Archive for the ‘Ashkenazi’ Category

Ashkenazim | Jewish Virtual Library

by Shira Schoenberg

The name Ashkenaz was applied in the Middle Ages to Jews living along the Rhine River in northern France and western Germany. The center of Ashkenazi Jews later spread to Poland-Lithuania and now there are Ashkenazi settlements all over the world. The term “Ashkenaz” became identified primarily with German customs and descendants of German Jews.

In the 10th and 11th century, the first Ashkenazim, Jewish merchants in France and Germany, were economic pioneers, treated well because of their trading connections with the Mediterranean and the East. Jewish communities appeared in many urban centers. Early Ashkenaz communities were small and homogeneous. Until Christian guilds were formed, Jews were craftsmen and artisans. In France, many Jews owned vineyards and made wine. They carried arms and knew how to use them in self-defense. The Jews of each town constituted an independent, self-governing entity. Each community, or kahal, established its own regulations made up by an elected board and judicial courts. They enforced their rulings with the threat of excommunication. The Ashkenazim generally shied away from outside influences and concentrated on internal Jewish sources, ideas and customs.

Ashkenazim focused on biblical and Talmudic studies. Centers of rabbinic scholarship appeared in the tenth century in Mainz and Worms in the Rhineland and in Troyes and Sens in France. Ashkenazi scholarship centered around oral discussion. Sages focused on understanding the minutiae of the texts instead of extracting general principles. The most famous early teacher was Rabbenu Gershom of Mainz. Some of his decrees, such as that forbidding polygamy, are still in existence today. The first major Ashkenazi literary figure was Rashi (Solomon ben Isaac of Troyes, 1040-1105), whose commentaries on the Bible and Talmud are today considered fundamental to Jewish study. The tosafists, Ashkenazi Talmudic scholars in northern France and Germany, introduced new methods and insights into Talmudic study that are also still in use. Early Ashkenazi Jews composed religious poetry modeled after the fifth and sixth century piyyutim (liturgical poems). While prayer liturgy varied even among Ashkenazi countries, the differences were almost insignificant compared to the differences between Sephardi and Ashkenazi liturgy.

While Ashkenazi Jews occasionally experience anti-Semitism, mob violence first erupted against them an the end of the 11th century. Many Jews were killed in what Robert Seltzer calls a “supercharged religious atmosphere.” Many were willing to die as martyrs rather than convert.

In the 12th and 13th centuries, many Ashkenazi Jews became moneylenders. They were supported by the secular rulers who benefited from taxes imposed on the Jews. The rulers did not totally protect them, however, and blood libels cropped up accompanied by violence. In 1182, Jews were expelled from France. Ashkenazi Jews continued to build communities in Germany until they faced riots and massacres in the 1200s and 1300s. Some Jews moved to Sephardi Spain while others set up Ashkenazi communities in Poland.

The center of Ashkenazi Jewry shifted to Poland, Lithuania, Bohemia and Moravia in the beginning of the 16th century. Jews were for the first time concentrated in Eastern Europe instead of Western Europe. Polish Jews adopted the Ashkenazi rites, liturgy, and religious customs of the German Jews. The Ashkenazi mahzor (holiday prayer book) included prayers composed by poets of Germany and Northern France. In Poland, the Jews became fiscal agents, tax collectors, estate managers for noblemen, merchants and craftsmen. In the 1500-1600s, Polish Jewry grew to be the largest Jewish community in the diaspora. Many Jews lived in shtetls, small towns where the majority of the inhabitants were Jewish. They set up kehillot like those in the Middle Ages that elected a board of trustees to collect taxes, set up education systems and deal with other necessities of Jewish life. The Jews even had their own craft guilds. Each kahal had a yeshiva, where boys over the age of 13 learned Talmudic and rabbinic texts. Yiddish was the language of oral translation and of discussion of Torah and Talmud. Ashkenazi scholars focused on careful readings of the text and also on summarizing legal interpretations of former Ashkenazi and Sephardi scholars of Jewish law.

Ashkenazim focused on Hebrew, Torah and especially Talmud. They used religion to protect themselves from outside influences. The Jews at this time were largely middle class. By choice, they mostly lived in self-contained communities surrounding their synagogue and other communal institutions. Yiddish was the common language of Ashkenazi Jews in eastern and central Europe. With the start of the Renaissance and religious wars in the late 16th century, a divide grew between central and eastern European Jews. In central Europe, particularly in Germany, rulers forced the Jews to live apart from the rest of society in ghettos with between 100 and 500 inhabitants. The ghettos were generally clean and in good condition. Eastern European Jews lived in the shtetls, where Jews and gentiles lived side by side.

In the 1600s and 1700s, Jews in Poland, the center of Ashkenazi Jewry, faced blood libels and riots. The growth of Hasidism in Poland drew many Jews away from typical Ashkenazi practice. After the Chmielnicki massacres in Poland in 1648, Polish Jews spread through Western Europe, some even crossing the Atlantic. Many Ashkenazi Polish Jews fled to Amsterdam and joined previously existing communities of German Jews. Sephardim there considered the Ashkenazim to be socially and culturally inferior. While the Sephardim were generally wealthy, the Ashkenazim were poor peddlers, petty traders, artisans, diamond polishers, jewelry workers and silversmiths. As the Sephardim became poorer in the 18th century, the communities became more equal and more united.

The Jewish community in England also changed in the 1700s. It had been primarily Sephardi throughout the 1600s, but it became more Ashkenazi in culture as growing numbers of German and Polish Jews arrived.

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Ashkenazim | Jewish Virtual Library

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Ashkenazi – New World Encyclopedia

Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim, are Jews descended from the medieval Jewish communities of the Rhineland”Ashkenaz” being the Medieval Hebrew name for Germany. They are distinguished from Sephardic Jews, the other main group of European Jewry, who arrived earlier in Europe and lived primarily in Spain.

Many Ashkenazim later migrated, largely eastward, forming communities in Germany, Hungary, Poland, Russia, Eastern Europe, and elsewhere between the tenth and nineteenth centuries. From medieval times until the mid-twentieth century, the lingua franca among Ashkenazi Jews was primarily Yiddish.

The Ashkenazi Jews developed a distinct liturgy and culture, influenced to varying degrees, by interaction with surrounding peoples, predominantly Germans, Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Kashubians, Hungarians, Ukrainians, Lithuanians, Letts, Belarusians, and Russians.

Although in the eleventh century they comprised only three percent of the world’s Jewish population, Ashkenazi Jews accounted for 92 percent of the world’s Jews in 1931, and today make up approximately 80 percent of Jews worldwide. Most Jewish communities with extended histories in Europe are Ashkenazim, with the exception of Sephardic Jews associated with the Mediterranean region. A significant portion of the Jews who migrated from Europe to other continents in the past two centuries are Eastern Ashkenazim, particularly in the United States. Ashkenazi Jews have made major contributions to world culture in terms of science, literature, economics, and the arts.

Ashkenaz is a Medieval Hebrew name for Germany. European Jews came to be called “Ashkenaz” because the main centers of Jewish learning were located in Germany.

The Ashkenazi Jewish population originated in the Middle East. When they arrived in northern France and the Rhineland sometime around 800-1000 C.E., the Ashkenazi Jews brought with them both Rabbinic Judaism and the Babylonian Talmudic culture that underlies it. Yiddish, once spoken by the vast majority of Ashkenazi Jewry, is a Jewish language which developed from the Middle High German vernacular, heavily influenced by Hebrew and Aramaic.

After the forced Jewish exile from Jerusalem in 70 C.E. and the complete Roman takeover of Judea following the Bar Kochba rebellion of 132-135 C.E., Jews continued to be a majority of the population in Palestine for several hundred years. In Palestine and Mesopotamia, where Jewish religious scholarship was centered, the majority of Jews were still engaged in farming. Trade was also a common occupation, facilitated by the easy mobility of traders through the dispersed Jewish communities.

In the late Roman Empire, small numbers of Jews are known to have lived in Cologne and Trier, as well as in what is now France. However, it is unclear whether there is any continuity between these late Roman communities and the distinct Ashkenazi Jewish culture that began to emerge about 500 years later.

In Mesopotamia and in Persian lands free of Roman imperial domination, Jewish life had a long history. Since the conquest of Judea by Nebuchadnezzar II in the early sixth century B.C.E., “Babylonian Jews” had always been the leading diaspora community, rivaling the leadership of Palestine. When conditions for Jews began to deteriorate in the western Roman Empire, many of the religious leaders of Judea and Galilee fled to the east. At the academies of Pumbeditha and Sura near Babylon, Rabbinic Judaism based on talmudic learning began to emerge and assert its authority over Jewish life throughout the diaspora. Rabbinic Judaism also created a religious mandate for literacy, requiring all Jewish males to learn Hebrew and read from the Torah. This emphasis on literacy and learning a second language would eventually be of great benefit to the Jews, allowing them to take on commercial and financial roles within Gentile societies where literacy was often quite low.

After the Islamic conquest of the Middle East and North Africa, new opportunities for trade and commerce opened between the Middle East and Western Europe. The vast majority of Jews in the world now lived in Islamic lands. Urbanization, trade, and commerce within the Islamic world allowed Jews to abandon farming and live in cities, engaging in occupations where they could use their skills. The influential, sophisticated, and well-organized Jewish community of Mesopotamia, now centered in Baghdad, became the center of the Jewish world. In the Caliphate of Baghdad, Jews took on many of the financial occupations that they would later hold in the cities of Ashkenaz. Jewish traders from Baghdad began to travel to the west, renewing Jewish life in the western Mediterranean region. They brought with them Rabbinic Judaism and Babylonian Talmudic scholarship.

Read more here:
Ashkenazi – New World Encyclopedia

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May 8, 2015   Posted in: Ashkenazi  Comments Closed

Leo Frank is Interrogated by Atlanta Police On Monday morning, April 28, 1913 in the presence of his powerful lawyers Luther Zeigler Rosser and Herbert Haas.

The Monday morning, April 28, 1913 interrogation of Leo Frank at Atlanta’s Stationhouse that became State’s Exhibit B at his trial (question and answer portion published in Atlanta Constitution, August 2nd, 1913). Both the Leo Frank defense and Leo Frank prosecution ratified it as being accurate. Pay special attention to the time Leo Frank says Mary Phagan arrived at his second-floor window-front business office.

Q. What is your position with the company?
A. I am general superintendent and director of the company.

Q: How long have you held that position?
A: In Atlanta I have held that position since August 10th, 1908, My place of business is at 37-41 South Forsyth Street.

Q: About how many employees have you there?
A: About 107* in that plant?

Q: Male or female?
A: Mixed. I guess there are a few more girls than boys.

Q: On Saturday, April 26, I will get you to state if that was a holiday with your company?
A: Yes, sir, it was a holiday. The factory was shut down.

Several People in Building.

Q: Who was in that building during the day?
A: Well, there were several people who come in during the morning?

Q: Was anyone in the office with you up, to noon?
A: Yes, sir, the office boy [Alonzo Mann] and a stenographer.

Q: What time did they leave?
A: About 12 or a little after.

Q: Have you a day watchman there?
A: Yes, Sir.

Q: Was he on duty at 12 o’clock?
A: No, sir, he left shortly before.

Q: Who came in after the stenographer and the office boy left?
A: This little girl. Mary Phagan, but at the time I didn’t know that was her name. She came in between 12:05 and 12:10, maybe 12:07, to get her pay envelope, her salary.

Frank Pays Mary Phagan:

Q: You paid her?
A: Yes, sir, and she went out of the office.

Q: What office was you in at that time?
A: In the inner office at my desk, the furtherest office to the left from the main office.

Q: Could you see the direction she went in when she left?
A: My impression was she just walked away I didn’t pay any particular attention.

Q: Do you keep the door locked downstairs?
A: I didn’t that morning, because the mail was coming in. I locked it at 1:10 p.m. when I went to dinner.

Q: Was anyone else in that building?
A: Yes, sir, Arthur White and Harry Denham, They were working on machinery, doing repair work, working on the top floor of the building, which is the fourth floor, toward the rear, or about the middle of the building, but a little more to the rear.

Q: What kind of work were they doing?
A: They were tightening up the belts; they are not machinists, one is a foreman in one department and the other is an assistant in another, and Denham was just assisting White, and Mrs. White, the wife of Arthur White, was also in the building. She left about 1 o’clock. I went up there and told them I was going to dinner, and they had to get out and they said they had not finished, and I said, “how long will it take?” and they said until some time in the afternoon, and then I said, “Mrs. White, you will have to go, for I am going to lock these boys in here. ”

Door was Locked:

Q: Can anyone from the inside open those doors?
A: They can open the outside door, but not the inside door, which I locked.

Q: In going in the outside door, is there any way by which anyone could go in the basement from the front?
A: Yes sir, through the trap door.

Q: They would not necessarily have to go up the steps?
A: No, sir, they couldn’t get up there if I was out.

Q: You locked the outer door?
A: Yes, sir, and I locked the inner door.

Q: What time did you get back?
A: At 3 o’clock, maybe two or three minutes before, and I went to the office and took off my coat and then went upstairs to tell those boys I was back, and I couldn’t find them at first, they were back in the dipping room, in the rear, and I said, Are you ready? and they said, We are just read, and I said, all right, ring out when you go down, to let me know when you go out, and they rang out, and Arthur White come in the office and said, Mr. Frank, loan me $2, and I said, What’s the matter? We just paid off, and he said, My wife robbed me, and I gave him $2 and he walked away, and the two of them walked out.

Newt Lee Arrives.

Q: And you locked the doors behind them?
A: I locked the outer door, when I am in there, there is no need of locking the inner door. There was only one person I was looking for to come in, and that was the nightwatchman.

Q: What time did he get there?
A: I saw him twenty minutes to 4 [3:40 p.m]

Q: Had you previously arranged for him to get there?
A: Yes, sir. On Friday night I told him, after he got his money, I gave him the keys and said you had better come around early tomorrow, because I may go to the ball game, and he came early because of that fact. I told him to be there by 4 o’clock and he came 20 minutes to 4. I figured I would leave about 1, and would not come back, but it was so cold I didn’t want to risk catching cold, and I came back to the factory as I usually do. He came in, and he said, Yes, sir, and he had a bag of bananas with him, and he offered me a banana. I didn’t see them, but he offered me one, and I guess he had them. We have told him, once he gets in that building never to go out. I told him he could go out, he got there so early, and I was going to be there. He came back about four minutes to 6, the reason I know that, I was putting the clock slips in, an the clock was right in front of me. I said, I will be reading in a minute, and he went downstairs and I came to the office and put on my coat and hat, and followed him and went out.

Saw Newt and Gantt Talking

Q: Did you see anybody with him as you went out?
A: Yes, sir; talking to him was J.M. Gantt – a man I had fired about two weeks previous.

Q: Did you have any talk with Gantt?
A: Newt told me he wanted to go up to get a pair of shoes he left while he was working there, and Gantt said to me, Newt don’t want me to go up, and he said you can go with me, Mr. Frank, and I said, that’s all right, go with him Newt and I went on home and I got home about 6:25 p.m.

Q: Is there anything else that happened that afternoon?
A: No, sir, that’s all I know.

Q: You don’t know what time Gantt came down after he went up?
A: Oh, no, I saw him go in and I locked the door after him, but I didn’t try them.

Q: Did you ask Newt?
A: Yes, sir, I telephoned him. I tried to telephone him when I got home. He punches the clock at half hour intervals, and the clock and the phone is in the office and didn’t get an answer, and at 7 o’clock I called him and asked him if Gantt got his shoes, and he said yes, he got them and I said is everything all right, and he said yes, and the next thing I know they called me at 7:30 a.m. the next morning.

Did Lee Let People In?

Q: Do you know whether your watchman at any time has been in the habit of letting people in there any time?
A: No, sir.

Q: did you ever have any trouble with any watchman about such as that?
A: No, sir.

Q: Do you know whether any of your employees go there at night?
A: Yes sir, Gantt did when he was working there, he had a key and sometimes he would have some work left over. I never have seen him go but until I go out, I go out and come back, but he has come back before I left, but that is part of his duty.

Q: Did you take a bath yesterday or Saturday night?
A: Yes, sir. Saturday night at home.

Q: Did you change your clothes?
A: Yes sir.

Q: The clothes that you changed are at home?
A: Yes sir, and this is the suit of clothes I was wearing Saturday. After I left the shop I went to Jacobs Pharmacy and bought a box of candy for my wife and got home about 6:25.

Required Reading:

100 Years Ago Today: The Trial of Leo Frank Begins
http://theamericanmercury.org/2013/07/100-years-ago-today-the-trial-of-leo-frank-begins/

Leo Frank Trial Week One
http://theamericanmercury.org/2013/08/the-leo-frank-trial-week-one/

Leo Frank Trial Week Two
http://theamericanmercury.org/2013/08/the-leo-frank-trial-week-two/

One Hundred Years Ago Leo Frank Mounts the Witness Stand
http://theamericanmercury.org/2013/08/100-years-ago-today-leo-frank-takes-the-stand

Leo Frank Trial Week Three
http://theamericanmercury.org/2013/08/the-leo-frank-trial-week-three/

Leo Frank Trial Week Four
http://theamericanmercury.org/2013/09/the-leo-frank-trial-week-four/

Leo Frank Trial Closing Arguments (Frank Hooper for Prosecution, Luther Rosser and Reuben Arnold for Defense)
http://theamericanmercury.org/2013/10/the-leo-frank-trial-closing-arguments-of-hooper-arnold-and-rosser/

One Hundred Reasons Leo Frank is Guilty of Murdering Mary Phagan (Published April 26, 2013)
http://theamericanmercury.org/2013/04/100-reasons-proving-leo-frank-is-guilty/

Anti-Defamation League of B’nai B’rith: One Hundred Years of Racist Jewish Hate, October 1913 – 2013
http://theamericanmercury.org/2013/10/adl-100-years-of-hate/

Professor Emeritus of Judaic Studies: Leonard Dinnerstein’s Pseudo-history About the Leo Frank Case
http://theamericanmercury.org/2012/10/the-leo-frank-case-a-pseudo-history/

Review of Journalist-Author Steve Oney’s book ‘The Dead Shall Rise’: Who Really Solved the Mary Phagan Murder Case?
http://theamericanmercury.org/2012/10/who-really-solved-the-mary-phagan-murder-case/

Did Leo Frank Confess to the Murder of Mary Phagan?
http://theamericanmercury.org/2012/09/did-leo-frank-confess/

Atlanta Constitution Newspaper (1913 – 1915):
http://archive.org/details/LeoFrankCaseInTheAtlantaConstitutionNewspaper1913To1915

Atlanta Georgian Newspaper (April – August, 1913):
http://archive.org/details/AtlantaGeorgianNewspaperAprilToAugust1913

Atlanta Journal Newspaper (April – August, 1913):
http://archive.org/details/AtlantaJournalApril281913toAugust311913

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April 28, 2015   Posted in: Abraham Foxman, Anti-Defamation League, Ashkenazi, B'nai B'rith, Jewish American Heritage Month, Jewish Extremism, Jewish Heritage, Jewish Lobby, Jewish Racism, Jewish Supremacism, Jews, Leo Frank, Race Relations, Racism News, Southern Poverty Law Center, SPLC  Comments Closed

Ashkenazi ROTHSCHILD Jew… HELLWARZ – Video



Ashkenazi ROTHSCHILD Jew… HELLWARZ
TEMPLAR HUNT 2015 CONTINUES ……..for dumb poeple who keep thinking its the Jews …ASHKENAZI explained .. Hellwars archives 2010.

By: HellWarz News

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Ashkenazi ROTHSCHILD Jew… HELLWARZ – Video

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Israel election exposes schism

ROSH HA’AYIN, Israel Israel’s visceral election campaign has exposed a rift that many here thought had long subsided the deep-seated schism between Jews of European and Middle Eastern descent.

Mizrahi, or Middle Eastern, Jews heavily backed Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu’s Likud Party, while Ashkenazi, or European, Jews mostly identified with the opposition Zionist Union.

That dynamic has been going on for a while, but passions have run particularly high this time, with jarring results. Since Netanyahu’s win, the sides have been exchanging insults that have not been heard in public in a generation with the Mizrahi voters accused of being primitive and Ashkenazi voters viewed as elitist.

The dispute goes back to Israel’s earliest days of independence. Arriving from Arabic-speaking countries in the Middle East and North Africa after Israel’s establishment in 1948, many Mizrahi immigrants were sent to shantytown transit camps and largely sidelined by the European leaders of the founding Labor Party.

They found their political savior in Likud’s Menachem Begin even though he was himself of Polish Jewish descent. With consummate skill, the longtime opposition leader cultivated an outsiders’ alliance that appealed to their sense of deprivation and with massive Mizrahi backing, he swept to power in 1977 to break nearly 30 years of Labor rule.

The exact population breakdown is hard to calculate because intermarriage is now quite common. But Mizrahi or part-Mizrahi Jews make up roughly half of Israel’s Jewish population.

They have long complained of discrimination by the European-descended elite that traditionally dominated government, military and business institutions.

The complaints have diminished, as has some of the domination, but gaps remain. There has never been a Mizrahi prime minister, for example. Mizrahim far outnumber Ashkenazim in prison and are far outnumbered in academia.

They account for many more poor people and yet the poorest towns, where they predominate, tend to support Likud and forgive it the capitalist policies than have often not served their economic interests.

Our parents and grandparents have voted only Likud since the upheaval of 1977, said Malkiram Bashari, who traces his roots to Yemen.

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Israel election exposes schism

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Ethnic tensions between Israeli Jews fuel Netanyahu victory – Quincy Herald-Whig | Illinois & Missouri News, Sports

By ARON HELLER Associated Press

ROSH HA’AYIN, Israel (AP) – Israel’s visceral election campaign has exposed a rift that many here thought had long subsided – the deep-seated schism between Jews of European and Middle Eastern descent.

Mizrahi, or Middle Eastern, Jews heavily backed Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu’s Likud Party, while Ashkenazi, or European, Jews mostly identified with the opposition Zionist Union.

That dynamic has been going on for a while but passions have run particularly high this time, with jarring results. Since Netanyahu’s win, the sides have been exchanging insults that have not been heard in public in a generation – with the Mizrahi voters accused of being primitive and Ashkenazi voters viewed as elitist.

The dispute goes back to Israel’s earliest days of independence. Arriving from Arabic-speaking countries in the Middle East and North Africa after Israel’s establishment in 1948, many Mizrahi immigrants were sent to shantytown transit camps and largely sidelined by the European leaders of the founding Labor Party.

They found their political savior in Likud’s Menachem Begin – even though he was himself of Polish Jewish descent. With consummate skill the longtime opposition leader cultivated an outsiders’ alliance that appealed to their sense of deprivation – and with massive Mizrahi backing he swept to power in 1977 to break nearly 30 years of Labor rule.

The exact population breakdown is hard to calculate because intermarriage is now quite common. But Mizrahi or part-Mizrahi Jews make up roughly half of Israel’s Jewish population.

They have long complained of discrimination by the European-descended elite that traditionally dominated government, military and business institutions.

The complaints have diminished, as has some of the domination, but gaps remain. There has never been a Mizrahi prime minister, for example. Mizrahim far outnumber Ashkenazim in prison – and are far outnumbered in academia.

They also account for many more poor people – and yet the poorest towns, where they predominate, tend to support Likud and forgive it the capitalist policies than have often not served their economic interests.

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Ethnic tensions between Israeli Jews fuel Netanyahu victory – Quincy Herald-Whig | Illinois & Missouri News, Sports

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Traditional Mizrahi vote for Netanyahu's Likud unleashes Israeli ethnic divide once again

This Wednesday, March 18, 2015 photo, shows Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu election campaign poster lying among ballot papers at his party’s election headquarters in Tel Aviv. Israel’s visceral election campaign has exposed a rift that many here thought had long subsided _ the deep-seated schism between Jews of European and Middle Eastern descent. Mizrahi, or Middle Eastern, Jews heavily backed Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahus Likud Party, while Ashkenazi, or European, Jews mostly identified with the opposition Zionist Union. The Hebrew on the photo reads: “Choosing Prime Minister, only Likud only Netanyahu”. (AP Photo/Dan Balilty)(The Associated Press)

FILE – In this Tuesday, March 17, 2015 file photo, Israelis prepare to vote in Tel Aviv. Israel’s visceral election campaign has exposed a rift that many here thought had long subsided the deep-seated schism between Jews of European and Middle Eastern descent. Mizrahi, or Middle Eastern, Jews heavily backed Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahus Likud Party, while Ashkenazi, or European, Jews mostly identified with the opposition Zionist Union. (AP Photo/Oded Balilty, File)(The Associated Press)

FILE – In this March 17, 2015 file photo, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu Likud party supporters react to exit poll results at the party’s election headquarters In Tel Aviv. Israel’s visceral election campaign has exposed a rift that many here thought had long subsided the deep-seated schism between Jews of European and Middle Eastern descent. Mizrahi, or Middle Eastern, Jews heavily backed Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahus Likud Party, while Ashkenazi, or European, Jews mostly identified with the opposition Zionist Union. (AP Photo/Oded Balilty, File)(The Associated Press)

ROSH HA’AYIN, Israel Israel’s visceral election campaign has exposed a rift that many here thought had long subsided the deep-seated schism between Jews of European and Middle Eastern descent.

Mizrahi, or Middle Eastern, Jews heavily backed Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu’s Likud Party, while Ashkenazi, or European, Jews mostly identified with the opposition Zionist Union.

That dynamic has been going on for a while but passions have run particularly high this time, with jarring results. Since Netanyahu’s win, the sides have been exchanging insults that have not been heard in public in a generation with the Mizrahi voters accused of being primitive and Ashkenazi voters viewed as elitist.

The dispute goes back to Israel’s earliest days of independence. Arriving from Arabic-speaking countries in the Middle East and North Africa after Israel’s establishment in 1948, many Mizrahi immigrants were sent to shantytown transit camps and largely sidelined by the European leaders of the founding Labor Party.

They found their political savior in Likud’s Menachem Begin even though he was himself of Polish Jewish descent. With consummate skill the longtime opposition leader cultivated an outsiders’ alliance that appealed to their sense of deprivation and with massive Mizrahi backing he swept to power in 1977 to break nearly 30 years of Labor rule.

The exact population breakdown is hard to calculate because intermarriage is now quite common. But Mizrahi or part-Mizrahi Jews make up roughly half of Israel’s Jewish population.

They have long complained of discrimination by the European-descended elite that traditionally dominated government, military and business institutions.

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Traditional Mizrahi vote for Netanyahu's Likud unleashes Israeli ethnic divide once again

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When Israel's Mizrachi Black Panthers Used Passover To Decry Jewish 'Racism'

Haggadah Denounced Ashkenazi Injustice But Not God

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Say You Wanna Revolution? Israeli Black Panthers demonstrate for social justice in 1971.

Published March 31, 2015.

Tel Aviv It was the spring of 1971, and the 1960s spirit of revolution still throbbed in the streets of America and Europe. On the streets of Jerusalem, knots of young Sephardi Jews could be seen protesting, too calling for the overthrow of Prime Minister Golda Meir and for their own liberation in Israel as an oppressed people.

They called themselves the Black Panthers of Israel. Inspired by film reels about revolutionary movements from around the world then, they strongly identified with the black American radical group of that same name.

The Black Panthers turned out to be a short-lived phenomenon in the end. But their sudden surge onto Israels political scene hit the countrys Labor Party establishment hard where it was most sensitive on its claim to embody egalitarian redemption for Jews returning to what they viewed as their historic land. They were young Sephardim demanding freedom after decades of quiet desperation among the hundreds of thousands of Jewish immigrants from North Africa and the Arab world who had been settled and more or less forgotten in low-income caravans and dusty towns on the geographic and social margins of the country.

And it turns out they even produced a Passover Haggadah that year to make their point.

Rediscovered now, some 44 years later, the Black Panther Haggadah decontextualizes the struggle for liberation as a tale of their own struggle in Israel, with Golda as pharaoh and the Panthers as Moses. Reading it today is like taking a time machine back to the heart of those times.

The afflictions in this Passover tale are the overcrowded Sephardi ghettos, the discrimination against non-Ashenazim at the employment lines and the lack of secondary school education in many places where they had been settled. The song Dayenu describes the modern exodus from Egypt (and other Arab countries) to Israel as a story of alienation and disillusionment.

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When Israel's Mizrachi Black Panthers Used Passover To Decry Jewish 'Racism'

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Are Kahlon and His New Party Here To Stay or a Passing Fad?

Kulanu Ran on Platform of Economic Change

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Big Fish in Small Pond: Led by Kahlon, the son of Libyan immigrants, the Kulanu party ran on a platform of economic change.

Jerusalem In Israels recent election, Yaakov Shalev, an 86-year-old Iraqi Israeli, broke his 38-year Likud streak to vote for a newcomer on the political playing field: the Kulanu party.

Kulanu means all of us in Hebrew, but the party has special resonance among Mizrachim, or Jews of Arab origin. Led by Moshe Kahlon, the son of Libyan immigrants, it ran on a platform of economic change in Israel, where urban Ashkenazim, or European Jews, out-earn Mizrachim by about 30%.

He wants to help the poor, said Shalev, who owns a picture frame shop in Tel Aviv. If hes Mizrachi or Ashkenazi, its not something I think about.

Indeed, Kahlon speaks to voters beyond his own ethnic group. In addition to drawing Mizrachi voters from the Likud, he also counts a sizable Ashkenazi base, likely pulled from Yesh Atid, another party focused on social and economic issues. While nearly every other midsized party shrank in the March vote, Kulanu garnered 10 seats in its first election.

He wants to take the Mizrachi story and integrate it into the collective story of Israel, said Nissim Leon, a sociologist at Bar-Ilan University who has studied Kahlons appeal with the Mizrachi middle class.

Kulanu, which posits itself as a centrist party, is a new option for Mizrachi Jews. Broadly speaking, Mizrachim have voted right since the 1970s, when widespread disillusionment with the socialist Ashkenazi ruling class propelled them into the arms of the Likud Party. Former Likud Prime Minister Menachem Begins so-called Project Renewal, which rehabilitated impoverished neighborhoods, cemented the partys Mizrachi base. Since the 80s, Shas, the ultra-Orthodox party, has also provided a home for religious Mizrachim.

Kulanu has drawn Mizrachim who feel disenchanted with Likuds economic record but cant bring themselves to vote for Labor, the party of their historic exclusion. One of Kahlons own campaign videos even depicted him as following in Begins footsteps, where Likud had faltered.

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Are Kahlon and His New Party Here To Stay or a Passing Fad?

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March 29, 2015   Posted in: Ashkenazi  Comments Closed

Ashkenazim | Jewish Virtual Library

by Shira Schoenberg The name Ashkenaz was applied in the Middle Ages to Jews living along the Rhine River in northern France and western Germany. The center of Ashkenazi Jews later spread to Poland-Lithuania and now there are Ashkenazi settlements all over the world. The term “Ashkenaz” became identified primarily with German customs and descendants of German Jews. In the 10th and 11th century, the first Ashkenazim, Jewish merchants in France and Germany, were economic pioneers, treated well because of their trading connections with the Mediterranean and the East. Jewish communities appeared in many urban centers. Early Ashkenaz communities were small and homogeneous. Until Christian guilds were formed, Jews were craftsmen and artisans. In France, many Jews owned vineyards and made wine. They carried arms and knew how to use them in self-defense. The Jews of each town constituted an independent, self-governing entity. Each community, or kahal, established its own regulations made up by an elected board and judicial courts. They enforced their rulings with the threat of excommunication. The Ashkenazim generally shied away from outside influences and concentrated on internal Jewish sources, ideas and customs. Ashkenazim focused on biblical and Talmudic studies. Centers of rabbinic scholarship appeared in the tenth century in Mainz and Worms in the Rhineland and in Troyes and Sens in France. Ashkenazi scholarship centered around oral discussion. Sages focused on understanding the minutiae of the texts instead of extracting general principles. The most famous early teacher was Rabbenu Gershom of Mainz. Some of his decrees, such as that forbidding polygamy, are still in existence today. The first major Ashkenazi literary figure was Rashi (Solomon ben Isaac of Troyes, 1040-1105), whose commentaries on the Bible and Talmud are today considered fundamental to Jewish study. The tosafists, Ashkenazi Talmudic scholars in northern France and Germany, introduced new methods and insights into Talmudic study that are also still in use. Early Ashkenazi Jews composed religious poetry modeled after the fifth and sixth century piyyutim (liturgical poems). While prayer liturgy varied even among Ashkenazi countries, the differences were almost insignificant compared to the differences between Sephardi and Ashkenazi liturgy. While Ashkenazi Jews occasionally experience anti-Semitism, mob violence first erupted against them an the end of the 11th century. Many Jews were killed in what Robert Seltzer calls a “supercharged religious atmosphere.” Many were willing to die as martyrs rather than convert. In the 12th and 13th centuries, many Ashkenazi Jews became moneylenders. They were supported by the secular rulers who benefited from taxes imposed on the Jews. The rulers did not totally protect them, however, and blood libels cropped up accompanied by violence. In 1182, Jews were expelled from France. Ashkenazi Jews continued to build communities in Germany until they faced riots and massacres in the 1200s and 1300s. Some Jews moved to Sephardi Spain while others set up Ashkenazi communities in Poland. The center of Ashkenazi Jewry shifted to Poland, Lithuania, Bohemia and Moravia in the beginning of the 16th century. Jews were for the first time concentrated in Eastern Europe instead of Western Europe. Polish Jews adopted the Ashkenazi rites, liturgy, and religious customs of the German Jews. The Ashkenazi mahzor (holiday prayer book) included prayers composed by poets of Germany and Northern France. In Poland, the Jews became fiscal agents, tax collectors, estate managers for noblemen, merchants and craftsmen. In the 1500-1600s, Polish Jewry grew to be the largest Jewish community in the diaspora. Many Jews lived in shtetls, small towns where the majority of the inhabitants were Jewish. They set up kehillot like those in the Middle Ages that elected a board of trustees to collect taxes, set up education systems and deal with other necessities of Jewish life. The Jews even had their own craft guilds. Each kahal had a yeshiva, where boys over the age of 13 learned Talmudic and rabbinic texts. Yiddish was the language of oral translation and of discussion of Torah and Talmud. Ashkenazi scholars focused on careful readings of the text and also on summarizing legal interpretations of former Ashkenazi and Sephardi scholars of Jewish law. Ashkenazim focused on Hebrew, Torah and especially Talmud. They used religion to protect themselves from outside influences. The Jews at this time were largely middle class. By choice, they mostly lived in self-contained communities surrounding their synagogue and other communal institutions. Yiddish was the common language of Ashkenazi Jews in eastern and central Europe. With the start of the Renaissance and religious wars in the late 16th century, a divide grew between central and eastern European Jews. In central Europe, particularly in Germany, rulers forced the Jews to live apart from the rest of society in ghettos with between 100 and 500 inhabitants. The ghettos were generally clean and in good condition. Eastern European Jews lived in the shtetls, where Jews and gentiles lived side by side. In the 1600s and 1700s, Jews in Poland, the center of Ashkenazi Jewry, faced blood libels and riots. The growth of Hasidism in Poland drew many Jews away from typical Ashkenazi practice. After the Chmielnicki massacres in Poland in 1648, Polish Jews spread through Western Europe, some even crossing the Atlantic. Many Ashkenazi Polish Jews fled to Amsterdam and joined previously existing communities of German Jews. Sephardim there considered the Ashkenazim to be socially and culturally inferior. While the Sephardim were generally wealthy, the Ashkenazim were poor peddlers, petty traders, artisans, diamond polishers, jewelry workers and silversmiths. As the Sephardim became poorer in the 18th century, the communities became more equal and more united. The Jewish community in England also changed in the 1700s. It had been primarily Sephardi throughout the 1600s, but it became more Ashkenazi in culture as growing numbers of German and Polish Jews arrived.

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Ashkenazi – New World Encyclopedia

Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim, are Jews descended from the medieval Jewish communities of the Rhineland”Ashkenaz” being the Medieval Hebrew name for Germany. They are distinguished from Sephardic Jews, the other main group of European Jewry, who arrived earlier in Europe and lived primarily in Spain. Many Ashkenazim later migrated, largely eastward, forming communities in Germany, Hungary, Poland, Russia, Eastern Europe, and elsewhere between the tenth and nineteenth centuries. From medieval times until the mid-twentieth century, the lingua franca among Ashkenazi Jews was primarily Yiddish. The Ashkenazi Jews developed a distinct liturgy and culture, influenced to varying degrees, by interaction with surrounding peoples, predominantly Germans, Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Kashubians, Hungarians, Ukrainians, Lithuanians, Letts, Belarusians, and Russians. Although in the eleventh century they comprised only three percent of the world’s Jewish population, Ashkenazi Jews accounted for 92 percent of the world’s Jews in 1931, and today make up approximately 80 percent of Jews worldwide. Most Jewish communities with extended histories in Europe are Ashkenazim, with the exception of Sephardic Jews associated with the Mediterranean region. A significant portion of the Jews who migrated from Europe to other continents in the past two centuries are Eastern Ashkenazim, particularly in the United States. Ashkenazi Jews have made major contributions to world culture in terms of science, literature, economics, and the arts. Ashkenaz is a Medieval Hebrew name for Germany. European Jews came to be called “Ashkenaz” because the main centers of Jewish learning were located in Germany. The Ashkenazi Jewish population originated in the Middle East. When they arrived in northern France and the Rhineland sometime around 800-1000 C.E., the Ashkenazi Jews brought with them both Rabbinic Judaism and the Babylonian Talmudic culture that underlies it. Yiddish, once spoken by the vast majority of Ashkenazi Jewry, is a Jewish language which developed from the Middle High German vernacular, heavily influenced by Hebrew and Aramaic. After the forced Jewish exile from Jerusalem in 70 C.E. and the complete Roman takeover of Judea following the Bar Kochba rebellion of 132-135 C.E., Jews continued to be a majority of the population in Palestine for several hundred years. In Palestine and Mesopotamia, where Jewish religious scholarship was centered, the majority of Jews were still engaged in farming. Trade was also a common occupation, facilitated by the easy mobility of traders through the dispersed Jewish communities. In the late Roman Empire, small numbers of Jews are known to have lived in Cologne and Trier, as well as in what is now France. However, it is unclear whether there is any continuity between these late Roman communities and the distinct Ashkenazi Jewish culture that began to emerge about 500 years later. In Mesopotamia and in Persian lands free of Roman imperial domination, Jewish life had a long history. Since the conquest of Judea by Nebuchadnezzar II in the early sixth century B.C.E., “Babylonian Jews” had always been the leading diaspora community, rivaling the leadership of Palestine. When conditions for Jews began to deteriorate in the western Roman Empire, many of the religious leaders of Judea and Galilee fled to the east. At the academies of Pumbeditha and Sura near Babylon, Rabbinic Judaism based on talmudic learning began to emerge and assert its authority over Jewish life throughout the diaspora. Rabbinic Judaism also created a religious mandate for literacy, requiring all Jewish males to learn Hebrew and read from the Torah. This emphasis on literacy and learning a second language would eventually be of great benefit to the Jews, allowing them to take on commercial and financial roles within Gentile societies where literacy was often quite low. After the Islamic conquest of the Middle East and North Africa, new opportunities for trade and commerce opened between the Middle East and Western Europe. The vast majority of Jews in the world now lived in Islamic lands. Urbanization, trade, and commerce within the Islamic world allowed Jews to abandon farming and live in cities, engaging in occupations where they could use their skills. The influential, sophisticated, and well-organized Jewish community of Mesopotamia, now centered in Baghdad, became the center of the Jewish world. In the Caliphate of Baghdad, Jews took on many of the financial occupations that they would later hold in the cities of Ashkenaz. Jewish traders from Baghdad began to travel to the west, renewing Jewish life in the western Mediterranean region. They brought with them Rabbinic Judaism and Babylonian Talmudic scholarship.

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Leo Frank is Interrogated by Atlanta Police On Monday morning, April 28, 1913 in the presence of his powerful lawyers Luther Zeigler Rosser and Herbert Haas.

The Monday morning, April 28, 1913 interrogation of Leo Frank at Atlanta’s Stationhouse that became State’s Exhibit B at his trial (question and answer portion published in Atlanta Constitution, August 2nd, 1913). Both the Leo Frank defense and Leo Frank prosecution ratified it as being accurate. Pay special attention to the time Leo Frank says […]

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April 28, 2015   Posted in: Abraham Foxman, Anti-Defamation League, Ashkenazi, B'nai B'rith, Jewish American Heritage Month, Jewish Extremism, Jewish Heritage, Jewish Lobby, Jewish Racism, Jewish Supremacism, Jews, Leo Frank, Race Relations, Racism News, Southern Poverty Law Center, SPLC  Comments Closed

Ashkenazi ROTHSCHILD Jew… HELLWARZ – Video




Ashkenazi ROTHSCHILD Jew… HELLWARZ TEMPLAR HUNT 2015 CONTINUES ……..for dumb poeple who keep thinking its the Jews …ASHKENAZI explained .. Hellwars archives 2010. By: HellWarz News

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Israel election exposes schism

ROSH HA’AYIN, Israel Israel’s visceral election campaign has exposed a rift that many here thought had long subsided the deep-seated schism between Jews of European and Middle Eastern descent. Mizrahi, or Middle Eastern, Jews heavily backed Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu’s Likud Party, while Ashkenazi, or European, Jews mostly identified with the opposition Zionist Union. That dynamic has been going on for a while, but passions have run particularly high this time, with jarring results. Since Netanyahu’s win, the sides have been exchanging insults that have not been heard in public in a generation with the Mizrahi voters accused of being primitive and Ashkenazi voters viewed as elitist. The dispute goes back to Israel’s earliest days of independence. Arriving from Arabic-speaking countries in the Middle East and North Africa after Israel’s establishment in 1948, many Mizrahi immigrants were sent to shantytown transit camps and largely sidelined by the European leaders of the founding Labor Party. They found their political savior in Likud’s Menachem Begin even though he was himself of Polish Jewish descent. With consummate skill, the longtime opposition leader cultivated an outsiders’ alliance that appealed to their sense of deprivation and with massive Mizrahi backing, he swept to power in 1977 to break nearly 30 years of Labor rule. The exact population breakdown is hard to calculate because intermarriage is now quite common. But Mizrahi or part-Mizrahi Jews make up roughly half of Israel’s Jewish population. They have long complained of discrimination by the European-descended elite that traditionally dominated government, military and business institutions. The complaints have diminished, as has some of the domination, but gaps remain. There has never been a Mizrahi prime minister, for example. Mizrahim far outnumber Ashkenazim in prison and are far outnumbered in academia. They account for many more poor people and yet the poorest towns, where they predominate, tend to support Likud and forgive it the capitalist policies than have often not served their economic interests. Our parents and grandparents have voted only Likud since the upheaval of 1977, said Malkiram Bashari, who traces his roots to Yemen.

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Ethnic tensions between Israeli Jews fuel Netanyahu victory – Quincy Herald-Whig | Illinois & Missouri News, Sports

By ARON HELLER Associated Press ROSH HA’AYIN, Israel (AP) – Israel’s visceral election campaign has exposed a rift that many here thought had long subsided – the deep-seated schism between Jews of European and Middle Eastern descent. Mizrahi, or Middle Eastern, Jews heavily backed Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu’s Likud Party, while Ashkenazi, or European, Jews mostly identified with the opposition Zionist Union. That dynamic has been going on for a while but passions have run particularly high this time, with jarring results. Since Netanyahu’s win, the sides have been exchanging insults that have not been heard in public in a generation – with the Mizrahi voters accused of being primitive and Ashkenazi voters viewed as elitist. The dispute goes back to Israel’s earliest days of independence. Arriving from Arabic-speaking countries in the Middle East and North Africa after Israel’s establishment in 1948, many Mizrahi immigrants were sent to shantytown transit camps and largely sidelined by the European leaders of the founding Labor Party. They found their political savior in Likud’s Menachem Begin – even though he was himself of Polish Jewish descent. With consummate skill the longtime opposition leader cultivated an outsiders’ alliance that appealed to their sense of deprivation – and with massive Mizrahi backing he swept to power in 1977 to break nearly 30 years of Labor rule. The exact population breakdown is hard to calculate because intermarriage is now quite common. But Mizrahi or part-Mizrahi Jews make up roughly half of Israel’s Jewish population. They have long complained of discrimination by the European-descended elite that traditionally dominated government, military and business institutions. The complaints have diminished, as has some of the domination, but gaps remain. There has never been a Mizrahi prime minister, for example. Mizrahim far outnumber Ashkenazim in prison – and are far outnumbered in academia. They also account for many more poor people – and yet the poorest towns, where they predominate, tend to support Likud and forgive it the capitalist policies than have often not served their economic interests.

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Traditional Mizrahi vote for Netanyahu's Likud unleashes Israeli ethnic divide once again

This Wednesday, March 18, 2015 photo, shows Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu election campaign poster lying among ballot papers at his party’s election headquarters in Tel Aviv. Israel’s visceral election campaign has exposed a rift that many here thought had long subsided _ the deep-seated schism between Jews of European and Middle Eastern descent. Mizrahi, or Middle Eastern, Jews heavily backed Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahus Likud Party, while Ashkenazi, or European, Jews mostly identified with the opposition Zionist Union. The Hebrew on the photo reads: “Choosing Prime Minister, only Likud only Netanyahu”. (AP Photo/Dan Balilty)(The Associated Press) FILE – In this Tuesday, March 17, 2015 file photo, Israelis prepare to vote in Tel Aviv. Israel’s visceral election campaign has exposed a rift that many here thought had long subsided the deep-seated schism between Jews of European and Middle Eastern descent. Mizrahi, or Middle Eastern, Jews heavily backed Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahus Likud Party, while Ashkenazi, or European, Jews mostly identified with the opposition Zionist Union. (AP Photo/Oded Balilty, File)(The Associated Press) FILE – In this March 17, 2015 file photo, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu Likud party supporters react to exit poll results at the party’s election headquarters In Tel Aviv. Israel’s visceral election campaign has exposed a rift that many here thought had long subsided the deep-seated schism between Jews of European and Middle Eastern descent. Mizrahi, or Middle Eastern, Jews heavily backed Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahus Likud Party, while Ashkenazi, or European, Jews mostly identified with the opposition Zionist Union. (AP Photo/Oded Balilty, File)(The Associated Press) ROSH HA’AYIN, Israel Israel’s visceral election campaign has exposed a rift that many here thought had long subsided the deep-seated schism between Jews of European and Middle Eastern descent. Mizrahi, or Middle Eastern, Jews heavily backed Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu’s Likud Party, while Ashkenazi, or European, Jews mostly identified with the opposition Zionist Union. That dynamic has been going on for a while but passions have run particularly high this time, with jarring results. Since Netanyahu’s win, the sides have been exchanging insults that have not been heard in public in a generation with the Mizrahi voters accused of being primitive and Ashkenazi voters viewed as elitist. The dispute goes back to Israel’s earliest days of independence. Arriving from Arabic-speaking countries in the Middle East and North Africa after Israel’s establishment in 1948, many Mizrahi immigrants were sent to shantytown transit camps and largely sidelined by the European leaders of the founding Labor Party. They found their political savior in Likud’s Menachem Begin even though he was himself of Polish Jewish descent. With consummate skill the longtime opposition leader cultivated an outsiders’ alliance that appealed to their sense of deprivation and with massive Mizrahi backing he swept to power in 1977 to break nearly 30 years of Labor rule. The exact population breakdown is hard to calculate because intermarriage is now quite common. But Mizrahi or part-Mizrahi Jews make up roughly half of Israel’s Jewish population. They have long complained of discrimination by the European-descended elite that traditionally dominated government, military and business institutions.

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When Israel's Mizrachi Black Panthers Used Passover To Decry Jewish 'Racism'

Haggadah Denounced Ashkenazi Injustice But Not God ippa Say You Wanna Revolution? Israeli Black Panthers demonstrate for social justice in 1971. Published March 31, 2015. Tel Aviv It was the spring of 1971, and the 1960s spirit of revolution still throbbed in the streets of America and Europe. On the streets of Jerusalem, knots of young Sephardi Jews could be seen protesting, too calling for the overthrow of Prime Minister Golda Meir and for their own liberation in Israel as an oppressed people. They called themselves the Black Panthers of Israel. Inspired by film reels about revolutionary movements from around the world then, they strongly identified with the black American radical group of that same name. The Black Panthers turned out to be a short-lived phenomenon in the end. But their sudden surge onto Israels political scene hit the countrys Labor Party establishment hard where it was most sensitive on its claim to embody egalitarian redemption for Jews returning to what they viewed as their historic land. They were young Sephardim demanding freedom after decades of quiet desperation among the hundreds of thousands of Jewish immigrants from North Africa and the Arab world who had been settled and more or less forgotten in low-income caravans and dusty towns on the geographic and social margins of the country. And it turns out they even produced a Passover Haggadah that year to make their point. Rediscovered now, some 44 years later, the Black Panther Haggadah decontextualizes the struggle for liberation as a tale of their own struggle in Israel, with Golda as pharaoh and the Panthers as Moses. Reading it today is like taking a time machine back to the heart of those times. The afflictions in this Passover tale are the overcrowded Sephardi ghettos, the discrimination against non-Ashenazim at the employment lines and the lack of secondary school education in many places where they had been settled. The song Dayenu describes the modern exodus from Egypt (and other Arab countries) to Israel as a story of alienation and disillusionment.

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Are Kahlon and His New Party Here To Stay or a Passing Fad?

Kulanu Ran on Platform of Economic Change Getty Images Big Fish in Small Pond: Led by Kahlon, the son of Libyan immigrants, the Kulanu party ran on a platform of economic change. Jerusalem In Israels recent election, Yaakov Shalev, an 86-year-old Iraqi Israeli, broke his 38-year Likud streak to vote for a newcomer on the political playing field: the Kulanu party. Kulanu means all of us in Hebrew, but the party has special resonance among Mizrachim, or Jews of Arab origin. Led by Moshe Kahlon, the son of Libyan immigrants, it ran on a platform of economic change in Israel, where urban Ashkenazim, or European Jews, out-earn Mizrachim by about 30%. He wants to help the poor, said Shalev, who owns a picture frame shop in Tel Aviv. If hes Mizrachi or Ashkenazi, its not something I think about. Indeed, Kahlon speaks to voters beyond his own ethnic group. In addition to drawing Mizrachi voters from the Likud, he also counts a sizable Ashkenazi base, likely pulled from Yesh Atid, another party focused on social and economic issues. While nearly every other midsized party shrank in the March vote, Kulanu garnered 10 seats in its first election. He wants to take the Mizrachi story and integrate it into the collective story of Israel, said Nissim Leon, a sociologist at Bar-Ilan University who has studied Kahlons appeal with the Mizrachi middle class. Kulanu, which posits itself as a centrist party, is a new option for Mizrachi Jews. Broadly speaking, Mizrachim have voted right since the 1970s, when widespread disillusionment with the socialist Ashkenazi ruling class propelled them into the arms of the Likud Party. Former Likud Prime Minister Menachem Begins so-called Project Renewal, which rehabilitated impoverished neighborhoods, cemented the partys Mizrachi base. Since the 80s, Shas, the ultra-Orthodox party, has also provided a home for religious Mizrachim. Kulanu has drawn Mizrachim who feel disenchanted with Likuds economic record but cant bring themselves to vote for Labor, the party of their historic exclusion. One of Kahlons own campaign videos even depicted him as following in Begins footsteps, where Likud had faltered.

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