated in recent years by these lunatics’ rantings through the ease of posting on the Internet. In Mein Kampf, Hitler outlined the notion that Jews were the driving force behind both International Communism and International finance-capitalism. In Bobby Fischer’s later years, he became a very vocal believer that the Jews controlled the United States and that they should be rounded up, executed, and those that remain made slaves. Anti-communists in Europe and North America often associated Jews with Bolshevism, particularly European fascists, who believed that Jews were peddling Marxism, since the founder of Communism was Jewish and since several prominent Communist leaders during the Russian Revolution were Jewish, like Leon Trotsky. The advent of Rosa Luxemburg in Germany seemed to lend credence to this notion. David Duke also claims communism is a Jewish conspiracy.[10] This canard is also common in parts of the Islamic world, especially among Palestinian resistance movements. For example, the founding charter of Hamas asserts the existence of a Zionist conspiracy, working internationally through secret organizations such as the Freemasons as well as the government of Israel, and cites the Protocols of the Elders of Zion as the embodiment of their plans.[11] Anti-Semitic conspiracy theorists often focus on Zionism and the founding of Israel, or on denying the existence or scale of the Holocaust and claiming it is a myth fabricated or exaggerated to serve Jewish interests. Believers in an international conspiracy often claim that Jews are secretly running the United States government in collaboration with Israel. They point to examples of wealthy Jews in the financial sector and other industries (the Rothschild family regularly appears in these theories), and to the apparently disproportionate numbers of Jews involved in the movie industry in Hollywood. If it is even true that Jews are disproportionately represented in business, one must be careful to note that correlation does not equal causation. In the Western world until the 19th century, the largely Christian populations obeyed a religiously-motivated prohibition on charging interest on loans, with the role of banker historically falling on Jewish businessmen who were sometimes even specifically licensed by sovereigns to charge interest. To assume that the disproportionate number of Jews involved in finance proves they’re engaging in a Zionist conspiracy through manipulation of capitalism is to ignore the historic role of Jews in banking due to the Christian prohibition against usury. This is reflected in Shakespeare’s “The Merchant of Venice” where the villain Shylock is a Jewish money lender demanding the exorbitant price of a pound of flesh for defaulting on his loan. Individual theories vary widely. Many claim that “international Jewry” is in control of the Freemasons, Illuminati, and other real or perceived secret societies. Often the international Jewish conspiracy is portrayed as an active part of, or the major power behind, that greatest of all conspiracies, the New World Order. Various anti-Semitic 9/11 conspiracy theories sprang up in the wake of the 9/11 attacks – especially among Neo-Nazis and Islamists – claiming that a Jewish or Israeli conspiracy was behind the attacks, or that the whole incident was faked in order to serve Jewish and Zionist interests. A common myth, spread by racist websites and chain emails, is that hundreds or even thousands of Jewish employees in the World Trade Center were forewarned of the attacks missed work on September 11th 2001. Variations on these conspiracies that may not appear overtly anti-Semitic often have a latent Antisemitism about them as the words “Illuminati,” “New World Order,” “Zionists”, “international bankers,” “international monetary elite” and “financiers”, “Cultural Marxists”, “cultural elites” are Mad Libbed in for “Jews” and “international Jewry.” Much as many religious fundamentalists often use “Goddidit” to explain that which they cannot explain, conspiracy theorists will often use “Jewsdidit.”

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November 22, 2016   Posted in: Anti-Jewish  Comments Closed

The Top Ten Anti-Israel Groups in America – ADL

@kVy9Y!Cn~zUwsn+g4?H> H> H?A=7`| r{wpC,_=tb9lU.#Vqw’b*+_V}y3> |wpN> ~> 3[c1&}Ic1&}Ic1&}Ic1&}lmcb?c OSD> 9A~|1″ ;|j M#L}NMy@S )6rA.ua/a_%”5k Q++DmQbkeUSZX0$V3Z)&C+%bD14eY,gY8`YgY8Y%,qe,4o1+Z_tU$_YPF(7{xT,jQhfh^Wil@1A[5^??5hk4 MWhosi:f}AW5 mqg4I{_kN^^O^;T/4r+YnE-] 0Fjfbb LF4> 4H1Iv{ACZ]$P&ki]grPz5^~2G+Z5 9=Lh e!-FT~c:XR(sOr7dj}u4~7&CyM}S=rmad+q8K|L){ZIKWF ixD{“yxAflF}(b= -q.z.bt597Z4I0Rl-l”(G%yFbV]q_z-xxL]1`%jS#}e$xLpI”SzV-#4.&d^ x6fnz4Ez@UA96> (cr+f1q}lY.(AL+Ba(‘y#N1IB*~5s{M%Ya4> Z(Mmt`hbxnm3%9VrJ7[_#ckU^~P MD{X4O6Lxk`|Uaxm’`L”oc4FnMB&?MFht)m57EOz-~,&fzHUx7 1@WGa!S4s’CTx8 &&QaNZwxx4t hn /A Z!1Oo, 8nay’hD| M9&ZI&9,|*]n> 5A6DH I[R*vtfv~s),IwkNC~`FlWzSPmtO}4|v?/F|(~> P;U@%pI4@s#N BXHb{^}h> > =i0D=MQigDGwMM]isKK1~Kj(,|`Mvp/ ‘n}RJDHon/-&(?b$ A)7*SaM=bH+J@t+t#6(Fb-Y[YWWO` GNbB6+3,{_{ bM~C8`S^15R+ G) ?Q3k0.w9qU5:QWPYjYC]VSRqbJT5{[xZ[~zx+95X$qu;^KWWx^_^xx x gSa x ^ ^mx^?’kxx} F9$5> ^GW |e)-5xzGWJ. x}x ^^bpL^^kj^[“:w/ dp-fx}x-^+*x^:~~ AFT:U9)[zrQ]/?j^1znuZw9> _^k3^^OJ$4Y^xm^_^^=JF,U^^n]uxuUUbzS? *W5Z Wxm^{A”zx ^^atSXsP^^^wsk%z x^7 xx]^9u#GWxWzxOux]iM7( ^> x5v^7;kxx];qb:U6=}q^k/zx> !:^^9NYc5a&*cfCxm^{xyK^^’DR*)[yDWbY &qbFTCXg8_E:AdTjI jn[W^vuX0N;s.cmck ?V^1I9k2)L*L(Mw(2MS4}^cZMA5aJI j]Gu> e;,?n;fTRYYzT}+T1oim`uu’ ZUa55`/|)m`X O[mj? /x+]xUWWp”kmWn%bApV:.T}3R#xj:q{$^wwH7Mzcg2=a21QQG{oo]j(> MY0TIjFfQ6UTolfEMlfT$#W3[46[Sy’oX;`54}!4/~d-zimO=x3.^w6+$6a0`f0> @(&5TJ1(Fc(VzbtMUVbsxzn:Z+gzMu*RCVr%4p:R]g )++d3+6+)C,&JC k8’GnGaf^CVkM_qz@@D-5drb3#|^}ABwrJ*0*xlas@|05@E(0Qs=`4!`F0-$> =p/-G!}=z#”,um8pLEUkkNFq8Bp4pS0)bxT61HbtFG$=k}V.nRK%RS#_”)66aYD$BfE$H.a/9WQ)}n_~XJSJ:}bV,tWEel.44;xm^]0YIM5MRI^NB|v^YN X9XOKk;-N2.i}h,aFBUG 2@G[HE:Bax,aa|’ EOwO> iv2XDs-4UU8^yv(FUao7#ktMd[uHB@hL/uX:]]9XeMPS5a)nwCN> > /8o/Z1_K6 s$gwiEH[Rn$IXK&VVK7H’L’1p;!:M3c’Y{ NxPi’U%QsJ]p;tG{Qn$|ivs_UB^q.v:Iw{{{{Os{|PWq %”`={O> MK8I~yw2T|yUW;~TWnn{m_!:BY547|.wXn?> +(}'(}#D}’I7w73-[!3!s!wC*!@,|q! _,5uOCsgJ{rD.wC@@95]> $yC@$/ =aH.DQ 1″L3LA q’@d;i|;7-P){/&s&Izw-U$jAJAqA4ZqA%( VPDcimKNkimlkJ:c:$MQC}~s9s> =Xw})> ]z}GoasX%xiZ!9t;-“|,2cYHA+zw > vs4v> o ap8ppfh0B5Nlp> B]/B!:]^K1qqq% ZqqZg*wUnq{`O|NUXAgorcv;wa)=hJ8P~2p-10rF.F~ R{WycW|XG(ZoixyA?[cZw=!> tp.:Eh7trA.:Eh’t0c@#b+G;|%3> /v(gS|)N+3Eg ]oo0,jvVi9:kf|ac7zBg5Fhu:WhZ6o4]w~V(@U3QG-n5_”~;p(Dyn&}U~}~CW6+4)p@ySK /0):{?bINloxzlC|}O*Xa#vy;rNyn)us;{r9_-FO/W_Vfyn7,0 {LKKl/ nTb)u{M0p8 #X Y~&d”s”wDy)_l9vg 7utbk=)v2X!cC.G(VyQ0Fw1cw.D= ^?UB.Qct{+OdytsLD9Y}9?qq6|?WUa}U x WOd}G]C=Q3t`~W> EJq^FVO3^EN_3u> eW@7w=c=?lzZyl^Lh78hC?BGlzlA pA4nU?h~?T//+u0J,hR]=Sy#RbDU+v?x9[lI-i%-=-5i&{w9> 9+*gEeJ^+v7vr,qtn> krrAuuZYHMza|1-{gtm ~ZRp]Ha’RyGag8+{NWDFFvUnq{`O|OB(I^jb}[z|5@k77Wx^{Vo+uOyT#qqv^n+}V63##1q$Qw lwq#.vnTJQi7*Fv,~`#p,8’bN8a r1.)Wj:w=n,`6″7-XEc5> 0+fvnVJYi7+fw5kFn7rlC9rv,IK&*X o)b[[zN3=D[G0,l9qC N 1UPE;UG9]=0pJO> RtuG:0O|&Qan_q8q._|x.0qqg|wY7;[/oX;oT|E})%-5G+=~ IRK/WY`oR/(+`78=’w9s”q_q |*AJ^XlvVn|1.eVYUau]eQ1asGF’Fu|B0HNq|!.*4rqoq[!1l[|Fpowb R{{{X0;w'[#[G6:T7g|Y WL+Wfy2;b”bSm |?=vrG X!v}~KK; k:[Q .6DqC|N$ogp~”sH+b_blnx*lNlv$qmX.(sg^J;OL> pI”acbpfbpZbpY(1a:> cN=S }sL*W85~SOu}> )9PAv$> ]a^s9G39mc9N|jI8Y}M8.qjV]|c@EX%q)i2_rW|%!_Iux}X8> G`#pE2@> i> %c5/H0*lM^6′ ; 37@B}nMQ[UEbt1ygXNM[=mpfpZr!4pYv7MQ|K{?d^&cC”‘U$3v”RF4j- QZ4ZEh2QF4F(#eDh$5&O]y*pg8+OsWpV;3;3;3;3;3;3{1^s%9p+n9p7pp&3x1pVG,[p!A/inm7eYKn7kff-,2,,rY=7fnfyn/5rZn,p&nY=7fynfml 7kfl7fYp%s Yq%5r Yq%5r snnfyn5qFnf-l 7kfM1q’V3;K99vypnKn,Y7kflGp,GqGi(/pFRQj9Jd9JKGi(tpGq4rz2tr Hq{|{L2]|OxsZukC{Bc=1Z] ;0n9l~2lX}8Q?z,d=fo~/YeF);vMsnCOiy1> “vX= {M)]_8UF7 ..’qv> ##xcx)y”= byOe9zx> ;p-)q> ee`?> q^:> {AReep~> ‘l?)2NE{ s!|dHjsl`xqvG/q^p{wy/!g92YOPcF.E ^Ov4B ;1|{> O~”!ygS/l_rK/Qn@A +9@XN qB=J{0ru!VC8[Bn !RQ> Gvk}}79=z@8#shu`F6;ez]RBcZ} ;s> ^%o?pfmxE.!=KCmy3E|npwcq’eC`}0b zb^/'(y’+jgY{| p|?xM[w-Q6vqRgN]

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October 25, 2016   Posted in: Anti-Jewish  Comments Closed

Antisemitism – Wikipedia

Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.[1][2][3] A person who holds such positions is called an antisemite. Antisemitism is widely considered to be a form of racism.[4][5] The root word Semite gives the false impression that antisemitism is directed against all Semitic people. However, the compound word antisemite was popularized in Germany in 1879 as a scientific-sounding term for Judenhass “Jew-hatred”,[11] and that has been its common use since then.[13] Antisemitism may be manifested in many ways, ranging from expressions of hatred of or discrimination against individual Jews to organized pogroms by mobs, state police, or even military attacks on entire Jewish communities. Although the term did not come into common usage until the 19th century, it is now also applied to historic anti-Jewish incidents. Notable instances of persecution include the Rhineland massacres preceding the First Crusade in 1096, the Edict of Expulsion from England in 1290, the massacres of Spanish Jews in 1391, the persecutions of the Spanish Inquisition, the expulsion from Spain in 1492, the Cossack massacres in Ukraine from 1648 to 1657, various anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire between 1821 and 1906, the 18941906 Dreyfus affair in France, the Holocaust in German-occupied Europe, official Soviet anti-Jewish policies, and Arab and Muslim involvement in the Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries. The origin of “antisemitic” terminologies is found in the responses of Moritz Steinschneider to the views of Ernest Renan. As Alex Bein writes: “The compound anti-Semitism appears to have been used first by Steinschneider, who challenged Renan on account of his ‘anti-Semitic prejudices’ [i.e., his derogation of the “Semites” as a race].”[14]Avner Falk similarly writes: ‘The German word antisemitisch was first used in 1860 by the Austrian Jewish scholar Moritz Steinschneider (1816-1907) in the phrase antisemitische Vorurteile (antisemitic prejudices). Steinschneider used this phrase to characterise the French philosopher Ernest Renan’s false ideas about how “Semitic races” were inferior to “Aryan races”‘.[15] Pseudoscientific theories concerning race, civilization, and “progress” had become quite widespread in Europe in the second half of the 19th century, especially as Prussian nationalistic historian Heinrich von Treitschke did much to promote this form of racism. He coined the phrase “the Jews are our misfortune” which would later be widely used by Nazis.[16] According to Avner Falk, Treitschke uses the term “Semitic” almost synonymously with “Jewish”, in contrast to Renan’s use of it to refer to a whole range of peoples,[17] based generally on linguistic criteria.[18] According to Jonathan M. Hess, the term was originally used by its authors to “stress the radical difference between their own ‘antisemitism’ and earlier forms of antagonism toward Jews and Judaism.”[19] In 1879 German journalist Wilhelm Marr published a pamphlet, Der Sieg des Judenthums ber das Germanenthum. Vom nicht confessionellen Standpunkt aus betrachtet (The Victory of the Jewish Spirit over the Germanic Spirit. Observed from a non-religious perspective) in which he used the word Semitismus interchangeably with the word Judentum to denote both “Jewry” (the Jews as a collective) and “jewishness” (the quality of being Jewish, or the Jewish spirit).[20][21][22] This use of Semitismus was followed by a coining of “Antisemitismus” which was used to indicate opposition to the Jews as a people[citation needed] and opposition to the Jewish spirit, which Marr interpreted as infiltrating German culture. His next pamphlet, Der Weg zum Siege des Germanenthums ber das Judenthum (The Way to Victory of the Germanic Spirit over the Jewish Spirit, 1880), presents a development of Marr’s ideas further and may present the first published use of the German word Antisemitismus, “antisemitism”. The pamphlet became very popular, and in the same year he founded the Antisemiten-Liga (League of Antisemites),[23] apparently named to follow the “Anti-Kanzler-Liga” (Anti-Chancellor League).[24] The league was the first German organization committed specifically to combating the alleged threat to Germany and German culture posed by the Jews and their influence, and advocating their forced removal from the country. So far as can be ascertained, the word was first widely printed in 1881, when Marr published Zwanglose Antisemitische Hefte, and Wilhelm Scherer used the term Antisemiten in the January issue of Neue Freie Presse. The Jewish Encyclopedia reports, “In February 1881, a correspondent of the Allgemeine Zeitung des Judentums speaks of ‘Anti-Semitism’ as a designation which recently came into use (“Allg. Zeit. d. Jud.” 1881, p.138). On 19 July 1882, the editor says, ‘This quite recent Anti-Semitism is hardly three years old.'”[25] The related term “philosemitism” was coined around 1885.[citation needed] From the outset the term anti-Semitism bore special racial connotations and meant specifically prejudice against Jews.[2][13] The term is confusing, for in modern usage ‘Semitic’ designates a language group, not a race. In this sense, the term is a misnomer, since there are many speakers of Semitic languages (e.g. Arabs, Ethiopians, and Assyrians) who are not the objects of anti-Semitic prejudices, while there are many Jews who do not speak Hebrew, a Semitic language. Though ‘antisemitism’ has been used to describe bigotry against people who speak other Semitic languages, the validity of such usage has been questioned.[26][27][28] The term may be spelled with or without a hyphen (antisemitism or anti-Semitism). Some scholars favor the unhyphenated form because, “If you use the hyphenated form, you consider the words ‘Semitism’, ‘Semite’, ‘Semitic’ as meaningful” whereas “in antisemitic parlance, ‘Semites’ really stands for Jews, just that.”[29][30][31][32] For example, Emil Fackenheim supported the unhyphenated spelling, in order to “[dispel] the notion that there is an entity ‘Semitism’ which ‘anti-Semitism’ opposes.”[33] Others endorsing an unhyphenated term for the same reason include Padraic O’Hare, professor of Religious and Theological Studies and Director of the Center for the Study of Jewish-Christian-Muslim Relations at Merrimack College; Yehuda Bauer, professor of Holocaust Studies at the Avraham Harman Institute of Contemporary Jewry at Hebrew University of Jerusalem; and James Carroll, historian and novelist. According to Carroll, who first cites O’Hare and Bauer on “the existence of something called ‘Semitism'”, “the hyphenated word thus reflects the bipolarity that is at the heart of the problem of antisemitism”.[34] Objections to the usage of the term, such as the obsolete nature of the term Semitic as a racial term, have been raised since at least the 1930s.[24][35] Though the general definition of antisemitism is hostility or prejudice against Jews, and, according to Olaf Blaschke, has become an “umbrella term for negative stereotypes about Jews”,[36] a number of authorities have developed more formal definitions. Holocaust scholar and City University of New York professor Helen Fein defines it as “a persisting latent structure of hostile beliefs towards Jews as a collective manifested in individuals as attitudes, and in culture as myth, ideology, folklore and imagery, and in actionssocial or legal discrimination, political mobilization against the Jews, and collective or state violencewhich results in and/or is designed to distance, displace, or destroy Jews as Jews.” Elaborating on Fein’s definition, Dietz Bering of the University of Cologne writes that, to antisemites, “Jews are not only partially but totally bad by nature, that is, their bad traits are incorrigible. Because of this bad nature: (1) Jews have to be seen not as individuals but as a collective. (2) Jews remain essentially alien in the surrounding societies. (3) Jews bring disaster on their ‘host societies’ or on the whole world, they are doing it secretly, therefore the anti-Semites feel obliged to unmask the conspiratorial, bad Jewish character.”[37] For Sonja Weinberg, as distinct from economic and religious anti-Judaism, antisemitism in its modern form shows conceptual innovation, a resort to ‘science’ to defend itself, new functional forms and organisational differences. It was anti-liberal, racialist and nationalist. It promoted the myth that Jews conspired to ‘judaise’ the world; it served to consolidate social identity; it channeled dissatisfactions among victims of the capitalist system; and it was used as a conservative cultural code to fight emancipation and liberalism.[38] Bernard Lewis defines antisemitism as a special case of prejudice, hatred, or persecution directed against people who are in some way different from the rest. According to Lewis, antisemitism is marked by two distinct features: Jews are judged according to a standard different from that applied to others, and they are accused of “cosmic evil.” Thus, “it is perfectly possible to hate and even to persecute Jews without necessarily being anti-Semitic” unless this hatred or persecution displays one of the two features specific to antisemitism.[39] There have been a number of efforts by international and governmental bodies to define antisemitism formally. The United States Department of State states that “while there is no universally accepted definition, there is a generally clear understanding of what the term encompasses.” For the purposes of its 2005 Report on Global Anti-Semitism, the term was considered to mean “hatred toward Jewsindividually and as a groupthat can be attributed to the Jewish religion and/or ethnicity.”[40] In 2005, the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (now Fundamental Rights Agency), then an agency of the European Union, developed a more detailed working definition, which states: “Antisemitism is a certain perception of Jews, which may be expressed as hatred toward Jews. Rhetorical and physical manifestations of antisemitism are directed toward Jewish or non-Jewish individuals and/or their property, toward Jewish community institutions and religious facilities.” It also adds that “such manifestations could also target the state of Israel, conceived as a Jewish collectivity,” but that “criticism of Israel similar to that leveled against any other country cannot be regarded as antisemitic.” It provides contemporary examples of ways in which antisemitism may manifest itself, including: promoting the harming of Jews in the name of an ideology or religion; promoting negative stereotypes of Jews; holding Jews collectively responsible for the actions of an individual Jewish person or group; denying the Holocaust or accusing Jews or Israel of exaggerating it; and accusing Jews of dual loyalty or a greater allegiance to Israel than their own country. It also lists ways in which attacking Israel could be antisemitic, and states that denying the Jewish people their right to self-determination, e.g. by claiming that the existence of a state of Israel is a racist endeavor, can be a manifestation of antisemitismas can applying double standards by requiring of Israel a behavior not expected or demanded of any other democratic nation, or holding Jews collectively responsible for the actions of the State of Israel.[41] Late in 2013, the definition was removed from the website of the Fundamental Rights Agency. A spokesperson said that it had never been regarded as official and that the agency did not intend to develop its own definition.[42] However, despite its disappearance from the website of the Fundamental Rights Agency, the definition has gained widespread international use. The definition has been adopted by the European Parliament Working Group on Antisemitism,[43] in 2010 it was adopted by the United States Department of State,[44] in 2014 it was adopted in the Operational Hate Crime Guidance of the UK College of Policing[45] and was also adopted by the Campaign Against Antisemitism,[46] and in 2016 it was adopted by the 31 member states of the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance,[47] making it the most widely adopted definition of antisemitism around the world. In 1879, Wilhelm Marr founded the Antisemiten-Liga (Anti-Semitic League).[48] Identification with antisemitism and as an antisemite was politically advantageous in Europe during the late 19th century. For example, Karl Lueger, the popular mayor of fin de sicle Vienna, skillfully exploited antisemitism as a way of channeling public discontent to his political advantage.[49] In its 1910 obituary of Lueger, The New York Times notes that Lueger was “Chairman of the Christian Social Union of the Parliament and of the Anti-Semitic Union of the Diet of Lower Austria.[50] In 1895 A. C. Cuza organized the Alliance Anti-semitique Universelle in Bucharest. In the period before World War II, when animosity towards Jews was far more commonplace, it was not uncommon for a person, an organization, or a political party to self-identify as an antisemite or antisemitic. In 1882, the early Zionist pioneer Judah Leib Pinsker wrote that antisemitism was a psychological response rooted in fear and was an inherited predisposition. He named the condition Judeophobia.[51] Judeophobia is a variety of demonopathy with the distinction that it is not peculiar to particular races but is common to the whole of mankind.’…’Judeophobia is a psychic aberration. As a psychic aberration it is hereditary, and as a disease transmitted for two thousand years it is incurable.’… ‘In this way have Judaism and Anti-Semitism passed for centuries through history as inseparable companions.’……’Having analyzed Judeophobia as an hereditary form of demonopathy, peculiar to the human race, and having represented Anti-Semitism as proceeding from an inherited aberration of the human mind, we must draw the important conclusion that we must give’ up contending against these hostile impulses as we must against every other inherited predisposition. (translation from German)[52] In the aftermath of the Kristallnacht pogrom in 1938, German propaganda minister Goebbels announced: “The German people is anti-Semitic. It has no desire to have its rights restricted or to be provoked in the future by parasites of the Jewish race.”[53] After the 1945 victory of the Allies over Nazi Germany, and particularly after the full extent of the Nazi genocide against the Jews became known, the term “anti-Semitism” acquired pejorative connotations. This marked a full circle shift in usage, from an era just decades earlier when “Jew” was used as a pejorative term.[54][55] Yehuda Bauer wrote in 1984: “There are no anti-Semites in the world… Nobody says, ‘I am anti-Semitic.’ You cannot, after Hitler. The word has gone out of fashion.”[56] Antisemitism manifests itself in a variety of ways. Ren Knig mentions social antisemitism, economic antisemitism, religious antisemitism, and political antisemitism as examples. Knig points out that these different forms demonstrate that the “origins of anti-Semitic prejudices are rooted in different historical periods.” Knig asserts that differences in the chronology of different antisemitic prejudices and the irregular distribution of such prejudices over different segments of the population create “serious difficulties in the definition of the different kinds of anti-Semitism.”[57] These difficulties may contribute to the existence of different taxonomies that have been developed to categorize the forms of antisemitism. The forms identified are substantially the same; it is primarily the number of forms and their definitions that differ. Bernard Lazare identifies three forms of antisemitism: Christian antisemitism, economic antisemitism, and ethnologic antisemitism.[58]William Brustein names four categories: religious, racial, economic and political.[59] The Roman Catholic historian Edward Flannery distinguished four varieties of antisemitism:[60] Louis Harap separates “economic antisemitism” and merges “political” and “nationalistic” antisemitism into “ideological antisemitism”. Harap also adds a category of “social antisemitism”.[66] Gustavo Perednik has argued that what he terms “Judeophobia” has a number of unique traits which set it apart from other forms of racism, including permanence, depth, obsessiveness, irrationality, endurance, ubiquity, and danger.[67] He also wrote in his book The Judeophobia that “The Jews were accused by the nationalists of being the creators of Communism; by the Communists of ruling Capitalism. If they live in non-Jewish countries, they are accused of double-loyalties; if they live in the Jewish country, of being racists. When they spend their money, they are reproached for being ostentatious; when they don’t spend their money, of being avaricious. They are called rootless cosmopolitans or hardened chauvinists. If they assimilate, they are accused of being fifth-columnists, if they don’t, of shutting themselves away.”[68][69] Louis Harap defines cultural antisemitism as “that species of anti-Semitism that charges the Jews with corrupting a given culture and attempting to supplant or succeeding in supplanting the preferred culture with a uniform, crude, “Jewish” culture.[70] Similarly, Eric Kandel characterizes cultural antisemitism as being based on the idea of “Jewishness” as a “religious or cultural tradition that is acquired through learning, through distinctive traditions and education.” According to Kandel, this form of antisemitism views Jews as possessing “unattractive psychological and social characteristics that are acquired through acculturation.”[71] Niewyk and Nicosia characterize cultural antisemitism as focusing on and condemning “the Jews’ aloofness from the societies in which they live.”[72] An important feature of cultural antisemitism is that it considers the negative attributes of Judaism to be redeemable by education or by religious conversion.[73] Religious antisemitism, also known as anti-Judaism, is antipathy towards Jews because of their perceived religious beliefs. In theory, antisemitism and attacks against individual Jews would stop if Jews stopped practicing Judaism or changed their public faith, especially by conversion to the official or right religion. However, in some cases discrimination continues after conversion, as in the case of Christianized Marranos or Iberian Jews in the late 15th century and 16th century who were suspected of secretly practising Judaism or Jewish customs.[60] Although the origins of antisemitism are rooted in the Judeo-Christian conflict, other forms of antisemitism have developed in modern times. Frederick Schweitzer asserts that, “most scholars ignore the Christian foundation on which the modern antisemitic edifice rests and invoke political antisemitism, cultural antisemitism, racism or racial antisemitism, economic antisemitism and the like.”[74] William Nichols draws a distinction between religious antisemitism and modern antisemitism based on racial or ethnic grounds: “The dividing line was the possibility of effective conversion… a Jew ceased to be a Jew upon baptism.” From the perspective of racial antisemitism, however, “… the assimilated Jew was still a Jew, even after baptism…. From the Enlightenment onward, it is no longer possible to draw clear lines of distinction between religious and racial forms of hostility towards Jews… Once Jews have been emancipated and secular thinking makes its appearance, without leaving behind the old Christian hostility towards Jews, the new term antisemitism becomes almost unavoidable, even before explicitly racist doctrines appear.” The underlying premise of economic antisemitism is that Jews perform harmful economic activities or that economic activities become harmful when they are performed by Jews.[75] Linking Jews and money underpins the most damaging and lasting Antisemitic canards.[76] Antisemites claim that Jews control the world finances, a theory promoted in the fraudulent Protocols of the Elders of Zion, and later repeated by Henry Ford and his Dearborn Independent. In the modern era, such myths continue to be spread in books such as The Secret Relationship Between Blacks and Jews published by the Nation of Islam, and on the internet. Derek Penslar writes that there are two components to the financial canards:[77] Abraham Foxman describes six facets of the financial canards: Gerald Krefetz summarizes the myth as “[Jews] control the banks, the money supply, the economy, and businessesof the community, of the country, of the world”.[84] Krefetz gives, as illustrations, many slurs and proverbs (in several different languages) which suggest that Jews are stingy, or greedy, or miserly, or aggressive bargainers.[85] During the nineteenth century, Jews were described as “scurrilous, stupid, and tight-fisted”, but after the Jewish Emancipation and the rise of Jews to the middle- or upper-class in Europe were portrayed as “clever, devious, and manipulative financiers out to dominate [world finances]”.[86] Lon Poliakov asserts that economic antisemitism is not a distinct form of antisemitism, but merely a manifestation of theologic antisemitism (because, without the theological causes of the economic antisemitism, there would be no economic antisemitism). In opposition to this view, Derek Penslar contends that in the modern era, the economic antisemitism is “distinct and nearly constant” but theological antisemitism is “often subdued”.[87] An academic study by Francesco DAcunto, Marcel Prokopczuk, and Michael Weber showed that people who live in areas of Germany that contain the most brutal history of anti-Semitic persecution are more likely to be distrustful of finance in general. Therefore, they tended to invest less money in the stock market and make poor financial decisions. The study concluded “that the persecution of minorities reduces not only the long-term wealth of the persecuted, but of the persecutors as well.”[88] Racial antisemitism is prejudice against Jews as a racial/ethnic group, rather than Judaism as a religion.[89] Racial antisemitism is the idea that the Jews are a distinct and inferior race compared to their host nations. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, it gained mainstream acceptance as part of the eugenics movement, which categorized non-Europeans as inferior. It more specifically claimed that Northern Europeans, or “Aryans”, were superior. Racial antisemites saw the Jews as part of a Semitic race and emphasized their non-European origins and culture. They saw Jews as beyond redemption even if they converted to the majority religion.[citation needed] Racial antisemitism replaced the hatred of Judaism with the hatred of Jews as a group. In the context of the Industrial Revolution, following the Jewish Emancipation, Jews rapidly urbanized and experienced a period of greater social mobility. With the decreasing role of religion in public life tempering religious antisemitism, a combination of growing nationalism, the rise of eugenics, and resentment at the socio-economic success of the Jews led to the newer, and more virulent, racist antisemitism.[citation needed] According to William Nichols, religious antisemitism may be distinguished from modern antisemitism based on racial or ethnic grounds. “The dividing line was the possibility of effective conversion… a Jew ceased to be a Jew upon baptism.” However, with racial antisemitism, “Now the assimilated Jew was still a Jew, even after baptism…. From the Enlightenment onward, it is no longer possible to draw clear lines of distinction between religious and racial forms of hostility towards Jews… Once Jews have been emancipated and secular thinking makes its appearance, without leaving behind the old Christian hostility towards Jews, the new term antisemitism becomes almost unavoidable, even before explicitly racist doctrines appear.”[90] In the early 19th century, a number of laws enabling emancipation of the Jews were enacted in Western European countries.[91][92] The old laws restricting them to ghettos, as well as the many laws that limited their property rights, rights of worship and occupation, were rescinded. Despite this, traditional discrimination and hostility to Jews on religious grounds persisted and was supplemented by racial antisemitism, encouraged by the work of racial theorists such as Joseph Arthur de Gobineau and particularly his Essay on the Inequality of the Human Race of 18535. Nationalist agendas based on ethnicity, known as ethnonationalism, usually excluded the Jews from the national community as an alien race.[93] Allied to this were theories of Social Darwinism, which stressed a putative conflict between higher and lower races of human beings. Such theories, usually posited by northern Europeans, advocated the superiority of white Aryans to Semitic Jews.[94] William Brustein defines political antisemitism as hostility toward Jews based on the belief that Jews seek national and/or world power.” Yisrael Gutman characterizes political antisemitism as tending to “lay responsibility on the Jews for defeats and political economic crises” while seeking to “exploit opposition and resistance to Jewish influence as elements in political party platforms.”[96] According to Viktor Kardy, political antisemitism became widespread after the legal emancipation of the Jews and sought to reverse some of the consequences of that emancipation. [97] Holocaust denial and Jewish conspiracy theories are also considered forms of antisemitism.[98][99][100][101][102][102][103][104]Zoological conspiracy theories have been propagated by the Arab media and Arabic language websites, alleging a “Zionist plot” behind the use of animals to attack civilians or to conduct espionage.[105] Starting in the 1990s, some scholars have advanced the concept of new antisemitism, coming simultaneously from the left, the right, and radical Islam, which tends to focus on opposition to the creation of a Jewish homeland in the State of Israel,[106] and they argue that the language of anti-Zionism and criticism of Israel are used to attack Jews more broadly. In this view, the proponents of the new concept believe that criticisms of Israel and Zionism are often disproportionate in degree and unique in kind, and they attribute this to antisemitism. Jewish scholar Gustavo Perednik has posited that anti-Zionism in itself represents a form of discrimination against Jews, in that it singles out Jewish national aspirations as an illegitimate and racist endeavor, and “proposes actions that would result in the death of millions of Jews”.[107] It is asserted that the new antisemitism deploys traditional antisemitic motifs, including older motifs such as the blood libel.[106] Critics of the concept view it as trivializing the meaning of antisemitism, and as exploiting antisemitism in order to silence debate and to deflect attention from legitimate criticism of the State of Israel, and, by associating anti-Zionism with antisemitism, misused to taint anyone opposed to Israeli actions and policies.[108] German indologists arbitrarily identified “layers” in the Mahabharata and Bhagavad Gita with the objective of fueling European anti-Semitism via the Indo-Aryan migration theory.[109] This identification required equating Brahmins with Jews, resulting in anti-Brahmanism.[109] Many authors see the roots of modern antisemitism in both pagan antiquity and early Christianity. Jerome Chanes identifies six stages in the historical development of antisemitism:[110] Chanes suggests that these six stages could be merged into three categories: “ancient antisemitism, which was primarily ethnic in nature; Christian antisemitism, which was religious; and the racial antisemitism of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.”[111] The first clear examples of anti-Jewish sentiment can be traced back to Alexandria in the 3rd century BCE.[60] Alexandria was home to the largest Jewish diaspora community in the world at the time and the Septuagint, a Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, was produced there. Manetho, an Egyptian priest and historian of that era, wrote scathingly of the Jews. His themes are repeated in the works of Chaeremon, Lysimachus, Poseidonius, Apollonius Molon, and in Apion and Tacitus.[112]Agatharchides of Cnidus ridiculed the practices of the Jews and the “absurdity of their Law”, making a mocking reference to how Ptolemy Lagus was able to invade Jerusalem in 320 BCE because its inhabitants were observing the Shabbat.[112] One of the earliest anti-Jewish edicts, promulgated by Antiochus IV Epiphanes in about 170167 BCE, sparked a revolt of the Maccabees in Judea. In view of Manetho’s anti-Jewish writings, antisemitism may have originated in Egypt and been spread by “the Greek retelling of Ancient Egyptian prejudices”.[113] The ancient Jewish philosopher Philo of Alexandria describes an attack on Jews in Alexandria in 38 CE in which thousands of Jews died.[114][115] The violence in Alexandria may have been caused by the Jews being portrayed as misanthropes.[116] Tcherikover argues that the reason for hatred of Jews in the Hellenistic period was their separateness in the Greek cities, the poleis.[117] Bohak has argued, however, that early animosity against the Jews cannot be regarded as being anti-Judaic or antisemitic unless it arose from attitudes that were held against the Jews alone, and that many Greeks showed animosity toward any group they regarded as barbarians.[118] Statements exhibiting prejudice against Jews and their religion can be found in the works of many pagan Greek and Roman writers.[119] Edward Flannery writes that it was the Jews’ refusal to accept Greek religious and social standards that marked them out. Hecataetus of Abdera, a Greek historian of the early third century BCE, wrote that Moses “in remembrance of the exile of his people, instituted for them a misanthropic and inhospitable way of life.” Manetho, an Egyptian historian, wrote that the Jews were expelled Egyptian lepers who had been taught by Moses “not to adore the gods.” Edward Flannery describes antisemitism in ancient times as essentially “cultural, taking the shape of a national xenophobia played out in political settings.”[60] There are examples of Hellenistic rulers desecrating the Temple and banning Jewish religious practices, such as circumcision, Shabbat observance, study of Jewish religious books, etc. Examples may also be found in anti-Jewish riots in Alexandria in the 3rd century BCE. The Jewish diaspora on the Nile island Elephantine, which was founded by mercenaries, experienced the destruction of its temple in 410 BCE.[120] Relationships between the Jewish people and the occupying Roman Empire were at times antagonistic and resulted in several rebellions. According to Suetonius, the emperor Tiberius expelled from Rome Jews who had gone to live there. The 18th-century English historian Edward Gibbon identified a more tolerant period in Roman-Jewish relations beginning in about 160 CE.[60] However, when Christianity became the state religion of the Roman Empire, the state’s attitude towards the Jews gradually worsened. James Carroll asserted: “Jews accounted for 10% of the total population of the Roman Empire. By that ratio, if other factors such as pogroms and conversions had not intervened, there would be 200 million Jews in the world today, instead of something like 13 million.”[121][122] In the late 6th century CE, the newly Catholicised Visigothic kingdom in Hispania issued a series of anti-Jewish edicts which forbad Jews from marrying Christians, practicing circumcision, and observing Jewish holy days.[123] Continuing throughout the 7th century, both Visigothic kings and the Church were active in creating social aggression and towards Jews with “civic and ecclesiastic punishments”,[124] ranging between forced conversion, slavery, exile and death.[125] From the 9th century, the medieval Islamic world classified Jews (and Christians) as dhimmi, and allowed Jews to practice their religion more freely than they could do in medieval Christian Europe. Under Islamic rule, there was a Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain that lasted until at least the 11th century.[126] It ended when several Muslim pogroms against Jews took place on the Iberian Peninsula, including those that occurred in Crdoba in 1011 and in Granada in 1066.[127][128][129] Several decrees ordering the destruction of synagogues were also enacted in Egypt, Syria, Iraq and Yemen from the 11th century. In addition, Jews were forced to convert to Islam or face death in some parts of Yemen, Morocco and Baghdad several times between the 12th and 18th centuries.[130] The Almohads, who had taken control of the Almoravids’ Maghribi and Andalusian territories by 1147,[131] were far more fundamentalist in outlook compared to their predecessors, and they treated the dhimmis harshly. Faced with the choice of either death or conversion, many Jews and Christians emigrated.[132][133][134] Some, such as the family of Maimonides, fled east to more tolerant Muslim lands,[132] while some others went northward to settle in the growing Christian kingdoms.[135] During the Middle Ages in Europe there was persecution against Jews in many places, with blood libels, expulsions, forced conversions and massacres. A main justification of prejudice against Jews in Europe was religious. The persecution hit its first peak during the Crusades. In the First Crusade (1096) hundreds or even thousands of Jews were killed as the crusaders arrived.[136] This was the first major outbreak of anti-Jewish violence Christian Europe outside Spain and was cited by Zionists in the 19th century as indicating the need for a state of Israel.[137] In the Second Crusade (1147) the Jews in Germany were subject to several massacres. The Jews were also subjected to attacks by the Shepherds’ Crusades of 1251 and 1320. The Crusades were followed by expulsions, including, in 1290, the banishing of all English Jews; in 1394, the expulsion of 100,000[citation needed] Jews in France; and in 1421, the expulsion of thousands from Austria. Many of the expelled Jews fled to Poland.[138] In medieval and Renaissance Europe, a major contributor to the deepening of antisemitic sentiment and legal action among the Christian populations was the popular preaching of the zealous reform religious orders, the Franciscans (especially Bernardino of Feltre) and Dominicans (especially Vincent Ferrer), who combed Europe and promoted antisemitism through their often fiery, emotional appeals.[139] As the Black Death epidemics devastated Europe in the mid-14th century, causing the death of a large part of the population, Jews were used as scapegoats. Rumors spread that they caused the disease by deliberately poisoning wells. Hundreds of Jewish communities were destroyed. Although Pope Clement VI tried to protect them by issuing two papal bulls in 1348, the first on 6 July and an additional one several months later, 900 Jews were burned alive in Strasbourg, where the plague had not yet affected the city.[140] During the mid-to-late 17th century the PolishLithuanian Commonwealth was devastated by several conflicts, in which the Commonwealth lost over a third of its population (over 3 million people), and Jewish losses were counted in the hundreds of thousands. The first of these conflicts was the Khmelnytsky Uprising, when Bohdan Khmelnytsky’s supporters massacred tens of thousands of Jews in the eastern and southern areas he controlled (today’s Ukraine). The precise number of dead may never be known, but the decrease of the Jewish population during that period is estimated at 100,000 to 200,000, which also includes emigration, deaths from diseases and captivity in the Ottoman Empire, called jasyr.[141][142] European immigrants to the United States brought antisemitism to the country as early as the 17th century. Peter Stuyvesant, the Dutch governor of New Amsterdam, implemented plans to prevent Jews from settling in the city. During the Colonial Era, the American government limited the political and economic rights of Jews. It was not until the Revolutionary War that Jews gained legal rights, including the right to vote. However, even at their peak, the restrictions on Jews in the United States were never as stringent as they had been in Europe.[143] In the Zaydi imamate of Yemen, Jews were also singled out for discrimination in the 17th century, which culminated in the general expulsion of all Jews from places in Yemen to the arid coastal plain of Tihamah and which became known as the Mawza Exile.[144] In 1744, Frederick II of Prussia limited the number of Jews allowed to live in Breslau to only ten so-called “protected” Jewish families and encouraged a similar practice in other Prussian cities. In 1750 he issued the Revidiertes General Privilegium und Reglement vor die Judenschaft: the “protected” Jews had an alternative to “either abstain from marriage or leave Berlin” (quoting Simon Dubnow). In the same year, Archduchess of Austria Maria Theresa ordered Jews out of Bohemia but soon reversed her position, on the condition that Jews pay for their readmission every ten years. This extortion was known as malke-geld (queen’s money). In 1752 she introduced the law limiting each Jewish family to one son. In 1782, Joseph II abolished most of these persecution practices in his Toleranzpatent, on the condition that Yiddish and Hebrew were eliminated from public records and that judicial autonomy was annulled. Moses Mendelssohn wrote that “Such a tolerance… is even more dangerous play in tolerance than open persecution.” In 1772, the empress of Russia Catherine II forced the Jews of the Pale of Settlement to stay in their shtetls and forbade them from returning to the towns that they occupied before the partition of Poland.[145] According to Arnold Ages, Voltaire’s “Lettres philosophiques, Dictionnaire philosophique, and Candide, to name but a few of his better known works, are saturated with comments on Jews and Judaism and the vast majority are negative”.[146] Paul H. Meyer adds: “There is no question but that Voltaire, particularly in his latter years, nursed a violent hatred of the Jews and it is equally certain that his animosity…did have a considerable impact on public opinion in France.”[147] Thirty of the 118 articles in Voltaire’s Dictionnaire Philosophique concerned Jews and described them in consistently negative ways,[148] Historian Martin Gilbert writes that it was in the 19th century that the position of Jews worsened in Muslim countries. Benny Morris writes that one symbol of Jewish degradation was the phenomenon of stone-throwing at Jews by Muslim children. Morris quotes a 19th-century traveler: “I have seen a little fellow of six years old, with a troop of fat toddlers of only three and four, teaching [them] to throw stones at a Jew, and one little urchin would, with the greatest coolness, waddle up to the man and literally spit upon his Jewish gaberdine. To all this the Jew is obliged to submit; it would be more than his life was worth to offer to strike a Mahommedan.”[149] In the middle of the 19th century, J. J. Benjamin wrote about the life of Persian Jews, describing conditions and beliefs that went back to the 16th century: “they are obliged to live in a separate part of town Under the pretext of their being unclean, they are treated with the greatest severity and should they enter a street, inhabited by Mussulmans, they are pelted by the boys and mobs with stones and dirt.”[150] In 1850 the German composer Richard Wagner who has been called “the inventor of modern antisemitism”[151] published Das Judenthum in der Musik (roughly “Jewishness in Music”[151]) under a pseudonym in the Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik. The essay began as an attack on Jewish composers, particularly Wagner’s contemporaries, and rivals, Felix Mendelssohn and Giacomo Meyerbeer, but expanded to accuse Jews of being a harmful and alien element in German culture, who corrupted morals and were, in fact, parasites incapable of creating truly “German” art. The crux was, of course, the manipulation and control by the Jews of the money economy:[151] According to the present constitution of this world, the Jew in truth is already more than emancipated: he rules, and will rule, so long as Money remains the power before which all our doings and our dealings lose their force.[151] Although originally published anonymously, when the essay was republished 19 years later, in 1869, the concept of the corrupting Jew had become so widely held that Wagner’s name was affixed to it.[151] Antisemitism can also be found in many of the Grimms’ Fairy Tales by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, published from 1812 to 1857. It is mainly characterized by Jews being the villain of a story, such as in “The Good Bargain” (“Der gute Handel”) and “The Jew Among Thorns” (“Der Jude im Dorn”). The middle 19th century saw continued official harassment of the Jews, especially in Eastern Europe under Czarist influence. For example, in 1846, 80 Jews approached the governor in Warsaw to retain the right to wear their traditional dress, but were immediately rebuffed by having their hair and beards forcefully cut, at their own expense.[152] In America, even such influential figures as Walt Whitman tolerated bigotry toward the Jews. During his time as editor of the Brooklyn Eagle (1846-1848), the newspaper published historical sketches casting Jews in a bad light.[153] The Dreyfus Affair was an infamous antisemitic event of the late 19th century and early 20th century. Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish artillery captain in the French Army, was accused in 1894 of passing secrets to the Germans. As a result of these charges, Dreyfus was convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment on Devil’s Island. The actual spy, Marie Charles Esterhazy, was acquitted. The event caused great uproar among the French, with the public choosing sides on the issue of whether Dreyfus was actually guilty or not. mile Zola accused the army of corrupting the French justice system. However, general consensus held that Dreyfus was guilty: 80% of the press in France condemned him. This attitude among the majority of the French population reveals the underlying antisemitism of the time period.[154] Adolf Stoecker (18351909), the Lutheran court chaplain to Kaiser Wilhelm I, founded in 1878 an antisemitic, anti-liberal political party called the Christian Social Party.[155][156] This party always remained small, and its support dwindled after Stoecker’s death, with most of its members eventually joining larger conservative groups such as the German National People’s Party. Some scholars view Karl Marx’s essay On The Jewish Question as antisemitic, and argue that he often used antisemitic epithets in his published and private writings.[157][158][159] These scholars argue that Marx equated Judaism with capitalism in his essay, helping to spread that idea. Some further argue that the essay influenced National Socialist, as well as Soviet and Arab antisemites.[160][161][162] Marx himself had Jewish ancestry, and Albert Lindemann and Hyam Maccoby have suggested that he was embarrassed by it.[163][164] Others argue that Marx consistently supported Prussian Jewish communities’ struggles to achieve equal political rights. These scholars argue that “On the Jewish Question” is a critique of Bruno Bauer’s arguments that Jews must convert to Christianity before being emancipated, and is more generally a critique of liberal rights discourses and capitalism.[165][166][167][168] Iain Hamphsher-Monk wrote that “This work [On The Jewish Question] has been cited as evidence for Marx’s supposed anti-semitism, but only the most superficial reading of it could sustain such an interpretation.”[169] David McLellan and Francis Wheen argue that readers should interpret On the Jewish Question in the deeper context of Marx’s debates with Bruno Bauer, author of The Jewish Question, about Jewish emancipation in Germany. Wheen says that “Those critics, who see this as a foretaste of ‘Mein Kampf’, overlook one, essential point: in spite of the clumsy phraseology and crude stereotyping, the essay was actually written as a defense of the Jews. It was a retort to Bruno Bauer, who had argued that Jews should not be granted full civic rights and freedoms unless they were baptised as Christians”.[170] According to McLellan, Marx used the word Judentum colloquially, as meaning commerce, arguing that Germans must be emancipated from the capitalist mode of production not Judaism or Jews in particular. McLellan concludes that readers should interpret the essay’s second half as “an extended pun at Bauer’s expense”.[171] Between 1900 and 1924, approximately 1.75 million Jews migrated to America, the bulk from Eastern Europe. Before 1900 American Jews had always amounted to less than 1% of America’s total population, but by 1930 Jews formed about 3.5%. This increase, combined with the upward social mobility of some Jews, contributed to a resurgence of antisemitism. In the first half of the 20th century, in the USA, Jews were discriminated against in employment, access to residential and resort areas, membership in clubs and organizations, and in tightened quotas on Jewish enrolment and teaching positions in colleges and universities. The lynching of Leo Frank by a mob of prominent citizens in Marietta, Georgia in 1915 turned the spotlight on antisemitism in the United States.[172] The case was also used to build support for the renewal of the Ku Klux Klan which had been inactive since 1870.[173] At the beginning of the 20th century, the Beilis Trial in Russia represented incidents of blood-libel in Europe. Christians used allegations of Jews killing Christians as a justification for the killing of Jews. Antisemitism in America reached its peak during the interwar period. The pioneer automobile manufacturer Henry Ford propagated antisemitic ideas in his newspaper The Dearborn Independent (published by Ford from 1919 to 1927). The radio speeches of Father Coughlin in the late 1930s attacked Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal and promoted the notion of a Jewish financial conspiracy. Some prominent politicians shared such views: Louis T. McFadden, Chairman of the United States House Committee on Banking and Currency, blamed Jews for Roosevelt’s decision to abandon the gold standard, and claimed that “in the United States today, the Gentiles have the slips of paper while the Jews have the lawful money”.[174] In the early 1940s the aviator Charles Lindbergh and many prominent Americans led The America First Committee in opposing any involvement in the war against Fascism. During his July 1936 visit to Germany, Lindbergh wrote letters saying that there was “more intelligent leadership in Germany than is generally recognized”. The German American Bund held parades in New York City during the late 1930s, where members wore Nazi uniforms and raised flags featuring swastikas alongside American flags. Sometimes race riots, as in Detroit in 1943, targeted Jewish businesses for looting and burning.[175] In Germany, Nazism led Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party, who came to power on 30 January 1933 and instituted repressive legislation which denied the Jews basic civil rights. In 1935, the Nuremberg Laws prohibited sexual relations and marriages between “Aryans” and Jews as Rassenschande (“race disgrace”) and stripped all German Jews, even quarter- and half-Jews, of their citizenship, (their official title became “subjects of the state”). It instituted a pogrom on the night of 910 November 1938, dubbed Kristallnacht, in which Jews were killed, their property destroyed and their synagogues torched.[176] Antisemitic laws, agitation and propaganda were extended to German-occupied Europe in the wake of conquest, often building on local antisemitic traditions. In the east the Third Reich forced Jews into ghettos in Warsaw, Krakw, Lvov, Lublin and Radom.[177] After the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 a campaign of mass murder, conducted by the Einsatzgruppen, culminated from 1942 to 1945 in systematic genocide: the Holocaust.[178] Eleven million Jews were targeted for extermination by the Nazis, and some six million were eventually killed.[178][179][180] Antisemitism was commonly used as an instrument for settling personal conflicts in the Soviet Union, starting with the conflict between Joseph Stalin and Leon Trotsky and continuing through numerous conspiracy-theories spread by official propaganda. Antisemitism in the USSR reached new heights after 1948 during the campaign against the “rootless cosmopolitan” (euphemism for “Jew”) in which numerous Yiddish-language poets, writers, painters and sculptors were killed or arrested.[181][182] This culminated in the so-called Doctors’ Plot (19521953). Similar antisemitic propaganda in Poland resulted in the flight of Polish Jewish survivors from the country.[182] After the war, the Kielce pogrom and the “March 1968 events” in communist Poland represented further incidents of antisemitism in Europe. The anti-Jewish violence in postwar Poland has a common theme of blood libel rumours.[183][184] Robert Bernstein, founder of Human Rights Watch, says that antisemitism is “deeply ingrained and institutionalized” in “Arab nations in modern times.”[185] In a 2011 survey by the Pew Research Center, all of the Muslim-majority Middle Eastern countries polled held strongly negative views of Jews. In the questionnaire, only 2% of Egyptians, 3% of Lebanese Muslims, and 2% of Jordanians reported having a positive view of Jews. Muslim-majority countries outside the Middle East held similarly negative views, with 4% of Turks and 9% of Indonesians viewing Jews favorably.[186] According to a 2011 exhibition at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, United States, some of the dialogue from Middle East media and commentators about Jews bear a striking resemblance to Nazi propaganda.[187] According to Josef Joffe of Newsweek, “anti-Semitismthe real stuff, not just bad-mouthing particular Israeli policiesis as much part of Arab life today as the hijab or the hookah. Whereas this darkest of creeds is no longer tolerated in polite society in the West, in the Arab world, Jew hatred remains culturally endemic.”[188] Muslim clerics in the Middle East have frequently referred to Jews as descendants of apes and pigs, which are conventional epithets for Jews and Christians.[189][190][191] According to professor Robert Wistrich, director of the Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism (SICSA), the calls for the destruction of Israel by Iran or by Hamas, Hezbollah, Islamic Jihad, or the Muslim Brotherhood, represent a contemporary mode of genocidal antisemitism.[192] Antisemitism has been explained in terms of racism, xenophobia, projected guilt, displaced aggression, and the search for a scapegoat.[193] It has been theorized that parts of antisemitism has resulted from a perception of Jewish people as unsociable. Such a perception may have arisen by many Jews having strictly kept to their own communities, with their own practices and laws.[194] It has also been suggested that parts of antisemitism arose from a perception of Jewish people as greedy (as often used in stereotypes of Jews), and this perception has probably evolved in Europe during Medieval times where a large portion of money lending was operated by Jews.[195] Factors contributing to this situation included that Jews were restricted from other professions,[195] while the Christian Church declared for their followers that money lending constituted immoral “usury”.[196] There are a number of antisemitic canards which are used to fuel and justify antisemitic sentiment and activities. These include conspiracy theories and myths such as: that Jews killed Christ, poisoned wells, killed Christian children to use their blood for making matzos (the Blood libel), or “made up” the Holocaust, plot to control the world (the Protocols of the Elders of Zion), harvest organs, and other invented stories. A number of conspiracy theories also include accusations that Jews control the media or global financial institutions.[citation needed] A March 2008 report by the U.S. State Department found that there was an increase in antisemitism across the world, and that both old and new expressions of antisemitism persist.[197] A 2012 report by the U.S. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor also noted a continued global increase in antisemitism, and found that Holocaust denial and opposition to Israeli policy at times was used to promote or justify blatant antisemitism.[198] In Egypt, Dar al-Fadhilah published a translation of Henry Ford’s antisemitic treatise, The International Jew, complete with distinctly antisemitic imagery on the cover.[199] On 5 May 2001, after Shimon Peres visited Egypt, the Egyptian al-Akhbar internet paper said that “lies and deceit are not foreign to Jews. For this reason, Allah changed their shape and made them into monkeys and pigs.”[200]

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Anti-Judaism – Wikipedia

Anti-Judaism is the “total or partial opposition to Judaism and to Jews as adherents of it by persons who accept a competing system of beliefs and practices and consider certain genuine Judaic beliefs and practices as inferior.”[1] Anti-Judaism, as a rejection of a particular way of thinking about God, is distinct from antisemitism, which is more akin to a form of racism. Scholars wishing to blur the line between theology and racism have since coined the term religious antisemitism. Nevertheless, the concept of Judaism has been challenged over the past two thousand years by scholars of both Christendom and Islam; those mere intellectual exercises on the part of theologians ultimately always had real world consequences. In Ancient Rome, religion was an integral part of the civil government (see Religion in ancient Rome). Some Emperors were proclaimed gods on Earth, and demanded to be worshiped accordingly[2] throughout the Roman Empire. This created religious difficulties for monotheistic Jews and worshipers of Mithras, Sabazius and Early Christians.[3] Jews were prohibited by their biblical commandments from worshiping any other god than that of the Torah (see Shema, God in Judaism, Idolatry in Judaism). The Crisis under Caligula (37-41) has been proposed as the “first open break between Rome and the Jews”, even though problems were already evident during the Census of Quirinius in 6 and under Sejanus (before 31).[a] After the Jewish-Roman wars (66-135), Hadrian changed the name of Iudaea province to Syria Palaestina and Jerusalem to Aelia Capitolina in an attempt to erase the historical ties of the Jewish people to the region.[b] In addition, after 70, Jews and Jewish Proselytes were only allowed to practice their religion if they paid the Jewish tax, and after 135 were barred from Jerusalem except for the day of Tisha B’Av. Flavius Clemens was put to death for “living a Jewish life” or “drifting into Jewish ways” in the year 95 CE, which may well have been related to the administration of the Jewish tax under Domitian.[c] The Roman Empire adopted Christianity as its state religion with the Edict of Thessalonica on 27 February 380, see State church of the Roman Empire. Christianity commenced as a sect within Judaism, so-called Jewish Christianity. It was seen as such by the early Christians, as well as Jews in general. The wider Roman administration most likely would not have understood any distinction. Historians debate whether or not the Roman government distinguished between Christians and Jews before 96 CE, when Christians successfully petitioned Nerva to exempt them from the Jewish tax (the Fiscus Judaicus) on the basis that they were not Jews. From then on, practising Jews paid the tax while Christians did not.[7][8][9] Christianity is based on Jewish monotheism, scriptures (generally the Greek Old Testament or Targum translations of the Hebrew Bible), liturgy, and morality. The main distinction of the Early Christian community from its Jewish roots was the belief that Jesus was the long awaited Messiah,[d] as in the Confession of Peter, but that in itself would not have severed the Jewish connection. Another point of divergence was the questioning by Christians of the continuing applicability of the Law of Moses (the Torah),[11] though the Apostolic Decree of the Apostolic Age of Christianity appears to parallel the Noahide Law of Judaism. The two issues came to be linked in a theological discussion within the Christian community as to whether the coming of the Messiah (First or Second Coming) annulled either some (Supersessionism), or all (Abrogation of Old Covenant laws), of the Judaic laws in what came to be called a New Covenant. The circumcision controversy was probably the second issue (after the issue of Jesus as messiah) during which the theological argument was conducted in terms of anti-Judaism, with those who argued for the view that biblical law continued to be applicable being labelled “Judaizers” or “Pharisees” (e.g. Acts 15:5).[e][12] The teachings of Paul (d. ~67 CE), whose letters comprise much of the New Testament demonstrate a “long battle against Judaizing.”[13] However, James the Just, who after Jesus’s death was widely acknowledged as the leader of the Jerusalem Christians, worshiped at the Second Temple in Jerusalem until his death in 62, thirty years after Jesus’ death.[14] The destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE would lead Christians to “doubt the efficacy of the ancient law”,[15] though Ebionism would linger on until the 5th century. However, Marcion of Sinope, who advocated rejecting the entirety of Judaic influence on the Christian faith,[16] would be excommunicated by the Church in Rome in 144 CE.[17] Anti-Judaic works of this period include De Adversus Iudeaos by Tertullian, Octavius by Minucius Felix, De Catholicae Ecclesiae Unitate[f] by Cyprian of Carthage, and Instructiones Adversus Gentium Deos by Lactantius.[18] The traditional hypothesis holds that the anti-Judaism of these early fathers of the Church “were inherited from the Christian tradition of Biblical exegesis” though a second hypothesis holds that early Christian anti-Judaism was inherited from the pagan world.[19] Taylor has observed that theological Christian anti-Judaism “emerge[d] from the church’s efforts to resolve the contradictions inherent in its simultaneous appropriation and rejection of different elements of the Jewish tradition.”[20] Modern scholars believe that Judaism may have been a missionary religion in the early centuries of the Christian or common era, converting so-called proselytes,[21] and thus competition for the religious loyalties of gentiles drove anti-Judaism.[22] The debate and dialogue moved from polemic to bitter verbal and written attacks one against the other. To Tarfon (died 135 CE) is attributed a statement about whether scrolls could be left to burn in a fire on the Sabbath. A disputed[23][24][25][26] interpretation identifies these books with the Gospels (see Gilyonim): “The Gospels must be burned for paganism is not as dangerous to the Jewish faith as Jewish Christian sects.”[13] The anonymous Letter to Diognetus was the earliest apologetic work in the early Church to address Judaism.[27]Saint Justin Martyr (died 165 CE) wrote the apologetic Dialogue with Trypho,[28] a polemical debate giving the Christian assertions for the Messiahship of Jesus by making use of the Old Testament contrasted with counter-arguments from a fictionalized version of Tarphon.[29] “For centuries defenders of Christ and the enemies of the Jews employed no other method” than these apologetics.[27] Apologetics were difficult as gentile converts could not be expected to understand Hebrew; translations of the Septuagint into Greek prior to Aquila would serve as a flawed basis for such cross-cultural arguments,[30] as demonstrated by Origen’s difficulties debating Rabbi Simlai.[30] Though Emperor Hadrian was an “enemy of the synagogue”, the reign of Antonius began a period of Roman benevolence toward the Jewish faith.[31] Meanwhile, imperial hostility toward Christianity continued to crystallize; after Decius, the empire was at war with it.[32] An unequal power relationship between Jews and Christians in the context of the Greco-Roman world generated anti-Jewish feelings among the early Christians.[33] Feelings of mutual hatred arose, driven in part by Judaism’s legality in the Roman Empire; in Antioch, where the rivalry was most bitter, Jews most likely demanded the execution of Polycarp.[34] When Constantine and Licinius were issuing the Edict of Milan, the influence of Judaism was fading in the Land of Israel (in favor of Christianity) and seeing a rebirth outside the Roman Empire in Babylonia.[2] By the 3rd century the Judaizing heresies were nearly extinct in Christianity. After his defeat of Licinius in 323 CE, Constantine showed Christians marked political preference. He repressed Jewish proselytism and forbade Jews from circumcising their slaves.[35] Jews were barred from Jerusalem except on the anniversary of the Second Temple’s destruction (Tisha B’Av) and then only after paying a special tax (probably the Fiscus Judaicus) in silver.[35] He also promulgated a law which condemned to the stake Jews who persecuted their apostates by stoning.[36]Christianity became the state religion of the Roman Empire (see Christendom). “No sooner was [the Church] armed than it forgot its most elementary principles, and directed the secular arm against its enemies.”[36] Animosity existed on both sides, and in 351 the Jews of Palestine revolted against Constantine’s son in the Jewish revolt against Constantius Gallus. From the middle of the 5th century, apologetics ceased with Cyril of Alexandria.[37] This form of anti-Judaism had proven futile and often served to strengthen Jewish faith.[37] With Christianity ascendant in the Empire, the “Fathers, the bishops, and the priest who had to contend against the Jews treated them very badly. Hosius in Spain; Pope Sylvester I; Eusebius of Caesaria call them ‘a perverse, dangerous, and criminal sect.'”[38] While Gregory of Nyssa merely reproaches Jews as infidels, other teachers are more vehement.[38]Saint Augustine labels the Talmudists as falsifiers; Saint Ambrose recycled the earlier anti-Christian trope and accuses Jews of despising Roman law. Saint Jerome claims Jews were possessed by an impure spirit.[38]Saint Cyril of Jerusalem claimed the Jewish Patriarchs, or Nasi, were a low race.[38] All these theological and polemical attacks combined in Saint John Chrysostom’s six sermons delivered at Antioch.[38] Chrysostom, an archbishop of Constantinople, (died 407 CE) is very negative in his treatment of Judaism, though much more hyperbolic in expression.[39] While Saint Justin’s Dialogue is a philosophical treatise, Saint Chrysostom’s homilies Against the Jews are a more informal and rhetorically forceful set of sermons preached in church. Delivered while Chrysostom was still a priest in Antioch, his homilies deliver a scathing critique of Jewish religious and civil life, warning Christians not to have any contact with Judaism or the synagogue and to keep away from the rival religion’s festivals. “There are legions of theologians, historians and writers who write about the Jews the same as Chrysostom: Epiphanius, Diodorus of Tarsus, Theodore of Mopsuestia, Theodoret of Cyprus, Cosmas Indicopleustes, Athanasius the Sinaite among the Greeks; Hilarius of Poitiers, Prudentius, Paulus Orosius, Sulpicius Severus, Gennadius, Venantius Fortunatus, Isidore of Seville, among the Latins.”[40] From the 4th to 7th centuries, while the bishops opposed Judaism in writing, the Empire enacted a variety of civil laws against Jews, such as forbidding them from holding public office, and an oppressive curial tax.[36] Laws were enacted to harass their free observance of religion; Justinian went so far as to enact a law against Jewish daily prayers.[36] Both Christians and Jews engaged in recorded mob violence in the waning days of the Empire.[41] Through this period Jewish revolts continued. During the ByzantineSasanian War of 602628 many Jews sided against the Byzantine Empire in the Jewish revolt against Heraclius, which successfully assisted the invading Persian Sassanids in conquering all of Roman Egypt and Syria. In reaction to this further anti-Jewish measures were enacted throughout the Byzantine realm and as far away as Merovingian France.[42] Soon thereafter, 634, the Muslim conquests began, during which many Jews initially rose up again against their Byzantine rulers.[43] The pattern wherein Jews were relatively free under pagan rulers until the Christian conversion of the leadership, as seen with Constantine, would be repeated in the lands beyond the now collapsed Roman Empire. Sigismund of Burgundy enacted laws against Jews after coming to the throne after his conversion in 514;[44] likewise after the conversion of Reccared, king of the Visigoths in 589, which would have lasting effect when codified by Reccesuinth in the Visigothic Code of Law.[45] This code inspired Jews to aid Tariq ibn-Ziyad (a Muslim) in his overthrow of Roderick, and under the Moors (also Muslims), Jews regained their usurped religious freedoms.[44] Beginning with the 8th century, legislation against heresies grew more severe. The Church, once confining itself to only the powers of canon law, increasingly appealed to secular powers. Heretics such as the Vaudois, Albigenses, Beghards, Apostolic Brothers, and Luciferians were thus “treated with cruelty”[46] which culminated in the 13th century establishment of the Inquisition by Pope Innocent III.[46] Jews were not ignored by such legislation, either, as they allegedly instigated Christians to judaizations, either directly or unconsciously, by their existence. They sent forth metaphysicians such as Amaury de Bne and David de Dinan; the Pasagians followed Mosaic Law; the Orleans heresy was a Jewish heresy; the Albigens taught Jewish doctrine as superior to Christian; the Dominicans preached against both the Hussites and their Jewish supporters, and thus the imperial army sent to advance on Jan Ziska massacred Jews along the way.[46] In Spain, where Castilian custom (fueros) had granted equal rights to Muslims, Christians, and Jews, Gregory XI instituted the Spanish Inquisition to spy on Jews and Moors wherever “by words or writings they urged the Catholics to embrace their faith”.[46] Usury became a proximate cause of much anti-Jewish sentiment during the Middle Ages.[47] In Italy and later Poland and Germany, John of Capistrano stirred up the poor against the usury of the Jews; Bernardinus of Feltre, aided by the practical notion of establishing mont-de-pits, called for the expulsion of Jews all over Italy and Tyrol and caused the massacre of the Jews at Trent.[48] Kings, nobles, and bishops discouraged this behavior, protecting Jews from the monk Radulphe in Germany and countering the preachings of Bernardinus in Italy.[48] These reactions were from knowing the history of mobs, incited against Jews, continuing attacks against their rich co-religionists.[48] Anti-Judaism was a dynamic in the early Spanish colonies in the Americas, where Europeans used anti-Judaic memes and forms of thinking against Native and African peoples, in effect transferring anti-Judaism onto other peoples.[49] The Church kept to its theological anti-Judaism and, favoring the mighty and rich, was careful not to encourage the passions of the people.[48] But while it sometimes interfered on behalf of the Jews when they were the objects of mob fury, it was at the same time fueled the fury by combating Judaism.[48] Martin Luther has been accused of antisemitism, primarily in relation to his statements about Jews in his book On the Jews and their Lies, which describes the Jews in extremely harsh terms, excoriating them, and providing detailed recommendation for a pogrom against them and their permanent oppression and/or expulsion. According to Paul Johnson, it “may be termed the first work of modern anti-Semitism, and a giant step forward on the road to the Holocaust”.[50] In contrast, Roland Bainton, noted church historian and Luther biographer, wrote “One could wish that Luther had died before ever this tract was written. His position was entirely religious and in no respect racial”.[51] Peter Martyr Vermigli, a shaper of Reformed Protestantism, took pains to maintain the contradiction, going back to Paul of Tarsus, of Jews being both enemy and friend, writing: “The Jews are not odious to God for the very reason they are Jews; for how could this have happened since they were embellished with so many great gifts….”[52] “The terms ‘anti-Judaism’ (the Christian aversion toward the Jewish religion) and ‘anti-Semitism’ (aversion toward the Jews as a racial group) are omnipresent in the controversies over the churches responsibility with regard to the extermination of the Jews” and “since 1945, most of the works on ‘anti-Semitism’ have contrasted this term with ‘anti-Judaism'”.[53][54] According to Jeanne Favret-Saada, the scientificial analysis of the links and difference between both terms is made difficult for two reasons. First is the definition: some scholars argue that “anti-Judaic” refers to Christian theology and to Christian theology only while others argue that the term applies also to the discriminatory policy of the churches (…). Some authors also advance that eighteenth-century catechisms were “antisemitic” and others argue that the term cannot be used before the date of its first appearance in 1879. The second difficulty is the fact these to concepts place themselves in different contexts: the old and religious for the “anti-Judaism”; the new and political for “anti-Semitism”.[53] As examples regarding the nuances put forward by scholars: Anti-Judaism has also been distinguished from antisemitism based upon racial or ethnic grounds (racial antisemitism). “The dividing line [is] the possibility of effective conversion (…). [A] Jew ceases[] to be a Jew upon baptism.” However, with racial antisemitism, “the assimilated Jew [is] still a Jew, even after baptism (…). Anyway, according to William Nichols, “[f]rom the Enlightenment onward, it is no longer possible to draw clear lines of distinction between religious and racial forms of hostility towards Jews (…). Once Jews have been emancipated and secular thinking makes its appearance without leaving behind the old Christian hostility towards Jews, the new term antisemitism becomes almost unavoidable, even before explicitly racist doctrines appear.”[57] A prominent place in the Qur’anic polemic against the Jews is given to the conception of the religion of Abraham. The Qur’an presents Muslims as neither Jews nor Christians but followers of Abraham who was in a physical sense the father of the Jews and the Arabs and lived before the revelation of Torah. In order to show that the religion practiced by the Jews is not the pure religion of Abraham, the Qur’an mentions the incident of worshiping of the calf, argues that Jews do not believe in part of the revelation given to them, and that their taking of usury shows their worldliness and disobedience of God. Furthermore, the Quran claim they attribute to God what he has not revealed. In his polemic against Judaism, Ibn Hazm provided a polemical list of what he considered “chronological and geographical inaccuracies and contradictions; theological impossibilities (anthropomorphic expressions, stories of fornication and whoredom, and the attributing of sins to prophets), as well as lack of reliable transmission (tawatur) of the text”.[58][59][undue weight? discuss] Throughout the Islamic Golden Age, the relatively tolerant societies of the various caliphates were still, on occasion, driven to enforce discriminatory laws against members of the Jewish faith. Examples of these and more extreme persecutions occurred under the authority of multiple, radical Muslim Movements such as that of the Fatimid Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah in the 11th century, the Almohad Caliphate in the 12th century, and in the 1160s CE Shiite Abd al-Nabi ibn Mahdi who was an Imam of Yemen.[60] Differentiation laws were enforced much more regularly following the decline of secular influence within Islamic society and external threats posed by non-Muslims.[60]

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