Archive for the ‘Apartheid’ Category

A history of Apartheid in South Africa | South African …

Background and policy of apartheid

Before we can look at the history of the apartheid period it is necessary to understand what apartheid was and how it affected people.

What was apartheid?

Translated from the Afrikaans meaning ‘apartness’, apartheid was the ideology supported by the National Party (NP) government and was introduced in South Africa in 1948. Apartheid called for the separate development of the different racial groups in South Africa. On paper it appeared to call for equal development and freedom of cultural expression, but the way it was implemented made this impossible. Apartheid made laws forced the different racial groups to live separately and develop separately, and grossly unequally too. It tried to stop all inter-marriage and social integration between racial groups. During apartheid, to have a friendship with someone of a different race generally brought suspicion upon you, or worse. More than this, apartheid was a social system which severely disadvantaged the majority of the population, simply because they did not share the skin colour of the rulers. Many were kept just above destitution because they were ‘non-white’.

In basic principles, apartheid did not differ that much from the policy of segregation of the South African governments existing before the Afrikaner Nationalist Party came to power in 1948. The main difference is that apartheid made segregation part of the law. Apartheid cruelly and forcibly separated people, and had a fearsome state apparatus to punish those who disagreed. Another reason why apartheid was seen as much worse than segregation, was that apartheid was introduced in a period when other countries were moving away from racist policies. Before World War Two the Western world was not as critical of racial discrimination, and Africa was colonized in this period. The Second World War highlighted the problems of racism, making the world turn away from such policies and encouraging demands for decolonization. It was during this period that South Africa introduced the more rigid racial policy of apartheid.

People often wonder why such a policy was introduced and why it had so much support. Various reasons can be given for apartheid, although they are all closely linked. The main reasons lie in ideas of racial superiority and fear. Across the world, racism is influenced by the idea that one race must be superior to another. Such ideas are found in all population groups. The other main reason for apartheid was fear, as in South Africa the white people are in the minority, and many were worried they would lose their jobs, culture and language. This is obviously not a justification for apartheid, but explains how people were thinking.

Original architects of Apartheid Image source

Apartheid Laws

Numerous laws were passed in the creation of the apartheid state. Here are a few of the pillars on which it rested:

Population Registration Act, 1950This Act demanded that people be registered according to their racial group. This meant that the Department of Home affairs would have a record of people according to whether they were white, coloured, black, Indian or Asian. People would then be treated differently according to their population group, and so this law formed the basis of apartheid. It was however not always that easy to decide what racial group a person was part of, and this caused some problems.

Group Areas Act, 1950This was the act that started physical separation between races, especially in urban areas. The act also called for the removal of some groups of people into areas set aside for their racial group.

Promotion of Bantu Self-Government Act, 1959This Act said that different racial groups had to live in different areas. Only a small percentage of South Africa was left for black people (who comprised the vast majority) to form their ‘homelands’. This Act also got rid of ‘black spots’ inside white areas, by moving all black people out of the city. Well known removals were those in District 6, Sophiatown and Lady Selborne. These black people were then placed in townships outside of the town. They could not own property here, only rent it, as the land could only be white owned. This Act caused much hardship and resentment. People lost their homes, were moved off land they had owned for many years and were moved to undeveloped areas far away from their place of work.

Some other important laws were the:

Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act, 1949Immorality Amendment Act, 1950Separate Representation of Voters Act, 1951

Resistance before 1960

Resistance to apartheid came from all circles, and not only, as is often presumed, from those who suffered the negative effects of discrimination. Criticism also came from other countries, and some of these gave support to the South African freedom movements.

Some of the most important organizations involve din the struggle for liberation were the African National Congress (ANC), the Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC), the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP), the Black Consciousness Movement (BCM) and the United Democratic Front (UDF). There were also Indian and Coloured organized resistance movements (e.g. the Natal Indian Congress (NIC), the Coloured People’s Organisation), white organized groups (e.g. the radical Armed Resistance Movement (ARM), and Black Sash) and church based groups (the Christian Institute). We shall consider the ANC.

The ANC

The ANC was formed in Bloemfontein in 1912, soon after the Union of South Africa. Originally it was called the South African Native National Congress (SANNC). It was started as a movement for the Black elite, that is those Blacks who were educated. In 1919 the ANC sent a deputation to London to plead for a new deal for South African blacks, but there was no change to their position.

The South African Native National Congress delegation to England, June 1919 Image source

The history of resistance by the ANC goes through three phases. The first was dialogue and petition; the second direct opposition and the last the period of exiled armed struggle. In 1949, just after apartheid was introduced, the ANC started on a more militant path, with the Youth League playing a more important role. The ANC introduced their Programme of Action in 1949, supporting strike action, protests and other forms of non-violent resistance. Nelson Mandela, Oliver Tambo and Walter Sisulu started to play an important role in the ANC in this period. In 1952 the ANC started the Defiance Campaign. This campaign called on people to purposefully break apartheid laws and offer themselves for arrest. It was hoped that the increase in prisoners would cause the system to collapse and get international support for the ANC. Black people got onto ‘white buses’, used ‘white toilets’, entered into ‘white areas’ and refused to use passes. Despite 8 000 people ending up in jail, the ANC caused no threat to the apartheid regime.

The ANC continued along the same path during the rest of the 1950s, until in 1959 some members broke away and formed the PAC. These members wanted to follow a more violent and militant route, and felt that success could not be reached through the ANC’s method.

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A history of Apartheid in South Africa | South African …

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Maher: ‘Thoughts and Prayers’ Are the Republican Way of Saying ‘Tough Sh-t’


Friday during his opening monologue, HBO’s “Real Time” host Bill Maher slammed Republicans for their reactions to the mass shooting in Las Vegas nearly a week earlier. Maher focused on those offering their “thoughts and prayers” to the victims of the tragedy. He declared such an offer was the “Republican way of saying tough shit.” “I’m so sick of all of the reactions,” Maher said. “I’m so sick of ‘thoughts and prayers.’ First of all, thoughts are the opposite of prayers. A thought is, what should I do? A prayer is wishing on a star. Thoughts and prayers are the Republican way of saying tough shit.” Follow Jeff Poor on Twitter @jeff_poor

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Maher: ‘Thoughts and Prayers’ Are the Republican Way of Saying ‘Tough Sh-t’

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Chris Matthews: Republican Gun ‘Fanatics’ Believe Everyone Has a Right to Own Tanks

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Thursday on MSNBC’s “Hardball,” host Chris Matthews said Republicans were “fanatics” on guns and that they even supported private ownership of tanks. Matthews said, “The Republican platform protects magazines. It protects AR-15s. It protects everything that is even discussed. They haven’t gotten to this bump thing yet, this thing that changes the gun into an automatic. But they clearly when they hear something’s coming their way, they put it in their platform and say, ‘Leave it alone.’ They are fanatics. The Republican Party as a party is a fanatic party on guns.” He added, “Well you know what the Republican’s says in their platform that the right to bear arms precedes the Constitution. It’s a God-given sort of theological right. They treat this like religion. I don’t know how to explain it. It’s a religious, essential notion to them that everybody should have any kind of gun they want, any—a bazooka, a tank. They never put a limit on it, ever.” (h/t WFB) Follow Pam Key on Twitter @pamkeyNEN

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David Brooks: Gun Debate a ‘Proxy for the Big Cultural Dispute’ — ‘Higher Education and Lower Education’


Friday on PBS’s “NewsHour,” New York Times columnist David Brooks described the ongoing gun control debate in the wake of last week’s mass shooting in Las Vegas to be a “proxy” for the larger culture divide underway in America. Brooks argued that the divide, which he was similar on many other issues, fell along the lines of education. “You know, one of the things that struck me about the polling on people’s gun rights or gun control is that, in 2000, not that long ago, two-thirds of Americans supported gun control, and only 29 percent supported gun rights,” Brooks said. “Now it’s about 50/50. And so the gun rights people have just had a massive shift in their direction. And that’s because the issue has now — perfectly mirrors the political divide in this country and the cultural divide between coastal and rural, between more — higher education and lower education, the divide we see on issue after issue.” “And it’s become sort of a proxy for the big cultural dispute,” he continued. “And a lot of the people who are trying to resist the post-industrial takeover of the country have seized on guns and immigration and the flag and a few

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David Brooks: Gun Debate a ‘Proxy for the Big Cultural Dispute’ — ‘Higher Education and Lower Education’

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Self-Exiled Chinese Billionaire Warns Beijing Seeking to ‘Decimate’ U.S.


Self-exiled Chinese real-estate mogul Guo Wengui blasted what he called the “kleptocracy” running China, and warned that a wave of Chinese spies are being dispatched to “decimate” the United States – where Guo is currently sheltered.

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Self-Exiled Chinese Billionaire Warns Beijing Seeking to ‘Decimate’ U.S.

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NYT: Trump Will Decertify Iran Nuclear Deal, Force Congress to Make Next Move

US President Donald Trump speaks during rally for Alabama state Republican Senator Luther Strange at the Von Braun Civic Center September 22, 2017 in Huntsville, Alabama. Trump is visiting the southern US state to endorse Luther Strange, a candidate for US Senate in the state's Republican primary. / AFP PHOTO / Brendan Smialowski (Photo credit should read BRENDAN SMIALOWSKI/AFP/Getty Images)
The New York Times cites sources briefed on President Trump’s plans for the Iran nuclear deal who say the president intends to decertify the deal without fully withdrawing from it. This will reignite what the Times calls a “volatile political debate” in Congress and effectively force the legislature to make the next move.

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Bowe Bergdahl to Plead Guilty to Desertion, Misbehavior Before the Enemy to Avoid Trial

FT. BRAGG, NC - MAY 17: U.S. Army Sgt. Bowe Bergdahl leaves the Ft. Bragg military courthouse with his legal team after a pretrial hearing on May 17, 2016 in Ft. Bragg, North Carolina. Bergdahl faces charges of desertion and endangering troops stemming from his decision to leave his outpost in Afghanistan in 2009, which resulted in his capture and imprisonment for five years by the Taliban. (Photo by Sara D. Davis/Getty Images)
U.S. Army Sgt. Bowe Bergdahl is expected to plead guilty this month to desertion and misbehavior before the enemy after being exchanged by the previous administration for five high-risk Taliban commanders in 2014.

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Mexican Cops Arrest Former Border State Narco-Governor


REYNOSA, Tamaulipas — Mexican state authorities arrested a former governor after the United States accused him of money laundering in Texas and accepting cartel bribes.

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Mexican Cops Arrest Former Border State Narco-Governor

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Report: Cartel Human Smuggling Fees ‘Skyrocketed’ Under Trump

In this Aug. 11, 2017, photo, immigrants suspected of crossing into the United States illegally along the Rio Grande near Granjeno, Texas, are held by U.S. Customs and Border Patrol agents. After hitting a 17-year low shortly after President Donald Trump took office, the numbers of people coming over the border have risen four months in a row. (AP Photo/Eric Gay)
Smuggling illegal aliens across the U.S.-Mexico border is becoming increasingly expensive. A new report shows how the price of human smuggling has “skyrocketed” under President Trump’s immigration enforcement actions.

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Report: Cartel Human Smuggling Fees ‘Skyrocketed’ Under Trump

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A history of Apartheid in South Africa | South African …

Background and policy of apartheid Before we can look at the history of the apartheid period it is necessary to understand what apartheid was and how it affected people. What was apartheid? Translated from the Afrikaans meaning ‘apartness’, apartheid was the ideology supported by the National Party (NP) government and was introduced in South Africa in 1948. Apartheid called for the separate development of the different racial groups in South Africa. On paper it appeared to call for equal development and freedom of cultural expression, but the way it was implemented made this impossible. Apartheid made laws forced the different racial groups to live separately and develop separately, and grossly unequally too. It tried to stop all inter-marriage and social integration between racial groups. During apartheid, to have a friendship with someone of a different race generally brought suspicion upon you, or worse. More than this, apartheid was a social system which severely disadvantaged the majority of the population, simply because they did not share the skin colour of the rulers. Many were kept just above destitution because they were ‘non-white’. In basic principles, apartheid did not differ that much from the policy of segregation of the South African governments existing before the Afrikaner Nationalist Party came to power in 1948. The main difference is that apartheid made segregation part of the law. Apartheid cruelly and forcibly separated people, and had a fearsome state apparatus to punish those who disagreed. Another reason why apartheid was seen as much worse than segregation, was that apartheid was introduced in a period when other countries were moving away from racist policies. Before World War Two the Western world was not as critical of racial discrimination, and Africa was colonized in this period. The Second World War highlighted the problems of racism, making the world turn away from such policies and encouraging demands for decolonization. It was during this period that South Africa introduced the more rigid racial policy of apartheid. People often wonder why such a policy was introduced and why it had so much support. Various reasons can be given for apartheid, although they are all closely linked. The main reasons lie in ideas of racial superiority and fear. Across the world, racism is influenced by the idea that one race must be superior to another. Such ideas are found in all population groups. The other main reason for apartheid was fear, as in South Africa the white people are in the minority, and many were worried they would lose their jobs, culture and language. This is obviously not a justification for apartheid, but explains how people were thinking. Original architects of Apartheid Image source Apartheid Laws Numerous laws were passed in the creation of the apartheid state. Here are a few of the pillars on which it rested: Population Registration Act, 1950This Act demanded that people be registered according to their racial group. This meant that the Department of Home affairs would have a record of people according to whether they were white, coloured, black, Indian or Asian. People would then be treated differently according to their population group, and so this law formed the basis of apartheid. It was however not always that easy to decide what racial group a person was part of, and this caused some problems. Group Areas Act, 1950This was the act that started physical separation between races, especially in urban areas. The act also called for the removal of some groups of people into areas set aside for their racial group. Promotion of Bantu Self-Government Act, 1959This Act said that different racial groups had to live in different areas. Only a small percentage of South Africa was left for black people (who comprised the vast majority) to form their ‘homelands’. This Act also got rid of ‘black spots’ inside white areas, by moving all black people out of the city. Well known removals were those in District 6, Sophiatown and Lady Selborne. These black people were then placed in townships outside of the town. They could not own property here, only rent it, as the land could only be white owned. This Act caused much hardship and resentment. People lost their homes, were moved off land they had owned for many years and were moved to undeveloped areas far away from their place of work. Some other important laws were the: Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act, 1949Immorality Amendment Act, 1950Separate Representation of Voters Act, 1951 Resistance before 1960 Resistance to apartheid came from all circles, and not only, as is often presumed, from those who suffered the negative effects of discrimination. Criticism also came from other countries, and some of these gave support to the South African freedom movements. Some of the most important organizations involve din the struggle for liberation were the African National Congress (ANC), the Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC), the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP), the Black Consciousness Movement (BCM) and the United Democratic Front (UDF). There were also Indian and Coloured organized resistance movements (e.g. the Natal Indian Congress (NIC), the Coloured People’s Organisation), white organized groups (e.g. the radical Armed Resistance Movement (ARM), and Black Sash) and church based groups (the Christian Institute). We shall consider the ANC. The ANC The ANC was formed in Bloemfontein in 1912, soon after the Union of South Africa. Originally it was called the South African Native National Congress (SANNC). It was started as a movement for the Black elite, that is those Blacks who were educated. In 1919 the ANC sent a deputation to London to plead for a new deal for South African blacks, but there was no change to their position. The South African Native National Congress delegation to England, June 1919 Image source The history of resistance by the ANC goes through three phases. The first was dialogue and petition; the second direct opposition and the last the period of exiled armed struggle. In 1949, just after apartheid was introduced, the ANC started on a more militant path, with the Youth League playing a more important role. The ANC introduced their Programme of Action in 1949, supporting strike action, protests and other forms of non-violent resistance. Nelson Mandela, Oliver Tambo and Walter Sisulu started to play an important role in the ANC in this period. In 1952 the ANC started the Defiance Campaign. This campaign called on people to purposefully break apartheid laws and offer themselves for arrest. It was hoped that the increase in prisoners would cause the system to collapse and get international support for the ANC. Black people got onto ‘white buses’, used ‘white toilets’, entered into ‘white areas’ and refused to use passes. Despite 8 000 people ending up in jail, the ANC caused no threat to the apartheid regime. The ANC continued along the same path during the rest of the 1950s, until in 1959 some members broke away and formed the PAC. These members wanted to follow a more violent and militant route, and felt that success could not be reached through the ANC’s method.

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Maher: ‘Thoughts and Prayers’ Are the Republican Way of Saying ‘Tough Sh-t’

Friday during his opening monologue, HBO’s “Real Time” host Bill Maher slammed Republicans for their reactions to the mass shooting in Las Vegas nearly a week earlier. Maher focused on those offering their “thoughts and prayers” to the victims of the tragedy. He declared such an offer was the “Republican way of saying tough shit.” “I’m so sick of all of the reactions,” Maher said. “I’m so sick of ‘thoughts and prayers.’ First of all, thoughts are the opposite of prayers. A thought is, what should I do? A prayer is wishing on a star. Thoughts and prayers are the Republican way of saying tough shit.” Follow Jeff Poor on Twitter @jeff_poor

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October 7, 2017   Posted in: Apartheid  Comments Closed

Chris Matthews: Republican Gun ‘Fanatics’ Believe Everyone Has a Right to Own Tanks

Thursday on MSNBC’s “Hardball,” host Chris Matthews said Republicans were “fanatics” on guns and that they even supported private ownership of tanks. Matthews said, “The Republican platform protects magazines. It protects AR-15s. It protects everything that is even discussed. They haven’t gotten to this bump thing yet, this thing that changes the gun into an automatic. But they clearly when they hear something’s coming their way, they put it in their platform and say, ‘Leave it alone.’ They are fanatics. The Republican Party as a party is a fanatic party on guns.” He added, “Well you know what the Republican’s says in their platform that the right to bear arms precedes the Constitution. It’s a God-given sort of theological right. They treat this like religion. I don’t know how to explain it. It’s a religious, essential notion to them that everybody should have any kind of gun they want, any—a bazooka, a tank. They never put a limit on it, ever.” (h/t WFB) Follow Pam Key on Twitter @pamkeyNEN

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October 7, 2017   Posted in: Apartheid  Comments Closed

David Brooks: Gun Debate a ‘Proxy for the Big Cultural Dispute’ — ‘Higher Education and Lower Education’

Friday on PBS’s “NewsHour,” New York Times columnist David Brooks described the ongoing gun control debate in the wake of last week’s mass shooting in Las Vegas to be a “proxy” for the larger culture divide underway in America. Brooks argued that the divide, which he was similar on many other issues, fell along the lines of education. “You know, one of the things that struck me about the polling on people’s gun rights or gun control is that, in 2000, not that long ago, two-thirds of Americans supported gun control, and only 29 percent supported gun rights,” Brooks said. “Now it’s about 50/50. And so the gun rights people have just had a massive shift in their direction. And that’s because the issue has now — perfectly mirrors the political divide in this country and the cultural divide between coastal and rural, between more — higher education and lower education, the divide we see on issue after issue.” “And it’s become sort of a proxy for the big cultural dispute,” he continued. “And a lot of the people who are trying to resist the post-industrial takeover of the country have seized on guns and immigration and the flag and a few

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October 7, 2017   Posted in: Apartheid  Comments Closed

Self-Exiled Chinese Billionaire Warns Beijing Seeking to ‘Decimate’ U.S.

Self-exiled Chinese real-estate mogul Guo Wengui blasted what he called the “kleptocracy” running China, and warned that a wave of Chinese spies are being dispatched to “decimate” the United States – where Guo is currently sheltered.

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NYT: Trump Will Decertify Iran Nuclear Deal, Force Congress to Make Next Move

The New York Times cites sources briefed on President Trump’s plans for the Iran nuclear deal who say the president intends to decertify the deal without fully withdrawing from it. This will reignite what the Times calls a “volatile political debate” in Congress and effectively force the legislature to make the next move.

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October 7, 2017   Posted in: Apartheid  Comments Closed

Bowe Bergdahl to Plead Guilty to Desertion, Misbehavior Before the Enemy to Avoid Trial

U.S. Army Sgt. Bowe Bergdahl is expected to plead guilty this month to desertion and misbehavior before the enemy after being exchanged by the previous administration for five high-risk Taliban commanders in 2014.

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Mexican Cops Arrest Former Border State Narco-Governor

REYNOSA, Tamaulipas — Mexican state authorities arrested a former governor after the United States accused him of money laundering in Texas and accepting cartel bribes.

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Report: Cartel Human Smuggling Fees ‘Skyrocketed’ Under Trump

Smuggling illegal aliens across the U.S.-Mexico border is becoming increasingly expensive. A new report shows how the price of human smuggling has “skyrocketed” under President Trump’s immigration enforcement actions.

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