Archive for the ‘Antifa’ Category

Antifa – Conservapedia

The “Antifa” (short for “Anti-fascist action”), also known as the ARA (short for “Anti-Racist Action”) is a mob of far-leftists that seek to cause mayhem in the streets of America and Europe. Despite its name, the Antifa movement is itself a fascist and intolerant hate group, even using in its speeches direct quotations from Adolf Hitler.[1][2]

In the United States, they rose up at the University of California, Berkeley in response to Democrats losing the 2016 U.S. Presidential election. They claim that those individuals that support President Donald Trump and other conservatives are “Nazis”. In Europe, they claim that supporters of right-wing, anti-establishment figures such as Marine Le Pen in France[3][4][5] or the Alternative for Germany[6] are “fascists” and “Nazis.”

They dress in all black, wear black masks to hide their identities and attempt to disrupt rallies that are held in support of Trump. They use pepper spray on unsuspecting people, throw rocks, bricks, bottles, cement-filled soda cans, balloons filled with their own waste, punches, M-80s, march with flags and clubs, and commit vandalism and other criminal acts. They are militant, far-Left extremists that are a product of far-Left ideology, education, and funding.

The Antifa does not support the First Amendment and the freedom of speech, as seen in their illegal shutting down of scheduled conservative speakers on college campuses.[7]

Numerous liberals, such as Dartmouth professor Mark Bray, have described Antifa’s violence as a “positive” thing, casting it as necessary for a greater good “combating the far right.”[15] House Democrat minority leader Nancy Pelosi first condemned Antifa violence only in August 2017.[16][17] Tim Kaine refused to condemn Antifa.[18]

Mainstream media outlets promoted the false claim that violent left-wingers user their violence against conservatives to bring about “peace.”[19] Chuck Todd of NBC was criticized by conservatives for asking “softball” questions when interviewing Antifa sympathizers.[20]

On August 28, 2017, Tucker Carlson pointed out on his show that the Antifa is effectively the militant wing of the Democrat Party.[21]

Wikipedia editors have downplayed Antifa’s violence and far-left-wing ideology and portrayed it favorably.[22] The Southern Poverty Law Center, which has labeled numerous mainstream conservative organizations as “hate groups” but is itself a hate group in its own right, has refused to label Antifa a hate group.[23]

The Antifa claims that its violence is necessary and legitimate to use in order to stop those who they believe to be “fascists” and “authoritarians.”[24]

Antifa groups have used violence in its anti-Trump demonstrations to the point where police in riot gear were needed, and protestors have used gas canisters and rocks.[27]

In June 2017, an Antifa website encouraged physical violence against Trump supporters, capitalists and others who hold conservative-leaning views.[28]

Since 2016, the FBI and DHS were warning local governments of Antifa violence and its increasing occurrences and labeled its activities as “domestic terrorist violence.”[29] The New Jersey State Office of Homeland Security has designated Antifa a domestic terrorist group. [30]

The Antifa was founded in 1988 in Minneapolis, Minnesota as well as Toronto, Canada to counteract white supremacist groups and Neo-Nazi groups.

The organization can be traced to the united front of the Soviet Unions Communist International (Comintern) during the Third World Congress in Moscow in June and July 1921. The idea of the united front strategy was to bring together left-wing organizations in order to incite communist revolution. The Soviets believed that following Russias revolution in 1917, communism would next spread to Germany, since Germany had the second-largest communist party, the KPD (Communist Party of Germany).

It was at the Fourth World Congress of the Comintern in 1922 that the plan took shape. Moscow formed the slogan To the Masses for its united front strategy and sought to join together the various communist and workers parties of Germany under a single ideological banner that it controlled. Both the communist and fascist systems were based on collectivism and state-planned economies. Both also proposed systems wherein the individual was heavily controlled by a powerful state, and both were responsible for large-scale atrocities and genocide. In addition, the term “anti-fascism” was originally used by Stalin and the USSR prior to and during World War II as part of propaganda purposes to make the USSR seem mainstream by comparison to Nazi Germany.[31][32]

The 2016 annual report by Germanys domestic intelligence service, the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution (BfV), notes the same point: From the viewpoint of the left-wing extremist, the label of fascism as pushed by Antifa often does not refer to actual fascism, but is merely a label assigned to capitalism.

While leftist extremists claim to be fighting fascism while launching their attacks on other groups, the report states the term fascism has a double meaning under the extreme-left ideology, indicating the fight against the capitalist system. Antifascism is a strategy, not an ideology. They argue that the capitalist state produces fascism, or at least tolerates it. Therefore, anti-fascism is directed not only against actual or supposed right-wing extremists but also always against the state and its representatives, in particular members of the security authorities.[33]

An Antifa group, “Refuse Fascism,” organized what it announced would be a series of major rallies in U.S. cities that would last until President Trump and Vice President Pence stepped down.[34] Rather than millions of people, as it intended, the protests saw very low turnout.[35][36]

See the original post:

Antifa – Conservapedia

Fair Usage Law

February 12, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Antifa  Comments Closed

About us | NYC ANTIFA

Antifascists and Anticapitalists!

Since 2010, NYC Antifa has been dedicated to research on, and action against, fascist cultural and political organizing in New York City.

NYC ANTIFAnycantifa.wordpress.com General correspondence: nycantifa@riseup.net Tips: FascismWatchNYC@gmail.com

Like Loading…

See more here:

About us | NYC ANTIFA

Fair Usage Law

February 11, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Antifa  Comments Closed

Antifa | Category | Fox News

Fox News’ Bryan Llenas takes us inside an active shooter situation drill, filled with gunfire and smoke bombs. See how one small business is taking steps to prepare its employees for worst-case scenarios by hiring local law enforcement to train them on the proper techniques to survive a workplace shooting.

Follow this link:

Antifa | Category | Fox News

Fair Usage Law

February 2, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Antifa  Comments Closed

FACT CHECK: Is ‘Antifa’ Planning a Civil War?

CLAIM

Law enforcement agents have announced that “antifa” is planning extended violent unrest or civil war beginning on 4 November 2017.

In August 2017, rumors began to spread on social media that anti-fascists (a name often shortened to antifa, which has become shorthand for a subset of protestors, usually clad in black and accessorized with bandannas and who are evidently unnerving bloggers and vloggers enough to be the pet topic of many an angry online rant) were planningextended unrest, riots, killing random citizens, or outright civil war beginning on 4 November 2017:

Depending on the source, antifa (always treated as though it is one homogenous, unified group) is purportedly planning extended riots, joint violence alongside Black Lives Matter and the Black Panthers, or a coup of the American government.

The rumors seem to have originated from a video originallypublished on 30 August 2017 by an individual named Jordan Peltz.Peltz was widely (and incorrectly) identified as a U.S. Marshal in the video, which shows him wearing what looked like an official badge that is actually simply printed on his shirt. However, he is not actually law enforcement or military Peltz instead evidently works as some combination of bail bondsman and bounty hunter.

(Claiming to be a United States marshal is very popular among the sovereign citizen set; those involvedclaim to answer only to their interpretation of common law and maintain they are not subject to other legal conventions, including gettingdrivers licensesand payingtaxes. Local, state, and federal governments tend to disagree.)

OnInstagram, Peltz describes his work as #fugitiverecovery and #warrantservice:

Peltz published a video to clear the air on 27 September 2017 after reporter JJ MacNab, whose beat includes anti-government and sovereign citizen groups, wrote a thread on Twitter about how militia groups are being goaded into taking up arms against anti-fascists:

Peltzresponded bystating that his video, which gave an impression he was either predicting or calling for a November 2017 civil war, had been edited although he didnt specify when, by whom, or why, despite millions of views and thousands of comments, he had remained unaware it had been altered until he saw reports:

On 29 September 2017, InfoWars published an article using Peltzscivil war wording:

Antifa is planning a new round of nationwide riots on November 4 as part of a plot to start a civil war that will lead to the overthrow of the Trump administration.

Far-left militants plan to gather in the streets and public squares of cities and towns across this country in the hope of building momentum for civil unrest that leads to nothing less than domestic regime change.

Our protest must grow day after day and night after nightthousands becoming hundreds of thousands, and then millionsdetermined to act to put a stop to the grave danger that the Trump/Pence Regime poses to the world by demanding that this whole regime be removed from power, states a call to action on the RefuseFascism website.

A longer screed posted on the Revolutionary Communist website makes it clear that Antifa is not prepared to wait for electoral change from Democrats, and will engage in a ferocious struggle, based on plans outlined in a book written by Bob Avakian, the Chairman of the Revolutionary Communist Party, which is called The Coming Civil War.

The page also cited antifa web sites, neither of which threatened violence. Oneprovided a list of Facebook events, and the otherreadin its entirety:

ON NOVEMBER 4, 2017:

We will gather in the streets and public squares of cities and towns across this country, at first many thousands declaring that this whole regime is illegitimate and that we will not stop until our single demand is met: This Nightmare Must End: the Trump/Pence Regime Must Go!

Our protest must grow day after day and night after nightthousands becoming hundreds of thousands, and then millionsdetermined to act to put a stop to the grave danger that the Trump/Pence Regime poses to the world by demanding that this whole regime be removed from power.

Our actions will reflect the values of respect for all of humanity and the world we wantin stark contrast to the hate and bigotry of the Trump/Pence fascist regime.

Our determination to persist and not back down will compel the whole world to take note. Every force and faction in the power structure would be forced to respond to our demand. The cracks and divisions among the powers already evident today will sharpen and widen. As we draw more and more people forward to stand up, all of this could lead to a situation where this illegitimate regime is removed from power.

Spread the word and organize now. Be a part of making history. Dont let it be said that you stood aside when there was still a chance to stop a regime that imperils humanity and the Earth itself. Join in taking to the streets and the public squares day after day and night after night demonstrating that In the Name of Humanity, We REFUSE to Accept a Fascist America.

On November 4, 2017, we will stand together with conviction and courage, overcoming fear and uncertainty, to insist that: This Nightmare Must End: The Trump/Pence Regime Must GO!

@AntifaChecker, a Twitter feed devoted to sniffing out phony antifa accounts, said it was not even aware of the call to action:

An articleinL.A. Weeklyreported on both the freeway protest and upcoming events:

Their placards bore letters that spelled out NOV 4 IT BEGINS. But they couldnt get enough volunteers to hold all 12 letters, so the tallest among them, the ones with the broadest wingspans, held up two letters each. The eight people werent enough to block the on-ramp, so some motorists were able to swerve around.

[Organizer and USC film professor Perry] Hoberman says the protest was conceived in part to get the word out about a Nov. 4 demonstration the group is planning. He says its being modeled on the Womens March held in January at Pershing Square and that organizers hope the action will include an encampment in a public place, la Occupy Wall Street, or at least a prolonged series of protests over several days.

At one point on Tuesday they knelt on the freeway, which organizer Michelle Xai says was to acknowledge black and Latino people who have been and continue to be murdered by police.

A video of the protest uploaded to the groups Facebook page has more than 700,000 views. Many of the 24,000-plus commenters ask for more information about Nov. 4. Plenty of others object to the groups inconveniencing motorists, and some appear to endorse running them over.

It is true that some groups linked to the antifa movement planned co-ordinated protests on 4 November 2017, but that had nothing to do with Peltzs video expressing disdain for the group in August 2017, nor did he appear to have any insider law enforcement knowledge, as he does not work as law enforcement himself.

When a wave of rumors about 4 November anti-fascist protests began, his clip became part of the claim as evidence that a federal officer warned of coming violence. In reality, a list of apparently peaceful protests were paired with an older, unrelated video to create the impression of a looming threat.Peltz himself walked the claims far back after his video brought him unwanted attention and scrutiny. There was an uptick in the rumors spread on 1 November 2017, when the groups advertised the 4 November 2017 demonstrations in theNew York Times.

[Updated] 3 November 2017: Added information about advertisements for the planned protests which appeared on 1 November 2017 in the New York Times.

Got a tip or a rumor? Contact us here.

Smith IV, Jack. The Far-Right Thinks A Violent Antifa Overthrow Is Coming Nov. 4, But The Truth Is Far Stranger. Mic. 2 November 2017.

See the original post:

FACT CHECK: Is ‘Antifa’ Planning a Civil War?

Fair Usage Law

January 24, 2018   Posted in: Antifa  Comments Closed

DNC deputy chair Keith Ellison signals support for Antifa …

Rep. Keith Ellison, D-Minn., was appointed deputy chair of the Democratic National Committee in February of last year. (REUTERS/Christopher Aluka Berry)

Rep. Keith Ellison, D-Minn., the deputy chair of the Democratic National Committee, caused a stir on social media Wednesday when he posed with a book promoting the violent “Antifa” movement.

In a post on Twitter, Ellison said that he found the book “Antifa: The Anti-Fascist Handbook” at a Minneapolis book shop and said it would “strike fear in the heart of @realDonaldTrump.”

“Antifa,” written by former Occupy Wall Street organizer and current Dartmouth visiting scholar Mark Bray, is promoted on Amazon as “a smart and gripping investigation … of the full history of anti-fascism from its origins to the present day.” The book’s Amazon page includes complimentary reviews by The New Yorker, The Washington Post and the San Francisco Chronicle.

Since Trump’s election as president, Antifa activists have initiated violent clashes on college campuses and at other gatherings. The group has been accused of using coordinated violence against people they deem to espouse far-right ideology.

PELOSI ON VIOLENCE ANTIFA MEMBERS: LOCK THEM UP

In August, House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi, D-Calif., condemned what she called the “violent actions of people calling themselves Antifa” and distanced them from the Democratic Party.

“Youre not talking about the far left of the Democratic Party theyre not even Democrats,” Pelosi told the Denver Post editorial board. “A lot of them are socialists or anarchists or whatever.”

Ellison’s post drew a negative response from conservatives on Twitter. Jordan Schachtel of Conservative Review noted, “The FBI and DHS consider Antifa a domestic terrorist organization … Does the @DNC now support terrorist groups? Every Democrat in Congress should have to answer for this ON the record.”

Washington Free Beacon reporter Alex Griswold pointed out that Ellison was endorsing a book “that advocates for violence in the streets”.

However, others on Twitter responded approvingly to Ellison’s post, with one user writing, “ugh why is he not in charge of the dnc.”

Another posted, “that all Keith Ellison has to do is hold up a book with the word ANTIFA on it and it triggers millions of whiny MAGA babies into a rage means he should definitely do it more.”

View post:

DNC deputy chair Keith Ellison signals support for Antifa …

Fair Usage Law

January 7, 2018   Posted in: Antifa  Comments Closed

Rep. Keith Ellison draws fire for tweet about Antifa handbook …

Minnesota Rep. Keith Ellison is drawing criticism for calling attention to a book that critics say condones a left-leaning group using violence in clashes with white supremacists.

Ellison, the deputy chairman of the Democratic National Committee, posted a photo on Twitter Wednesday of himself posing with the book “Antifa: The Anti-Fascist Handbook.” The book calls violence during counter-protests “a small though vital sliver of anti-fascist activity.”

Ellison’s post said the book should “strike fear into the heart” of President Donald Trump. The tweet, which drew more than 8,000 comments and more than 2,500 retweets, drew pushback from Republicans, who have criticized the movement’s at-times violent disruptions of speaking engagements and white supremacist rallies.

Minnesota GOP Chairwoman Jennifer Carnahan said Ellison’s post amounted to complicity in a movement “that continues to threaten the well-being of Republicans in Minnesota and around the country.”

Spokesman Karthik Ganapathy says Ellison has not read the book but has espoused nonviolence throughout his career.

The antifa, or anti-fascists movement, is a term to describe far-left-leaning militant groups that resist neo-Nazis and white supremacists. It drew more attention in 2017 after clashes at a white supremacists rally in Charlottesville, Virginia, in August.

RELATED: What is Antifa? Virginia clashes bring attention to anti-fascist movement

See the original post here:

Rep. Keith Ellison draws fire for tweet about Antifa handbook …

Fair Usage Law

January 7, 2018   Posted in: Antifa  Comments Closed

DNC Deputy Keith Ellison Blasted for Tweet Touting Antifa …

DNC Vice Chair Keith Ellison Compares Dreamers to Jews in Nazi Germany

Dershowitz on DNC Vote: Ellison’s Defeat Is Win in ‘War Against Bigotry’

One of the leading figures in the Democratic Party is taking heat on social media for proudly touting the violent far-left group Antifa.

Rep. Keith Ellison (D-Minn.), who serves as DNC deputy chair, tweeted a picture to promote a book called”Antifa: The Anti-Fascist Handbook.”

Antifa Website Calls for Violence Against Trump Supporters

The sentiment is not shared by other Democrats, including House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi, whocondemned violent elements within Antifa, saying violent protesters should be arrested.

“Youre not talking about the far left of the Democratic Party theyre not even Democrats,” Pelosi told the Denver Post editorial board. “A lot of them are socialists or anarchists or whatever.”

Ellison, who lost a close race last year to Tom Perez for leadership of the DNC, was skewered on Twitter for posting the photo.

On Fox Business Network, Democrat and author Doug Schoen said he wishes Ellison would “go away,” but fears Ellison will do the opposite and run for Al Franken’s Senate seat in Minnesota.

“He stands for everything I do not believe and I think is wrong about the Democratic Party,” said Schoen.

He also noted the anti-Israel views espoused by Ellison, who in 2007 became the first Muslim-American to be elected to Congress.

Watch the discussion above.

NFL’s TV Ratings Dropped 10 Percent This Season Amid Lower Attendance

Scaramucci: Author’s Claim That Trump Didn’t Want to Win Election Is ‘Nonsense’

Originally posted here:

DNC Deputy Keith Ellison Blasted for Tweet Touting Antifa …

Fair Usage Law

January 7, 2018   Posted in: Antifa  Comments Closed

Deputy DNC Chair Ellison promotes pro-Antifa, pro-violence …

Rep. Keith Ellison, the deputy chair of the DNC posed with a pro-Antifa book on Twitter Wednesday, saying the book would strike fear in the heart of the president.

I dont know if Rep. Ellison meant to endorse the book or if this was just his way of calling the president a fascist. Either way, this is a pretty extreme comment. Fox News points out that even Nancy Pelosi has made efforts to distance the party from Antifa:

In August, House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi, D-Calif., condemned what she called the violent actions of people calling themselves Antifa and distanced them from the Democratic Party.

Youre not talking about the far left of the Democratic Party theyre not even Democrats, Pelosi told the Denver Post editorial board. A lot of them are socialists or anarchists or whatever.

Pelosi is partly right. Antifa members arent all Democrats, most of them are fringe anti-capitalists. But saying theyre not the far left of Pelosis party is a pipe dream. If nothing else, the fact that Ellison is embracing this book shows the far left is a lot closer at hand than she believes.

As youve certainly heard by now, the willingness to embrace violence to achieve political ends is Antifas distinctive feature. Thats something theyve demonstrated numerous times in 2017. The Antifa handbook isnt just a descriptive text, its also an endorsement of the groups tactics by author Mark Bray who previously worked as the PR person for Occupy Wall Street. Bray believes the liberal position on freedom of speech is a mistake and instead supports violent confrontation.

Needless to say, if any elected official on the right had taken a selfie with a book promoting political violence, that person would be asked a lot of questions by the media about their commitment to the American system of government. Does Ellison think people should embrace violence? Does he support freedom of speech? Will anyone even ask him?

Read more:

Deputy DNC Chair Ellison promotes pro-Antifa, pro-violence …

Fair Usage Law

January 7, 2018   Posted in: Antifa  Comments Closed

What is ‘Antifa’? And why is the media so reluctant to expose it?

Are all Trump supporters violent white supremacists? Clearly not. But you might not know that based on some of the reporting flying around this week.

The mainstream media are oversimplifying what happened this past weekend when riots broke out in Berkeley, California, during a rally for free speech put on by Trump backers. In doing so, the reporting implies that those supporting the president were prepared for violence while those in opposition are simply opposing fascism.

Twenty-one people were arrested Sunday after fistfights broke out near Martin Luther King Jr. Civic Center Park, where a rally for free speech put on by a pro-Trump group Liberty Revival Alliance was scheduled. Rocks were thrown, and sticks and skateboards were used to beat people. Of course, the MSM reporting is slanted.

The Los Angeles Times report on the fighting, for example, takes pains to show how a member of a citizen militia group originating from Montana who came to the rally to protect Trump supporters mightve been looking for a fight. I dont mind hitting the counter-demonstrators, one man tells the Times. In fact, I would kind of enjoy it.

The paper also interviewed a woman on the Left fed up with the violence, a vendor selling organic produce, and a guy handing out empathy kisses. The message, clearly, is that those on the Right were looking for trouble and those on the Left responded.

What the Times and other outlets dont tell you is this was not simply a clash of Trump supporters and counter-protesters.

Just who are the groups involved?

How do we stop the mainstream media from warping the national narrative? We push back together. With the truth. Be the first to receive CRTVs free weapon against the worst the media has to offer. Introducing WTF MSM!?

As some in the mainstream media tell it, on the one hand you have racist white nationalists in support of Trump. This is true. Alt-Right activists such as Nathan Damigo who founded the white supremacist organization Identity Europa can be seen delivering a vicious right-hook to a woman (who, in turn, was assaulting him). But by no means was every Trump backer at this rally for free speech a violent neo-Nazi.

On the other hand, as SFGate reported, several liberal groups were there to counter protest in opposition to Trump. But these were not just milquetoast liberals there to oppose a president they dont like. Specifically, as the Los Angeles Times notes in a different piece, officials raised concerns about the militant black bloc of anti-fascist (Antifa for short) rioters. But dont take the term anti-fascist on its face, as the mainstream media is wont to do. Understand who these people actually are.

Antifa is made up of self-described anarchists radical left-wing thugs who employ violence and intimidation to advance their beliefs.

Theyve shown up previously at Berkeley to shut down a free speech event hosted by provocateur Milo Yiannopoulos, leaving damaged property, fires, and assault victims in their wake. They also violently disrupted a March 4 Trump event in March. But you arent hearing as much about Antifa violence as you are about the Alt-Right.

In fact, some outlets are offering outright praise for Antifa.

Ask Esquire magazine and Antifa rioters are noble, anti-racist counter demonstrators a sort of Justice League vigilante group dedicated to shutting down fascist protests.

But this is a radical movement that traces its roots back to World War II, as Mother Jones recounts in The long history of Nazi punching. They employ so-called righteous violence against what they consider to be the forces of fascism. What fascism is nowadays seems to be a subjective definition belonging to whichever particular Antifa thugs show up en force.

One might say Antifas violent tactics, employed around the world, are fascist.

Here in the contemporary U.S., waves of Antifa-driven riots are on the rise in in an effort to silence President Trump and his supporters by any means necessary. Antifa thugs show up at left-wing demonstrations to breed chaos, destruction, and bloodshed. They blend in with and are sometimes aided by the crowd, as National Reviews David French explained in the aftermath of Yiannopoulos Berkeley event in February:

What youll notice (and what youll experience, if you ever find yourself in the middle of violent left-wing protest) is that the rioters and the peaceful protesters have a symbiotic relationship. The rioters break people and destroy things, then melt back into a crowd that often quickly and purposefully closes behind them. Theyre typically cheered wildly (to be sure, some yell at them to stop) and often treated as heroes by the rest of the mob almost like theyre the SEAL Team Six of left-wing protest.

The Battle of Berkeley, as some are calling it, was a dangerous, violent, bloody mess. Instigators, Antifa and Alt-Right, should be roundly condemned.

But at the moment, the American people are only getting one side of the story from the mainstream media. The majority of the MSMs intense focus is applied to white nationalist groups, while Antifa is being cast in a heroic role opposed to the Alt-Rights violence.

The mainstream media wax poetic on the dangers of the nationalist populist Alt-Right. They ought to be wary of normalizing Antifas brand of radical Alt-Left violence.

Editors note: The title to this piece has been updated to correct a grammatical error.

Chris Pandolfo is a staff writer and type-shouter for Conservative Review. He holds a B.A. in Politics and Economics from Hillsdale College. His interests are Conservative Political Philosophy, the American Founding, and Progressive Rock. Follow him on Twitter for doom-saying and great album recommendations@ChrisCPandolfo.

Chris Pandolfo is a staff writer and type-shouter for Conservative Review. He holds a B.A. in politics and economics from Hillsdale College. His interests are conservative political philosophy, the American founding, and progressive rock. Follow him on Twitter for doom-saying and great album recommendations @ChrisCPandolfo.

Read the original post:

What is ‘Antifa’? And why is the media so reluctant to expose it?

Fair Usage Law

December 31, 2017   Posted in: Antifa  Comments Closed

Antifa – Conservapedia

The “Antifa” (short for “Anti-fascist action”), also known as the ARA (short for “Anti-Racist Action”) is a mob of far-leftists that seek to cause mayhem in the streets of America and Europe. Despite its name, the Antifa movement is itself a fascist and intolerant hate group, even using in its speeches direct quotations from Adolf Hitler.[1][2] In the United States, they rose up at the University of California, Berkeley in response to Democrats losing the 2016 U.S. Presidential election. They claim that those individuals that support President Donald Trump and other conservatives are “Nazis”. In Europe, they claim that supporters of right-wing, anti-establishment figures such as Marine Le Pen in France[3][4][5] or the Alternative for Germany[6] are “fascists” and “Nazis.” They dress in all black, wear black masks to hide their identities and attempt to disrupt rallies that are held in support of Trump. They use pepper spray on unsuspecting people, throw rocks, bricks, bottles, cement-filled soda cans, balloons filled with their own waste, punches, M-80s, march with flags and clubs, and commit vandalism and other criminal acts. They are militant, far-Left extremists that are a product of far-Left ideology, education, and funding. The Antifa does not support the First Amendment and the freedom of speech, as seen in their illegal shutting down of scheduled conservative speakers on college campuses.[7] Numerous liberals, such as Dartmouth professor Mark Bray, have described Antifa’s violence as a “positive” thing, casting it as necessary for a greater good “combating the far right.”[15] House Democrat minority leader Nancy Pelosi first condemned Antifa violence only in August 2017.[16][17] Tim Kaine refused to condemn Antifa.[18] Mainstream media outlets promoted the false claim that violent left-wingers user their violence against conservatives to bring about “peace.”[19] Chuck Todd of NBC was criticized by conservatives for asking “softball” questions when interviewing Antifa sympathizers.[20] On August 28, 2017, Tucker Carlson pointed out on his show that the Antifa is effectively the militant wing of the Democrat Party.[21] Wikipedia editors have downplayed Antifa’s violence and far-left-wing ideology and portrayed it favorably.[22] The Southern Poverty Law Center, which has labeled numerous mainstream conservative organizations as “hate groups” but is itself a hate group in its own right, has refused to label Antifa a hate group.[23] The Antifa claims that its violence is necessary and legitimate to use in order to stop those who they believe to be “fascists” and “authoritarians.”[24] Antifa groups have used violence in its anti-Trump demonstrations to the point where police in riot gear were needed, and protestors have used gas canisters and rocks.[27] In June 2017, an Antifa website encouraged physical violence against Trump supporters, capitalists and others who hold conservative-leaning views.[28] Since 2016, the FBI and DHS were warning local governments of Antifa violence and its increasing occurrences and labeled its activities as “domestic terrorist violence.”[29] The New Jersey State Office of Homeland Security has designated Antifa a domestic terrorist group. [30] The Antifa was founded in 1988 in Minneapolis, Minnesota as well as Toronto, Canada to counteract white supremacist groups and Neo-Nazi groups. The organization can be traced to the united front of the Soviet Unions Communist International (Comintern) during the Third World Congress in Moscow in June and July 1921. The idea of the united front strategy was to bring together left-wing organizations in order to incite communist revolution. The Soviets believed that following Russias revolution in 1917, communism would next spread to Germany, since Germany had the second-largest communist party, the KPD (Communist Party of Germany). It was at the Fourth World Congress of the Comintern in 1922 that the plan took shape. Moscow formed the slogan To the Masses for its united front strategy and sought to join together the various communist and workers parties of Germany under a single ideological banner that it controlled. Both the communist and fascist systems were based on collectivism and state-planned economies. Both also proposed systems wherein the individual was heavily controlled by a powerful state, and both were responsible for large-scale atrocities and genocide. In addition, the term “anti-fascism” was originally used by Stalin and the USSR prior to and during World War II as part of propaganda purposes to make the USSR seem mainstream by comparison to Nazi Germany.[31][32] The 2016 annual report by Germanys domestic intelligence service, the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution (BfV), notes the same point: From the viewpoint of the left-wing extremist, the label of fascism as pushed by Antifa often does not refer to actual fascism, but is merely a label assigned to capitalism. While leftist extremists claim to be fighting fascism while launching their attacks on other groups, the report states the term fascism has a double meaning under the extreme-left ideology, indicating the fight against the capitalist system. Antifascism is a strategy, not an ideology. They argue that the capitalist state produces fascism, or at least tolerates it. Therefore, anti-fascism is directed not only against actual or supposed right-wing extremists but also always against the state and its representatives, in particular members of the security authorities.[33] An Antifa group, “Refuse Fascism,” organized what it announced would be a series of major rallies in U.S. cities that would last until President Trump and Vice President Pence stepped down.[34] Rather than millions of people, as it intended, the protests saw very low turnout.[35][36]

Fair Usage Law

February 12, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Antifa  Comments Closed

About us | NYC ANTIFA

Antifascists and Anticapitalists! Since 2010, NYC Antifa has been dedicated to research on, and action against, fascist cultural and political organizing in New York City. NYC ANTIFAnycantifa.wordpress.com General correspondence: nycantifa@riseup.net Tips: FascismWatchNYC@gmail.com Like Loading…

Fair Usage Law

February 11, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Antifa  Comments Closed

Antifa | Category | Fox News

Fox News’ Bryan Llenas takes us inside an active shooter situation drill, filled with gunfire and smoke bombs. See how one small business is taking steps to prepare its employees for worst-case scenarios by hiring local law enforcement to train them on the proper techniques to survive a workplace shooting.

Fair Usage Law

February 2, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Antifa  Comments Closed

FACT CHECK: Is ‘Antifa’ Planning a Civil War?

CLAIM Law enforcement agents have announced that “antifa” is planning extended violent unrest or civil war beginning on 4 November 2017. In August 2017, rumors began to spread on social media that anti-fascists (a name often shortened to antifa, which has become shorthand for a subset of protestors, usually clad in black and accessorized with bandannas and who are evidently unnerving bloggers and vloggers enough to be the pet topic of many an angry online rant) were planningextended unrest, riots, killing random citizens, or outright civil war beginning on 4 November 2017: Depending on the source, antifa (always treated as though it is one homogenous, unified group) is purportedly planning extended riots, joint violence alongside Black Lives Matter and the Black Panthers, or a coup of the American government. The rumors seem to have originated from a video originallypublished on 30 August 2017 by an individual named Jordan Peltz.Peltz was widely (and incorrectly) identified as a U.S. Marshal in the video, which shows him wearing what looked like an official badge that is actually simply printed on his shirt. However, he is not actually law enforcement or military Peltz instead evidently works as some combination of bail bondsman and bounty hunter. (Claiming to be a United States marshal is very popular among the sovereign citizen set; those involvedclaim to answer only to their interpretation of common law and maintain they are not subject to other legal conventions, including gettingdrivers licensesand payingtaxes. Local, state, and federal governments tend to disagree.) OnInstagram, Peltz describes his work as #fugitiverecovery and #warrantservice: Peltz published a video to clear the air on 27 September 2017 after reporter JJ MacNab, whose beat includes anti-government and sovereign citizen groups, wrote a thread on Twitter about how militia groups are being goaded into taking up arms against anti-fascists: Peltzresponded bystating that his video, which gave an impression he was either predicting or calling for a November 2017 civil war, had been edited although he didnt specify when, by whom, or why, despite millions of views and thousands of comments, he had remained unaware it had been altered until he saw reports: On 29 September 2017, InfoWars published an article using Peltzscivil war wording: Antifa is planning a new round of nationwide riots on November 4 as part of a plot to start a civil war that will lead to the overthrow of the Trump administration. Far-left militants plan to gather in the streets and public squares of cities and towns across this country in the hope of building momentum for civil unrest that leads to nothing less than domestic regime change. Our protest must grow day after day and night after nightthousands becoming hundreds of thousands, and then millionsdetermined to act to put a stop to the grave danger that the Trump/Pence Regime poses to the world by demanding that this whole regime be removed from power, states a call to action on the RefuseFascism website. A longer screed posted on the Revolutionary Communist website makes it clear that Antifa is not prepared to wait for electoral change from Democrats, and will engage in a ferocious struggle, based on plans outlined in a book written by Bob Avakian, the Chairman of the Revolutionary Communist Party, which is called The Coming Civil War. The page also cited antifa web sites, neither of which threatened violence. Oneprovided a list of Facebook events, and the otherreadin its entirety: ON NOVEMBER 4, 2017: We will gather in the streets and public squares of cities and towns across this country, at first many thousands declaring that this whole regime is illegitimate and that we will not stop until our single demand is met: This Nightmare Must End: the Trump/Pence Regime Must Go! Our protest must grow day after day and night after nightthousands becoming hundreds of thousands, and then millionsdetermined to act to put a stop to the grave danger that the Trump/Pence Regime poses to the world by demanding that this whole regime be removed from power. Our actions will reflect the values of respect for all of humanity and the world we wantin stark contrast to the hate and bigotry of the Trump/Pence fascist regime. Our determination to persist and not back down will compel the whole world to take note. Every force and faction in the power structure would be forced to respond to our demand. The cracks and divisions among the powers already evident today will sharpen and widen. As we draw more and more people forward to stand up, all of this could lead to a situation where this illegitimate regime is removed from power. Spread the word and organize now. Be a part of making history. Dont let it be said that you stood aside when there was still a chance to stop a regime that imperils humanity and the Earth itself. Join in taking to the streets and the public squares day after day and night after night demonstrating that In the Name of Humanity, We REFUSE to Accept a Fascist America. On November 4, 2017, we will stand together with conviction and courage, overcoming fear and uncertainty, to insist that: This Nightmare Must End: The Trump/Pence Regime Must GO! @AntifaChecker, a Twitter feed devoted to sniffing out phony antifa accounts, said it was not even aware of the call to action: An articleinL.A. Weeklyreported on both the freeway protest and upcoming events: Their placards bore letters that spelled out NOV 4 IT BEGINS. But they couldnt get enough volunteers to hold all 12 letters, so the tallest among them, the ones with the broadest wingspans, held up two letters each. The eight people werent enough to block the on-ramp, so some motorists were able to swerve around. [Organizer and USC film professor Perry] Hoberman says the protest was conceived in part to get the word out about a Nov. 4 demonstration the group is planning. He says its being modeled on the Womens March held in January at Pershing Square and that organizers hope the action will include an encampment in a public place, la Occupy Wall Street, or at least a prolonged series of protests over several days. At one point on Tuesday they knelt on the freeway, which organizer Michelle Xai says was to acknowledge black and Latino people who have been and continue to be murdered by police. A video of the protest uploaded to the groups Facebook page has more than 700,000 views. Many of the 24,000-plus commenters ask for more information about Nov. 4. Plenty of others object to the groups inconveniencing motorists, and some appear to endorse running them over. It is true that some groups linked to the antifa movement planned co-ordinated protests on 4 November 2017, but that had nothing to do with Peltzs video expressing disdain for the group in August 2017, nor did he appear to have any insider law enforcement knowledge, as he does not work as law enforcement himself. When a wave of rumors about 4 November anti-fascist protests began, his clip became part of the claim as evidence that a federal officer warned of coming violence. In reality, a list of apparently peaceful protests were paired with an older, unrelated video to create the impression of a looming threat.Peltz himself walked the claims far back after his video brought him unwanted attention and scrutiny. There was an uptick in the rumors spread on 1 November 2017, when the groups advertised the 4 November 2017 demonstrations in theNew York Times. [Updated] 3 November 2017: Added information about advertisements for the planned protests which appeared on 1 November 2017 in the New York Times. Got a tip or a rumor? Contact us here. Smith IV, Jack. The Far-Right Thinks A Violent Antifa Overthrow Is Coming Nov. 4, But The Truth Is Far Stranger. Mic. 2 November 2017.

Fair Usage Law

January 24, 2018   Posted in: Antifa  Comments Closed

DNC deputy chair Keith Ellison signals support for Antifa …

Rep. Keith Ellison, D-Minn., was appointed deputy chair of the Democratic National Committee in February of last year. (REUTERS/Christopher Aluka Berry) Rep. Keith Ellison, D-Minn., the deputy chair of the Democratic National Committee, caused a stir on social media Wednesday when he posed with a book promoting the violent “Antifa” movement. In a post on Twitter, Ellison said that he found the book “Antifa: The Anti-Fascist Handbook” at a Minneapolis book shop and said it would “strike fear in the heart of @realDonaldTrump.” “Antifa,” written by former Occupy Wall Street organizer and current Dartmouth visiting scholar Mark Bray, is promoted on Amazon as “a smart and gripping investigation … of the full history of anti-fascism from its origins to the present day.” The book’s Amazon page includes complimentary reviews by The New Yorker, The Washington Post and the San Francisco Chronicle. Since Trump’s election as president, Antifa activists have initiated violent clashes on college campuses and at other gatherings. The group has been accused of using coordinated violence against people they deem to espouse far-right ideology. PELOSI ON VIOLENCE ANTIFA MEMBERS: LOCK THEM UP In August, House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi, D-Calif., condemned what she called the “violent actions of people calling themselves Antifa” and distanced them from the Democratic Party. “Youre not talking about the far left of the Democratic Party theyre not even Democrats,” Pelosi told the Denver Post editorial board. “A lot of them are socialists or anarchists or whatever.” Ellison’s post drew a negative response from conservatives on Twitter. Jordan Schachtel of Conservative Review noted, “The FBI and DHS consider Antifa a domestic terrorist organization … Does the @DNC now support terrorist groups? Every Democrat in Congress should have to answer for this ON the record.” Washington Free Beacon reporter Alex Griswold pointed out that Ellison was endorsing a book “that advocates for violence in the streets”. However, others on Twitter responded approvingly to Ellison’s post, with one user writing, “ugh why is he not in charge of the dnc.” Another posted, “that all Keith Ellison has to do is hold up a book with the word ANTIFA on it and it triggers millions of whiny MAGA babies into a rage means he should definitely do it more.”

Fair Usage Law

January 7, 2018   Posted in: Antifa  Comments Closed

Rep. Keith Ellison draws fire for tweet about Antifa handbook …

Minnesota Rep. Keith Ellison is drawing criticism for calling attention to a book that critics say condones a left-leaning group using violence in clashes with white supremacists. Ellison, the deputy chairman of the Democratic National Committee, posted a photo on Twitter Wednesday of himself posing with the book “Antifa: The Anti-Fascist Handbook.” The book calls violence during counter-protests “a small though vital sliver of anti-fascist activity.” Ellison’s post said the book should “strike fear into the heart” of President Donald Trump. The tweet, which drew more than 8,000 comments and more than 2,500 retweets, drew pushback from Republicans, who have criticized the movement’s at-times violent disruptions of speaking engagements and white supremacist rallies. Minnesota GOP Chairwoman Jennifer Carnahan said Ellison’s post amounted to complicity in a movement “that continues to threaten the well-being of Republicans in Minnesota and around the country.” Spokesman Karthik Ganapathy says Ellison has not read the book but has espoused nonviolence throughout his career. The antifa, or anti-fascists movement, is a term to describe far-left-leaning militant groups that resist neo-Nazis and white supremacists. It drew more attention in 2017 after clashes at a white supremacists rally in Charlottesville, Virginia, in August. RELATED: What is Antifa? Virginia clashes bring attention to anti-fascist movement

Fair Usage Law

January 7, 2018   Posted in: Antifa  Comments Closed

DNC Deputy Keith Ellison Blasted for Tweet Touting Antifa …

DNC Vice Chair Keith Ellison Compares Dreamers to Jews in Nazi Germany Dershowitz on DNC Vote: Ellison’s Defeat Is Win in ‘War Against Bigotry’ One of the leading figures in the Democratic Party is taking heat on social media for proudly touting the violent far-left group Antifa. Rep. Keith Ellison (D-Minn.), who serves as DNC deputy chair, tweeted a picture to promote a book called”Antifa: The Anti-Fascist Handbook.” Antifa Website Calls for Violence Against Trump Supporters The sentiment is not shared by other Democrats, including House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi, whocondemned violent elements within Antifa, saying violent protesters should be arrested. “Youre not talking about the far left of the Democratic Party theyre not even Democrats,” Pelosi told the Denver Post editorial board. “A lot of them are socialists or anarchists or whatever.” Ellison, who lost a close race last year to Tom Perez for leadership of the DNC, was skewered on Twitter for posting the photo. On Fox Business Network, Democrat and author Doug Schoen said he wishes Ellison would “go away,” but fears Ellison will do the opposite and run for Al Franken’s Senate seat in Minnesota. “He stands for everything I do not believe and I think is wrong about the Democratic Party,” said Schoen. He also noted the anti-Israel views espoused by Ellison, who in 2007 became the first Muslim-American to be elected to Congress. Watch the discussion above. NFL’s TV Ratings Dropped 10 Percent This Season Amid Lower Attendance Scaramucci: Author’s Claim That Trump Didn’t Want to Win Election Is ‘Nonsense’

Fair Usage Law

January 7, 2018   Posted in: Antifa  Comments Closed

Deputy DNC Chair Ellison promotes pro-Antifa, pro-violence …

Rep. Keith Ellison, the deputy chair of the DNC posed with a pro-Antifa book on Twitter Wednesday, saying the book would strike fear in the heart of the president. I dont know if Rep. Ellison meant to endorse the book or if this was just his way of calling the president a fascist. Either way, this is a pretty extreme comment. Fox News points out that even Nancy Pelosi has made efforts to distance the party from Antifa: In August, House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi, D-Calif., condemned what she called the violent actions of people calling themselves Antifa and distanced them from the Democratic Party. Youre not talking about the far left of the Democratic Party theyre not even Democrats, Pelosi told the Denver Post editorial board. A lot of them are socialists or anarchists or whatever. Pelosi is partly right. Antifa members arent all Democrats, most of them are fringe anti-capitalists. But saying theyre not the far left of Pelosis party is a pipe dream. If nothing else, the fact that Ellison is embracing this book shows the far left is a lot closer at hand than she believes. As youve certainly heard by now, the willingness to embrace violence to achieve political ends is Antifas distinctive feature. Thats something theyve demonstrated numerous times in 2017. The Antifa handbook isnt just a descriptive text, its also an endorsement of the groups tactics by author Mark Bray who previously worked as the PR person for Occupy Wall Street. Bray believes the liberal position on freedom of speech is a mistake and instead supports violent confrontation. Needless to say, if any elected official on the right had taken a selfie with a book promoting political violence, that person would be asked a lot of questions by the media about their commitment to the American system of government. Does Ellison think people should embrace violence? Does he support freedom of speech? Will anyone even ask him?

Fair Usage Law

January 7, 2018   Posted in: Antifa  Comments Closed

What is ‘Antifa’? And why is the media so reluctant to expose it?

Are all Trump supporters violent white supremacists? Clearly not. But you might not know that based on some of the reporting flying around this week. The mainstream media are oversimplifying what happened this past weekend when riots broke out in Berkeley, California, during a rally for free speech put on by Trump backers. In doing so, the reporting implies that those supporting the president were prepared for violence while those in opposition are simply opposing fascism. Twenty-one people were arrested Sunday after fistfights broke out near Martin Luther King Jr. Civic Center Park, where a rally for free speech put on by a pro-Trump group Liberty Revival Alliance was scheduled. Rocks were thrown, and sticks and skateboards were used to beat people. Of course, the MSM reporting is slanted. The Los Angeles Times report on the fighting, for example, takes pains to show how a member of a citizen militia group originating from Montana who came to the rally to protect Trump supporters mightve been looking for a fight. I dont mind hitting the counter-demonstrators, one man tells the Times. In fact, I would kind of enjoy it. The paper also interviewed a woman on the Left fed up with the violence, a vendor selling organic produce, and a guy handing out empathy kisses. The message, clearly, is that those on the Right were looking for trouble and those on the Left responded. What the Times and other outlets dont tell you is this was not simply a clash of Trump supporters and counter-protesters. Just who are the groups involved? How do we stop the mainstream media from warping the national narrative? We push back together. With the truth. Be the first to receive CRTVs free weapon against the worst the media has to offer. Introducing WTF MSM!? As some in the mainstream media tell it, on the one hand you have racist white nationalists in support of Trump. This is true. Alt-Right activists such as Nathan Damigo who founded the white supremacist organization Identity Europa can be seen delivering a vicious right-hook to a woman (who, in turn, was assaulting him). But by no means was every Trump backer at this rally for free speech a violent neo-Nazi. On the other hand, as SFGate reported, several liberal groups were there to counter protest in opposition to Trump. But these were not just milquetoast liberals there to oppose a president they dont like. Specifically, as the Los Angeles Times notes in a different piece, officials raised concerns about the militant black bloc of anti-fascist (Antifa for short) rioters. But dont take the term anti-fascist on its face, as the mainstream media is wont to do. Understand who these people actually are. Antifa is made up of self-described anarchists radical left-wing thugs who employ violence and intimidation to advance their beliefs. Theyve shown up previously at Berkeley to shut down a free speech event hosted by provocateur Milo Yiannopoulos, leaving damaged property, fires, and assault victims in their wake. They also violently disrupted a March 4 Trump event in March. But you arent hearing as much about Antifa violence as you are about the Alt-Right. In fact, some outlets are offering outright praise for Antifa. Ask Esquire magazine and Antifa rioters are noble, anti-racist counter demonstrators a sort of Justice League vigilante group dedicated to shutting down fascist protests. But this is a radical movement that traces its roots back to World War II, as Mother Jones recounts in The long history of Nazi punching. They employ so-called righteous violence against what they consider to be the forces of fascism. What fascism is nowadays seems to be a subjective definition belonging to whichever particular Antifa thugs show up en force. One might say Antifas violent tactics, employed around the world, are fascist. Here in the contemporary U.S., waves of Antifa-driven riots are on the rise in in an effort to silence President Trump and his supporters by any means necessary. Antifa thugs show up at left-wing demonstrations to breed chaos, destruction, and bloodshed. They blend in with and are sometimes aided by the crowd, as National Reviews David French explained in the aftermath of Yiannopoulos Berkeley event in February: What youll notice (and what youll experience, if you ever find yourself in the middle of violent left-wing protest) is that the rioters and the peaceful protesters have a symbiotic relationship. The rioters break people and destroy things, then melt back into a crowd that often quickly and purposefully closes behind them. Theyre typically cheered wildly (to be sure, some yell at them to stop) and often treated as heroes by the rest of the mob almost like theyre the SEAL Team Six of left-wing protest. The Battle of Berkeley, as some are calling it, was a dangerous, violent, bloody mess. Instigators, Antifa and Alt-Right, should be roundly condemned. But at the moment, the American people are only getting one side of the story from the mainstream media. The majority of the MSMs intense focus is applied to white nationalist groups, while Antifa is being cast in a heroic role opposed to the Alt-Rights violence. The mainstream media wax poetic on the dangers of the nationalist populist Alt-Right. They ought to be wary of normalizing Antifas brand of radical Alt-Left violence. Editors note: The title to this piece has been updated to correct a grammatical error. Chris Pandolfo is a staff writer and type-shouter for Conservative Review. He holds a B.A. in Politics and Economics from Hillsdale College. His interests are Conservative Political Philosophy, the American Founding, and Progressive Rock. Follow him on Twitter for doom-saying and great album recommendations@ChrisCPandolfo. Chris Pandolfo is a staff writer and type-shouter for Conservative Review. He holds a B.A. in politics and economics from Hillsdale College. His interests are conservative political philosophy, the American founding, and progressive rock. Follow him on Twitter for doom-saying and great album recommendations @ChrisCPandolfo.

Fair Usage Law

December 31, 2017   Posted in: Antifa  Comments Closed


Fair Use Disclaimer

"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances."

Under the 'fair use' rule of copyright law, an author may make limited use of another author's work without asking permission. Fair use is based on the belief that the public is entitled to freely use portions of copyrighted materials for purposes of commentary and criticism. The fair use privilege is perhaps the most significant limitation on a copyright owner's exclusive rights.

Fair use as described at 17 U.S.C. Section 107:

"Notwithstanding the provisions of section 106 and 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phono-records or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright.

In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include:

  • (1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for or nonprofit educational purposes,
  • (2) the nature of the copyrighted work,
  • (3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole, and
  • (4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work."