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Khazar hypothesis of Ashkenazi ancestry – Wikipedia, the free …

The Khazar hypothesis of Ashkenazi ancestry, often called by its critics the “Khazar myth”,[1]: 369[2]: VIII[3][4] is the hypothesis that Ashkenazi Jews are descended from the Khazars, a multi-ethnic conglomerate of Turkic peoples who formed a semi-nomadic Khanate in the area extending from Eastern Europe to Central Asia. The hypothesis draws on some medieval sources such as the Khazar Correspondence, according to which at some point in the 8th-9th centuries, the ruling elite of the Khazars was said by Judah Halevi and Abraham ibn Daud to have converted to Rabbinic Judaism.[5] The scope of the conversion within the Khazar Khanate remains uncertain: the evidence used to tie the Ashkenazi communities to the Khazars is exiguous and subject to conflicting interpretations.[6][7]

This hypothesis has had a complex history within academia. While most contemporary scholars dismiss it, the hypothesis has often been argued in the past, and still finds occasional defenders of its plausibility. In the late 19th century, Ernest Renan and other scholars speculated that the Ashkenazi Jews of Europe originated among Turkic refugees who had migrated from the collapsed Khazarian Khanate westward into Europe, and exchanged their native Khazar language for Yiddish while continuing to practice Judaism. Though intermittently evoked by several scholars since that time, the Khazar-Ashkenazi hypothesis came to the attention of a much wider public with the publication of Arthur Koestler’s The Thirteenth Tribe in 1976.[8] It has been revived recently by Eran Elhaik, who in 2012 conducted a study aiming to vindicate it.[9] Despite skepticism, he reformulated the concept in 2016 by developing a novel method of genetic analysis that uses the fringe linguistic theories of the Yiddish expert Paul Wexler.[10]

Genetic studies on Jews have found no substantive evidence of a Khazar origin among Ashkenazi Jews, as opposed to evidence they have mixed Near Eastern/Mediterranean/Southern European origins.[11]

The hypothesis has been used at times by anti-Zionists to challenge the idea Jews have ancestral ties to ancient Israel, and has also played a role in antisemitic attitudes.

Some sources attribute to the Ukrainian Rabbi Isaac Baer Levinsohn (1788 -1860) the first reference to a connection between the Ashkenazi Jews and the Khazars.[12] Levinsohn also recorded that the tradition of their forefathers was that Ashkenazi Jews had earlier spoken Russian before acquiring their Ashkenazi language.[13][14] The hypothesis was advanced in 1808 by Johann Ewers,[15] in the context of an early controversy over the foundations of the Russian state, which pitted scholars espousing a Norman origin for the Varangians against those who argued that these founders of the Kievan Rus’ were Slavic and indigenous. Ewers proposed the idea that the Viking/Varangian founders were in fact Khazars.[16][17][18] The Russian historian Nikolay Karamzin advanced the claim, asserting that considerable numbers of Khazars had left Khazaria for Kievan Rus’ in the time of Vladimir 1 (980-1015).[19] The German Orientalist Karl Neumann suggested as early as 1847 that the migration of Khazars might have contributed to the formation of the core population of the Jews of Eastern Europe, without however specifying whether he was referring to Judaizing Turks or ethnic Jewish residents of Khazaria.[20]

Subsequently, Abraham Eliyahu Harkavi suggested in 1869 that there might be a link between the Khazars and European Jews.[21] Three years later, however, in 1872, a Crimean Karaite, Abraham Firkovich, alternatively proclaimed that the members of his Turkic-speaking sect were descended from Turkic converts to Judaism.[22] This hypothesis, that the descendents of Khazar converts to Judaism formed a major proportion of Ashkenazim, was first proposed to a Western public by Ernest Renan in 1883.[23][24] In a lecture delivered in Paris before the Cercle du Saint-Simon on 27 January 1883, Renan argued that conversion played a significant role in the formation of the Jewish people, stating that:

This conversion of the kingdom of the Khazars has a considerable importance regarding the origin of those Jews who dwell in the countries along the Danube and southern Russia. These regions enclose great masses of Jewish populations which have in all probability nothing or almost nothing that is anthropologically Jewish in them.[25]

Renan’s thesis found an echo soon after, in 1885, when Isidore Loeb, a rabbi, historian and secretary of the Alliance Isralite Universelle, in arguing for the cause of Jewish emancipation, challenged the notion that nations were based on races, and the Jews therefore could be excluded as alien. To the contrary, he argued, they were no different from other peoples and nations, all of which arose from miscegenation: the Jews were no exception, and one could assume, he added, that many German and Russian Jews descended from the Khazars.[26]

Occasional suggestions emerged that there was a small Khazar component in East European Jews in works by Joseph Jacobs (1886), Anatole Leroy-Beaulieu (1893),[27] Maksymilian Ernest Gumplowicz,[28] and by the Russian-Jewish anthropologist Samuel Weissenberg.[29]

Leroy-Beaulieu, a critic of anti-Semitism who perhaps drew on Renan, queried whether or not thousands of Polish and Russian Jews might have their origins traced back to the “old nomads of the steppes.”[30]

In 1909 Hugo von Kutschera developed the notion into a book-length study,[31] arguing that Khazars formed the foundational core of the modern Ashkenazi.[32]Maurice Fishberg introduced the notion to an American audience in 1911 in his book, The Jews: A Study of Race and Environment.[33]

When at the Versailles Peace Conference, a Jewish Zionist called Palestine the land of the Jewish people’s ancestors, Joseph Reinach, a French Jewish member of parliament who was opposed to Zionism, dismissed the idea, arguing that Jews descended from Israelites were a tiny minority. In his view, conversion had played a major role in the expansion of the Jewish people, and, in addition, he claimed, the majority of “Russian, Polish and Galician Jews descend from the Khazars, a Tatar people from the south of Russia who converted to Judaism in mass at the time of Charlemagne.”[34]

The idea was also taken up by the Polish-Jewish economic historian and General Zionist Yitzhak Schipper in 1918,[35][36] by scholarly anthropologists, such as Roland B. Dixon (1923), and by writers like H. G. Wells (1921) who used it to argue that “The main part of Jewry never was in Judea”,[37][38] a thesis that was to have a political echo in later opinion.[39][40] In 1931 Sigmund Freud wrote to Max Eitingon that the sculptor Oscar Nemon, for whom he was sitting, showed the lineaments of a “Slavic Eastern Jew, Khazar or Kalmuck or something like that”.[41]

In 1932, Samuel Krauss ventured the theory that the biblical Ashkenaz referred to northern Asia Minor, and he identified it with the Khazars, a position immediately disputed by Jacob Mann.[42]

This interwar period consolidated also a belief, originally developed by the Russian Orientalists V.V. Grigoriev and V.D. Smirnov, that the East European congregations of the Karaite sect of Judaism were descendants of Turkic Khazars.[43] The idea of a Khazarian origin of the Karaites was then adopted as their official viewpoint.[44]Seraja Szapszal (1873-1961), from 1927, the akham of the Polish-Lithuanian Karaite community had begun to implement a thorough-going reform policy of dejudaizing Karaite culture and traditions and transforming along Turkic lines. As a secular Jew and orientalist he was influenced by Atatrk’s reforms, and his policy was dictated by several considerations: Jews were suffering from harassment in public and private in Eastern Europe; he wished to forestall the threat he had intuited was imminent in both Fascism and Nazism, which were beginning to gain a foothold; he was passionate about the Karaites’ language, Karaim, and its Turkish tradition, and somewhat insouciant of the Judaic heritage of his people. In 1934 Corrado Gini, a distinguished statistician, interested also in demography and anthropology, with close ties to the fascist elite, led an expedition in AugustOctober 1934 to survey the Karaites. He concluded that Karaites were ethnically mixed, predominantly Chuvash which he mistook to be Finno-Ugric descendants of the Tauro-Cimmerians who at one point had been absorbed into the Khazars who for Gini however were not Turkic. A further conclusion was that the Ashkenazi arose from Turko-Tatar converts to Judaism.[45][46] Though the Khazar-Karaite theory is unsubstantiated by any historical evidence, – the early Karaite literature speaks of Khazars as mamzerim, ‘bastards’ or ‘strangers’ within Judaism – this myth served a political purpose, of taking that community out of the stranglehold of anti-Semitic regulations and prejudices directed generally against Jews in Eastern Europe.[45]

In 1942, Abraham N. Poliak, later professor of the history of the Middle Ages at Tel Aviv University, published a Hebrew monograph in which he concluded that the East European Jews came from Khazaria.[47][48]

In Nazi Germany, unlike most race theorists in Germany down to his time Hans F. K. Gnther argued that the Jews were not a pure race, although he nevertheless considered them to be highly inbred. He argued that the Ashkenazi were a mix of Near Eastern, Oriental, East Baltic, Eastern, Inner-Asian, Nordic, Hamite, and Negro peoples and separate from the Sephardim. Gnther believed that the conversion of the Khazars, whom he took to have been a Near Eastern race constituted a further external element in the racial makeup of the Ashkenazi Jews, strengthening its Near Eastern component.[49]: 3233 Gnthers theorizing about racial consequences flowing from the conversion of the Khazars was embraced by Gerhard Kittel.[49]: 175

The Karaite claim to not be ethnic Jews, but descendants of the Khazars, was eventually accepted by the Nazis who exempted them, unlike the Crimean Krymchaks with whom they had historic ties, from the policy of genocidal extermination on these grounds.[50][51]

In debates leading up to the UN plan in 1947 to partition Palestine into Jewish and Arab states, the British politicians John Hope Simpson and Edward Spears, intent on denying Zionism that part of its claim that drew on biblical arguments, asserted that Jewish immigrants to Mandatory Palestine were the descendants of pagan converts and not of the Israelites. The approach was one shared by both gentile and Jewish anti-Zionists.Rory Miller claims that their denial of a lineal descent from Israelites drew on the Khazar theory.[52]: 128

In anti-Zionist argumentation delivered at the UN during 1947 Faris al-Khoury and Jamal Al-Husseini used the theory to oppose the creation of a Jewish state on racial and historic grounds. Cecil Hourani claimed that the Arab leaders had been convinced of the value of the argument by Benjamin H. Freedman. Internal British documents seem to support the claim.[52]: 129 It would later play a role in Arab anti-Zionist polemics, taking on an antisemitic edge,[53] though Bernard Lewis, noted in 1987 that serious Arab scholars had dropped it, remarked that it only occasionally emerged in Arab political polemics.[54]: 48

D.M. Dunlop, writing in 1954, thought very little evidence backed what he regarded as a mere assumption, and argued that the Ashkenazi-Khazar descent hypothesis went far beyond what “our imperfect records” permit.[55]

Lon Poliakov, while assuming the Jews of Western Europe resulted from a “panmixia” in the first millennium, asserted in 1955 that it was widely assumed that Europe’s Eastern Jews descended from a mixture of Khazarian and German Jews.[56] Poliak’s work found some support from Salo Wittmayer Baron and Ben-Zion Dinur,[57][58] but was dismissed by Bernard Weinryb as a fiction (1962).[59]

In 1957 Salo Wittmayer Baron, called by his biographer an “architect of Jewish history”,[60] devoted a large part of a chapter in his Social and Religious History of the Jews to the Khazarian Jewish state, and the impact he believed that community exercised on the formation of East European Jewries in his Social and Religious History of the Jews (1957).[61] The scarcity of direct Jewish testimonies did not disconcert Baron: this was to be expected since medieval Jews were “generally inarticulate outside their main centers of learning”.[62] The Khazarian turn to Judaism was, he judged, the “largest and last mass conversion”, involving both the royal house and large sectors of the population. Jews migrated there to flee the recurrent intolerance against Jews and the geopolitical upheavals of the region’s chronic wars, which often proved devastating to northern Asia Minor, between Byzantium, Sassanid Persia, and the Abbasid and Ummayad Caliphates.[63]

For Baron, the fact of Jewish Khazaria played a lively role in stirring up among Western Jews an image of “red Jews”, and among Jews in Islamic countries a beacon of hope. After the dissolution of Khazaria, Baron sees a diaspora drifting both north into Russia, Poland and the Ukraine, and westwards into Pannonia and the Balkans.[64] where their cultivated presence both established Jewish communities and paved the way, ironically, for the Slavonic conversion to Christianity.[65] By the 11th and 12th centuries, these Eastern Jews make their first appearance in the Jewish literature of France and Germany. Maimonides, bemoaning the neglect of learning in the East, laid his hopes for the perpetuation of Jewish learning in the young struggling communities of Europe but would, Baron concludes, have been surprised to find that within centuries precisely in Eastern Europe would arise thriving communities that were to assume leadership of the Jewish people itself.[66]

The Khazar-Ashkenazi hypothesis came to the attention of a much wider public with the publication of Arthur Koestler’s The Thirteenth Tribe, which made sweeping claims for a Khazar legacy among the Ashkenazi in 1976.[8][67] Koestler’s work was both positively and negatively reviewed. Israels ambassador to Britain branded the book “an anti-Semitic action financed by the Palestinians”, while Bernard Lewis claimed that the idea was not supported by any evidence whatsoever, and had been “abandoned by all serious scholars”.[8][68]Raphael Patai, however, registered some support for the idea that Khazar remnants had played a role in the growth of Eastern European Jewish communities,[69] and several amateur researchers, such as Boris Altschler (1994)[67] and Kevin Alan Brook,[70] kept the thesis in the public eye. Koestler argued that this theory would mitigate European racially-based antisemitism.[71]

The theory has been used to counter the concept of Jewish nationhood.[8][72] It has been revived recently in a variety of approaches, from linguistics (Paul Wexler)[73] to historiography (Shlomo Sand)[74] and population genetics (Eran Elhaik)[75] In broad academic perspective, both the idea that the Khazars converted en masse to Judaism, and the suggestion that they emigrated to form the core population of Ashkenazi Jewry, remain highly polemical issues.[76]

Maurice Fishberg and Roland B. Dixon’s works were later exploited in racist and religious polemical literature, by advocates of British Israelism, in both Britain and the United States.[77] Particularly after the publication of Burton J. Hendrick s The Jews in America (1923)[78] it began to enjoy a vogue among advocates of immigration restrictions in the 1920s; racial theorists[79][80] like Lothrop Stoddard; antisemitic conspiracy theorists like the Ku Klux Klans Hiram Wesley Evans; and anti-communist polemicists like John O. Beaty[81]

In 1938, Ezra Pound, then strongly identifying with the Fascist regime of Benito Mussolini, sent a query to fellow poet Louis Zukofsky concerning the Khazars after someone had written to him that the ancient Jews had died out and that modern Jews were of Khazar descent. He returned to the issue in 1955, apparently influenced by a book called Facts are Facts, which pushed the Jewish-Khazar descent theory, and which for Pound had dug up “a few savoury morsels”.[82] The booklet in question, by a Roman Catholic convert from Rabbinical Judaism Benjamin H. Freedman[83] was a rambling anti-Semitic tirade written to Dr. David Goldstein after the latter converted to Catholicism.[84]

John O. Beaty was an antisemitic, McCarthyite professor of Old English at SMU, author of ‘The Iron Curtain over America’ (Dallas 1952). According to him, “the Khazar Jews were responsible for all of America’s and the world’s ills,” beginning with World War 1. The book had little impact until the former Wall Street broker and oil tycoon J. Russell Maguire promoted it.[85] A similar position was adopted by Wilmot Robertson, whose views influenced David Duke.[86] The British author Douglas Reed has also been influential. In his work the Ashkenazi are false Jews, descendants of the Khazars.[1]: 355

A number of different variants of the theory came to be exploited by the Christian Identity movement.[87] The Christian Identity movement, which took shape from the 1940s to the 1970s, had its roots in British Israelism which had been planted on American evangelical soil in the late 19th century.[88] By the 1960s the Khazar ancestry theory was an article of faith in the Christian Identity movement.[89] The Christian Identity movement has associated two verses from the New Testament, Revelation 2:9 and 3:9 with the Khazars. The Jews are literally satanic in Identity theology Jeffrey Kaplan calls these two passages the corner stone of Identity theology. Texts by Jewish authors such as the Babylonian Talmud and Arthur Koestlers work are raised almost to the level of Holy Writ.[90]

The theory was prominent in Soviet antisemitism, gaining a place in Soviet historiography. The theory influenced Soviet historians including Boris Rybakov, Mikhail Artamonov and Lev Gumilyov and was used to support soviet political theory.[2]: Vii-Viii Artamonov argued that the Khazars had played an important role in the development of Rus. A view that Rybakov disputed instead regarding the Khazar state as parasitic.[91]: 260261 Official Soviet views on the Khazars hardened after December 1951 when Pravda published a critical review of Artamonov’s work under the pen name P. Ivanov.[92]: 313314 Rybakov for his part denied that he was Ivanov.[91]: 261 It has been speculated that Ivanov was in fact Stalin. In Ivanovs review the Khazars were regarded as parasites and enemies.[93]: 237 Ivanovs views became the certified Soviet position.[92]: 314

Lev Gumilyovs theory of ethnogenesis draws heavily on the Khazars theory. For Gumilyov ethnicity was defined by stereotypical behavior which was linked to adaption to the terrain.[94]: 121122 Jews, he regarded as a parasitic, international urban class.[95] The Jews had dominated the Khazars creating a chimera, subjecting Rus to the “Khazar Yoke.”[1]: 358359, 368

Since the 1970s the Khazars euphemism has been part of the Russian nationalist lexicon.[96] Vadim V. Kozhinov theorized that the Khazar Yoke was more dangerous to Rus then the Tatar Yoke.[97]: 90 The Khazars were imagined as a persistent danger to Rus.[1]: 359 After the fall of the Soviet Union the theory maintained a role in Russian antisemitism. Contemporary Russian anti-Semites continue to perpetuate the Khazar myth.[1]: 355356 Gumilyov and his students work remain popular in Russia.[1]: 356 Khazars and ethnic chimera have become preferred terms for antisemitic Russian chauvinists.[1]: 356

Aum Shinrikyo is a Japanese doomsday cult. The cult was active in Japan and Russia, with an estimated 10,000 and 30,000 followers respectively.[98] The groups Manual of Fear used the Protocols of the Elders of Zion in addition to other anti-Semitic material. The manual claimed that the Jews are really Khazars intent on world domination.[99][100] The Khazar theory has also become part of the Ascended Masters theology. Hatonn an extraterrestrial transmits messages including the complete text of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. He identifies the authors of The Protocols as Khazars and speaks of false Zionist Jews who have usurped and controlled the true Jews.[101]

Before modern DNA population genetics entered the field, Raphael Patai described the Khazars in racial terms as being a Turkic people with some Mongoloid admixture.[102] After major advances in DNA sequence analysis and computing technology in the late 20th and early 21st century, a plethora of genetic research on Jewish and other human populations has been conducted worldwide. The Yiddish scholar Alexander Beider, regards genetic studies as often offering contradictory information, further complicated by the fact that some researchers work is influenced by their personal views.[103] While the consensus in genetic research is that the world’s Jewish populations (including the Ashkenazim) share substantial genetic ancestry derived from a common Ancient Middle Eastern founder population, and that Ashkenazi Jews have no genetic ancestry attributable to Khazars,[7] a few studies authored in this period diverge from the majority view in favor of the Khazar theory.

In 2001 Nebel et al., summarizing studies that reported a low-level European gene flow contributing to Ashkenazi paternal gene pool, suggested this influence might be reflected in the Eu 19 chromosomes common in Eastern Europe, or otherwise, that Ashkenazim with this component might descend from Khazars, an hypothesis the authors found “attractive”.[104]

In 2003 Behar, remarking on the high frequency haplogroup R1a1 NRYs in that former Khazar sphere of influence and noting Paul Wexler’s theory of relexification, raised the possibility that the Khazar theory might offer an attractive source for an important eastern component of the Ashkenazim.[105][106] In 2008 David Goldstein asserted that the Khazar theory “now seems to me plausible, if not likely”.[107]

A 2013 study by Rootsi, Behar et al. of Ashkenazi Levites (4% of the Jewish male line) found a high frequency of haplogroup R1a-M582 among them (64.9% of Ashkenazi Levites) pointing to a founding event and paternal ancestor common to half of them. Since R1a shows high frequency in Eastern Europe generally, it was thought possible, that the evidence might indicate the founder was a non-Jewish European. Testing the 3 hypotheses of a European, a Near Eastern or a Khazarian origin, their data excluded both the European and Khazarian origin of a Levite founder since the found no evidence of R1a-M582 Y-chromosomes was found in either group, other than singletons, while it occurs with significant frequency in Near Eastern regions Iranian Kerman, Iranian Azeri, the Kurds from Cilician Anatolia and Kazakhstan, and among Ashkenazi and non-Ashkenazi Jews. R1a-M582 was not detected among data from Iraqi, Bedouins, Druze and Palestinians sampled in Israel.[108]

Eran Elhaik has argued, in two separate papers, the first in 2012 and the latest (2016) co-authored by Wexler, that his genetic analysis strengthens the Khazar hypothesis. Of the 2012 study Elhaik writes: “Strong evidence for the Khazarian hypothesis is the clustering of European Jews with the populations that reside on opposite ends of ancient Khazaria: Armenians, Georgians, and Azerbaijani Jews. Because Caucasus populations remained relatively isolated in the Caucasus region and because there are no records of Caucasus populations mass-migrating to Eastern and Central Europe prior to the fall of Khazaria (Balanovsky et al. 2011), these findings imply a shared origin for European Jews and Caucasus populations.”[109] A controversy arose in which a number of geneticists called his work ‘ridiculous. Elhaik is reported as dismissing them as liars and frauds.[110] In the 2016 study Wexler, Elhaik, et al. argued that the first Ashkenazi populations to speak the Yiddish language came from areas near four villages in Eastern Turkey along the Silk Road whose names derived from the word “Ashkenaz,” rather than from Germanic lands as is the general consensus in scholarship. Elhaik and Wexler proposed a variant for the canonical Khazarian hypothesis, proposing that Iranians, Greeks, Turks, and Slavs converted to Judaism in Turkey prior to migrating to Khazaria where a small scale conversion had already occurred.[111][112] The historian Bernard Spolsky commenting on Elhaiks earlier study wrote. Recently, Elhaik (2013) claims to have found evidence supporting the Khazarian origin of Ashkenazim, but the whole issue of genetic evidence remains uncertain.[113]

According to Martin B. Richards, presently available genetic studies, including his own study on Ashkenazi maternal lineages, all refute the Khazar theory.[114] The claim that Ashkenazis as a whole take their origin from Khazars has been widely criticized as there is no direct evidence to support it.[115][116] Using four Jewish groups, one being Ashkenazi, Kopelman et al found no evidence to the Khazar theory.[117]

In 2000, the analysis of a report by Nicholas Wade named Y Chromosome Bears Witness to Story of the Jewish Diaspora

“provided genetic witness that these [Jewish] communities have, to a remarkable extent, retained their biological identity separate from their host populations, evidence of relatively little intermarriage or conversion into Judaism over the centuries…. The results accord with Jewish history and tradition and refute theories like those holding that Jewish communities consist mostly of converts from other faiths, or that they are descended from the Khazars, a medieval Turkish tribe that adopted Judaism.”[118]

In June 2014, Shaul Stampfer published a paper challenging the theory as ungrounded in sources contemporary with the Khazar period, stating: “Such a conversion, even though its a wonderful story, never happened”.[6][119]

Elhaik’s 2012 study was criticized for its use of Armenians and Azerbaijani Jews as proxies for Khazars and for using Bedouin and Jordanian Hashemites as a proxy for the Ancient Israelites. The former decision was criticized because Armenians were assumed to have a monolithic Caucasian ancestry, when as an Anatolian people (rather than Turkic) they contain many genetically Middle Eastern elements. Azerbaijani Jews are also assumed for the purposes of the study to have Khazarian ancestry, when Mountain Jews are actually descended from Persian Jews. The decision to cast Bedouin/Hashemites as “proto-Jews” was especially seen as political in nature, considering that both have origins in Arab tribes from the Arabian Peninsula rather than from the Ancient Israelites, while the descent of the Jews from the Israelites is largely accepted.[120][121] The study was also criticized as interpreting information selectivelyThe study found far more genetic similarity between the Druze and Ashkenazim than the Ashkenazim and Armenians, but Elhaik rejected this as indicating a common Semitic origin, instead interpreting it as evidence of Druze having Turkic origins when they are known to come from Syria.

Geneticists conducting studies in Jewish genetics have challenged Elhaik’s methods in his first paper. Michael Hammer called Elhaik’s premise “unrealistic,” calling Elhaik and other Khazarian hypothesis proponents “outlier folks who have a minority view thats not supported scientifically. I think the arguments they make are pretty weak and stretching what we know.” Marcus Feldman, director of Stanford University’s Morrison Institute for Population and Resource Studies, echoes Hammer. “If you take all of the careful genetic population analysis that has been done over the last 15 years theres no doubt about the common Middle Eastern origin,” he said. He added that Elhaiks first paper “is sort of a one-off.” Elhaiks statistical analysis would not pass muster with most contemporary scholars, Feldman said: “He appears to be applying the statistics in a way that gives him different results from what everybody else has obtained from essentially similar data.” [9]

Elhaik and Wexler’s 2016 study was challenged by two prominent scholars of Jewish demography from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Shaul Stampfer, a professor of Soviet and East European Jewry, deemed it basically nonsense. Sergio DellaPergola, the primary demographer of the Jewish people at the university, called it a “falsification”, criticizing its methodology, using a small population size and selectively removing population groups that refuted the findings they wanted, namely other Jewish groups such as the Italkim and Sephardic Jews, to whom Ashkenazi Jews are closely related genetically. Serious research would have factored in the glaring genetic similarity between Sephardim and Ashkenazim, which mean Polish Jews are more genetically similar to Iraqi Jews than to a non-Jewish Pole.[122] Elhaik replied that studying the DNA of non-Ashkenazic Jews would not change the DNA of Ashkenazic Jews nor the predicted origin of their DNA.’.[122]

Recently, a study by a team of biologists and linguists, led by Pavel Flegontov, a specialist in genomics, published a response to Das, Elhaik and Wexler’s 2016 study, criticizing their methodology and conclusions. They argue that GPS allows inferences works for the origins of modern populations with an unadmixed genome, but not for tracing ancestries back 1,000 years ago. In their view, the paper tried to fit Wexler’s ‘marginal and unsupported interpretation’ of Yiddish into a model that only permits valid deductions for recent unadmixed populations. [123]

Counter-evidence exists to the Khazar hypothesis claiming that that the male lineage ofs Ashkenazi Jews originates from an ancient (2000 BCE – 700 BCE) population of the Middle East who spread to Europe. -DNA studies of Ashkenazi Jews conclude that their male lineage was founded by ancestors from the Middle East.[124][125] and that they share this paternal ancestry with Sephardic Jewish populations.[126] Genetic studies show that the male lineage of Ashkenazi Jews bear a common genetic heritage which originates in the Near East, and that they bear their strongest resemblance to the peoples of the Fertile Crescent. A study of Ashkenazi mitochondrial DNA by a team led by Martin B. Richards of the University of Huddersfield found no maternal lineages attributable to the Caucasus. Richards summarized the findings on the female line as such:

“[N]one [of the mtDNA] came from the North Caucasus, located along the border between Europe and Asia between the Black and Caspian seas. All of our presently available studies including my own, should thoroughly debunk one of the most questionable, but still tenacious, hypotheses: that most Ashkenazi Jews can trace their roots to the mysterious Khazar Kingdom that flourished during the ninth century in the region between the Byzantine Empire and the Persian Empire.”[114]

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What Can the DNA of Ashkenazi Jews Tell Us About Living …

(Photo: Christopher Lane)

Dont be sad, says Finklestein on his deathbed. Ive had 80 good years. But youre 98! says his wife. I know.

Except for the occasional doctors appointment or bad cold, Irving Kahn hasnt skipped a day of work in more years than he can remember. And he can remember plenty of them: Hes 105.

That record is vexing to his youngest son, Thomas Graham Kahn, who though 69 and president of Kahn Brothers, their brokerage and money-management firm, is still called Tommy. (Irving is chairman.) How can he take a vacation if his father wont?

Instead, Tommy threatens to dock his dad for his short workday, which begins around ten and ends by three and often includes a nice bowl of soup. Its not like we have so many employees we can afford to have him shluf off, Tommy says.

Tommy runs the business, which has about $700 million under management. But even though Irving, with his very short stature and very large glasses, looks a bit like a horned owl peering up from his deska desk that features both a computer and grip barshe is no figurehead. His is still the corner office, 22 floors above Madison Avenue. (During the blackout of 2003, he walked down.) He gives or withholds the papal blessing on investment policy and reviews every transaction undertaken by the firms youngsters on behalf of clients.

The worlds oldest stockbroker, he first went to work on Wall Street in 1928. This was before the Depression, he says, then specifies which depression, as if I might confuse it with the one in the 1890s. Both are real to him; through a chain of memory leading back to his grandparents, Eastern European Jews who settled on the Lower East Side shortly before that earlier upheaval, he can almost touch the Civil War.

More directly, he can touch the technological revolutions that followed. He describes his fathers good fortune in getting into the lighting-fixture business in the years after Mr. Edison opened his downtown officethe one that brought electric power to Manhattan in 1882. He remembers with perfect clarity building a crystal radio in his bedroom around 1920 and amazing his mother, who thought music came only from Victrolas, with the music he caught for free.

When youre 53, as I am, and believe yourself to be on the wrong side of lifes unknowable midpoint, a conversation with someone who will soon be twice your age, and who furthermore has retained all his marbles, can be disorienting. For one thing, it has the effect of collapsing a century into a pancake. Czar Nicholas II and Barack Obama, gaslight and computer glow, grandmothers and grandchildren: All are contemporaries, all in sharp focus.

The indiscriminate urgency of memory is disorienting for Irving as well. Id rather not know who I was and who I knew and what I did, he says. It uses up space I need for today.

By today, incredibly, he also means the future. All conversations with Irving eventually wobble back to his favorite ruts, such as how new technology might affect the viability of companies he follows. I dont worry about dying, he says, assuming it will happen in his sleep. Instead he worries about staying mentally agile, which is why he reads three newspapers daily and watches all the C-Spans. I know people collect postage stamps, but thats just one thing. Its about having multiple interests.

He does not say multiple attachments; his own upbringinghis mother ran a shirtwaist business out of the homesuggested the value of independence and keeping an eye on the horizon. Newness served his family well: A new country, a new language, a new public school, a new college. At his home a mile up Madisonuntil he was 102 he took the bushe has, he says proudly, thousands of books, not one fiction. Mostly Im interested in whats on the edges: solar energy, sending vehicles beyond the moon.

His belief in a personal future that will repay this curiositya future I can hardly imagine for myself without worries of illness and decrepitudeis whats most disorienting about Irving Kahn. Youd think that as he got older, then even older, and then bizarrely old, hed have had ever more opportunities to despair. And, true, his eyesight and earsight arent what they were. He cant walk much on his own anymore. He despises these limitations but ignores or finds ways to outwit them. Loss as well. His wifes death, in 1996, was a huge blow, Tommy reports, but Irving put his foot down a little more on the pedal, if that was possible. When macular degeneration recently made reading difficult, he learned to enlarge the font on what he calls his Gimble.

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What Can the DNA of Ashkenazi Jews Tell Us About Living …

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Ashkenazi Jewish Genetic Panels – WebMD

Ashkenazi Jewish Genetic Panel (AJGP) – What Are Ashkenazi Jewish Genetic Diseases?

Ashkenazi Jewish Genetic Panel (AJGP) Guide

Ashkenazi Jewish genetic diseases are a group of rare disorders that occur more often in people of Eastern European (Ashkenazi) Jewish heritage than in the general population. Even though most of these diseases are severe and can cause early death, some can be treated to reduce symptoms and prolong life. Some of these diseases can be found during pregnancy through chorionic villus sampling (CVS) or amniocentesis. This testing is done usually if one or both parents are carriers of a genetic disease.

Diseases in this group include:

About 1 out of 4 people of Ashkenazi Jewish heritage is a carrier of one of these genetic conditions, most commonly of Gaucher disease, cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs disease, familial dysautonomia, or Canavan disease.1

WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise

Last Updated: March 12, 2014

This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.

1995-2015 Healthwise, Incorporated. Healthwise, Healthwise for every health decision, and the Healthwise logo are trademarks of Healthwise, Incorporated.

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Who are the Ashkenazi Jews ? (with pictures) – wiseGEEK

Why is it racism to tell the truth? Ashkenazi Jews claim by birthright they had a right to take Palestine and treat Palestinians as visitors. The promise God made to Abraham was not made to the sons of Japeth or Ham; it was made to Abraham and his sons, descendants of Shem.

The Ashekenazi who say they are Jews by conversion have abandoned the principal way of determining a Jew’s heritage. All Old Testament lineages were traced through the father, not the mother.

If a Christian says he/she is a Christian and hates their enemies, they are no more Christian than a Jew who says he/she is a Jew and traces their ancestry through women.

The Ashekenazi have abandoned the

The Ashekenazi have allied themselves with idol worshippers and false prophets (the Mormons) and therefore not only have no birthright, but also have have set themselves apart from God. Every king and all false prophets in the Bible who allied with such were punished by the Lord. Mormons mask themselves as Christians, but are blasphemers and Ashekanazi have a lot of people fooled with their masks as well, but they are wolves in sheep’s clothing. They are the Jews who are not Jews in the Bible.

You correctly said that if a person converts to Christianity, then it doesn’t matter what their Jewish ancestry is. But what does matter is that their works match their faith and that they do not pervert the inspired Word of God with man-made doctrines that exist to control others, benefit themselves, and are always fairly obvious because their fruits are always bad.

It is not racism to say Ashekenazi are not Jews by promise, but as in Esther’s day, many Persians converted to Judaism out of fear and became Jews. The idea that Christians would ally themselves with a nation armed with 120 nukes crying about their neighbors who have not one single nuke because they believe God would have His temple on the blood soaked ground soaked with the blood of His Son is an anti-Christ dogma.

Clearly, Paul and Revelation state there will be a new heaven and a new earth, and Zion will come out of that Heaven, not the polluted ruin that is covered with God’s Son’s blood. The Ashekenazi and false Christians have used this propaganda to profit from those poor souls that need to be freed.

In this country where there is not supposed to be a religious test, let a politician say one word about the Ashekenazi or the home they stole, and that politician will never be elected. Yet our president can be called a monkey, a terrorist, the N word, and any other disgusting name and the politician who utters that evil is rewarded.

I hardly think racism can be applied to the Ashekenazi who wield more power with less than 5 percent of the population of our nation of almost 300 million people. Lenin, Marx and Stalin — all engineers of mass murder and communism were all Ashekenazi Jews. I have heard that even Hitler was Ashkenazi. I don’t know.

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Who are the Ashkenazi Jews ? (with pictures) – wiseGEEK

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Ashkenazi Genetic Traits | Center for Jewish Genetics

Providing support through education and genetic counseling is central to the mission of the Center for Jewish Genetics. With the knowledge gained through carrier screening, individuals are better prepared to make informed decisions for themselves and their future family.

The Center currently screens for 19 disorders found most frequently in Ashkenazi Jews of Central and Eastern European descent Jews. Many of these disorders are serious and can be debilitating and life-shortening. But with proper knowledge and genetic counseling, they can be prevented.

In addition to the 19 disorders linked to Ashkenazi heritage, the Centers screening panel includes more than 60 other common genetic disorders, plus Fragile X. Our genetic counselor is available at every step of the screening process to make sure that all of your questions and concerns are addressed.

This screening process is called carrier screening. Carriers are healthy adults who have the genetic mutation that can potentially be passed on to a child if both parents are carriers for the same gene. This video explains how healthy carrier parents may have a child with the disorder.

Watch this Youtube Video to learn more about Autosomal Recessive Inheritence

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Doran Ashkenazi – drug overdose

Ofra Haza’s husband found dead, police suspect drug overdose

By Amit Ben-Aroya Ha’aretz Correspondent and wires

Doron Ashkenazi – widower of Israel’s most successful international singer, Ofra Haza, who died of AIDS in February 2000 – died Saturday night of an overdose of crystallized cocaine, police said.

His autopsy today may shed a light on Haza’s death as well.

“We are expecting an answer as to whether Doron was HIV positive, and the one who infected Ofra,” attorney Arie Sharabi, who represents the Haza family, said yesterday.

Several complaints were filed with the police, accusing Ashkenazi of not informing Haza that he was HIV positive. Ashkenazi, who has an eight-year-old girl and a 15-year-old boy, was never arrested in connection with Haza’s death. The Tel Aviv prosecutor is still working on the Haza file. His death is to terminate the investigation, unless the family allows it to be continued, which is very unlikely, Sharabi explained.

On Saturday night, the night of the Seder, Ashkenazi would not celebrate with his family. He said he was still in mourning. A preliminary police investigation indicates he spent the evening with friends, doing “crystal meth” at Ashkenazi’s home in Herzliya.

When Ashkenazi suddenly collapsed at 8 P.M., one of the friends called an ambulance, and told Ashkenazi’s family. Ashkenazi was rushed to Beilinson Hospital in Petah Tikva, where, after attempts at resuscitation, he was pronounced dead.

Police were only informed at 10:30 PM. Chief Superintendent Avi Sasson, deputy commander of the Gelilot station, which is investigating the case, told Ha’aretz he still did not know why Ashkenazi’s car was found parked in south Tel Aviv.

Ashkenazi family lawyer Shmuel Zang said Ashkenazi was focused on the legal proceeding that were to begin in a few weeks regarding the validity of Haza’s will, a copy of which could not be found.

The medical panel that investigated Haza’s death published its findings three months ago. Its report said that, if Haza had admitted herself to hospital earlier, her life might have been saved. But Haza, fearful that her condition would become public knowledge, refused to go to the hospital, even when her situation had become very serious.

Ashkenazi was first exposed to the public eye when, in July 1997, he married Haza, a popular singer. She was discovered at age 12 at the underprivileged Hatikva neighborhood in Tel Aviv, by Bezalel Aloni, who was her personal manager for years – until her marriage to Ashkenazi, when she severed her ties with him.

Just weeks before her death, she telephoned Aloni and told him of her condition. “I said a year ago that this man [Ashkenazi] was to blame. He covered himself with a battery of lawyers. His death only serves to emphasize how tragic and futile Ofra’s death was. Doron was the first and last man in her life, and that’s terrible,” Aloni said.

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Ashkenazi Jews, as well as the Yiddish language, came from …

In an effort to discover the origin of the Yiddish language, researchers say that they have found evidence that proves that Ashkenazi Jews are descended predominately from four villages in northeastern Turkey.

The study, titled Localizing Ashkenazic Jews to primeval villages in the ancient Iranian lands of Ashkenaz was conducted by researchers from three universities in the U.K., U.S., and Israel. It was published in the journal Genome Biology and Evolution.

Using a Geographic Population Structure device, Dr Eran Elhaik, a geneticist from the University of Sheffield who led the study, was able to convert the DNA of Ashkenazi Jews into geographic coordinates.

The data showed that 90 percent of Ashkenazi Jews have links to the ancient villages of Iskenaz, Eskenaz, Ashanaz, and Ashkuz that sit near ancient Silk Road trade routes.

We traced nearly all AJs to major primeval trade routes in northeastern Turkey adjacent to primeval villages, whose names may be derived from Ashkenaz. We conclude that AJs probably originated during the first millennium when Iranian Jews Judaized Greco-Roman, Turk, Iranian, southern Caucasus, and Slavic populations inhabiting the lands of Ashkenaz in Turkey, the researchers wrote.

They say this is evidence that Yiddish is a Slavic language that was created by Irano-Turko-Slavic Jewish merchants, and is not of German origin as is commonly thought.

They suggest that it was devised as a cryptic trade language, and was used to gain its creators an advantage in trades along the Silk Roads.

Language, geography and genetics are all connected, Dr Eran Elhaik told phys.org.

Today, half the worlds 10 million 11.2 million Ashkenazi Jews live in the United States, with another 2.8 million residing in Israel. They make up approximately 75 per cent of Jews, while Sephardi Jews comprising the remaining 25 per cent.

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Un-American Subversive Theatre: Parade the Leo Frank Broadway Musical Becomes International Cult Sensation

If you asked any of your friends, acquaintances, or family members, whether or not
they’ve heard of the Jewish activist musical called ‘Parade’, chances are most people
would likely shake their heads and say something along the lines of, “No, I’ve never
heard of it before”. Yet amongst theatre fans around the world, ‘Parade’ is a cult
classic. In fact, ‘Parade’ has been a major thespian feature in nearly every Western
nation across the world, including even far off Australia and New Zealand. Moreover,
what’s most striking is even though this Musical is more than 15 years old, it continues
playing out in new theaters across the United States, Canada and Europe to much fanfare and
rave reviews by leftists, social justice warriors, Anti-Gentile Jews and other people who
embody the universal force of entropy and regression to the mean.

If you don’t feel like wasting $$ on a ticket to see the show, you can watch it for free
on most major video sharing web sites like YouTube, but before you do, read up about the real facts of
this case from the The Internet Archive.

The Leo Frank Case Refuse to Gather Dust: The Celebrated Double Strangulation.

‘Parade’ the Broadway Musical, first launched in December, 1998, by two anti-Gentile Jewish
supremacists Jason Robert Brown (why the long face?) and Alfred Uhry (Jabba the Hutt), &
it uses a raped Christian teenage girl, who was strangled to death and mutilated in 1913, as a
cheap plot device, to humanize, lionize and rehabilitate a sadistic sexual predator and convicted
child-killer — Leo Frank the Toilet Strangler — because of his ethno-religion: Judaism.

Newspapers, Magazines and Internet: Media Reports Summarize the Affair.

The repeated theme of advertisements and reviews about this musical makes the Jewish
racial subtext clear and contentious, centering around the premise that Leo Frank
was suspected, indicted, convicted and hanged, because of widespread anti-Semitism,
not the facts, evidence, exhibits or testimony presented presented at his trial.
Fortunately however in 2010 the primary sources about the criminal case were published
online revealing what really happened and exposing generations of Jewish perpetuated lies
about the affair in the mainstream media and academy.

In the Wider Social Context: Jewish-Gentile American Culture War Born in 1913

For more than 100 years, the Frank-Phagan affair has been a fanatical cause celebre for
the well organized Jewish community, who believe the case should be perpetually retold
in the mainstream media and popular culture as an anti-Gentile morality tale, to remind Jews
and Gentiles alike that “not too long ago”, hate filled anti-Semitic European-Americans and
African-Americans from the “Old South” destroyed an innocent and nice Jewish boy from
Brooklyn. Also blamed by the Jewish Supremacists as part of the false narrative are newspaper
frenzies, police corruption, political ambition and bigotry. It’s the same old blame “the other”
strategy endemic to Jewish culture, used as a smoke screen to hide what really happened and
put people on the defense.

Since 1913, more than a dozen books have been written about the murder of Mary
Phagan and Lynching of Leo Frank, including several Hollywood style movies, a made-for-TV
miniseries (1988), docudramas (2009) and treatments of the affair in every modern media format,
with the expressed purpose of shaming European-Americans for their once prevailing cultural
ethnic solidarity — and oddly enough — this message is being pushed aggressively by the
most ethnocentric people since the dawn of civilization, who have a history of instigating
racial strife between different ethnic groups and causing financial problems in the countries
they choose to occupy: Jews, the parasites kicked out of 100+ countries over the course of many
centuries.

Downtown Atlanta, Georgia, 1913: Southern State Holiday During the Jewish Sabbath

On Confederate Memorial Day, Saturday, April 26, 1913, inside a dingy shuttered factory
at the heart of Atlanta’s industrial sector, an infatuated serial rapist-pedophile, viciously
assaulted one of his teenage employees. The victim had rejected her boss’s creepy sexual
advances for the last time and paid the price with her life after being sexually assaulted.

In 1913, there were no clearly defined and established mainstream words for: acts of
sexual harassment, sex offenders, sexual assault, sadistic predatory child molesters or
serial rapist-pedophiles, other than some of the commonly used contemporary terms such as:
libertine, lustful, lecherous, rake, satyr, pervert and lascivious.

Little Mary Anne Phagan: Earned her nickname “Little” because she was less than 5 ft tall.

13-year-old child laborer, Little Mary Phagan (Born June 1, 1899), had been temporarily laid
off because the brass sheet metal had fully depleted on Monday morning, April 21, 1913, and
a new shipment had been late in arriving. Without this essential production material, there could
be no brass bands created for attaching at the ends of pencils, and therefore Phagan couldn’t
use the knurling machine at her work station in the machine room (known colloquially by factory
employees as the metal-room) to insert rubber erasers into them.

A Throw Away Detail? Monteen “Iola” Stover

An important detail rarely mentioned in nearly every retelling of this case is that not only
Mary Phagan, but four other girls had been furloughed until the delivery of materials was
slated to replenish supplies the week following the Confederate Memorial Parade. One of
those girls was a critical witness at the grand jury hearings and Leo Frank trial, named
Monteen Stover, who is represented as the naughty Iola Stover in this theatrical play.

National Pencil Company: The Machine Department AKA “Metal Room” on the 2nd Floor

Mary’s job was a business critical dependency in the factory’s manufacturing operations,
because securing erasers into the base of pencils was the last production stage, before they
were placed as neat bunches in waxy tissue paper, packaged inside rectangular monogrammed
boxes, before being loaded and shipped off for distribution nationwide in large crates.

During an average week in 1913, the National Pencil Company (NPCo) was grossing
between $2500 and $5400, which was rather impressive for a company born only five
years prior. The NPCo factory’s official founding date was: April 8th, 1908
(Atlanta Constitution Newspaper, April 8, 1908, The Internet Archive).

Major shareholders in this industrial venture were: Jewish stationary magnate, Sigmund
Montag, treasurer of the NPCo, and Leo’s wealthy uncle Moses, a shrewd cotton-oil
speculator, who entrusted his young Cornell educated nephew to manage the factory’s
business critical operations and accounting. Leo Frank began formally working at the
National Pencil Company on Monday morning, August 10, 1908, after spending nine
months in Germany, doing a pencil manufacturing apprenticeship for Eberhard Faber.
On Monday, September 7th, 1908, Leo Frank was promoted to the rank of Superintendent
at the National Pencil Company.

Saturday, April 26, 1913, Noontime: Five Years After the NPCo was Founded

At the National Pencil Company headquarters, located on 37-41 South Forsyth Street,
where the newer Sam Nunn building stands today, Phagan entered the anteroom of Leo
Frank’s second floor window front office at just minutes after high-noon. Standing in the
door frame, Little Mary Phagan said, “Mr. Frank?” and Leo’s lion-heart began thumping
quickly as he recognized the voice and gazed up, especially because now he was all alone
with the attractive child laborer who was dressed gaily in lavender dress trimmed with white
lace, one whom he had a crush on for so long and she had blossomed far beyond her tender
age.

Many Violent Crimes of Passion are Over Jealousy: Beauty vs the Beast

Leo had fired the 6’4” tall and strikingly handsome payroll manager, James Milton Gantt,
about two weeks earlier, because of a $2 shortage in the petty cash payroll box, but it was
nothing more than a ruse. Leo knew Mary was very much into James, as she looked up
dreamily into his sky blue eyes, like he was her Knight in shining armor, and James looked
after Mary as well. Gantt had known the Phagan family very well for several years and kept
an eye out for Mary, since sweatshop factories that employed child laborers were notorious
for being places where sometimes young girls and boys were targets of predatory older men.

So the superintendent got the prince out of the way, so the jealous dragon could play!

An Infatuated Pedophile: Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde

Mary was the one employee Frank was infatuated with, and couldn’t have because
of Gantt, she had spurned lecherous Leo’s obnoxious pesterings and subtle innuendos
since the Spring of 1912, humiliating his arrogant ego and making him ever more determined.
For an upstart like Leo Frank, who rose to the heights of leadership in Atlanta’s Jewish
community in such a relatively short amount of time — becoming Atlanta B’nai B’rith president —
he was a man who didn’t like taking no for an answer, so now he would finally get even!

Frank said “Hello Mary” in a nebbish voice with a Brooklyn-Yiddish accent. Phagan immediately
requested her pay envelope of $1.20 and inquired if the ordered metal supplies had arrived yet.
She was naturally concerned, because she came from a poor family with five siblings and
depended on the money. She curiously wanted to know if, whether or not, she should return
to work on Monday morning April 28, 1913. Leo Frank said inquisitively, “No, I don’t know” as
he pushed back his wooden chair screeching against the floorboards and stood up briskly.
While walking together into the machine room, located just down the hall, opposite from
Frank’s office, they made small talk about wondering if, Mr. Darley, had received the brass
shipment yet in a timely fashion, and stocked the closet next to the lady’s dressing room
where these supplies were normally stored, located just diagonal to the wall where the lathe
work station was situated in the metal room.

Although Leo Frank initially said “No, I don’t know”, in truth his requisition papers indicated
otherwise. Leo’s hand written business ledgers indicated the ordered shipment wasn’t to
be delivered until early in the following week. Saturday was Confederate Memorial Day, an
important Georgia State holiday, most of Atlanta was shut down and no deliveries would be
made because of the Parade. Outside the factory, the streets were filled with lively revelers,
walking to and fro. Most people were dressed in their “Sunday’s Best” and despite the somber
mood this holiday represented, there was excitement in the air under chilly overcast skies.

Most Jewish-American accounts of the Mary Phagan murder case
leave out the facts and details about what happened next…

After the 5’8” tall and 155lbs., Leo M. Frank, lured 4’11” tall and 107lbs., Mary A. Phagan,
into the metal room on the pretext of determining whether or not she would need to report
to work on Monday morning, April 28, 1913 at 6:30 o’clock a.m., however “upon realizing”
the metal hadn’t yet arrived, he used her temporary laid off status as a species of sexual
coercion, but something went very wrong, and took a violent turn.

Inside the metal room, Frank’s heart began to throb as he said to
Phagan — while his effeminate hand gently caressed her shoulder —
“Mary, If you still want to work here, I want you to be with me”. Phagan
became grotesquely horrified and said, “NO!” while she tried to swiftly
pass by Frank at his left side and run out of the metal room, but he checked
her like he was playing basketball for his class team at Cornell, as he
had done so many time before during all four years of college (1902 – 1906) —
blocking her escape attempt, and closing ranks, this time there was no
where to run, and there was no where to hide. She was cornered and there
would be no escape.

Flustered, Frank seized her with both hands, but Phagan jerked her torso,
yanking away and told him “I’m not that kind of girl, take your hands off me!”

At this point the incident had crossed the line and could no longer be played off as a
joke, as it had been in the past with so many other female child laborers (19 girls would
later come forward to provide affidavits and testify to his lascivious character).
Jewish pseudo-scholars for nearly a century would claim these girls repudiated their
affidavits, until they were proven false when Atlanta archivists in 2010 released the
Georgia Supreme Court Records showing otherwise.

It was then at that exact moment, when she spurned the ultimatum of her lecherous and
bug-eyed superintendent for the last time, denying the desires of an effete cockalorum,
who had earned himself a bad reputation as a libertine, amongst the child laborers at
the factory.

Terror Unfolded!

In an explosion of rage, like a bucket of bricks falling out of the sky, Leo Frank clenched his
left fist as his gold wedding band tinkled in the dim gray light falling from the grimy factory
windows, and then he pivoted, growling like a lion, swiveling, pitching a fist curve ball into
Mary Phagan’s right temple as she reeled back screaming in absolute horror. In a precipitous
storm of fury, his angry knuckles began hailing down in a flurry against her delicate feminine
cheek bones like sledge hammers on the chain gang.

Jim Conley who was idly seated on an old wooden crate next to the
staircase at the factory’s first floor lobby, while the assault was
occurring upstairs in the metal room, eerily described to Police, weeks
later, the sound of Phagan’s bone chilling echoing cry of mortified
agony: As a stuttering laugh that broke off into a shriek and then
absolute silence.

Leo Frank kept pounding Mary Phagan’s face in, blow after blow, while
the back of her head slammed against the the lathe workstation
belonging to machinist Robert P Barret, leaving behind bloody tresses of
her dark strawberry-blond hair tangled around its solid iron handle that
was shaped like an “L”. Why it was never cleaned up after the murder
tends to sustain the bespectacled Leo Frank’s irrational state of mind
and short-sightedness.

Phagan crumpled to the floor, passing out at the feet of Leo Frank
towering above, whose heaving chest was rapidly breathing in gulps of
stale air, as he looked down upon her with vengeance. Frank’s face was
flushed with blood and shivering with tantalizing sexual intensity as his
bulging black dilated eyes were exaggerated outward from underneath
his wirerim glasses. Frank immediately dragged Phagan by the shoulders
to the doorway of the bathroom in the metal room, tossing her over on the
old waxy wooden floorboards like a sack of potatoes.

Kneeling down, Frank then ripped off a 3 inch wide strip of Phagan’s
petty coat midsagitally, tearing upward vertically at first from the hem of
her dress up to her crotch and then turning across horizontally, followed
by tearing down to the hem again, he put the bunched cotton material
behind her head like a sponge, to soak up the slowly leaking blood from
the lathe wound on the back and side of her head.

Next Frank frantically hiked up and pealed open her torn dress, spread her tender
baby fat thighs, ripped and carved open her knitted underwear across the vulva
with a small pocket knife, all the way to the right seam, unbuttoned his pants, pushed
his dirty underwear down, and hocked a thick disgusting loogey of coffee and tobacco
phlegm into his left palm, right onto his wedding band, and moving the thick snot-like
spittle around in circles with his thumb, before massaging it all around the tip of his
rock hard, STD infected, 4” erect penis.

Then the Vicious Psychopath Raped Mary Phagan.

Her innocence was torn away, bleeding. Phagan woke up disoriented in
dizzying pain from unconsciousness, putting her arms and hands over her
black and blue eyes, sobbing and crying out repeatedly, “No, No, No”,
with tears showering from her swollen face, trying to roll away under Leo
Frank was impossible.

In a moment of shame and humiliation, Leo Frank was unable to ejaculate, and
seeing his whole life pass before his own eyes in Phagans tear-drenched face.
Knowing his reputation in the widely assimilated German-Jewish community of the
South would be irreparably harmed if she told anyone about what happened. Knowing
his wife from a prominent Jewish family would surely seek divorce in the aftermath of
this unforgivable incident. Acknowledging the certainty his family in Brooklyn would
without a shadow of a doubt disown him for his unspeakable crime… In a flash of
frightened clarity and fear, Leo Frank knew he would be disgraced if anyone ever
found out, and that he would likely be living out his life breaking rocks on the chain
gang or worse, strangled at the end of a hangman’s noose, so there was no other
way out, but to permanently silence Phagan, so she couldn’t tell; and that’s just what
he did…

Frank stood up quickly looking around the room, he frenetically pulled himself
together in a moment and grabbed a nearby 7 foot long jute cord hanging off a
nail on the adjacent wall. With white knuckle fists flexing, he strangled Mary
Phagan to death, burying the cord 1/8th inches deep into her tender throat.
He got up and stepped backward from the scene, looking upon what he had
done as Phagan’s unseeing eyes stared hideously into the dusty emptiness.
His mind racing, he stood there transfixed to assess the situation and later called
his Negro Janitor, James “Jim” Conley, to help him remove the body from the metal
room and dispose off the cadaver in the oversized basement incinerator. Though
things did not happen as intended.

Leo Frank’s Deliciously Conspiratorial Racist Anti-Black Sub Plot:

However Conley refused the final step of stuffing Mary Phagan into the cellar
furnace and instead he agreed to ghostwrite death notes on behalf of Leo Frank,
framing the newly hired Negro nightwatchman that nobody really knew, named
Newton “Newt” Lee of Afro-Caribbean descent.

Newt Lee in his trademark faded blue overalls, was an old, honest, married,
dark complected, balding, tall and slim African-American man with no criminal
record to speakof, who had spent most of his life as a lanky graveyard shift
security guard, doing his rounds, shuffling his feet in slow motion with a smoky
lantern, seemingly bobbing in the inky darkness.

Leo’s gambit was secure after he promised Jim $200, if he kept his mouth shut.
Because of the White segregationist culture of the South, Leo Frank thought
that in the prevailing racial separatist South, even if Conley ever blabbed, no one
would ever believe the word of a Negro employee over a Whiteman who managed
a prominent factory. Conley would surely hang or likely get lynched if there was even
a shadow of a doubt he participated in the rape and murder of a teenage White girl!

The Shocking Discovery in the Cellar by the “Night Witch”:

On Sunday morning, Newt Lee — who the racist Jew Leo Frank tried to frame for the
murder — punched the time clock at 3:01 o’clock a.m. at Frank’s second floor office,
as he was required to do every half hour during his rounds. Lee feeling the call of nature,
went down to the basement to use the racially segregated “colored toilet” for “dropping
the cosbys off at the pool” and upon completing his “bidness”, he went to check the backdoor
service ramp. It was then in the gloom at 3:15 o’clock a.m., he discovered the mauled body
of an unknown child, dumped in the rear corner of the basement, at the location where
garbage was normally placed, before being burned in the cellar’s massive furnace-incinerator,
regularly used for heating the drafty four-floor building.

Lee shuffled briskly to the head of the basement, shimmied up the ladder to the first floor lobby,
in the inky darkness and then clambered up the creaky wooden steps, hustled into Leo Frank’s office and
used the wall telephone to contact his sleeping superintendent, but after 8 minutes of trying with
no answer, he hung up the phone and called the police. 18 minutes later a hammer fist was pounding
on the glass door at the entryway of the factory.

First Responders

When the police arrived, they followed Lee into the lobby and down the 14 ft ladder below
into the 80 foot wide, 200 feet long, Stygian catacomb-like tunnel. With primitive flashlights,
immediately found tracks indicating Mary Phagan had been dragged 140 feet from the elevator shaft,
across the hard dirt cinders of the basement floor, before being finally dumped diagonal to the
incinerator.

The body was removed by a wicker basket to P.J. Bloomfield’s mortuary just before 4 a.m.
Upon examination by the mortician, astonishingly, the deep pocks and scratches on her
face, from being dragged in the basement, didn’t show any signs of bleeding! This curious
medical detail, forensically suggested to the Coroner, and undertaker that she might have
already been dead before being taken to the basement. Physicians had known for centuries
that when the heart stops beating, the bleeding-scabbing cascade in the healing process
on the epidermis (skin) no longer occurs. It was an unfortunate detail the murderer had
never anticipated, when trying to make the basement look like the initial crime scene.

The Fiendish Pervert

Phagan’s underwear that was still attached around her hips, was
soaked in dried blood and discharge. Her dress was moist from top to
bottom in urine, suggesting that someone had pissed all over her entire
body. Wrapped around her neck was the strip of her blood soaked petty
coat, hiding what was underneath, the 7 foot jute cord cinched in a loop
around her neck, snugly buried 1/8 inches deep into the throat.

The knot was found on the front right side of Phagan’s neck, suggesting a left
handed man had strangled her. Only a fraction of the population is left handed,
narrowing down the suspects, it was later determined that Leo Frank was left
handed and Jim Conley was right handed.

Phagan’s face appeared purple and contorted, and her tongue stuck out from her
mouth through her teeth one inch. There were wounds on the side and back of her
head, and two below the knees. The upper side of her shirt at the chest level had
be torn open revealing her left breast. Her hair and entire front part of the body were
caked with coal cinders, dirt and debris, presumably from being dragged while faced
down across the hard earthen floor of the basement. Oddly, her arms were reverently
crossed over her bosom.

Phagan’s pocketbook made from German silver was missing and the red flowers attached
to the front of her pale cobalt blue hat were also missing. Her parasol was found at the bottom
of the garbage strewn elevator shaft tray, a few feet away from a coil of human excrement,
laid by 27-year-old sweeper Jim Conley. Members of the Jewish community would crassly claim
for more than a century that the feces at the bottom of the elevator shaft is what indisputably
exonerates Leo Frank, this BS theory (pun intended) is now commonly referred as the, ‘Shit
in the Shaft’ (Steve Oney, 2003, 2004).

Police tried all night long to contact the sleeping Frank, but he didn’t answer the phone, even
though the telephone was located in the dining room, directly below him on the first floor and
ringing obnoxiously under the wooden floor boards of his second floor marital bed chamber.

Finally the police were able to reach Leo Frank on the phone in the early dawn hours of
Sunday, April 27, 1913, letting him know they would be at his home shortly. When the police
first arrived at the Frank-Selig residence located on 68 east Georgia avenue, Leo was acting
very nervous, shivering, struggling to put on his collar and tie. The half dressed Frank kept
delaying the process of leaving his home, asking repeatedly for a cup of coffee, but the police
insisted he come with them immediately.

Inside the squad car, Leo Frank nervously claimed he didn’t know his employee Mary
Phagan or any of the other girls at the factory who worked for him, and denied knowing
Phagan’s name when he saw her mutilated corpse on a cooling slab at P.J. Bloomfield’s
mortuary.

When did Mary Phagan collect her pay?

On Sunday, April 27, 1913 at 8:26 a.m., after police and detectives took Leo Frank to
his second floor office at front section of the Pencil factory, he opened his four foot
tall iron safe, removed the payroll ledger, and told the accompanying officers he had had
paid off Mary Phagan at about 12:03 p.m. on Georgia Confederate Memorial Day, Saturday,
April 26, 1913.

The next day (Monday morning, April 28, 1913) in the presence of his elite
lawyers (Luther Rosser and Herbert Haas), Leo Frank made a stenographed
deposition to detectives and police at the Atlanta station-house that Mary
Phagan came into his office between “12:05pm and 12:10pm, maybe 12:07pm”
on Saturday, April 26, 1913 (State’s Exhibit B, Leo Frank Trial Brief of
Evidence, 1913).

What Leo Frank did not know at the time of the sadistic rape-murder
is that 5’2″ tall, 14-year-old Monteen Stover (Iola Stover),
another little girl who had been laid off early in the week for the same
reason as Mary — because the brass sheet metal had run out — was
waiting inside his office all by her lonesome self. According to Monteen
Stover, she waited in Leo Frank’s business office from 12:05 p.m. to
12:10 p.m. based on his wall clock, hoping to collect her pay envelope,
but she left after waiting for 5 full minutes, because she thought the
building might have been deserted due to the state holiday.

Leo Frank’s Alibi From Sunday, April 27, 1913 to Monday August 18 1913

For 3.5 months, Leo Frank swore to the alibi that he never left his office
when Phagan arrived, until 12:45pm that fateful day, to go upstairs to the
fourth floor, but then on the witness stand at his trial on Monday afternoon,
August 18, 1913, he —- Reversed himself —- making a newfangled and never before
heard, ineluctable admission to explain why Monteen Stover had found his office
empty during the exact same time he had told the police Mary Phagan was with
him in his office (State’s Exhibit B, Monday, April 28, 1913; Monteen
Stover’s Testimony, Brief of Evidence, 1913).

Taking the Stand During his Month Long Trial: Leo Frank Changed His Alibi

Frank seated comfortably on the stand, said, “NOW GENTLEMEN”, looked
the jurors in their eyes and announced to a packed courtroom, that he
might have gone to the bathroom in the metal room to use the toilet or
urinate — at that critical time (12:05pm to 12:10pm) — and that those were
things that a man does “unconsciously”. (He would re-assert this incriminating
admission in a jailhouse interview published in the
March 9, 1914 edition of the Atlanta Constitution).

It was deliciously ironic for unbiased observers who simply wanted to
arrive at the truth, but for Leo Frank’s detractors, it was the equivalent of
an inescapable murder trial confession, because Frank had contradicted
and entrapped himself beyond escape in the metal room, where all the
forensic evidence (hair and blood) indicated a deadly encounter had occurred.

Alonzo “Lonnie” Mann (August 8, 1898 – March 18, 1985)

Leo Frank’s defenders would spend generations suppressing this testimony about
his “unconscious” metalroom bathroom incident and claim that all the best evidence
at the trial and modern analysis, indicates that Jim Conley assaulted Phagan in factory
lobby on the first floor, where there was no evidence found after the murder discovery,
except for seven decades later, when a senile octogenarian named Alonzo “Lonnie” Mann
(August 8, 1898 – March 18, 1985) — who was formerly Leo Frank’s office boy in 1913 for
three weeks — in 1982 came forward 69 years after the verdict, claiming he saw Conley
carrying an unconscious Mary Phagan and moving toward the Lobby’s scuttle-hole, thus
suggesting the disposal of the victim was by the stairs, instead of the elevator as Conley
stated, contradicting Conley’s testimony at the trial, where he admitted carrying the corpse
of Phagan to the basement for Leo Frank by elevator. Alonzo Mann’s revelations added
no new evidence to the case other than only changing the disposal path, and Mann lacked
veracity, because he testified to leaving at 11:30 a.m. in 1913, not Noon as he claimed in
1982. Alonzo Mann, also claimed Jim Conley threatened his life if he told anyone and this
is where his story began to defy commonsense when questioned about what happened thereafter.

70 years after the murder, Alonzo Mann, told journalists at the Tennessean newspaper
that he originally told his parents what he saw on that fateful day and they told him not to
say anything. It left most people incredulous, what White family would tell their son, not to
report a murder conducted by a Negro in the racial separatist South. And why would White
parents allow their son to report to work the following Monday morning, if their child had his
life threatened by murdering Negro. Why did Alonzo say nothing to police after Conley was arrested
and there was no threat of Mann being harmed? We can only speculate, but commonsense
tells us that Mann is lying. It was claimed that Mann was given a lie detector test, but the
video of it and the results from the machine’s printer where never shown to the public and
allegedly “lost”, before they could be scrutinized by independent experts.

The Subversive ADL of B’nai B’rith and Alonzo Mann, 1986

However, The racist Anti-Defamation League of B’nai B’rith and powerful Jewish groups of
the American-Israeli Lobby used this questionable evidence given by Alonzo Mann, to secure a
posthumous pardon for Leo Frank on a technicality, thus the pardon was *without exoneration
for the crime* – a detail usually left out in most retellings of the Leo Frank Case. Though Frank
was not officially absolved of his crime, Jewish groups make it a point to leave out this salient
fact when they put historical markers at 1) Mary Phagan’s grave and 2) Leo Frank’s lynching site.

The Prosecution’s Theory: The Metal Room at Back of Second Floor.

The “unconscious” toilet revelation by Leo Frank on the witness stand was an earth
shattering retort to Monteen Stover, because earlier in the trial, Jim Conley said he
found Mary Phagan dead in the bathroom area of the metal room at the behest of
Leo Frank, who according to Conley, confessed to Jim about murdering her (Phagan)
there, because she refused to “be with him” (have sex with Leo Frank).

Forensic Evidence: Blood on the Floor and Hair on the Lathe

Employee witnesses for the defense and prosecution had already testified
to finding a 5 inch wide dried blood puddle diagonal to the bathroom door in
the metal room and about a lock of Phagan’s bloody hair tangled around
the solid metal handle of the bench lathe in the same room.

So it all came together at the trial when Leo Frank testified for nearly four
hours, rambling away and making numerous incriminating statements.

Had you been sitting in the Jury box or behind the judge’s Rostrum on August 18, 1913,
listening to Leo Frank’s explanation for why his office might have been empty, when he
had formerly claimed to the police he was in his office alone with Mary Phagan at that
exact same time, you would have involuntarily shivered as cold chills spilled down your
spine, but for more than 100 years, the Jewish community continues to wage an anti-White
racist defamation campaign against Gentiles, claiming Southerners framed Leo Frank,
indicted and convicted him because he was Jewish and later hanged him because he was Jewish.
The narrative that anti-Semitism was behind it all, has been perpetuated aggressively in
the mainstream now for more than 100 years and has become the popular culture dogma and
orthodoxy in the academy, but is the tide changing? Are Jewish lies finally disintegrating?

The Leo Frank Case has evolved into the longest running anti-Semitic Hate
crime hoax and anti-Gentile blood libel slander in the history of the United
States of America.

The conviction of Leo Frank galvanized the formation of the Anti-Defamation League of
B’nai B’rith in October, 1913, after the 500 member strong Atlanta B’nai B’rith voted
unanimously, (Atlanta Constitution, September 24, 1913), to re-elect their “wrongfully”
convicted and death-row inmate President Leo Max Frank to a second term as their beloved
leader.

Leo Frank ran the affairs of his B’nai B’rith chapter behind bars until September
of 1914, when he was not re-elected again for a third presidential term and as
his appeals were falling apart, primarily because of the criminal activity leaked
publicly involving bribing and coercing witnesses to change their testimony
(Georgia Supreme Court Records, 1,800 pages, 1913, 1914).

Jewry’s Racist Anti-Gentle Hate Crime Hoax

Leonard Dinnerstein (PhD Dissertation 1966 to 2012+ almost 50 years), Abraham Foxman (Op Ed
August 18, 2005) and ADL have been at the forefront of perpetuating the hate crime hoax that
people were loudly chanting “hang the Jew” and “Kill the Jew” outside the Leo Frank trial courtroom
that had all of its windows wide open during the proceedings, because of the hot summer days. This
is a viciously racist anti-Gentile Big Lie perpetuated by ADL and Abraham Foxman, Leonard
Dinnerstein, and many other hatefilled Jewish domestic extremists, spreading bigoted racially tinged
smears against European-American Southerners. (see the articles about Abraham Foxman’s hatecrime
hoax and Leonard Dinnerstein’s pseudo-history)

The Last Taboo of the Jewish Community: Pedophilia

Why anyone would transform a fiendish child molester and convicted
child killer into a martyr of anti-Semitism is incomprehensible, but
Jason Robert Brown and Alfred Uhry have made millions of dollars with
their musical ‘Parade’ performing literally globewide, falsifying
the official records of the Leo Frank Trial and rehabilitating a violent
child molester, who would be a registered sex offender today and likely
would be gang raped by HIV+ inmates in prison.

A dead little raped teenage girl, is used as a cheap plot device to
wage a vicious racist culture war against Southerners. Many people are
asking: Are these the treacherous people we want determining our popular
culture? Are these the people we want determining the theatre curriculum
in our public schools and colleges? Is this the group of people we want
dominating our mainstream media?

A broader question we might ask: Are these the kinds people we want as
our politicians, judges, teachers, professors, and civil rights leaders?!
Especially when they are so able and willing to lie?

Jews calling the Leo Frank Case an American Dreyfus Affair, or comparing the
Frank-Phagan affair to Menahem Mendel Beilis, for more than a century is more than
unconscionable chutzpah, its an act of racist insolence. The Leo Frank trial is being
relentlessly used as a morality tale for the purpose of shaming and deracinating
European-Americans into denying their tradition of ethnic solidarity and wrongfully
making Americans think they destroyed an innocent and noble man because he was
Jewish. This is the old mask of anti-Gentile defamation that began in 1913, with a
turn of the the 21st century face lift.

Lucille Selig

If you have even any doubts about Leo Frank’s innocence or guilt,
then listen to the silent echo in time and space from the spirit of
Lucille Selig Frank (February 29, 1888 – April 23, 1957).

If you ever get a chance, go to the Mount Carmel Cemetery in Queens, New York City,
visit Leo Frank’s grave, and look to the left of it and stare at the empty grave.
The empty grave was reserved for Lucille Selig, so ask yourself, why is it still
empty in 2013? If you have doubts that grave is still empty, go to the cemetery front
office at the gate entry and ask them if it is indeed empty or not, because they will
tell you it is absolutely empty.

You can actually write an official letter to the cemetery requesting
information about the Frank-Stern family grave site and they will
respond on letterhead, this is if you want more than just verbal proof, but
official proof about the emptiness of grave plot #1 located immediate left of
grave plot #2 where Leo Frank is interred.

You would think otherwise after reading all the insistent, shrill denials in
mainstream massmedia for the last 100 years; books, made-for-TV movies,
miniseries (Murder of Mary Phagan, Jan 24 and 26, 1988) and docudramas
(2009), including heart-tugging plays (Knights of Mary Phagan by
Jesse Waldinger) and even a Broadway stage musical (Parade by Jason Robert
Brown and Alfred Uhry) in New York that continues to spread globally like
wildfire – that suggest Lucille’s love for her husband Leo Frank was
eternal and lasted till the day she passed away and beyond her death.

So, once again, why did she specifically not want to be buried next to
Leo Frank? (She requested an Atlanta Park according to her Nephew Alan
and Harold Marcus, sons of Sarah Selig (sister of Lucille) and Charles
Marcus).

See: Georgia Magazine, Steve Oney, Features, Up Front, March 2004: Vol. 83, No. 2.

Finally, why were Lucille’s ashes not spread or buried next to Leo Frank?

Because Lucille was no feather brained step-ford wife when all is
said and done. If she really loved Leo Frank eternally, beyond the dog
and pony show of appearances, she would have been buried in, or
requested her ashes spread at, the empty grave next to him that was
reserved for her at the Mount Carmel Cemetery, but she left her own
verdict on the Leo Frank trial from the passing of her life, and the silence
speaks deafening volumes ever since she died long ago on April 23, 1957 of
heart disease (broken heart), just 3 short days before the 44th anniversary
of the Mary Phagan murder.

If you want to learn what really happened at the Leo Frank trial,
visit The American Mercury
on the Internet and read their August,
September, and October, 2013, Leo Frank Case reports. The
American Mercury
has published an absolutely superb multi-part
series on the centennial of the Leo Frank trial. It’s chock full of
images and thoughtful analysis, you would never get from other
sources, who erroneously and willfully go out of their way to
intentionally distort what happened in the Fulton County court
house 100 years ago (July 28, 1913 – August 26, 1913). Read
the articles in the American Mercury about Steve Oney and Leonard
Dinnerstein as well, uncovering their pseudo-history.

The Jewish Daily Forward www.Forward.com and Abraham Foxman www.ADL.org
are rabidly foaming at the mouth about the American Mercury and Leo Frank
research websites, because 100 years of lies that have aggressively been
pushed into the orthodoxy of social history are slowly disintegrating. Some
members of the Jewish community never dreamed the 1,800 page Leo Frank
Georgia Supreme Court archives would end up being published online at
the centennial of the Mary Phagan murder, April 26, 2013, available for
the whole world to read, but now there is no escape from the disturbing
truth revealed within these official records about Frank’s defenders.

100 Years of Jewish Censorship Coming to an End

Soon the world is going to find out about another child laborer Leo
Frank sadistically defiled, one year before Mary Phagan was raped and
killed. After the Leo Frank trial ended another little girl came forward
with descriptions of a harrowing incident… In 1912, Leo Frank raped
another one of his child employees, and when he was done ravaging her,
he slithered down between her legs and bit her so hard on the inner thy
adjacent to the vagina, that he permanently scarified her, but this
didn’t come out until Leo Frank’s appeals, because the girl had gotten
pregnant and was thereafter shipped off to a home for unwed mothers!

This is the story of a sadistic pedophile, who has been used as a seditious
bludgeon for a century to attack, defame, smear, slander, blood libel, and hate
hoax Americans! This is the man being held up as a holy religious martyr
of anti-Semitism and Gentile injustice. Phagan is the girl whose virgin blood and
strangled corpse gave birth to the financially and politically powerful
ADL, the racist anti-Gentile hate group masquerading as a civil rights
organization, who honor Leo Frank as heroic and whose trial is a
reminder that “not too long ago anti-Semitism, not the facts, convicted
an innocent man”.

We will never forget Mary Phagan and we will never stop fighting for
her honor until our very last dying breath. We will never stop fighting
against the century old culture defamation and race war waged by the
Jewish community, ADL, Jewish Groups and SPLC, against the South,
Southerners, European-Americans and all of Western Civilization.

Visit the American Mercury now and read the Leo Frank Trial Transcript
Analysis: www.theamericanmercury.org

Source: www.tumblr.com/blog/leomaxfrank (Warning Graphic Content,
Viewer Discretion is Advised, Must be 21 or older to view)

From Wikipedia:

Parade is a musical with a book by Alfred Uhry and music and lyrics by
Jason Robert Brown. The musical was first produced on Broadway at the
Vivian Beaumont Theater on December 17, 1998. The production was
directed by Harold Prince and closed 28 February 1999 after only 39
previews and 84 regular performances. It starred Brent Carver as Leo
Frank, Carolee Carmello as Lucille Frank, and Christy Carlson Romano as
Mary Phagan.

The musical won Tony Awards for best book and best score (out of nine
nominations) and six Drama Desk Awards. The show has enjoyed a U.S.
national tour and numerous professional and amateur productions in both
the U.S. and abroad.

Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parade_%28musical%29

The whole conspiratorial premise of Gentile anti-Semitism woven
through the 21st century production of, ‘Parade’, is to mask the Jewish
racism against African-Americans and European-Americans inherent
in the Leo Frank Case, which has become an agitation campaign to spread
indignation, insecurity and fear amongst Jews.

For numerous generations now, Jews have manipulated the Leo Frank case
into a fraudulent Jewish persecution themed fiction, meant to demoralize Gentiles,
especially European-American Gentiles. Some Jews according to the Holy
Talmud, don’t consider it a crime, if one of their own racial kinsmen pounds
in the face of a little White Christian girl, before ripping her clothes open and
savagely raping the child, moments before strangling her to death.

Parade is a Disgusting Mockery of Legal History

What this re-engineered Broadway play does NOT tell the audience is
Leo Frank botched a most diabolically racist intrigue, a poorly
orchestrated attempt to have the murder of Mary Phagan framed on two
African-Americans. That’s the dirty truth about the Leo Frank Case that his
defenders tried to suppress for 100 years. The other dirty little secret is
that Leo Frank changed his alibi on the witness stand and placed himself
at the scene of the crime, where and when the murder occurred.

Alleged Pedophile Alan Dershowitz and other powerful members of the Jewish community,
would arraign the Jury, accusing them of being blinded by prejudice, because they
convicted a Jewish Pedophile.

The Ugly Racist Jewish-American Culture Wars Continue…

More excellent sources on the Frank-Phagan Case include:

0. The Leo Frank Case (Mary Phagan) Inside Story of Georgia’s Greatest Murder Mystery 1913

The first neutral book written on the subject. Very interesting read.

1. The Murder of Little Mary Phagan by Mary Phagan Kean
(Available here on http://www.Archive.org). Written by Mary Phagan Kean, the
great grand niece of Mary Phagan. A neutral account of the events
surrounding the trial of Leo Frank. The Murder of Little Mary Phagan is
well worth reading and it is a refreshing change from the endless number
of Jewish and contemporary books turning the Leo Frank case into a
neurotic race obsessed tabloid controversy.

2. American State Trials, volume X (1918) by John Lawson
Tends to be biased in favor of Leo Frank and his legal defense team,
this document provides an abridged version of the Brief of Evidence,
leaving out some important things said and details when it republishes
parts of the trial testimony. Be sure to read the closing arguments of
Luther Zeigler Rosser, Reuben Rose Arnold, Frank Arthur Hooper and Hugh
Manson Dorsey. For a more complete version of the Leo M. Frank trial
testimony, read the 1913 Leo Frank Trial Brief of Evidence.

3. Argument of Hugh M. Dorsey in the Trial of Leo Frank
Some but not all of the 9 hours of arguments given to the Jury at the
end of the Leo Frank trial. Only 18 Libraries in the world have copies
of this books. This is an excellent book and required reading to see how
Dorsey in sales vernacular ‘closed’ the panel of 13 men, the trial jury
of 12 men plus Judge Leonard Strickland Roan.

4. Leo M. Frank, Plaintiff in Error, vs. State of Georgia, Defendant in Error.
In Error from Fulton Superior Court at the July Term 1913, Brief of
Evidence. Extremely rare, only 1 copy exists, and it is at the Georgia State Archive.

It is available on www.Archive.org

Three Major Atlanta Daily Newspapers: The Atlanta Constitution, The Atlanta
Journal, The Atlanta Georgian. The most relevant issues center around April
28th to August 27th 1913.

5. Atlanta Constitution Newspaper: The Murder of Mary Phagan, Coroner’s
Inquest, Grand Jury, Investigation, Trail, Appeals, Shanking and
Lynching of Leo Frank Case in the Atlanta Constitution Newspaper from
1913 to 1915. http://archive.org/details/LeoFrankCaseInTheAtlantaConstitutionNewspaper1913To1915

6. Atlanta Georgian newspaper covering the Leo Frank Case from

April though August, 1913. http://archive.org/details/AtlantaGeorgianNewspaperAprilToAugust1913

7. Atlanta Journal Newspaper, April, 28, 1913, through till the end of August, 1913, pertaining to

the Leo Frank Case: http://archive.org/details/AtlantaJournalApril281913toAugust311913

Leo Frank said Mary Phagan had been with him in his second floor, window front office on April 26, 1913,
between 12:05pm and 12:10pm (States Exhibit B). Leo Frank confirms he might have been in the toilet
where Phagan was found dead, at the time Monteen Stover said his office was empty (12:05 p.m. to 12:10 p.m.):

See the Atlanta Constitution, Monday, March 9, 1914, Leo Frank Jailhouse Interview

Tom Watson

8. Tom Watson’s Jeffersonian Newspaper (1914, 1915, 1916 and 1917) and
Watson’s Magazine(1915). Tom Watson’s best work on the Leo M. Frank case
was published in August and September 1915.

https://archive.org/details/the-jeffersonian-050714-may-07-1914-volume-11-issue-19-pages-01-03-05-09-10

Watson’s five major magazine works written collectively on the Leo M. Frank topic, provide
logical arguments confirming the guilt of Leo M. Frank with the superb
reasoning of a genius criminal attorney.

These five 1915 works are absolutely required reading for anyone
interested in the Leo M. Frank Case. Originals of these magazines are
extremely rare and very difficult to find.

Jan 1915:

8.1. The Leo Frank Case By Tom Watson (January 1915) Watson’s Magazine Volume 20 No. 3. See page 139 for the Leo Frank Case.

Jeffersonian Publishing Company, Thomson, Ga., Digital Source

March 1915:

8.2. The Full Review of the Leo Frank Case By Tom Watson (March 1915) Volume 20.
No. 5. See page 235 for ‘A Full Review of the Leo Frank Case’.
Jeffersonian Publishing Company, Thomson, Ga., Digital Source

https://archive.org/details/TheFullReviewOfTheLeoFrankCaseMarch1915

August 1915:

8.3. The Celebrated Case of The State of Georgia vs. Leo Frank By Tom Watson
(August 1915) Volumne 21, No 4. See page 182 for ‘The Celebrated Case of
the State of Georgia vs. Leo Frank”. Jeffersonian Publishing Company,
Thomson, Ga., Digital Source

Tom Watson: The Celebrated Case of The State of Georgia vs. Leo Frank

September 1915:

8.4. The Official Record in the Case of Leo Frank, Jew Pervert By Tom Watson
(September 1915) Volume 21. No. 5. See page 251 for ‘The Official Record
in the Case of Leo Frank, Jew Pervert’. Jeffersonian Publishing
Company, Thomson, Ga., Digital Source

Tom Watson: The Official Record in the Case of Leo Frank, a Jew Pervert

October 1915:

8.5. The Rich Jews Indict a State! The Whole South Traduced in the Matter of Leo
Frank By Tom Watson (October 1915) Volume 21. No. 6. See page 301.
Jeffersonian Publishing Company, Thomson, Ga., Digital Source:

Tom Watson: The Rich Jews Indict a State!

Tom Watson’s Jeffersonian Newspaper

9. The Tom E. Watson Digital Papers Archive, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill: http://www.lib.unc.edu/dc/watson

There are Leo Frank cult members (Frankites) posing as neutral reviewers who do not want you to read Tom Watson’s five 1915 magazine works on the Leo Frank trial, read them and find out why! They are the controversial forbidden fruit of truth in the Leo M. Frank case that have been censored for more than 100 years. Because Jews are making up lies about Tom Watson, we need people to download Tom Watsons five articles about the Leo Frank case (Jan, March, August, Sept and October, 1915), translate them into every language and upload them to every online library in the world. (The March 1915 issue was “accidentally” deleted by the staff of www.Archive.org The Internet Archive, so that means download it, and then upload it to all the different free online libraries in the world, translate it to every European language)

Tom Watson Brown, Grandson of Thomas Edward Watson

10. Notes on the Case of Leo M. Frank, By Tom W. Brown, Emery University, Atlanta, Georgia, 1982. (This was “accidentally” deleted by the staff of www.Archive.org The Internet Archive, so that means download it, and then upload it to all the different free online libraries in the world, translate it to every European language)

Leo Frank trial analysis and review of books about the case of Mary Phagan:

11. 100 Reasons Leo Frank is Guilty by Bradford L. Huie

Leo Frank Georgia Supreme Court Record Archive:

12. Leo Frank Trial and Appeals Georgia Supreme Court File (1,818 pages).

http://archive.org/details/leo-frank-georgia-supreme-court-case-records-1913-1914

Read two dozen articles about the rape-strangulation of Mary Phagan by Leo Frank the toilet strangler at http://www.liveleak.com/c/jambo2010

Fair Usage Law

April 26, 2016   Posted in: Abraham Foxman, Anti-Defamation League, Anti-Jewish, Anti-Semitism, Anti-Semitism News, Ashkenazi, B'nai B'rith, Hate Crime Hoax, Jewish, Jewish American Heritage Month, Jewish Heritage, Jewish History, Jewish Lobby, Jewish Supremacism, Jews, Judaism, Leo Frank, Multicultural News, Race Relations, Racism News, Racist News, Zionism  Comments Closed

Why is the IQ of Ashkenazi Jews so High? – twenty possible …

Home > Articles > Why is the IQ of Ashkenazi Jews so High? – twenty possible explanations

Posted: Fri, June 07, 2013 | By: IQ

by Hank Pellissier

Ashkenazi Jews are smart. Shockingly brilliant, in general. Impressive in brain power. How did they get that way?

Ashkenazi Jews, aka Ashkenazim, are the descendants of Jews from medieval Alsace and the Rhine Valley, and later, from throughout Eastern Europe. Originally, of course, they were from Israel. Genetic research from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine suggests that the Ashkenazi bloodline branched away from other Jewish groups there 2,500 years ago, and that 40% of them are descended from only four Jewish mothers.Approximately 80% of the Jews in the world today are Ashkenazim, with the remainder primarily Sephardic.

Researchers who study the Ashkenazim agree that the children of Abraham are on top of the IQ chart. Steven Pinker who lectured on Jews, Genes, and Intelligence in 2007 – says their average IQ has been measured at 108-115. Richard Lynn, author of The Intelligence of American Jews in 2004, says it is only a half-standard higher: 107.5. Henry Harpending, Jason Hardy, and Gregory Cochran, University of Utah authors of the 2005 research report, Natural History of Ashkenazi Intelligence, state that their subjects, score .75 to 1.0 standard deviations above the general European average, corresponding to an IQ of 112-115. Charles Murray, in his 2007 essay Jewish Genius, says their mean is somewhere in the range of 107-115, with 110 being a plausible compromise.

A Jewish average IQ of 115 is 8 points higher than the generally accepted IQ of their closest rivalsNortheast Asiansand approximately 40% higher than the global average IQ of 79.1 calculated by Richard Lynn and Tatu Vanhanen in IQ and Global Inequity.

Plus, contemplate this astounding tidbit: Ashkenazi visual-spatial IQ scores are only mediocre; in one study their median in this category was a below-average 98. They surmount this liability by logging astronomic figures in verbal IQ, which includes verbal reasoning, comprehension, working memory and mathematical skill; a 1958 survey of yeshiva students discovered a median verbal IQ of 125.6.

What does it mean that Ashkenazim have a high IQ, in terms of producing geniuses? With their population so small – a mere 0.25 of the world total – does it make any serious difference? The answer is YES. A bell curveis used to illustrate IQ percentile in a specific group in a general population where IQ average is 100 the curve assumes these proportions:

less than 70 IQ – 2.5%

70-85 IQ – 12.5%

86-100 IQ – 35%

101-115 IQ 35%

116-130 IQ 12.5%

greater than 130 IQ 2.5%

Applying the same bell curve for Ashkenazim, but with a 17-point upward lift in median IQ (using the From Chance To Choice digit) produces the IQ upgrade below:

less than 87 IQ 2.5%

88-102 IQ 12.5%

103-117 IQ 35%

118-132 IQ 35%

133-148 IQ 12.5%

greater than 148 IQ 2.5%

This shifting upward of the bell curve by more than a standard deviation (15 points) means that more than five times as many Ashkenazim are eligible for Mensa (minimum 130 IQ) and more than five times as many have the average IQ of an Ivy League graduate.

In reality, Ashkenazim are enrolled in the Ivies by a proportion ten times greater than their numbers; for example they represent 30% of Yale students, 27% of Harvard, 23% of Brown, 32% of Columbia, and 31% of Pennsylvania.

This suggests that either the bells curve is lifted for the Ashkenazi a bit longer at the high end or there are additional factors that enhance their ability to succeed. Regarding the first possibility, Charles Murray notes that the proportion of Jews with IQs of 140 or higher is somewhere around six times the proportion of everyone else.Harpending, Hardy and Cochran sport roughly the same equation; 4 out of every 1,000 Northern European is 140+ IQ, but 23 out of every 1,000 Jew is 140+.Murray also relays a report from sky-high up in the genius range, when he notes that a 1954 survey of New York public school children with 170+ IQs revealed that 24 of the 28 were Jewish.

Now that Ive established that Ashkenazi have superlative IQ scores, lets observe what theyve accomplished with their highly functional brains.

In the 19th century, Mark Twain noted that:

[The Jews] are peculiarly and conspicuously the worlds intellectual aristocracy [Jewish] contributions to the worlds list of great names in literature, science, art, music, finance, medicine, and abstruse learning are way out of proportion to the weakness of his numbers. He has made a marvelous fight in this world and has done it with his hands tied behind him.

Twains observation is not dated. Ashkenazi Jews have continued to mentally out-compete other demographics since his statement, often suffering horrendous consequences for their toil. Here is a brief list of Ashkenazi accomplishments in the last 90 years.

Nobel Prizes: Since 1950, 29% of the awards have gone to Ashkenazim, even though they represent only a small fraction of humanity.Ashkenazi achievement in this arena is 117 times greater than their population. This pace isnt slowing down; it is accelerating. In the 21st century, theyve received 32% of the total, and in 2011, five of the thirteen Nobel Prize winners were Jewish 38.5%.

Hungary in the 1930s: Ashkenazim were 6% of the population, but they comprised 55.7% of physicians, 49.2% of attorneys, 30.4% of engineers, and 59.4% of bank officers; plus, they owned 49.4% of the metallurgy industry, 41.6% of machine manufacturing, 72.8% of clothing manufacturing, and, as housing owners, they received 45.1% of Budapest rental income.Jews were similarly successful in nearby nations, like Poland and Germany.

Significant Figures: In Jewish Genius by Charles Murray, the author tallies up important contributing individuals in a variety of vocations, noting how immensely over-represented Jews are compared to what could be expected due to their small population. His conclusion in various categories is: Biology significant Jews appear 5 times greater their population, Chemistry 6X, Physics 9X, Literature 4X, Music 5X, Visual Arts 5X, Math 12X, Philosophy 14X.2

USA (today): Ashkenazi Jews comprise 2.2% of the USA population, but they represent 30% of faculty at elite colleges, 21% of Ivy League students, and 25% of the Turing Award winners. Plus, Jews have made up 50% of the top two hundred intellectuals 40% of partners in the leading law firms in New York and Washington 59% of the directors, writers, and producers of the fifty top-grossing motion pictures

Israel: In 1922 this swamp-and-desert land had an impoverished population of 752,000 inhabitants. Today there are 7,746,000 residents, with a large Ashkenazi population (3 million, and 60% of the workforce) that has elevated it into a high-tech entrepreneurial nation with the highest per capita income in the region. Israel rates 1stin the world in graduate degrees, 1st in museums, 1st in home computers, and 1st in publishing scientific papers.

Personally, I find the Nobel Prize statistic the most amazing. Consider this: if everybody on the planet was an Ashkenazi Jew, would the result be 117 times more Nobel Prize-winning caliber individuals, with 117 times as many spectacular achievements, per annum? INSTANT SINGULARITY! Without any help from AI

(Sephardic Jewish achievement is represented in many of the categories above, especially in Nobel Prize statistics. When this article was originally published – in a shorter version, on August 7, 2011 by the Institute for Ethics in Emerging Technology (ieet.org) Sephardic Jews expressed some perturbation that they were omitted from the essay. Id like to acknowledge the immense contribution of Sephardic Jews with this all-too-brief list of notables from their lineage:

Elias Canetti (Nobel Prize in Literature, 1981), Tobias Michael Carel Asser (Nobel Peace Prize, 1911), Rene Cassin (Nobel Peace Prize, 1968), Franco Modigliani (Nobel Prize in Economics, 1985), Francois Jacob (Nobel Prize in Medicine/Physiology, 1965), Salvador Luria (Nobel Prize in Medicine/Physiology, 1969), Baruj Benacerraf (Nobel Prize in Medicine/Physiology, 1980), Rita Levi-Montalcini (Nobel Prize in Medicine/Physiology, 1986), Emilio Segre (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1959), Claude Cohen-Tannoudj (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1997), plus philosopher Jacques Derrida, economist/philanthropist Bernard Baruch, painter Amedeo Modigliani, and Benjamin Disraeli, the British Prime Minister.

In the medieval era, Sephardic achievements were also quite significant. In George Sartons Introduction to the History of Science, the author notes that 95 out of 626 scientists in the world from 1150-1300 were Sephardic Jews -15% – far exceeding their population proportion.

However, when Sephardic IQ is presently recorded, the sums are no higher than the northern European average, and definitively not as elevated as Ashkenazi.)

Lets proceed. With the facts Ive laid out, only the most obtuse reader can resist my pronouncement that Ashkenazi Jews are, on average, extraordinarily intelligent. Im not asserting Ashkenazi cognitive specialness because Im Philo-Semitic, or Zionist, or pro-Israeli. Im pointing it out because it is irrefutably true.

That said, the question that my essay seeks to unravel is Why? Why is the IQ of Ashkenazi Jews so high? Is the reason due to their genetics, environment, culture, education, or a unique combination of multiple factors?

In my initial publication of this essay, I provided eight reasons for high Ashkenazi IQ. But then, I received a flurry of email suggestions (many from professors) providing me with additional information. Twenty theories are now listed in this expanded essay, and Ive attempted to give my sources the credit they deserve, even though in several instances – I dont have their actual names, just their Internet chat-monikers. Heres my new list many related to each other – presented in roughly chronological order:

Babylonian Eugenics In 586 B.C.E., Jerusalem was totally destroyed by the Babylonians, led by their monarch Nebuchadnezzar, who carried into exile all the [Jewish] officers and fighting men, and all the craftsmen and artisans only the poorest people of the land were left. (2Kings 24:10-14) The Indestructible Jews, by Max Dimont, defines the deported people as the flower of Judahs aristocracy and intellectuals.

The exiled Jews of this first Diaspora became highly successful in Babylon. Dimont claims, In the libraries of Babylon, intellectual Jews found a new world of new ideas. Within five decades, exiled Jews bobbed to the surface of the top echelons on Babylonian society, in business enterprises, in the scholastic world, in court circles. They became leaders in commerce, men of learning, advisors to kings.

In 538 B.C.E., the Persian king Cyrus the Great granted Jews permission to return to their homeland. Wealthy Jews – who had established successful trade routes and businesses in Babylon – financed zealous returnees who wanted to re-settle Judah. Initial attempts failed, but eventually, 1,760 settlers led by the prophet Ezra and the governor Nehemiah rebuilt the wall of Jerusalem and resurrected the nation. These Babylonian Jews returning to Israel discovered that their poorer brethren that were left behind a half-century earlier had slipped away via assimilation, vanishing into neighboring pagan creeds. Cyril Darlington, in his The Evolution of Man and Society, suggests that the temporary separation of the Jewish elite, and permanent removal of the uneducated and unskilled, provided a genetic intellectual boost to the creed.

The returning Jews also instituted two customs that enhanced the mental solidity of their cultures future. A ban on intermarriage with Gentiles was enforced, and the first five books of Moses were canonized, as the Torah.

People of the Difficult Book: The Torah (the first five books of the Jewish Bible) and the Talmud (recordings of rabbinic discussions) are intellectually complex and sophisticated. Practitioners of Judaism are required to learn and study the extensive, mentally rigorous laws. Thematic content of the scriptural passages is not simplistic or literal, it is, conversely, designed for comprehension on multiple, abstract, metaphorical levels. Blind faith and slavish devotion, encouraged by other faiths, is not conducive to Judaism. Instead, worship in the ancient monotheism demands significant literacy skills due to the cognitive demands of the texts, with tradition maintaining that understanding the Talmud requires study of seven hours a day for seven years.Charles Murray notes that, no other religion made so many demands upon the whole body of its believers, with the subsequent analysis that, Judaism evolved in such a way that to be a good Jew meant that a man had to be smart.

Healthy Hygiene & Diet: Professor Sam Lehman-Wilzig of Bar-Ilan University in Israel provided me with this theory. His suggestion is based on the fact that – due to their customary practices – the Jews probably enjoyed better hygiene than Gentiles. He points to the Jewish washing of hands before every meal, the men bathing at least once a week in the mikveh (a purification bathhouse) and the women bathing at least once a month, after their menstruation was over. He also notes the restriction on pork prevented Jews from contracting trichinosis. (Famous casualties of this parasitic disease include Gautama Buddha and Wolfgang Mozart). With lower disease rates, Jewish bodies would not have suffered as much as Gentiles and this would have improved their mental capacities.

This notion has been repeated elsewhere. In 1953, research by Johns Hopkins University pharmacologist David I. Macht surmised that all the dozens of meat items banned by Jewish dietary laws in Deuteronomy and Leviticus were, in fact, more toxic than the kosher flesh that was permitted.Additionally, in the recent book Survival of the Sickest, author Sharon Moalem suggests that Jews removing leaven from their homes during Passover helped keep out the rats that spread bubonic plague in the 13th century.Last but not least, wealthy Ashkenazi Jews dwelling in larger houses in eastern Europe would have survived epidemics easier because they didnt suffer the same high multiple infection rate that occurred in smaller homes with greater crowding.

Extensive correlation between high IQ, healthy diet, infectious diseases, sanitation, and home crowding, is examined via research studies in later chapters of this book, particularly in Early Years.

Education Emphasized, Way Back in B.C. Jeremiah Unterman of Jerusalem informed me that the Torah instructs every Jewish father to teach the Torah to his children, and Marisa Landau notes on a futurepundit.com 6/4/05 discussion that its forbidden by the Jewish religion to keep child illiterate. Additionally, Landau reports that Jewish women learned to read and write, a phenomenon that was unique in the ancient world. Landau also mentions that it has long been a custom among Jews to provide a full pension – for up to 10 years to an intelligent son-in-law who wishes to entirely devote himself to study. The Jews, it seems, invented the notion of scholarships.

In the medieval era, the French monk, Peter Abelard (1079-1142) penned this about Jewish education: A Jew, however poor, even if he had ten sons, would get them all to letters, not for gain as the Christians do, but for understanding of Gods law. And not only for his sons, but his daughters.

Mandatory Schools For Males – In 64 A.D., the high priest Joshua ben Gamla issued and implemented an ordinance mandating schools for all boys, beginning at age 6. Within 100 years, Jews had established universal male literacy and numeracy, the first ethnicity in history to achieve this.

The progressive, demanding edict created a huge demographic shift. The high, oft-times prohibitive cost of educating children in the subsistence farming economy of the 2nd to 6th centuries prompted numerous Jews to voluntarily convert to Christianity, leading to a decline in Jewish population from 4.5 million to 1.2 million.

Natural eugenics favored two groups in this situation: 1) the sons of wealthier, ostensibly more intelligent Jews, who could provide greater funding for the schools that maintained their offsprings membership as Jews, and, 2) the smartest boys who could quickly learn reading, writing and arithmetic at a pace at which they could afford to stay Jewish.

Who was left out? Removed from the gene pool? Answer: the poorer, uneducated Jews, and/or those with the lowest IQ.

Urban Upgrade 80-90% of Jews were farmers in 1 AD. But only 10-20% remained in agriculture by 1000 A.D.The education required by Joshua ben Gamlas edict delivered verbal and math skills to Jewish boys, enabling them to move out of subsistence rural life into highly-skilled urban professions, involving sales, trade, and financial transactions.

Moving from a pastoral environment into cities implements an IQ boost, due to urbanisms increased complexity, literacy, and technology. A Hanoi National University study in 2006 showed a whopping 19.4 IQ difference between city and country students. A 1970 survey in Greece recorded a difference of 10-13 points.Other studies note smaller discrepancies of only 2-6 points, but unanimously, urban residents always score higher, and Jews are one of the worlds longest-urbanized ethnicities.

Dialectic and Rational Thought Dr. Sam Lehman-Wilzig informed me that one of the noteworthy approaches to Jewish learning is dialectic. The Talmud itself is not a law code but instead, a huge compendium of ARGUMENTS. Jews are encouraged to see different perspectives of an issue, and theyre taught to question everything, including the Law, the Rabbis logic, and ones own belief system. Rabbis developed argumentative principles, an entire system of questioning that the Jews have utilized for 2,000 years in both religious and secular debates.

Dialectic was not a Jewish invention: it was a learning technique that Jews borrowed and adapted from Greek philosophy; the synthesis is a Socratic-Jewish methodology. Traces of the Greek influence are evident in the Passover Seder where the Jewish father reclines on a pillow (similar to the Greeks) while the youngest Jewish child asks Four Questions. This method of learning was unique during the Middle Ages, compared to Catholic Europes authoritative traditions.

Dr. Sanford Aranoff, Professor of Science and Mathematics at Rider University, conveyed to me a similar message. In his opinion, Judaism is based on principles of rational thought. (Rational thinking begins with clearly stated principles, continues with logical deductions, and then examines empirical evidence to possibly modify the principles.)

The analytic, strategic skills developed in both Jewish dialectic and critical thinking are an important component of IQ tests, and theyre essential in legal, academic, science, and engineering careers.

Clever Clerics Propagate: A major difference between Catholicism and Judaism is that priests have been celibate since the 4th century Council of Carthage decreed that they abstain from conjugal relations,whereas Jewish rabbis have always been encouraged to marry and multiply. In the Middle Age this resulted in massive IQ depression for Catholics, because their brightest, academically gifted boys were usually locked up in seminaries that wasted their gene pool. Meanwhile sage, scholastic Jewish rabbis were marrying smart women and creating large, clever families. Three tomes that examine this phenomenon are Robert Novicks Anarchy, State and Utopia, Ernst Vandenbergs The Jewish Mystique, and Paul Johnsons A History of the Jews.

Breeding for Brains:

Our Rabbis teach, Let a man sell all that he has and marry the daughter of a learned man. If he cannot find the daughter of a learned man, let him marry the daughter of one of the great men of his day. If he does not find such a one, let him marry the daughter of one of the heads of the congregation, or, failing this, the daughter of a charity collector, or even the daughter of a schoolmaster; but let him not marry the daughter of an illiterate man, for the unlearned are an abomination, as also their wives and their daughters. Psachim, fol. 49, col. 2.

Judaic texts like the one above emphasize repeatedly that knowledge and intelligence are supreme virtues, with ignorance the grossest liability. Following this dictum, the Jews enhanced their gene pool for smartnesss. In A History of the Jews, author Paul Johnson notes that, among the Jews the most intelligent people have always been very valued and sought after as husbands, so they procreate and spread their good genes.Charles Murray observed another matchmaking tendency, when he notes that by marrying the children of scholars to the children of successful merchants, Jews were in effect joining those selected for abstract reasoning ability with those selected for practical intelligence.

Meanwhile, Catholics were marrying for class reasons, angling for blue-blood aristocrat gains that had no link to intelligence. Physical strength and valor was also desired, via brave knights on the battlefield – this exaltation of brawn over brains likewise did nothing to advance that religions collective IQ.

Trading Tongues: Ashkenazi merchants plied their wares over a vast area, originally to Islamic regions, but later internationally – from rubber in Brazil to silk in China. To prosper in the exchange, they memorized multiple languages. The stateless tribe needed diverse fluency anyway, to communicate in adopted lands with their neighbors that spoke German, Polish, Latvian, Lithuanian, Hungarian, Russian, Ukrainian, French, Dutch, etc.

The Ashkenazi developed a fusion tongue: Yiddish (German, Hebrew, Aramaic, plus other Slavic languages and a touch of Romance). At its height – before World War II – Yiddish was spoken by 13 million.The polyglot language produced exemplary culture in literature, theater, and film.

Neurologists today recognize that multiple language learning enhances memory, mental flexibility, problem solving, abstract thinking, and creative hypothesis formulation. Explanations of the benefits abound; I recommend listening to the video, Bilingualism Will Supercharge Your Babys Brain.

Squeezed Into Brilliance: Jews in Europe were officially excluded from common occupations such as agriculture from 800-1700 A.D. Indeed, they were usually not allowed to own land.The restrictions forced Ashkenazim for 900 years into urban vocations that were cognitively more demanding, such as trade, bookkeeping, commerce, sales, and investment. The frequent Christian prohibition against charging of interest in money lending – prohibited as usury assisted in opening up financial banking occupations for Jews. Historical records reveal that 80% of the Jews in Roussilon, southern France, in 1270 were money-lenders.

Later, after they were evicted from Western Europe, Ashkenazim were welcomed in Poland as urban investors and initiators of trade who could help modernize the nation.They were also in great demand in middle management positions because they had mathematic and business administration skills.

Ashkenazim who werent mathematically and verbally adept enough to succeed in these white collar jobs drifted away from Judaismlow IQs were pushed out. Conversely, the most successful merchants and number crunchers raised larger families, passing on an increasing percentage of algebraic brains.

Winnowed By Persecution: The most intelligent and/or wealthy Ashkenazim were better equipped to escape Inquisitions, pogroms, persecutions, holocausts, and other genocidal threats because they: 1) could afford to emigrate; 2) could predict the need to do so; and 3) had social and economic opportunities in the nations they fled to. Poorer, less connected, and less astute Ashkenazi ranks thus were inexorably depleted.

The repeated annihilation, expulsion, and flight of the Jewish people is universally known. The first Diaspora to Babylonia has already been mentioned. A second Diaspora is popularly regarded as a series of dispersals from Israel after the failure of Jewish revolts against the Roman Empire from 70 C.E. 135 C.E. In 629 C.E., King Dagobert of the Franks ordered the Jews to convert, leave his land, or face execution.The First Crusade, 1096-1099 C.E., cruelly slaughteredthousands of Ashkenazi, an estimated 25%. Jews were expelled from England in 1290, France in 1394 and parts of Germany in the 15th century.Pogroms in the Russian Empire in the 19th and early 20th century murdered substantial numbers of Jews, and the Holocaust, instigated by Adolf Hitler, led to the genocide of approximately six million, primarily Ashkenazi.

Whenever and wherever persecution began, Jews were more likely to escape if they could pay their way out, or were wealthy enough to have horses, carriages, employees as guards, rich relatives to flee to, and friends in high places. High IQ has frequently been correlated with economic success.

Sick Genius: Ashkenazim are prey to about nineteen debilitating genetic diseases,and its been surmised that several of them might have cognitive side effects that can enhance intelligence. Many of the disorders can kill or severely weaken those who have two copies of the gene, but if you inherit just one, you get a heterozygote advantage that can include neuron growth promotion and accelerated interconnection of brain cells. For example, having just one of the allele in Tay-Sachs and Niemann-Pick GM2ganglioside – could moderately increase dentrite growth.

Another Ashkenazi ailment is Gauchers disease, which seems to promote axonal growth and branching. A survey discovered that out of 255 employed patients of Gauchers disease at Shaare Zedek Medical Centre in Jerusalem,were in occupations that require IQs over 120, and 15% were scientists. Another survey of Ashkenazim with Torsion Dystomia revealed an average IQ of 121.

I interviewed Gregory Cochran via email; hes the University of Utah co-author of the 2005 research report, Natural History of Ashkenazi Intelligence. In his words, any IQ boost due to Gauchers [would be] a good deal less than 10-15 points [but] It may be that big for Torsion Dystonia: everyone who has treated them marvels at how sharp they are [However] only a fraction [of Ashkenazi IQ elevation] is due to particular mutations like Gaucher, in our opinion. In another interview, Cochran pinpointed the fractions as, One in two thousand Askenazi, at most, carry a Tay-Sachs mutation and a Gaucher mutation, the two most common.

Ashkenazim are not an isolated ethnicity, after residing with Eastern European neighbors for over a millennium. While many observers suggest that theyre 30% European, an Emory University study concluded that researchers were able to estimate that between 35 and 55 percent of the modern Ashkenazi genome comes from European descent.

Positive Thinking Aubrey Max Sandman, PhD, an electrical engineer in London, sent me an email asserting that positive attitude is what counts, not genetics. His opinion is that non-Jews do not work as hard as Jews, to attain their full potential.

In actuality, positive thinking actually does elevate IQ. 2011 researchat Michigan State University revealed that a subjects mind set makes a difference in intelligence because their attitude determines if they react productively, or self-destructively, to their mistakes. The report will soon be published, hopefully with specific data charting IQ gains, in an upcoming issue of Psychological Science.

Check Mate: Chess historically has been a highly favored activityamong Ashkenazim; a 1905 magazine described it as the Jewish National Game. Almost 50%of Grandmasters are Ashkenazi. The visual, organizational, and strategic skills required for chess build upthe precuneus in the superior parietal lobe, and the caudate nucleus, a part of the basal ganglia in the subcortical region. Admittedly, these benefits are not hereditary, but youngsters who practice the game can elevate their memory storage, strategic planning, and IQ.

Additional information about the benefits of chess can be found in my later chapter, School Years.

Melodic Minds: Music has been revered in Jewish religious traditions for 3,000 years. Klezmerreached a very high level of sophistication and ornamentation, according to the Jewish Music Institute, and Ashkenazi composers and instrumentalists contribute hugely to Western classical music (one history site declares, The Jews Own the Violin).Have centuries of practice paid off? Researchers today believe music training optimizes neuron development and improves brain function in math, analysis, memory, creativity, stress management, concentration, motivation, and science.

Additional information about the benefits of musical training can be found in the following chapters: Early Years and School Years.

Comfortable Supportive Families, With High Expectations: Success promotes success, on the neurological level. Victory provides a rush of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that activates motivation for further accomplishments.Ashkenazi children generally understand they are capable of high achievement, and theyre urged to develop their skills for contribution to humanity.

Is stern discipline necessary to produce these results? Ashkenazim have long discouraged spanking of their children; strong familial ties, incessant encouragement, and hard focused work at excellent institutions, seems to be sufficient.

Available income that allows offspring to study and develop intellectually is also important; wealth also permits access to elite schools. Surveysindicate that American Jews earn about twice the income of non-Jews, plus they have 2.5 times more capital assets. The result? The average American Jew receives 2.5 more years of education. Even during the Middle Age many Jews were upper and middle class in economic status, a condition that secured good education for their children.

Untermensch Go Elsewhere? A 40+-year old Jewish commenter from New York City with the nomenclature ASAMATTEROFFACT informed me that – in his opinion – Ashkenazi who lack high intelligence and creativity end up feeling inferior. He believes this eventually leads to the untermensch marrying outside of the tribe. Only the ubermensch remain to reproduce. His point of view was echoed by another poster – Efox – who stated that less intelligent Jews incapable of being their own Priest inevitably left Judaism to join another religion.

Empathetic Rabbis A commenter who identified himself as zeev from jew york city informed me that many rabbis were Einsteins of Empathy amazingly kind, patient, loving and understanding of other humans. The high-level empaths impacted their congregations, making their lives better and promoting their ambitions and enterprizes.

In later chapters (Early Years and School Years) I discuss the IQ-boosting benefits of Emotional Support and Teacher Effectiveness two gifts that were undoubtedly provided by compassionate rabbis.

Fear of Anti-Semitism? Commenter Morris Wise stated a paranoiac position after reading my original article on the instapundit.com website. In his opinion, Jews are driven to attain high academic success, career achievement, and wealth, because they want to feel safe, protected and insulated from anti-Jewish feelings in the outside community. This point-of-view can, of course, be justified by the long history of resentment and persecution that Jews have experienced.

Twenty explanations for high Ashkenazi IQ! My opinion? Regarding the fourscore? Theyre possibly all correct, and valuable to contemplate. However, what I find most intriguing are the environmental factors that are accessible to all humanity.

I wonder: if the people of the world really want high-level intellectual achievement, why dont we play chess with our children at night, instead of tossing them a violent video game? Why cant we listen to their classical compositions on the weekend, instead of urging them to get concussions on the football field? Isnt a dietary code actually an excellent idea, in American culture with its 33.5% adult obesity?Why cant we provide them with excellent schools, entice them to learn foreign grammar, and convince them to believe in and expand their abilities, instead of forcing them to endure years of educational mediocrity and expecting nothing back but the same?

If all humanity adopted the best available characteristics of successful cultures like the Ashkenazi, would we, as a whole, immensely benefit? Would we learn more quickly, more deeply, and produce greater wonders? Would we become over- instead of under-achievers?

If we promoted high IQ behavior to humans everywhere, globally, would we all become enhanced? Better humans?

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Khazar hypothesis of Ashkenazi ancestry – Wikipedia, the free …

The Khazar hypothesis of Ashkenazi ancestry, often called by its critics the “Khazar myth”,[1]: 369[2]: VIII[3][4] is the hypothesis that Ashkenazi Jews are descended from the Khazars, a multi-ethnic conglomerate of Turkic peoples who formed a semi-nomadic Khanate in the area extending from Eastern Europe to Central Asia. The hypothesis draws on some medieval sources such as the Khazar Correspondence, according to which at some point in the 8th-9th centuries, the ruling elite of the Khazars was said by Judah Halevi and Abraham ibn Daud to have converted to Rabbinic Judaism.[5] The scope of the conversion within the Khazar Khanate remains uncertain: the evidence used to tie the Ashkenazi communities to the Khazars is exiguous and subject to conflicting interpretations.[6][7] This hypothesis has had a complex history within academia. While most contemporary scholars dismiss it, the hypothesis has often been argued in the past, and still finds occasional defenders of its plausibility. In the late 19th century, Ernest Renan and other scholars speculated that the Ashkenazi Jews of Europe originated among Turkic refugees who had migrated from the collapsed Khazarian Khanate westward into Europe, and exchanged their native Khazar language for Yiddish while continuing to practice Judaism. Though intermittently evoked by several scholars since that time, the Khazar-Ashkenazi hypothesis came to the attention of a much wider public with the publication of Arthur Koestler’s The Thirteenth Tribe in 1976.[8] It has been revived recently by Eran Elhaik, who in 2012 conducted a study aiming to vindicate it.[9] Despite skepticism, he reformulated the concept in 2016 by developing a novel method of genetic analysis that uses the fringe linguistic theories of the Yiddish expert Paul Wexler.[10] Genetic studies on Jews have found no substantive evidence of a Khazar origin among Ashkenazi Jews, as opposed to evidence they have mixed Near Eastern/Mediterranean/Southern European origins.[11] The hypothesis has been used at times by anti-Zionists to challenge the idea Jews have ancestral ties to ancient Israel, and has also played a role in antisemitic attitudes. Some sources attribute to the Ukrainian Rabbi Isaac Baer Levinsohn (1788 -1860) the first reference to a connection between the Ashkenazi Jews and the Khazars.[12] Levinsohn also recorded that the tradition of their forefathers was that Ashkenazi Jews had earlier spoken Russian before acquiring their Ashkenazi language.[13][14] The hypothesis was advanced in 1808 by Johann Ewers,[15] in the context of an early controversy over the foundations of the Russian state, which pitted scholars espousing a Norman origin for the Varangians against those who argued that these founders of the Kievan Rus’ were Slavic and indigenous. Ewers proposed the idea that the Viking/Varangian founders were in fact Khazars.[16][17][18] The Russian historian Nikolay Karamzin advanced the claim, asserting that considerable numbers of Khazars had left Khazaria for Kievan Rus’ in the time of Vladimir 1 (980-1015).[19] The German Orientalist Karl Neumann suggested as early as 1847 that the migration of Khazars might have contributed to the formation of the core population of the Jews of Eastern Europe, without however specifying whether he was referring to Judaizing Turks or ethnic Jewish residents of Khazaria.[20] Subsequently, Abraham Eliyahu Harkavi suggested in 1869 that there might be a link between the Khazars and European Jews.[21] Three years later, however, in 1872, a Crimean Karaite, Abraham Firkovich, alternatively proclaimed that the members of his Turkic-speaking sect were descended from Turkic converts to Judaism.[22] This hypothesis, that the descendents of Khazar converts to Judaism formed a major proportion of Ashkenazim, was first proposed to a Western public by Ernest Renan in 1883.[23][24] In a lecture delivered in Paris before the Cercle du Saint-Simon on 27 January 1883, Renan argued that conversion played a significant role in the formation of the Jewish people, stating that: This conversion of the kingdom of the Khazars has a considerable importance regarding the origin of those Jews who dwell in the countries along the Danube and southern Russia. These regions enclose great masses of Jewish populations which have in all probability nothing or almost nothing that is anthropologically Jewish in them.[25] Renan’s thesis found an echo soon after, in 1885, when Isidore Loeb, a rabbi, historian and secretary of the Alliance Isralite Universelle, in arguing for the cause of Jewish emancipation, challenged the notion that nations were based on races, and the Jews therefore could be excluded as alien. To the contrary, he argued, they were no different from other peoples and nations, all of which arose from miscegenation: the Jews were no exception, and one could assume, he added, that many German and Russian Jews descended from the Khazars.[26] Occasional suggestions emerged that there was a small Khazar component in East European Jews in works by Joseph Jacobs (1886), Anatole Leroy-Beaulieu (1893),[27] Maksymilian Ernest Gumplowicz,[28] and by the Russian-Jewish anthropologist Samuel Weissenberg.[29] Leroy-Beaulieu, a critic of anti-Semitism who perhaps drew on Renan, queried whether or not thousands of Polish and Russian Jews might have their origins traced back to the “old nomads of the steppes.”[30] In 1909 Hugo von Kutschera developed the notion into a book-length study,[31] arguing that Khazars formed the foundational core of the modern Ashkenazi.[32]Maurice Fishberg introduced the notion to an American audience in 1911 in his book, The Jews: A Study of Race and Environment.[33] When at the Versailles Peace Conference, a Jewish Zionist called Palestine the land of the Jewish people’s ancestors, Joseph Reinach, a French Jewish member of parliament who was opposed to Zionism, dismissed the idea, arguing that Jews descended from Israelites were a tiny minority. In his view, conversion had played a major role in the expansion of the Jewish people, and, in addition, he claimed, the majority of “Russian, Polish and Galician Jews descend from the Khazars, a Tatar people from the south of Russia who converted to Judaism in mass at the time of Charlemagne.”[34] The idea was also taken up by the Polish-Jewish economic historian and General Zionist Yitzhak Schipper in 1918,[35][36] by scholarly anthropologists, such as Roland B. Dixon (1923), and by writers like H. G. Wells (1921) who used it to argue that “The main part of Jewry never was in Judea”,[37][38] a thesis that was to have a political echo in later opinion.[39][40] In 1931 Sigmund Freud wrote to Max Eitingon that the sculptor Oscar Nemon, for whom he was sitting, showed the lineaments of a “Slavic Eastern Jew, Khazar or Kalmuck or something like that”.[41] In 1932, Samuel Krauss ventured the theory that the biblical Ashkenaz referred to northern Asia Minor, and he identified it with the Khazars, a position immediately disputed by Jacob Mann.[42] This interwar period consolidated also a belief, originally developed by the Russian Orientalists V.V. Grigoriev and V.D. Smirnov, that the East European congregations of the Karaite sect of Judaism were descendants of Turkic Khazars.[43] The idea of a Khazarian origin of the Karaites was then adopted as their official viewpoint.[44]Seraja Szapszal (1873-1961), from 1927, the akham of the Polish-Lithuanian Karaite community had begun to implement a thorough-going reform policy of dejudaizing Karaite culture and traditions and transforming along Turkic lines. As a secular Jew and orientalist he was influenced by Atatrk’s reforms, and his policy was dictated by several considerations: Jews were suffering from harassment in public and private in Eastern Europe; he wished to forestall the threat he had intuited was imminent in both Fascism and Nazism, which were beginning to gain a foothold; he was passionate about the Karaites’ language, Karaim, and its Turkish tradition, and somewhat insouciant of the Judaic heritage of his people. In 1934 Corrado Gini, a distinguished statistician, interested also in demography and anthropology, with close ties to the fascist elite, led an expedition in AugustOctober 1934 to survey the Karaites. He concluded that Karaites were ethnically mixed, predominantly Chuvash which he mistook to be Finno-Ugric descendants of the Tauro-Cimmerians who at one point had been absorbed into the Khazars who for Gini however were not Turkic. A further conclusion was that the Ashkenazi arose from Turko-Tatar converts to Judaism.[45][46] Though the Khazar-Karaite theory is unsubstantiated by any historical evidence, – the early Karaite literature speaks of Khazars as mamzerim, ‘bastards’ or ‘strangers’ within Judaism – this myth served a political purpose, of taking that community out of the stranglehold of anti-Semitic regulations and prejudices directed generally against Jews in Eastern Europe.[45] In 1942, Abraham N. Poliak, later professor of the history of the Middle Ages at Tel Aviv University, published a Hebrew monograph in which he concluded that the East European Jews came from Khazaria.[47][48] In Nazi Germany, unlike most race theorists in Germany down to his time Hans F. K. Gnther argued that the Jews were not a pure race, although he nevertheless considered them to be highly inbred. He argued that the Ashkenazi were a mix of Near Eastern, Oriental, East Baltic, Eastern, Inner-Asian, Nordic, Hamite, and Negro peoples and separate from the Sephardim. Gnther believed that the conversion of the Khazars, whom he took to have been a Near Eastern race constituted a further external element in the racial makeup of the Ashkenazi Jews, strengthening its Near Eastern component.[49]: 3233 Gnthers theorizing about racial consequences flowing from the conversion of the Khazars was embraced by Gerhard Kittel.[49]: 175 The Karaite claim to not be ethnic Jews, but descendants of the Khazars, was eventually accepted by the Nazis who exempted them, unlike the Crimean Krymchaks with whom they had historic ties, from the policy of genocidal extermination on these grounds.[50][51] In debates leading up to the UN plan in 1947 to partition Palestine into Jewish and Arab states, the British politicians John Hope Simpson and Edward Spears, intent on denying Zionism that part of its claim that drew on biblical arguments, asserted that Jewish immigrants to Mandatory Palestine were the descendants of pagan converts and not of the Israelites. The approach was one shared by both gentile and Jewish anti-Zionists.Rory Miller claims that their denial of a lineal descent from Israelites drew on the Khazar theory.[52]: 128 In anti-Zionist argumentation delivered at the UN during 1947 Faris al-Khoury and Jamal Al-Husseini used the theory to oppose the creation of a Jewish state on racial and historic grounds. Cecil Hourani claimed that the Arab leaders had been convinced of the value of the argument by Benjamin H. Freedman. Internal British documents seem to support the claim.[52]: 129 It would later play a role in Arab anti-Zionist polemics, taking on an antisemitic edge,[53] though Bernard Lewis, noted in 1987 that serious Arab scholars had dropped it, remarked that it only occasionally emerged in Arab political polemics.[54]: 48 D.M. Dunlop, writing in 1954, thought very little evidence backed what he regarded as a mere assumption, and argued that the Ashkenazi-Khazar descent hypothesis went far beyond what “our imperfect records” permit.[55] Lon Poliakov, while assuming the Jews of Western Europe resulted from a “panmixia” in the first millennium, asserted in 1955 that it was widely assumed that Europe’s Eastern Jews descended from a mixture of Khazarian and German Jews.[56] Poliak’s work found some support from Salo Wittmayer Baron and Ben-Zion Dinur,[57][58] but was dismissed by Bernard Weinryb as a fiction (1962).[59] In 1957 Salo Wittmayer Baron, called by his biographer an “architect of Jewish history”,[60] devoted a large part of a chapter in his Social and Religious History of the Jews to the Khazarian Jewish state, and the impact he believed that community exercised on the formation of East European Jewries in his Social and Religious History of the Jews (1957).[61] The scarcity of direct Jewish testimonies did not disconcert Baron: this was to be expected since medieval Jews were “generally inarticulate outside their main centers of learning”.[62] The Khazarian turn to Judaism was, he judged, the “largest and last mass conversion”, involving both the royal house and large sectors of the population. Jews migrated there to flee the recurrent intolerance against Jews and the geopolitical upheavals of the region’s chronic wars, which often proved devastating to northern Asia Minor, between Byzantium, Sassanid Persia, and the Abbasid and Ummayad Caliphates.[63] For Baron, the fact of Jewish Khazaria played a lively role in stirring up among Western Jews an image of “red Jews”, and among Jews in Islamic countries a beacon of hope. After the dissolution of Khazaria, Baron sees a diaspora drifting both north into Russia, Poland and the Ukraine, and westwards into Pannonia and the Balkans.[64] where their cultivated presence both established Jewish communities and paved the way, ironically, for the Slavonic conversion to Christianity.[65] By the 11th and 12th centuries, these Eastern Jews make their first appearance in the Jewish literature of France and Germany. Maimonides, bemoaning the neglect of learning in the East, laid his hopes for the perpetuation of Jewish learning in the young struggling communities of Europe but would, Baron concludes, have been surprised to find that within centuries precisely in Eastern Europe would arise thriving communities that were to assume leadership of the Jewish people itself.[66] The Khazar-Ashkenazi hypothesis came to the attention of a much wider public with the publication of Arthur Koestler’s The Thirteenth Tribe, which made sweeping claims for a Khazar legacy among the Ashkenazi in 1976.[8][67] Koestler’s work was both positively and negatively reviewed. Israels ambassador to Britain branded the book “an anti-Semitic action financed by the Palestinians”, while Bernard Lewis claimed that the idea was not supported by any evidence whatsoever, and had been “abandoned by all serious scholars”.[8][68]Raphael Patai, however, registered some support for the idea that Khazar remnants had played a role in the growth of Eastern European Jewish communities,[69] and several amateur researchers, such as Boris Altschler (1994)[67] and Kevin Alan Brook,[70] kept the thesis in the public eye. Koestler argued that this theory would mitigate European racially-based antisemitism.[71] The theory has been used to counter the concept of Jewish nationhood.[8][72] It has been revived recently in a variety of approaches, from linguistics (Paul Wexler)[73] to historiography (Shlomo Sand)[74] and population genetics (Eran Elhaik)[75] In broad academic perspective, both the idea that the Khazars converted en masse to Judaism, and the suggestion that they emigrated to form the core population of Ashkenazi Jewry, remain highly polemical issues.[76] Maurice Fishberg and Roland B. Dixon’s works were later exploited in racist and religious polemical literature, by advocates of British Israelism, in both Britain and the United States.[77] Particularly after the publication of Burton J. Hendrick s The Jews in America (1923)[78] it began to enjoy a vogue among advocates of immigration restrictions in the 1920s; racial theorists[79][80] like Lothrop Stoddard; antisemitic conspiracy theorists like the Ku Klux Klans Hiram Wesley Evans; and anti-communist polemicists like John O. Beaty[81] In 1938, Ezra Pound, then strongly identifying with the Fascist regime of Benito Mussolini, sent a query to fellow poet Louis Zukofsky concerning the Khazars after someone had written to him that the ancient Jews had died out and that modern Jews were of Khazar descent. He returned to the issue in 1955, apparently influenced by a book called Facts are Facts, which pushed the Jewish-Khazar descent theory, and which for Pound had dug up “a few savoury morsels”.[82] The booklet in question, by a Roman Catholic convert from Rabbinical Judaism Benjamin H. Freedman[83] was a rambling anti-Semitic tirade written to Dr. David Goldstein after the latter converted to Catholicism.[84] John O. Beaty was an antisemitic, McCarthyite professor of Old English at SMU, author of ‘The Iron Curtain over America’ (Dallas 1952). According to him, “the Khazar Jews were responsible for all of America’s and the world’s ills,” beginning with World War 1. The book had little impact until the former Wall Street broker and oil tycoon J. Russell Maguire promoted it.[85] A similar position was adopted by Wilmot Robertson, whose views influenced David Duke.[86] The British author Douglas Reed has also been influential. In his work the Ashkenazi are false Jews, descendants of the Khazars.[1]: 355 A number of different variants of the theory came to be exploited by the Christian Identity movement.[87] The Christian Identity movement, which took shape from the 1940s to the 1970s, had its roots in British Israelism which had been planted on American evangelical soil in the late 19th century.[88] By the 1960s the Khazar ancestry theory was an article of faith in the Christian Identity movement.[89] The Christian Identity movement has associated two verses from the New Testament, Revelation 2:9 and 3:9 with the Khazars. The Jews are literally satanic in Identity theology Jeffrey Kaplan calls these two passages the corner stone of Identity theology. Texts by Jewish authors such as the Babylonian Talmud and Arthur Koestlers work are raised almost to the level of Holy Writ.[90] The theory was prominent in Soviet antisemitism, gaining a place in Soviet historiography. The theory influenced Soviet historians including Boris Rybakov, Mikhail Artamonov and Lev Gumilyov and was used to support soviet political theory.[2]: Vii-Viii Artamonov argued that the Khazars had played an important role in the development of Rus. A view that Rybakov disputed instead regarding the Khazar state as parasitic.[91]: 260261 Official Soviet views on the Khazars hardened after December 1951 when Pravda published a critical review of Artamonov’s work under the pen name P. Ivanov.[92]: 313314 Rybakov for his part denied that he was Ivanov.[91]: 261 It has been speculated that Ivanov was in fact Stalin. In Ivanovs review the Khazars were regarded as parasites and enemies.[93]: 237 Ivanovs views became the certified Soviet position.[92]: 314 Lev Gumilyovs theory of ethnogenesis draws heavily on the Khazars theory. For Gumilyov ethnicity was defined by stereotypical behavior which was linked to adaption to the terrain.[94]: 121122 Jews, he regarded as a parasitic, international urban class.[95] The Jews had dominated the Khazars creating a chimera, subjecting Rus to the “Khazar Yoke.”[1]: 358359, 368 Since the 1970s the Khazars euphemism has been part of the Russian nationalist lexicon.[96] Vadim V. Kozhinov theorized that the Khazar Yoke was more dangerous to Rus then the Tatar Yoke.[97]: 90 The Khazars were imagined as a persistent danger to Rus.[1]: 359 After the fall of the Soviet Union the theory maintained a role in Russian antisemitism. Contemporary Russian anti-Semites continue to perpetuate the Khazar myth.[1]: 355356 Gumilyov and his students work remain popular in Russia.[1]: 356 Khazars and ethnic chimera have become preferred terms for antisemitic Russian chauvinists.[1]: 356 Aum Shinrikyo is a Japanese doomsday cult. The cult was active in Japan and Russia, with an estimated 10,000 and 30,000 followers respectively.[98] The groups Manual of Fear used the Protocols of the Elders of Zion in addition to other anti-Semitic material. The manual claimed that the Jews are really Khazars intent on world domination.[99][100] The Khazar theory has also become part of the Ascended Masters theology. Hatonn an extraterrestrial transmits messages including the complete text of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. He identifies the authors of The Protocols as Khazars and speaks of false Zionist Jews who have usurped and controlled the true Jews.[101] Before modern DNA population genetics entered the field, Raphael Patai described the Khazars in racial terms as being a Turkic people with some Mongoloid admixture.[102] After major advances in DNA sequence analysis and computing technology in the late 20th and early 21st century, a plethora of genetic research on Jewish and other human populations has been conducted worldwide. The Yiddish scholar Alexander Beider, regards genetic studies as often offering contradictory information, further complicated by the fact that some researchers work is influenced by their personal views.[103] While the consensus in genetic research is that the world’s Jewish populations (including the Ashkenazim) share substantial genetic ancestry derived from a common Ancient Middle Eastern founder population, and that Ashkenazi Jews have no genetic ancestry attributable to Khazars,[7] a few studies authored in this period diverge from the majority view in favor of the Khazar theory. In 2001 Nebel et al., summarizing studies that reported a low-level European gene flow contributing to Ashkenazi paternal gene pool, suggested this influence might be reflected in the Eu 19 chromosomes common in Eastern Europe, or otherwise, that Ashkenazim with this component might descend from Khazars, an hypothesis the authors found “attractive”.[104] In 2003 Behar, remarking on the high frequency haplogroup R1a1 NRYs in that former Khazar sphere of influence and noting Paul Wexler’s theory of relexification, raised the possibility that the Khazar theory might offer an attractive source for an important eastern component of the Ashkenazim.[105][106] In 2008 David Goldstein asserted that the Khazar theory “now seems to me plausible, if not likely”.[107] A 2013 study by Rootsi, Behar et al. of Ashkenazi Levites (4% of the Jewish male line) found a high frequency of haplogroup R1a-M582 among them (64.9% of Ashkenazi Levites) pointing to a founding event and paternal ancestor common to half of them. Since R1a shows high frequency in Eastern Europe generally, it was thought possible, that the evidence might indicate the founder was a non-Jewish European. Testing the 3 hypotheses of a European, a Near Eastern or a Khazarian origin, their data excluded both the European and Khazarian origin of a Levite founder since the found no evidence of R1a-M582 Y-chromosomes was found in either group, other than singletons, while it occurs with significant frequency in Near Eastern regions Iranian Kerman, Iranian Azeri, the Kurds from Cilician Anatolia and Kazakhstan, and among Ashkenazi and non-Ashkenazi Jews. R1a-M582 was not detected among data from Iraqi, Bedouins, Druze and Palestinians sampled in Israel.[108] Eran Elhaik has argued, in two separate papers, the first in 2012 and the latest (2016) co-authored by Wexler, that his genetic analysis strengthens the Khazar hypothesis. Of the 2012 study Elhaik writes: “Strong evidence for the Khazarian hypothesis is the clustering of European Jews with the populations that reside on opposite ends of ancient Khazaria: Armenians, Georgians, and Azerbaijani Jews. Because Caucasus populations remained relatively isolated in the Caucasus region and because there are no records of Caucasus populations mass-migrating to Eastern and Central Europe prior to the fall of Khazaria (Balanovsky et al. 2011), these findings imply a shared origin for European Jews and Caucasus populations.”[109] A controversy arose in which a number of geneticists called his work ‘ridiculous. Elhaik is reported as dismissing them as liars and frauds.[110] In the 2016 study Wexler, Elhaik, et al. argued that the first Ashkenazi populations to speak the Yiddish language came from areas near four villages in Eastern Turkey along the Silk Road whose names derived from the word “Ashkenaz,” rather than from Germanic lands as is the general consensus in scholarship. Elhaik and Wexler proposed a variant for the canonical Khazarian hypothesis, proposing that Iranians, Greeks, Turks, and Slavs converted to Judaism in Turkey prior to migrating to Khazaria where a small scale conversion had already occurred.[111][112] The historian Bernard Spolsky commenting on Elhaiks earlier study wrote. Recently, Elhaik (2013) claims to have found evidence supporting the Khazarian origin of Ashkenazim, but the whole issue of genetic evidence remains uncertain.[113] According to Martin B. Richards, presently available genetic studies, including his own study on Ashkenazi maternal lineages, all refute the Khazar theory.[114] The claim that Ashkenazis as a whole take their origin from Khazars has been widely criticized as there is no direct evidence to support it.[115][116] Using four Jewish groups, one being Ashkenazi, Kopelman et al found no evidence to the Khazar theory.[117] In 2000, the analysis of a report by Nicholas Wade named Y Chromosome Bears Witness to Story of the Jewish Diaspora “provided genetic witness that these [Jewish] communities have, to a remarkable extent, retained their biological identity separate from their host populations, evidence of relatively little intermarriage or conversion into Judaism over the centuries…. The results accord with Jewish history and tradition and refute theories like those holding that Jewish communities consist mostly of converts from other faiths, or that they are descended from the Khazars, a medieval Turkish tribe that adopted Judaism.”[118] In June 2014, Shaul Stampfer published a paper challenging the theory as ungrounded in sources contemporary with the Khazar period, stating: “Such a conversion, even though its a wonderful story, never happened”.[6][119] Elhaik’s 2012 study was criticized for its use of Armenians and Azerbaijani Jews as proxies for Khazars and for using Bedouin and Jordanian Hashemites as a proxy for the Ancient Israelites. The former decision was criticized because Armenians were assumed to have a monolithic Caucasian ancestry, when as an Anatolian people (rather than Turkic) they contain many genetically Middle Eastern elements. Azerbaijani Jews are also assumed for the purposes of the study to have Khazarian ancestry, when Mountain Jews are actually descended from Persian Jews. The decision to cast Bedouin/Hashemites as “proto-Jews” was especially seen as political in nature, considering that both have origins in Arab tribes from the Arabian Peninsula rather than from the Ancient Israelites, while the descent of the Jews from the Israelites is largely accepted.[120][121] The study was also criticized as interpreting information selectivelyThe study found far more genetic similarity between the Druze and Ashkenazim than the Ashkenazim and Armenians, but Elhaik rejected this as indicating a common Semitic origin, instead interpreting it as evidence of Druze having Turkic origins when they are known to come from Syria. Geneticists conducting studies in Jewish genetics have challenged Elhaik’s methods in his first paper. Michael Hammer called Elhaik’s premise “unrealistic,” calling Elhaik and other Khazarian hypothesis proponents “outlier folks who have a minority view thats not supported scientifically. I think the arguments they make are pretty weak and stretching what we know.” Marcus Feldman, director of Stanford University’s Morrison Institute for Population and Resource Studies, echoes Hammer. “If you take all of the careful genetic population analysis that has been done over the last 15 years theres no doubt about the common Middle Eastern origin,” he said. He added that Elhaiks first paper “is sort of a one-off.” Elhaiks statistical analysis would not pass muster with most contemporary scholars, Feldman said: “He appears to be applying the statistics in a way that gives him different results from what everybody else has obtained from essentially similar data.” [9] Elhaik and Wexler’s 2016 study was challenged by two prominent scholars of Jewish demography from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Shaul Stampfer, a professor of Soviet and East European Jewry, deemed it basically nonsense. Sergio DellaPergola, the primary demographer of the Jewish people at the university, called it a “falsification”, criticizing its methodology, using a small population size and selectively removing population groups that refuted the findings they wanted, namely other Jewish groups such as the Italkim and Sephardic Jews, to whom Ashkenazi Jews are closely related genetically. Serious research would have factored in the glaring genetic similarity between Sephardim and Ashkenazim, which mean Polish Jews are more genetically similar to Iraqi Jews than to a non-Jewish Pole.[122] Elhaik replied that studying the DNA of non-Ashkenazic Jews would not change the DNA of Ashkenazic Jews nor the predicted origin of their DNA.’.[122] Recently, a study by a team of biologists and linguists, led by Pavel Flegontov, a specialist in genomics, published a response to Das, Elhaik and Wexler’s 2016 study, criticizing their methodology and conclusions. They argue that GPS allows inferences works for the origins of modern populations with an unadmixed genome, but not for tracing ancestries back 1,000 years ago. In their view, the paper tried to fit Wexler’s ‘marginal and unsupported interpretation’ of Yiddish into a model that only permits valid deductions for recent unadmixed populations. [123] Counter-evidence exists to the Khazar hypothesis claiming that that the male lineage ofs Ashkenazi Jews originates from an ancient (2000 BCE – 700 BCE) population of the Middle East who spread to Europe. -DNA studies of Ashkenazi Jews conclude that their male lineage was founded by ancestors from the Middle East.[124][125] and that they share this paternal ancestry with Sephardic Jewish populations.[126] Genetic studies show that the male lineage of Ashkenazi Jews bear a common genetic heritage which originates in the Near East, and that they bear their strongest resemblance to the peoples of the Fertile Crescent. A study of Ashkenazi mitochondrial DNA by a team led by Martin B. Richards of the University of Huddersfield found no maternal lineages attributable to the Caucasus. Richards summarized the findings on the female line as such: “[N]one [of the mtDNA] came from the North Caucasus, located along the border between Europe and Asia between the Black and Caspian seas. All of our presently available studies including my own, should thoroughly debunk one of the most questionable, but still tenacious, hypotheses: that most Ashkenazi Jews can trace their roots to the mysterious Khazar Kingdom that flourished during the ninth century in the region between the Byzantine Empire and the Persian Empire.”[114]

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August 19, 2016   Posted in: Ashkenazi  Comments Closed

What Can the DNA of Ashkenazi Jews Tell Us About Living …

(Photo: Christopher Lane) Dont be sad, says Finklestein on his deathbed. Ive had 80 good years. But youre 98! says his wife. I know. Except for the occasional doctors appointment or bad cold, Irving Kahn hasnt skipped a day of work in more years than he can remember. And he can remember plenty of them: Hes 105. That record is vexing to his youngest son, Thomas Graham Kahn, who though 69 and president of Kahn Brothers, their brokerage and money-management firm, is still called Tommy. (Irving is chairman.) How can he take a vacation if his father wont? Instead, Tommy threatens to dock his dad for his short workday, which begins around ten and ends by three and often includes a nice bowl of soup. Its not like we have so many employees we can afford to have him shluf off, Tommy says. Tommy runs the business, which has about $700 million under management. But even though Irving, with his very short stature and very large glasses, looks a bit like a horned owl peering up from his deska desk that features both a computer and grip barshe is no figurehead. His is still the corner office, 22 floors above Madison Avenue. (During the blackout of 2003, he walked down.) He gives or withholds the papal blessing on investment policy and reviews every transaction undertaken by the firms youngsters on behalf of clients. The worlds oldest stockbroker, he first went to work on Wall Street in 1928. This was before the Depression, he says, then specifies which depression, as if I might confuse it with the one in the 1890s. Both are real to him; through a chain of memory leading back to his grandparents, Eastern European Jews who settled on the Lower East Side shortly before that earlier upheaval, he can almost touch the Civil War. More directly, he can touch the technological revolutions that followed. He describes his fathers good fortune in getting into the lighting-fixture business in the years after Mr. Edison opened his downtown officethe one that brought electric power to Manhattan in 1882. He remembers with perfect clarity building a crystal radio in his bedroom around 1920 and amazing his mother, who thought music came only from Victrolas, with the music he caught for free. When youre 53, as I am, and believe yourself to be on the wrong side of lifes unknowable midpoint, a conversation with someone who will soon be twice your age, and who furthermore has retained all his marbles, can be disorienting. For one thing, it has the effect of collapsing a century into a pancake. Czar Nicholas II and Barack Obama, gaslight and computer glow, grandmothers and grandchildren: All are contemporaries, all in sharp focus. The indiscriminate urgency of memory is disorienting for Irving as well. Id rather not know who I was and who I knew and what I did, he says. It uses up space I need for today. By today, incredibly, he also means the future. All conversations with Irving eventually wobble back to his favorite ruts, such as how new technology might affect the viability of companies he follows. I dont worry about dying, he says, assuming it will happen in his sleep. Instead he worries about staying mentally agile, which is why he reads three newspapers daily and watches all the C-Spans. I know people collect postage stamps, but thats just one thing. Its about having multiple interests. He does not say multiple attachments; his own upbringinghis mother ran a shirtwaist business out of the homesuggested the value of independence and keeping an eye on the horizon. Newness served his family well: A new country, a new language, a new public school, a new college. At his home a mile up Madisonuntil he was 102 he took the bushe has, he says proudly, thousands of books, not one fiction. Mostly Im interested in whats on the edges: solar energy, sending vehicles beyond the moon. His belief in a personal future that will repay this curiositya future I can hardly imagine for myself without worries of illness and decrepitudeis whats most disorienting about Irving Kahn. Youd think that as he got older, then even older, and then bizarrely old, hed have had ever more opportunities to despair. And, true, his eyesight and earsight arent what they were. He cant walk much on his own anymore. He despises these limitations but ignores or finds ways to outwit them. Loss as well. His wifes death, in 1996, was a huge blow, Tommy reports, but Irving put his foot down a little more on the pedal, if that was possible. When macular degeneration recently made reading difficult, he learned to enlarge the font on what he calls his Gimble.

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June 27, 2016   Posted in: Ashkenazi  Comments Closed

Ashkenazi Jewish Genetic Panels – WebMD

Ashkenazi Jewish Genetic Panel (AJGP) – What Are Ashkenazi Jewish Genetic Diseases? Ashkenazi Jewish Genetic Panel (AJGP) Guide Ashkenazi Jewish genetic diseases are a group of rare disorders that occur more often in people of Eastern European (Ashkenazi) Jewish heritage than in the general population. Even though most of these diseases are severe and can cause early death, some can be treated to reduce symptoms and prolong life. Some of these diseases can be found during pregnancy through chorionic villus sampling (CVS) or amniocentesis. This testing is done usually if one or both parents are carriers of a genetic disease. Diseases in this group include: About 1 out of 4 people of Ashkenazi Jewish heritage is a carrier of one of these genetic conditions, most commonly of Gaucher disease, cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs disease, familial dysautonomia, or Canavan disease.1 WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise Last Updated: March 12, 2014 This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information. 1995-2015 Healthwise, Incorporated. Healthwise, Healthwise for every health decision, and the Healthwise logo are trademarks of Healthwise, Incorporated. Continue reading below… Continue reading below…

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June 26, 2016   Posted in: Ashkenazi  Comments Closed

Who are the Ashkenazi Jews ? (with pictures) – wiseGEEK

Why is it racism to tell the truth? Ashkenazi Jews claim by birthright they had a right to take Palestine and treat Palestinians as visitors. The promise God made to Abraham was not made to the sons of Japeth or Ham; it was made to Abraham and his sons, descendants of Shem. The Ashekenazi who say they are Jews by conversion have abandoned the principal way of determining a Jew’s heritage. All Old Testament lineages were traced through the father, not the mother. If a Christian says he/she is a Christian and hates their enemies, they are no more Christian than a Jew who says he/she is a Jew and traces their ancestry through women. The Ashekenazi have abandoned the The Ashekenazi have allied themselves with idol worshippers and false prophets (the Mormons) and therefore not only have no birthright, but also have have set themselves apart from God. Every king and all false prophets in the Bible who allied with such were punished by the Lord. Mormons mask themselves as Christians, but are blasphemers and Ashekanazi have a lot of people fooled with their masks as well, but they are wolves in sheep’s clothing. They are the Jews who are not Jews in the Bible. You correctly said that if a person converts to Christianity, then it doesn’t matter what their Jewish ancestry is. But what does matter is that their works match their faith and that they do not pervert the inspired Word of God with man-made doctrines that exist to control others, benefit themselves, and are always fairly obvious because their fruits are always bad. It is not racism to say Ashekenazi are not Jews by promise, but as in Esther’s day, many Persians converted to Judaism out of fear and became Jews. The idea that Christians would ally themselves with a nation armed with 120 nukes crying about their neighbors who have not one single nuke because they believe God would have His temple on the blood soaked ground soaked with the blood of His Son is an anti-Christ dogma. Clearly, Paul and Revelation state there will be a new heaven and a new earth, and Zion will come out of that Heaven, not the polluted ruin that is covered with God’s Son’s blood. The Ashekenazi and false Christians have used this propaganda to profit from those poor souls that need to be freed. In this country where there is not supposed to be a religious test, let a politician say one word about the Ashekenazi or the home they stole, and that politician will never be elected. Yet our president can be called a monkey, a terrorist, the N word, and any other disgusting name and the politician who utters that evil is rewarded. I hardly think racism can be applied to the Ashekenazi who wield more power with less than 5 percent of the population of our nation of almost 300 million people. Lenin, Marx and Stalin — all engineers of mass murder and communism were all Ashekenazi Jews. I have heard that even Hitler was Ashkenazi. I don’t know.

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June 26, 2016   Posted in: Ashkenazi  Comments Closed

Ashkenazi Genetic Traits | Center for Jewish Genetics

Providing support through education and genetic counseling is central to the mission of the Center for Jewish Genetics. With the knowledge gained through carrier screening, individuals are better prepared to make informed decisions for themselves and their future family. The Center currently screens for 19 disorders found most frequently in Ashkenazi Jews of Central and Eastern European descent Jews. Many of these disorders are serious and can be debilitating and life-shortening. But with proper knowledge and genetic counseling, they can be prevented. In addition to the 19 disorders linked to Ashkenazi heritage, the Centers screening panel includes more than 60 other common genetic disorders, plus Fragile X. Our genetic counselor is available at every step of the screening process to make sure that all of your questions and concerns are addressed. This screening process is called carrier screening. Carriers are healthy adults who have the genetic mutation that can potentially be passed on to a child if both parents are carriers for the same gene. This video explains how healthy carrier parents may have a child with the disorder. Watch this Youtube Video to learn more about Autosomal Recessive Inheritence

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June 25, 2016   Posted in: Ashkenazi  Comments Closed

Doran Ashkenazi – drug overdose

Ofra Haza’s husband found dead, police suspect drug overdose By Amit Ben-Aroya Ha’aretz Correspondent and wires Doron Ashkenazi – widower of Israel’s most successful international singer, Ofra Haza, who died of AIDS in February 2000 – died Saturday night of an overdose of crystallized cocaine, police said. His autopsy today may shed a light on Haza’s death as well. “We are expecting an answer as to whether Doron was HIV positive, and the one who infected Ofra,” attorney Arie Sharabi, who represents the Haza family, said yesterday. Several complaints were filed with the police, accusing Ashkenazi of not informing Haza that he was HIV positive. Ashkenazi, who has an eight-year-old girl and a 15-year-old boy, was never arrested in connection with Haza’s death. The Tel Aviv prosecutor is still working on the Haza file. His death is to terminate the investigation, unless the family allows it to be continued, which is very unlikely, Sharabi explained. On Saturday night, the night of the Seder, Ashkenazi would not celebrate with his family. He said he was still in mourning. A preliminary police investigation indicates he spent the evening with friends, doing “crystal meth” at Ashkenazi’s home in Herzliya. When Ashkenazi suddenly collapsed at 8 P.M., one of the friends called an ambulance, and told Ashkenazi’s family. Ashkenazi was rushed to Beilinson Hospital in Petah Tikva, where, after attempts at resuscitation, he was pronounced dead. Police were only informed at 10:30 PM. Chief Superintendent Avi Sasson, deputy commander of the Gelilot station, which is investigating the case, told Ha’aretz he still did not know why Ashkenazi’s car was found parked in south Tel Aviv. Ashkenazi family lawyer Shmuel Zang said Ashkenazi was focused on the legal proceeding that were to begin in a few weeks regarding the validity of Haza’s will, a copy of which could not be found. The medical panel that investigated Haza’s death published its findings three months ago. Its report said that, if Haza had admitted herself to hospital earlier, her life might have been saved. But Haza, fearful that her condition would become public knowledge, refused to go to the hospital, even when her situation had become very serious. Ashkenazi was first exposed to the public eye when, in July 1997, he married Haza, a popular singer. She was discovered at age 12 at the underprivileged Hatikva neighborhood in Tel Aviv, by Bezalel Aloni, who was her personal manager for years – until her marriage to Ashkenazi, when she severed her ties with him. Just weeks before her death, she telephoned Aloni and told him of her condition. “I said a year ago that this man [Ashkenazi] was to blame. He covered himself with a battery of lawyers. His death only serves to emphasize how tragic and futile Ofra’s death was. Doron was the first and last man in her life, and that’s terrible,” Aloni said.

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June 15, 2016   Posted in: Ashkenazi  Comments Closed

Ashkenazi Jews, as well as the Yiddish language, came from …

In an effort to discover the origin of the Yiddish language, researchers say that they have found evidence that proves that Ashkenazi Jews are descended predominately from four villages in northeastern Turkey. The study, titled Localizing Ashkenazic Jews to primeval villages in the ancient Iranian lands of Ashkenaz was conducted by researchers from three universities in the U.K., U.S., and Israel. It was published in the journal Genome Biology and Evolution. Using a Geographic Population Structure device, Dr Eran Elhaik, a geneticist from the University of Sheffield who led the study, was able to convert the DNA of Ashkenazi Jews into geographic coordinates. The data showed that 90 percent of Ashkenazi Jews have links to the ancient villages of Iskenaz, Eskenaz, Ashanaz, and Ashkuz that sit near ancient Silk Road trade routes. We traced nearly all AJs to major primeval trade routes in northeastern Turkey adjacent to primeval villages, whose names may be derived from Ashkenaz. We conclude that AJs probably originated during the first millennium when Iranian Jews Judaized Greco-Roman, Turk, Iranian, southern Caucasus, and Slavic populations inhabiting the lands of Ashkenaz in Turkey, the researchers wrote. They say this is evidence that Yiddish is a Slavic language that was created by Irano-Turko-Slavic Jewish merchants, and is not of German origin as is commonly thought. They suggest that it was devised as a cryptic trade language, and was used to gain its creators an advantage in trades along the Silk Roads. Language, geography and genetics are all connected, Dr Eran Elhaik told phys.org. Today, half the worlds 10 million 11.2 million Ashkenazi Jews live in the United States, with another 2.8 million residing in Israel. They make up approximately 75 per cent of Jews, while Sephardi Jews comprising the remaining 25 per cent.

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June 12, 2016   Posted in: Ashkenazi  Comments Closed

Un-American Subversive Theatre: Parade the Leo Frank Broadway Musical Becomes International Cult Sensation

If you asked any of your friends, acquaintances, or family members, whether or notthey’ve heard of the Jewish activist musical called ‘Parade’, chances are most peoplewould likely shake their heads and say something along the lines of, “No, I’ve neverheard of it before”. Yet amongst theatre fans around the world, ‘Parade’ is a cultclassic. In […]

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April 26, 2016   Posted in: Abraham Foxman, Anti-Defamation League, Anti-Jewish, Anti-Semitism, Anti-Semitism News, Ashkenazi, B'nai B'rith, Hate Crime Hoax, Jewish, Jewish American Heritage Month, Jewish Heritage, Jewish History, Jewish Lobby, Jewish Supremacism, Jews, Judaism, Leo Frank, Multicultural News, Race Relations, Racism News, Racist News, Zionism  Comments Closed

Why is the IQ of Ashkenazi Jews so High? – twenty possible …

Home > Articles > Why is the IQ of Ashkenazi Jews so High? – twenty possible explanations Posted: Fri, June 07, 2013 | By: IQ by Hank Pellissier Ashkenazi Jews are smart. Shockingly brilliant, in general. Impressive in brain power. How did they get that way? Ashkenazi Jews, aka Ashkenazim, are the descendants of Jews from medieval Alsace and the Rhine Valley, and later, from throughout Eastern Europe. Originally, of course, they were from Israel. Genetic research from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine suggests that the Ashkenazi bloodline branched away from other Jewish groups there 2,500 years ago, and that 40% of them are descended from only four Jewish mothers.Approximately 80% of the Jews in the world today are Ashkenazim, with the remainder primarily Sephardic. Researchers who study the Ashkenazim agree that the children of Abraham are on top of the IQ chart. Steven Pinker who lectured on Jews, Genes, and Intelligence in 2007 – says their average IQ has been measured at 108-115. Richard Lynn, author of The Intelligence of American Jews in 2004, says it is only a half-standard higher: 107.5. Henry Harpending, Jason Hardy, and Gregory Cochran, University of Utah authors of the 2005 research report, Natural History of Ashkenazi Intelligence, state that their subjects, score .75 to 1.0 standard deviations above the general European average, corresponding to an IQ of 112-115. Charles Murray, in his 2007 essay Jewish Genius, says their mean is somewhere in the range of 107-115, with 110 being a plausible compromise. A Jewish average IQ of 115 is 8 points higher than the generally accepted IQ of their closest rivalsNortheast Asiansand approximately 40% higher than the global average IQ of 79.1 calculated by Richard Lynn and Tatu Vanhanen in IQ and Global Inequity. Plus, contemplate this astounding tidbit: Ashkenazi visual-spatial IQ scores are only mediocre; in one study their median in this category was a below-average 98. They surmount this liability by logging astronomic figures in verbal IQ, which includes verbal reasoning, comprehension, working memory and mathematical skill; a 1958 survey of yeshiva students discovered a median verbal IQ of 125.6. What does it mean that Ashkenazim have a high IQ, in terms of producing geniuses? With their population so small – a mere 0.25 of the world total – does it make any serious difference? The answer is YES. A bell curveis used to illustrate IQ percentile in a specific group in a general population where IQ average is 100 the curve assumes these proportions: less than 70 IQ – 2.5% 70-85 IQ – 12.5% 86-100 IQ – 35% 101-115 IQ 35% 116-130 IQ 12.5% greater than 130 IQ 2.5% Applying the same bell curve for Ashkenazim, but with a 17-point upward lift in median IQ (using the From Chance To Choice digit) produces the IQ upgrade below: less than 87 IQ 2.5% 88-102 IQ 12.5% 103-117 IQ 35% 118-132 IQ 35% 133-148 IQ 12.5% greater than 148 IQ 2.5% This shifting upward of the bell curve by more than a standard deviation (15 points) means that more than five times as many Ashkenazim are eligible for Mensa (minimum 130 IQ) and more than five times as many have the average IQ of an Ivy League graduate. In reality, Ashkenazim are enrolled in the Ivies by a proportion ten times greater than their numbers; for example they represent 30% of Yale students, 27% of Harvard, 23% of Brown, 32% of Columbia, and 31% of Pennsylvania. This suggests that either the bells curve is lifted for the Ashkenazi a bit longer at the high end or there are additional factors that enhance their ability to succeed. Regarding the first possibility, Charles Murray notes that the proportion of Jews with IQs of 140 or higher is somewhere around six times the proportion of everyone else.Harpending, Hardy and Cochran sport roughly the same equation; 4 out of every 1,000 Northern European is 140+ IQ, but 23 out of every 1,000 Jew is 140+.Murray also relays a report from sky-high up in the genius range, when he notes that a 1954 survey of New York public school children with 170+ IQs revealed that 24 of the 28 were Jewish. Now that Ive established that Ashkenazi have superlative IQ scores, lets observe what theyve accomplished with their highly functional brains. In the 19th century, Mark Twain noted that: [The Jews] are peculiarly and conspicuously the worlds intellectual aristocracy [Jewish] contributions to the worlds list of great names in literature, science, art, music, finance, medicine, and abstruse learning are way out of proportion to the weakness of his numbers. He has made a marvelous fight in this world and has done it with his hands tied behind him. Twains observation is not dated. Ashkenazi Jews have continued to mentally out-compete other demographics since his statement, often suffering horrendous consequences for their toil. Here is a brief list of Ashkenazi accomplishments in the last 90 years. Nobel Prizes: Since 1950, 29% of the awards have gone to Ashkenazim, even though they represent only a small fraction of humanity.Ashkenazi achievement in this arena is 117 times greater than their population. This pace isnt slowing down; it is accelerating. In the 21st century, theyve received 32% of the total, and in 2011, five of the thirteen Nobel Prize winners were Jewish 38.5%. Hungary in the 1930s: Ashkenazim were 6% of the population, but they comprised 55.7% of physicians, 49.2% of attorneys, 30.4% of engineers, and 59.4% of bank officers; plus, they owned 49.4% of the metallurgy industry, 41.6% of machine manufacturing, 72.8% of clothing manufacturing, and, as housing owners, they received 45.1% of Budapest rental income.Jews were similarly successful in nearby nations, like Poland and Germany. Significant Figures: In Jewish Genius by Charles Murray, the author tallies up important contributing individuals in a variety of vocations, noting how immensely over-represented Jews are compared to what could be expected due to their small population. His conclusion in various categories is: Biology significant Jews appear 5 times greater their population, Chemistry 6X, Physics 9X, Literature 4X, Music 5X, Visual Arts 5X, Math 12X, Philosophy 14X.2 USA (today): Ashkenazi Jews comprise 2.2% of the USA population, but they represent 30% of faculty at elite colleges, 21% of Ivy League students, and 25% of the Turing Award winners. Plus, Jews have made up 50% of the top two hundred intellectuals 40% of partners in the leading law firms in New York and Washington 59% of the directors, writers, and producers of the fifty top-grossing motion pictures Israel: In 1922 this swamp-and-desert land had an impoverished population of 752,000 inhabitants. Today there are 7,746,000 residents, with a large Ashkenazi population (3 million, and 60% of the workforce) that has elevated it into a high-tech entrepreneurial nation with the highest per capita income in the region. Israel rates 1stin the world in graduate degrees, 1st in museums, 1st in home computers, and 1st in publishing scientific papers. Personally, I find the Nobel Prize statistic the most amazing. Consider this: if everybody on the planet was an Ashkenazi Jew, would the result be 117 times more Nobel Prize-winning caliber individuals, with 117 times as many spectacular achievements, per annum? INSTANT SINGULARITY! Without any help from AI (Sephardic Jewish achievement is represented in many of the categories above, especially in Nobel Prize statistics. When this article was originally published – in a shorter version, on August 7, 2011 by the Institute for Ethics in Emerging Technology (ieet.org) Sephardic Jews expressed some perturbation that they were omitted from the essay. Id like to acknowledge the immense contribution of Sephardic Jews with this all-too-brief list of notables from their lineage: Elias Canetti (Nobel Prize in Literature, 1981), Tobias Michael Carel Asser (Nobel Peace Prize, 1911), Rene Cassin (Nobel Peace Prize, 1968), Franco Modigliani (Nobel Prize in Economics, 1985), Francois Jacob (Nobel Prize in Medicine/Physiology, 1965), Salvador Luria (Nobel Prize in Medicine/Physiology, 1969), Baruj Benacerraf (Nobel Prize in Medicine/Physiology, 1980), Rita Levi-Montalcini (Nobel Prize in Medicine/Physiology, 1986), Emilio Segre (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1959), Claude Cohen-Tannoudj (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1997), plus philosopher Jacques Derrida, economist/philanthropist Bernard Baruch, painter Amedeo Modigliani, and Benjamin Disraeli, the British Prime Minister. In the medieval era, Sephardic achievements were also quite significant. In George Sartons Introduction to the History of Science, the author notes that 95 out of 626 scientists in the world from 1150-1300 were Sephardic Jews -15% – far exceeding their population proportion. However, when Sephardic IQ is presently recorded, the sums are no higher than the northern European average, and definitively not as elevated as Ashkenazi.) Lets proceed. With the facts Ive laid out, only the most obtuse reader can resist my pronouncement that Ashkenazi Jews are, on average, extraordinarily intelligent. Im not asserting Ashkenazi cognitive specialness because Im Philo-Semitic, or Zionist, or pro-Israeli. Im pointing it out because it is irrefutably true. That said, the question that my essay seeks to unravel is Why? Why is the IQ of Ashkenazi Jews so high? Is the reason due to their genetics, environment, culture, education, or a unique combination of multiple factors? In my initial publication of this essay, I provided eight reasons for high Ashkenazi IQ. But then, I received a flurry of email suggestions (many from professors) providing me with additional information. Twenty theories are now listed in this expanded essay, and Ive attempted to give my sources the credit they deserve, even though in several instances – I dont have their actual names, just their Internet chat-monikers. Heres my new list many related to each other – presented in roughly chronological order: Babylonian Eugenics In 586 B.C.E., Jerusalem was totally destroyed by the Babylonians, led by their monarch Nebuchadnezzar, who carried into exile all the [Jewish] officers and fighting men, and all the craftsmen and artisans only the poorest people of the land were left. (2Kings 24:10-14) The Indestructible Jews, by Max Dimont, defines the deported people as the flower of Judahs aristocracy and intellectuals. The exiled Jews of this first Diaspora became highly successful in Babylon. Dimont claims, In the libraries of Babylon, intellectual Jews found a new world of new ideas. Within five decades, exiled Jews bobbed to the surface of the top echelons on Babylonian society, in business enterprises, in the scholastic world, in court circles. They became leaders in commerce, men of learning, advisors to kings. In 538 B.C.E., the Persian king Cyrus the Great granted Jews permission to return to their homeland. Wealthy Jews – who had established successful trade routes and businesses in Babylon – financed zealous returnees who wanted to re-settle Judah. Initial attempts failed, but eventually, 1,760 settlers led by the prophet Ezra and the governor Nehemiah rebuilt the wall of Jerusalem and resurrected the nation. These Babylonian Jews returning to Israel discovered that their poorer brethren that were left behind a half-century earlier had slipped away via assimilation, vanishing into neighboring pagan creeds. Cyril Darlington, in his The Evolution of Man and Society, suggests that the temporary separation of the Jewish elite, and permanent removal of the uneducated and unskilled, provided a genetic intellectual boost to the creed. The returning Jews also instituted two customs that enhanced the mental solidity of their cultures future. A ban on intermarriage with Gentiles was enforced, and the first five books of Moses were canonized, as the Torah. People of the Difficult Book: The Torah (the first five books of the Jewish Bible) and the Talmud (recordings of rabbinic discussions) are intellectually complex and sophisticated. Practitioners of Judaism are required to learn and study the extensive, mentally rigorous laws. Thematic content of the scriptural passages is not simplistic or literal, it is, conversely, designed for comprehension on multiple, abstract, metaphorical levels. Blind faith and slavish devotion, encouraged by other faiths, is not conducive to Judaism. Instead, worship in the ancient monotheism demands significant literacy skills due to the cognitive demands of the texts, with tradition maintaining that understanding the Talmud requires study of seven hours a day for seven years.Charles Murray notes that, no other religion made so many demands upon the whole body of its believers, with the subsequent analysis that, Judaism evolved in such a way that to be a good Jew meant that a man had to be smart. Healthy Hygiene & Diet: Professor Sam Lehman-Wilzig of Bar-Ilan University in Israel provided me with this theory. His suggestion is based on the fact that – due to their customary practices – the Jews probably enjoyed better hygiene than Gentiles. He points to the Jewish washing of hands before every meal, the men bathing at least once a week in the mikveh (a purification bathhouse) and the women bathing at least once a month, after their menstruation was over. He also notes the restriction on pork prevented Jews from contracting trichinosis. (Famous casualties of this parasitic disease include Gautama Buddha and Wolfgang Mozart). With lower disease rates, Jewish bodies would not have suffered as much as Gentiles and this would have improved their mental capacities. This notion has been repeated elsewhere. In 1953, research by Johns Hopkins University pharmacologist David I. Macht surmised that all the dozens of meat items banned by Jewish dietary laws in Deuteronomy and Leviticus were, in fact, more toxic than the kosher flesh that was permitted.Additionally, in the recent book Survival of the Sickest, author Sharon Moalem suggests that Jews removing leaven from their homes during Passover helped keep out the rats that spread bubonic plague in the 13th century.Last but not least, wealthy Ashkenazi Jews dwelling in larger houses in eastern Europe would have survived epidemics easier because they didnt suffer the same high multiple infection rate that occurred in smaller homes with greater crowding. Extensive correlation between high IQ, healthy diet, infectious diseases, sanitation, and home crowding, is examined via research studies in later chapters of this book, particularly in Early Years. Education Emphasized, Way Back in B.C. Jeremiah Unterman of Jerusalem informed me that the Torah instructs every Jewish father to teach the Torah to his children, and Marisa Landau notes on a futurepundit.com 6/4/05 discussion that its forbidden by the Jewish religion to keep child illiterate. Additionally, Landau reports that Jewish women learned to read and write, a phenomenon that was unique in the ancient world. Landau also mentions that it has long been a custom among Jews to provide a full pension – for up to 10 years to an intelligent son-in-law who wishes to entirely devote himself to study. The Jews, it seems, invented the notion of scholarships. In the medieval era, the French monk, Peter Abelard (1079-1142) penned this about Jewish education: A Jew, however poor, even if he had ten sons, would get them all to letters, not for gain as the Christians do, but for understanding of Gods law. And not only for his sons, but his daughters. Mandatory Schools For Males – In 64 A.D., the high priest Joshua ben Gamla issued and implemented an ordinance mandating schools for all boys, beginning at age 6. Within 100 years, Jews had established universal male literacy and numeracy, the first ethnicity in history to achieve this. The progressive, demanding edict created a huge demographic shift. The high, oft-times prohibitive cost of educating children in the subsistence farming economy of the 2nd to 6th centuries prompted numerous Jews to voluntarily convert to Christianity, leading to a decline in Jewish population from 4.5 million to 1.2 million. Natural eugenics favored two groups in this situation: 1) the sons of wealthier, ostensibly more intelligent Jews, who could provide greater funding for the schools that maintained their offsprings membership as Jews, and, 2) the smartest boys who could quickly learn reading, writing and arithmetic at a pace at which they could afford to stay Jewish. Who was left out? Removed from the gene pool? Answer: the poorer, uneducated Jews, and/or those with the lowest IQ. Urban Upgrade 80-90% of Jews were farmers in 1 AD. But only 10-20% remained in agriculture by 1000 A.D.The education required by Joshua ben Gamlas edict delivered verbal and math skills to Jewish boys, enabling them to move out of subsistence rural life into highly-skilled urban professions, involving sales, trade, and financial transactions. Moving from a pastoral environment into cities implements an IQ boost, due to urbanisms increased complexity, literacy, and technology. A Hanoi National University study in 2006 showed a whopping 19.4 IQ difference between city and country students. A 1970 survey in Greece recorded a difference of 10-13 points.Other studies note smaller discrepancies of only 2-6 points, but unanimously, urban residents always score higher, and Jews are one of the worlds longest-urbanized ethnicities. Dialectic and Rational Thought Dr. Sam Lehman-Wilzig informed me that one of the noteworthy approaches to Jewish learning is dialectic. The Talmud itself is not a law code but instead, a huge compendium of ARGUMENTS. Jews are encouraged to see different perspectives of an issue, and theyre taught to question everything, including the Law, the Rabbis logic, and ones own belief system. Rabbis developed argumentative principles, an entire system of questioning that the Jews have utilized for 2,000 years in both religious and secular debates. Dialectic was not a Jewish invention: it was a learning technique that Jews borrowed and adapted from Greek philosophy; the synthesis is a Socratic-Jewish methodology. Traces of the Greek influence are evident in the Passover Seder where the Jewish father reclines on a pillow (similar to the Greeks) while the youngest Jewish child asks Four Questions. This method of learning was unique during the Middle Ages, compared to Catholic Europes authoritative traditions. Dr. Sanford Aranoff, Professor of Science and Mathematics at Rider University, conveyed to me a similar message. In his opinion, Judaism is based on principles of rational thought. (Rational thinking begins with clearly stated principles, continues with logical deductions, and then examines empirical evidence to possibly modify the principles.) The analytic, strategic skills developed in both Jewish dialectic and critical thinking are an important component of IQ tests, and theyre essential in legal, academic, science, and engineering careers. Clever Clerics Propagate: A major difference between Catholicism and Judaism is that priests have been celibate since the 4th century Council of Carthage decreed that they abstain from conjugal relations,whereas Jewish rabbis have always been encouraged to marry and multiply. In the Middle Age this resulted in massive IQ depression for Catholics, because their brightest, academically gifted boys were usually locked up in seminaries that wasted their gene pool. Meanwhile sage, scholastic Jewish rabbis were marrying smart women and creating large, clever families. Three tomes that examine this phenomenon are Robert Novicks Anarchy, State and Utopia, Ernst Vandenbergs The Jewish Mystique, and Paul Johnsons A History of the Jews. Breeding for Brains: Our Rabbis teach, Let a man sell all that he has and marry the daughter of a learned man. If he cannot find the daughter of a learned man, let him marry the daughter of one of the great men of his day. If he does not find such a one, let him marry the daughter of one of the heads of the congregation, or, failing this, the daughter of a charity collector, or even the daughter of a schoolmaster; but let him not marry the daughter of an illiterate man, for the unlearned are an abomination, as also their wives and their daughters. Psachim, fol. 49, col. 2. Judaic texts like the one above emphasize repeatedly that knowledge and intelligence are supreme virtues, with ignorance the grossest liability. Following this dictum, the Jews enhanced their gene pool for smartnesss. In A History of the Jews, author Paul Johnson notes that, among the Jews the most intelligent people have always been very valued and sought after as husbands, so they procreate and spread their good genes.Charles Murray observed another matchmaking tendency, when he notes that by marrying the children of scholars to the children of successful merchants, Jews were in effect joining those selected for abstract reasoning ability with those selected for practical intelligence. Meanwhile, Catholics were marrying for class reasons, angling for blue-blood aristocrat gains that had no link to intelligence. Physical strength and valor was also desired, via brave knights on the battlefield – this exaltation of brawn over brains likewise did nothing to advance that religions collective IQ. Trading Tongues: Ashkenazi merchants plied their wares over a vast area, originally to Islamic regions, but later internationally – from rubber in Brazil to silk in China. To prosper in the exchange, they memorized multiple languages. The stateless tribe needed diverse fluency anyway, to communicate in adopted lands with their neighbors that spoke German, Polish, Latvian, Lithuanian, Hungarian, Russian, Ukrainian, French, Dutch, etc. The Ashkenazi developed a fusion tongue: Yiddish (German, Hebrew, Aramaic, plus other Slavic languages and a touch of Romance). At its height – before World War II – Yiddish was spoken by 13 million.The polyglot language produced exemplary culture in literature, theater, and film. Neurologists today recognize that multiple language learning enhances memory, mental flexibility, problem solving, abstract thinking, and creative hypothesis formulation. Explanations of the benefits abound; I recommend listening to the video, Bilingualism Will Supercharge Your Babys Brain. Squeezed Into Brilliance: Jews in Europe were officially excluded from common occupations such as agriculture from 800-1700 A.D. Indeed, they were usually not allowed to own land.The restrictions forced Ashkenazim for 900 years into urban vocations that were cognitively more demanding, such as trade, bookkeeping, commerce, sales, and investment. The frequent Christian prohibition against charging of interest in money lending – prohibited as usury assisted in opening up financial banking occupations for Jews. Historical records reveal that 80% of the Jews in Roussilon, southern France, in 1270 were money-lenders. Later, after they were evicted from Western Europe, Ashkenazim were welcomed in Poland as urban investors and initiators of trade who could help modernize the nation.They were also in great demand in middle management positions because they had mathematic and business administration skills. Ashkenazim who werent mathematically and verbally adept enough to succeed in these white collar jobs drifted away from Judaismlow IQs were pushed out. Conversely, the most successful merchants and number crunchers raised larger families, passing on an increasing percentage of algebraic brains. Winnowed By Persecution: The most intelligent and/or wealthy Ashkenazim were better equipped to escape Inquisitions, pogroms, persecutions, holocausts, and other genocidal threats because they: 1) could afford to emigrate; 2) could predict the need to do so; and 3) had social and economic opportunities in the nations they fled to. Poorer, less connected, and less astute Ashkenazi ranks thus were inexorably depleted. The repeated annihilation, expulsion, and flight of the Jewish people is universally known. The first Diaspora to Babylonia has already been mentioned. A second Diaspora is popularly regarded as a series of dispersals from Israel after the failure of Jewish revolts against the Roman Empire from 70 C.E. 135 C.E. In 629 C.E., King Dagobert of the Franks ordered the Jews to convert, leave his land, or face execution.The First Crusade, 1096-1099 C.E., cruelly slaughteredthousands of Ashkenazi, an estimated 25%. Jews were expelled from England in 1290, France in 1394 and parts of Germany in the 15th century.Pogroms in the Russian Empire in the 19th and early 20th century murdered substantial numbers of Jews, and the Holocaust, instigated by Adolf Hitler, led to the genocide of approximately six million, primarily Ashkenazi. Whenever and wherever persecution began, Jews were more likely to escape if they could pay their way out, or were wealthy enough to have horses, carriages, employees as guards, rich relatives to flee to, and friends in high places. High IQ has frequently been correlated with economic success. Sick Genius: Ashkenazim are prey to about nineteen debilitating genetic diseases,and its been surmised that several of them might have cognitive side effects that can enhance intelligence. Many of the disorders can kill or severely weaken those who have two copies of the gene, but if you inherit just one, you get a heterozygote advantage that can include neuron growth promotion and accelerated interconnection of brain cells. For example, having just one of the allele in Tay-Sachs and Niemann-Pick GM2ganglioside – could moderately increase dentrite growth. Another Ashkenazi ailment is Gauchers disease, which seems to promote axonal growth and branching. A survey discovered that out of 255 employed patients of Gauchers disease at Shaare Zedek Medical Centre in Jerusalem,were in occupations that require IQs over 120, and 15% were scientists. Another survey of Ashkenazim with Torsion Dystomia revealed an average IQ of 121. I interviewed Gregory Cochran via email; hes the University of Utah co-author of the 2005 research report, Natural History of Ashkenazi Intelligence. In his words, any IQ boost due to Gauchers [would be] a good deal less than 10-15 points [but] It may be that big for Torsion Dystonia: everyone who has treated them marvels at how sharp they are [However] only a fraction [of Ashkenazi IQ elevation] is due to particular mutations like Gaucher, in our opinion. In another interview, Cochran pinpointed the fractions as, One in two thousand Askenazi, at most, carry a Tay-Sachs mutation and a Gaucher mutation, the two most common. Ashkenazim are not an isolated ethnicity, after residing with Eastern European neighbors for over a millennium. While many observers suggest that theyre 30% European, an Emory University study concluded that researchers were able to estimate that between 35 and 55 percent of the modern Ashkenazi genome comes from European descent. Positive Thinking Aubrey Max Sandman, PhD, an electrical engineer in London, sent me an email asserting that positive attitude is what counts, not genetics. His opinion is that non-Jews do not work as hard as Jews, to attain their full potential. In actuality, positive thinking actually does elevate IQ. 2011 researchat Michigan State University revealed that a subjects mind set makes a difference in intelligence because their attitude determines if they react productively, or self-destructively, to their mistakes. The report will soon be published, hopefully with specific data charting IQ gains, in an upcoming issue of Psychological Science. Check Mate: Chess historically has been a highly favored activityamong Ashkenazim; a 1905 magazine described it as the Jewish National Game. Almost 50%of Grandmasters are Ashkenazi. The visual, organizational, and strategic skills required for chess build upthe precuneus in the superior parietal lobe, and the caudate nucleus, a part of the basal ganglia in the subcortical region. Admittedly, these benefits are not hereditary, but youngsters who practice the game can elevate their memory storage, strategic planning, and IQ. Additional information about the benefits of chess can be found in my later chapter, School Years. Melodic Minds: Music has been revered in Jewish religious traditions for 3,000 years. Klezmerreached a very high level of sophistication and ornamentation, according to the Jewish Music Institute, and Ashkenazi composers and instrumentalists contribute hugely to Western classical music (one history site declares, The Jews Own the Violin).Have centuries of practice paid off? Researchers today believe music training optimizes neuron development and improves brain function in math, analysis, memory, creativity, stress management, concentration, motivation, and science. Additional information about the benefits of musical training can be found in the following chapters: Early Years and School Years. Comfortable Supportive Families, With High Expectations: Success promotes success, on the neurological level. Victory provides a rush of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that activates motivation for further accomplishments.Ashkenazi children generally understand they are capable of high achievement, and theyre urged to develop their skills for contribution to humanity. Is stern discipline necessary to produce these results? Ashkenazim have long discouraged spanking of their children; strong familial ties, incessant encouragement, and hard focused work at excellent institutions, seems to be sufficient. Available income that allows offspring to study and develop intellectually is also important; wealth also permits access to elite schools. Surveysindicate that American Jews earn about twice the income of non-Jews, plus they have 2.5 times more capital assets. The result? The average American Jew receives 2.5 more years of education. Even during the Middle Age many Jews were upper and middle class in economic status, a condition that secured good education for their children. Untermensch Go Elsewhere? A 40+-year old Jewish commenter from New York City with the nomenclature ASAMATTEROFFACT informed me that – in his opinion – Ashkenazi who lack high intelligence and creativity end up feeling inferior. He believes this eventually leads to the untermensch marrying outside of the tribe. Only the ubermensch remain to reproduce. His point of view was echoed by another poster – Efox – who stated that less intelligent Jews incapable of being their own Priest inevitably left Judaism to join another religion. Empathetic Rabbis A commenter who identified himself as zeev from jew york city informed me that many rabbis were Einsteins of Empathy amazingly kind, patient, loving and understanding of other humans. The high-level empaths impacted their congregations, making their lives better and promoting their ambitions and enterprizes. In later chapters (Early Years and School Years) I discuss the IQ-boosting benefits of Emotional Support and Teacher Effectiveness two gifts that were undoubtedly provided by compassionate rabbis. Fear of Anti-Semitism? Commenter Morris Wise stated a paranoiac position after reading my original article on the instapundit.com website. In his opinion, Jews are driven to attain high academic success, career achievement, and wealth, because they want to feel safe, protected and insulated from anti-Jewish feelings in the outside community. This point-of-view can, of course, be justified by the long history of resentment and persecution that Jews have experienced. Twenty explanations for high Ashkenazi IQ! My opinion? Regarding the fourscore? Theyre possibly all correct, and valuable to contemplate. However, what I find most intriguing are the environmental factors that are accessible to all humanity. I wonder: if the people of the world really want high-level intellectual achievement, why dont we play chess with our children at night, instead of tossing them a violent video game? Why cant we listen to their classical compositions on the weekend, instead of urging them to get concussions on the football field? Isnt a dietary code actually an excellent idea, in American culture with its 33.5% adult obesity?Why cant we provide them with excellent schools, entice them to learn foreign grammar, and convince them to believe in and expand their abilities, instead of forcing them to endure years of educational mediocrity and expecting nothing back but the same? If all humanity adopted the best available characteristics of successful cultures like the Ashkenazi, would we, as a whole, immensely benefit? Would we learn more quickly, more deeply, and produce greater wonders? Would we become over- instead of under-achievers? If we promoted high IQ behavior to humans everywhere, globally, would we all become enhanced? Better humans?

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March 25, 2016   Posted in: Ashkenazi  Comments Closed


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