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Report: New Black Panthers will go to Cleveland with guns …

Last Updated Jul 13, 2016 9:59 AM EDT

The New Black Panther Party, a “black power” organization, plans to attend demonstrations in Cleveland ahead of the Republican National Convention, and members plan to bring their firearms.

Hashim Nzinga, chairman of the New Black Panther Party, told Reuters in an interview on Tuesday that the group planned on exercising its Second Amendment rights in Ohio, an open-carry state, because “there are other groups threatening to be there that are threatening to do harm to us.”

In a statement released Wednesday clarifying the organization’s position, the NBPP said: “The NEW BLACK PANTHER PARTY IS NOT INSTRUCTING ANYONE in any way, shape, form, or fashion, to bring weapons to Cleveland.”

Ohio’s open-carry laws are the same as Texas, where lone gunman Micah Johnson killed five Dallas police officers during a peaceful Black Lives Matter protest last week. In the wake of that incident, the law is raising security concerns for law enforcement. Nzinga expects that a few hundred members of the New Black Panther Party will be attending the Black Unity rally that will begin on Thursday and run through Sunday, the day before the convention begins.

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Chief David Brown said Monday the investigation into Thursday’s Dallas attack includes reviewing 170 hours of body camera footage and countless h…

The 25-year-old Dallas gunman was not an official member of any Black Power group but had an affinity for the separatist movement. The New Black Panther Party has been described by the Southern Poverty Law Center as a “a virulently racist and anti-Semitic organization whose leaders have encouraged violence against whites, Jews and law enforcement officers.”

But Nzinga denounced the attack in Dallas and told Reuters that the group is not racist.

The New Black Panthers aren’t the only group planning to go to Cleveland packing heat. The New York Times reported that the group “Oath Keepers,” which consists of former members of the military, has plans to attend the demonstrations surrounding the Cleveland convention heavily armed.

Tim Selaty, the director of the pro-Trump group Citizens for Trump, has said that people should be allowed to carry guns. However, Selaty has called for a ban on long weapons for the rally that will take place on Monday outside of the convention.

Cleveland.com points out that there is a designated “event zone” outside the Quicken Loans arena where the convention will be held. This outer zone is essentially downtown Cleveland, and open-carry laws will apply here. The arena, however, is part of an inner security perimeter that is controlled by the U.S. Secret Service, which will prohibit guns on the floor of the convention.

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New Black Panther Party to carry guns at the Republican …

Demonstrators, wearing the insignia of the New Black Panthers Party, protest the shooting death of Alton Sterling near the headquarters of the Baton Rouge Police Department in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, U.S. July 9, 2016. REUTERS/Jonathan Bachman

The chairman of the New Black Panther Party, a black power movement, said his group will carry arms for self-defense during protests at the Republican convention next week if allowed under Ohio law.

If it is an open state to carry, we will exercise our second amendment rights because there are other groups threatening to be there that are threatening to do harm to us, Hashim Nzinga, chairman of the New Black Panther Party, told Reuters in an interview.

If that state allows us to bear arms, the Panthers and the others who can legally bear arms will bear arms.

Nzinga condemned the killing of five police officers in Dallas last week as a massacre and said his group played no role in the attack.

Officials in Ohio have said it will be legal for protesters to carry weapons at demonstrations outside the convention under the states open carry laws. Several other groups, including some supporters of presumptive Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump, have said they will carry weapons in protests as well, leading to concerns about rival groups being armed in close proximity.

Nzinga said he expected a couple hundred members of the New Black Panther Party to join a black unity protest that is scheduled to be held on Thursday in Cleveland.

(Reporting By Ned Parker; Editing by David Rohde and Stuart Grudgings)

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Black Panthers in North Carolina? | Yahoo Answers

It’s not impossible, but it’s very unlikely. ‘Black panther’ is the name commonly used for melanistic leopards – that is, leopards with an excess of the dark pigment melanin, resulting in an almost totally black coat. Leopards are native to Asia and Africa, so would not naturally be found in your location, but there’s always the possibility of it being an escapee from a zoo, or a privately-owned animal that escaped or was deliberately released (non-native large cats are reported in the UK, where I live, occasionally – these are believed to be descendants of pets released in the 1970s, after new laws required a licence to keep them).

Melanistic jaguars are also referred to as panthers by some people, but again they are not naturally found in your region – jaguars are found in South and Central America. There have been a few sightings in the extreme southern US in recent years, but I’d be very surprised if one had made it as far as NC. The only large cat you might expect to see in the US is the puma, also called the cougar, mountain lion and various other names. It is normally tawny-coloured, and whilst melanism is possible in any species this would be extremely unusual. If your fiance saw a melanistic puma he is very lucky!

Does he have a reason for believing what he saw was some kind of cat, rather than, say, a large dog, a wolf, or a bear? Did he notice a long tail, for example?

EDIT: Hmm, a long thick tail would suggest a puma – leopards and jaguars have quite slim tails. Next question: was it definitely black? I mean, it didn’t just look black because it was in silhouette, or covered in mud, or something like that?

Here’s some images, ask your fiance if it looked like any of these:

Puma: http://www.banffnationalpark.com/wp-cont…

Leopard: http://www.consbio.umn.edu/student_image…

Black leopard: http://www.dkimages.com/discover/preview…

Jaguar: http://aura0.gaia.com/photos/47/462880/large/PV-Jaguar-InJungle-WaterMirror.jpg

Black jaguar: http://dinets.travel.ru/bjaguarmexl.jpg

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Black Panthers in North Carolina? | Yahoo Answers

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Seattle Black Panther Party History and Memory Project

The Black Panther Party for Self Defense established its Seattle chapter in the spring of 1968. It was one of the first to be created outside of California. The Seattle chapter also lasted longer than most, surviving until 1978. Although the membership was never large, the organization made a major impact on the region. With their black berets and leather jackets and their commitment to armed self defense, the Panthers became role models to some while scaring others. Either way, the organization showed Seattle that its struggles for racial justice had moved beyond persuasion and nonviolent protest.

This page introduces the Seattle Black Panther Party — History and Memory Project. The unit comprises the most extensive online collection of materials for any chapter of the Black Panther Party, including the Oakland chapter. The links above and below lead to more than a dozen oral histories, scores of photographs, rare documents, and BPP publications, more than 100 newspaper articles, and the complete transcript and exhibits from the 1970 Congressional Hearings into the activities of the chapter. * * * Huey Newton and Bobby Seale founded t he Black Panther Party in Oakland, California, in late 1966. The rest of the world learned about the organization the following year, after a contingent of heavily armed Panthers marched onto the floor of the California legislature protesting a bill to ban firearms in public places. Weapons and armed self defense were key elements in the Panther program, one part of which focused on protecting black communities from brutal policing practices. Calling police officers “pigs,” and following them as they patrolled black neighborhoods, the Panthers were soon involved in deadly gun battles with police in Oakland and later in other cities. The uninformed thought of the Panthers as Black Nationalists, but the Party was actually committed to revolutionary internationalism, taking some of its program from the “Little Red Book” (Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse Tung) and identifying with third-world revolutionary movements.

The Washington state chapter of the BPP was established in April, 1968 after Aaron Dixon, Elmer Dixon, Anthony Ware, Gary Owens and several other future Panthers attended a memorial service in San Francisco for 17 year-old Bobby Hutton. Hutton had been killed by Oakland police in a shootout in which Party leader Eldridge Cleaver was also wounded. While in Oakland, the Seattle youth met BPP Chairman Bobby Seale, whose subsequent visit to Seattle marked the beginning of the Washington State chapter. The history of the Washington State chapter can be followed in the accompanying pages.

Janet Jones is the coordinator of this special section and conducted all of the interviews. Alexander Morrow and Nathan Roberts served as Associate Editors. We wish to thank members of the BPP Legacy Committee for sharing stories, photographs, and documents. Thanks also to the Seattle Times, Seattle Post Intelligencer, Seattle Medium, University of Washington Daily, and Afro American Journal, and Seattle Magazine for the articles and photographs that appear on the News Coverage page.

“Black Panthers Tell Their Stories”: This powerpoint slideshow introduces the special section. In videotaped oral history segments, former Panthers talk about their reasons for joining the Party and their experiences in the organization. Former mayor Wes Uhlman tells of FBI plans to raid Panther headquarters and his reasons for intervening to prevent bloodshed.

Photographs: From the Washington State Archives; Eugene Tagawa collection; Aaron Dixon collection; Fred Lonidier collection, and the Musuem of History and Industry.

News Coverage: We have digitized more than 100 newspaper articles that appeared between 1968 and 1979, making it possible to follow the news coverage that surrounded the BPP.

Congressional Hearings: In 1970, Congress launched a full-scale investigation of the Black Panther Party. One set of hearings focused on the Seattle chapter. Here you can read the testimony and view the exhibits collected by Congressional investigators. Included are photographs of members and buildings that served as Party offices or breakfast program centers, and testimony from police officers and a secret undercover witness.

History: This three part essay by Kurt Schaefer explores the first three years of the Seattle chapter of the Black Panther Party from its founding by Black Student Union members in 1968 through the 1970 crisis negotiated by Mayor Wes Uhlman.

Documents: The five issues of the Seattle Party Bulletin and many leaflets and other printed material.

Links: Online links to information about the Seattle chapter, other chapters, and the Black Panther Party headquarters.

For Teachers: a lesson plan and materials suitable for high school classes.

Mirroring the incident in Sacramento that had brought so much attention in 1967, on February 28, 1969, a group of Seattle Panthers led by Lt. Elmer Dixon gathered on the steps of the Capitol in Olympia to protest a bill that would make it a crime to exhibit firearms “in a manner manifesting an intent to intimidate others. In contrast to the California demonstration, they did not enter the building and they were not arrested. (Photo: Washington State Archives)

The first BPP office at 1127 34th Ave. Here a are photos of all of the Party headquarters and Breakfast Program centers.

Video Oral Histories: Short biographies and streaming video excerpts of interviews with BPP veterans.

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Seattle Black Panther Party History and Memory Project

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Black panther – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A black panther is the melanistic color variant of any Panthera species. Black panthers in Asia and Africa are leopards (Panthera pardus) and black panthers in the Americas are black jaguars (Panthera onca).[1]

Melanism in the jaguar (Panthera onca) is conferred by a dominant allele, and in the leopard (Panthera pardus) by a recessive allele. Close examination of the color of these black cats will show that the typical markings are still present, but are hidden by the excess black pigment melanin, giving an effect similar to that of printed silk. This is called “ghost striping”. Melanistic and non-melanistic animals can be littermates. It is thought that melanism may confer a selective advantage under certain conditions since it is more common in regions of dense forest, where light levels are lower. Recently, preliminary studies also suggest that melanism might be linked to beneficial mutations in the immune system.[2]

The Javan leopard was initially described as being black with dark black spots and silver-grey eyes.[3]

Black leopards are common in the equatorial rainforest of Malaya and the tropical rainforest on the slopes of some African mountains such as Mount Kenya.[4] They are also common in Java, and are reported from densely forested areas in southwestern China, Myanmar, Assam and Nepal, from Travancore and other parts of southern India where they may be more numerous than spotted leopards.[5] One was recorded in the equatorial forest of Cameroon.[citation needed]

Melanistic leopards are the most common form of black panther in captivity and they have been selectively bred for decades in the zoo and exotic pet trades. According to Funk and Wagnalls’ Wildlife Encyclopedia, captive black leopards are less fertile than spotted leopards, with average litter sizes of 1.8 and 2.1, respectively. This is likely due to inbreeding depression.[6]

In the early 1980s, Glasgow Zoo acquired a 10-year-old black leopard, nicknamed the Cobweb Panther, from Dublin Zoo. She was exhibited for several years before being moved to the Madrid Zoo. This leopard had a uniformly black coat profusely sprinkled with white hairs as though draped with spider webs. The condition appeared to be vitiligo; as she aged, the white became more extensive.[citation needed] Since then, other “cobweb panthers” have been reported and photographed in zoos.

In jaguars, the melanism allele is dominant. Consequently, black jaguars may produce either black or spotted cubs, but a pair of spotted jaguars can only produce spotted cubs. Individuals with two copies of the allele are darker (the black background colour is more dense) than ones with just one copy, whose background colour may appear to be dark charcoal rather than black.

The black jaguar was considered a separate species by indigenous peoples. W H Hudson wrote,

“The jaguar is a beautiful creature, the ground-colour of the fur a rich golden-red tan, abundantly marked with black rings, enclosing one or two small spots within. This is the typical colouring and it varies little in the temperate regions; in the hot region the Indians recognise three strongly marked varieties, which they regard as distinct species the one described; the smaller jaguar, less aquatic in his habits and marked with spots, not rings; and, thirdly, the black variety. They scout the notion that their terrible “black tiger” is a mere melanic variation, like the black leopard of the Old World and the wild black rabbit. They regard it as wholly distinct, and affirm that it is larger and much more dangerous than the spotted jaguar; that they recognise it by its cry; that it belongs to the terra firma rather than to the water-side; finally, that black pairs with black, and that the cubs are invariably black. Nevertheless, naturalists have been obliged to make it specifically one with Felis onca [Panthera onca], the familiar spotted jaguar, since, when stripped of its hide, it is found to be anatomically as much like that beast as the black is like the spotted leopard.”[7]

A black jaguar named “Diablo” was inadvertently crossed with a lioness named “Lola” at the Bear Creek Wildlife Sanctuary in Barrie, Ontario, Canada.[8] The offspring were a charcoal black jaglion female and a tan-coloured, spotted jaglion male. It therefore appears that the jaguar melanism gene is also dominant over normal lion colouration (the black jaguar sire was presumably carrying the black on only one allele). In preserved, stuffed specimens, black leopards often fade to a rusty colour but black jaguars fade to a chocolate brown colour.[citation needed]

There are no authenticated cases of truly melanistic cougars (pumas). Melanistic cougars have never been photographed or shot in the wild and none has ever been bred. Unconfirmed sightings, known as the “North American black panther”, are currently attributed to errors in species identification by non-experts, and by the memetic exaggeration of size. Black panthers in the American Southeast feature prominently in Choctaw folklore where, along with the owl, they are often thought to symbolize Death.

In his Histoire Naturelle (1749), Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, wrote of the “Black Cougar”:[9]

“M. de la Borde, Kings physician at Cayenne, informs me, that in the [South American] Continent there are three species of rapacious animals; that the first is the jaguar, which is called the tiger; that the second is the couguar [sic], called the red tiger, on account of the uniform redness of his hair; that the jaguar is of the size of a large bull-dog, and weighs about 200 pounds [90kg]; that the cougar is smaller, less dangerous, and not so frequent in the neighbourhood of Cayenne as the jaguar; and that both these animals take six years in acquiring their full growth. He adds, that there is a third species in these countries, called the black tiger, of which we have given a figure under the appellation of the black cougar. The head is pretty similar to that of the common cougar; but the animal has long black hair, and likewise a long tail, with strong whiskers. He weighs not much above forty pounds [18 kg]. The female brings forth her young in the hollows of old trees.”

This “black cougar” was most likely a margay or ocelot, which are under 18kg (40lb) in weight, live in trees, and do have melanistic phases.

Another description of a black cougar[10] was provided by Thomas Pennant:

“Black tiger, or cat, with the head black, sides, fore part of the legs, and the tail, covered with short and very glossy hairs, of a dusky colour, sometimes spotted with black, but generally plain: Upper lips white: At the corner of the mouth a black spot: Long hairs above each eye, and long whiskers on the upper lip: Lower lip, throat, belly and the inside of the legs, whitish, or very pale ash-colour: Paws white: Ears pointed: Grows to the size of a heifer of a year old: Has vast strength in its limbs.– Inhabits Brasil and Guiana: Is a cruel and fierce beast; much dreaded by the Indians; but happily is a scarce species.”

According to his translator Smellie (1781), the description was taken from two black jaguars exhibited in London some years previously.

Black panther sightings are frequently recorded in rural Victoria and New South Wales[11] and Western Australia. The Australian “phantom panthers” are said to be responsible for the disappearances and deaths of numerous cats, dogs and livestock.

Animal X Natural Mysteries Unit led an investigation into the phantom panther. Mike Williams, a local researcher, said he had sent feces and hair found by locals to labs for analysis, which identified it as feces from dogs that had feasted on swamp wallaby, and hair from a domestic cat. Mr Williams said he also had known leopard feces and hair collected from a private zoo tested by one of the same labs, but that these samples came back with the same results of dog feces and domestic cat hair. This indicated the lab incapable of distinguishing between leopard hairs and those of domestic animals, casting doubt on the previous findings. The lab used was not identified in the episode.[12]

Pseudo-melanism (abundism) occurs in leopards. A pseudo-melanistic leopard has a normal background color, but the spots are more densely packed than normal and merge to obscure the golden-brown background color. Any spots on the flanks and limbs that have not merged into the mass of swirls and stripes are unusually small and discrete, rather than forming rosettes. The face and underparts are paler and dappled like those of ordinary spotted leopards.[13]

Richard Lydekker described specimens of pseudo-melanistic leopards found in South Africa in the late nineteenth century:[14]

“The ground-color of this animal was a rich tawny, with an orange tinge; but the spots, instead of being of the usual rosette-like form, were nearly all small and solid, like those on the head of an ordinary leopard; while from the top of the head to near the root of the tail the spots became almost confluent, producing the appearance of a broad streak of black running down the back. A second skin had the black area embracing nearly the whole of the back and flanks, without showing any trace of the spots. These dark-coloured South African leopards differ from the black leopards of the northern and eastern parts of Africa and Asia in that while in the latter the rosette-like spots are always retained and clearly visible, in the former the rosettes are lost…”

Lydekker, R. (1910), Harmsworth Natural History

Most other color morphs of leopards are known only from paintings or museum specimens. In May 1936, the British Natural History Museum exhibited the mounted skin of an unusual Somali leopard.[14] The pelt was richly decorated with an intricate pattern of swirling stripes, blotches, curls and fine-line traceries. This is different from a spotted leopard, but similar to a king cheetah, hence the modern cryptozoology term king leopard. Between 1885 and 1934, six pseudo-melanistic leopards were recorded in the Albany and Grahamstown districts of South Africa.[14] This indicated a mutation in the local leopard population. Other king leopards have been recorded from Malabar in southwestern India.[14] Shooting for trophies may have contributed to the loss of these populations.

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Home | Black Panthers

Change was coming to America and the fault lines could no longer be ignoredcities were burning, Vietnam was exploding, and disputes raged over equality and civil rights. A new revolutionary culture was emerging and it sought to drastically transform the system. The Black Panther Party for Self-Defense would, for a short time, put itself at the vanguard of that change.

THE BLACK PANTHERS: VANGUARD OF THE REVOLUTION is the first feature length documentary to explore the Black Panther Party, its significance to the broader American culture, its cultural and political awakening for black people, and the painful lessons wrought when a movement derails. Master documentarian Stanley Nelson goes straight to the source, weaving a treasure trove of rare archival footage with the voices of the people who were there: police, FBI informants, journalists, white supporters and detractors, and Black Panthers who remained loyal to the party and those who left it. Featuring Kathleen Cleaver,Jamal Joseph, and many others, THE BLACK PANTHERS: VANGUARD OF THE REVOLUTION is an essential history and a vibrant chronicle of this pivotal movement that birthed a new revolutionary culture in America.

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Black Panther Party | American organization | Britannica.com

Black Panther Party,original name Black Panther Party for Self-Defense, Black Panther Party: Newton and Seale near party headquartersAPAfrican American revolutionary party, founded in 1966 in Oakland, California, by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale. The partys original purpose was to patrol African American neighbourhoods to protect residents from acts of police brutality. The Panthers eventually developed into a Marxist revolutionary group that called for the arming of all African Americans, the exemption of African Americans from the draft and from all sanctions of so-called white America, the release of all African Americans from jail, and the payment of compensation to African Americans for centuries of exploitation by white Americans. At its peak in the late 1960s, Panther membership exceeded 2,000, and the organization operated chapters in several major American cities.

Black Panther PartyPrints and Photographs Division/Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. (digital file no. LC-USZ62-128087)Despite passage of the 1960s civil rights legislation that followed the landmark U.S. Supreme Court ruling in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954), African Americans living in cities throughout North America continued to suffer economic and social inequality. Poverty and reduced public services characterized these urban centres, where residents were subject to poor living conditions, joblessness, chronic health problems, violence, and limited means to change their circumstances. Such conditions contributed to urban uprisings in the 1960s (such as those in the Watts district of Los Angeles in 1965, among others) and to the increased use of police violence as a measure to impose order on cities throughout North America.

It was in this context, and in the wake of the assassination of Malcolm X in 1965, that Merritt Junior College students Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale founded the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense on October 15, 1966, in West Oakland (officially Western Oakland, a district of the city of Oakland), California. Shortening its name to the Black Panther Party, the organization immediately sought to set itself apart from African American cultural nationalist organizations, such as the Universal Negro Improvement Association and the Nation of Islam, to which it was commonly compared. Although the groups shared certain philosophical positions and tactical features, the Black Panther Party and cultural nationalists differed on a number of basic points. For instance, whereas African American cultural nationalists generally regarded all white people as oppressors, the Black Panther Party distinguished between racist and nonracist whites and allied themselves with progressive members of the latter group. Also, whereas cultural nationalists generally viewed all African Americans as oppressed, the Black Panther Party believed that African American capitalists and elites could and typically did exploit and oppress others, particularly the African American working class. Perhaps most importantly, whereas cultural nationalists placed considerable emphasis on symbolic systems, such as language and imagery, as the means to liberate African Americans, the Black Panther Party believed that such systems, though important, are ineffective in bringing about liberation. It considered symbols as woefully inadequate to ameliorate the unjust material conditions, such as joblessness, created by capitalism.

From the outset, the Black Panther Party outlined a Ten Point Program, not unlike those of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and Nation of Islam, to initiate national African American community survival projects and to forge alliances with progressive white radicals and other organizations of people of colour. A number of positions outlined in the Ten Point Program address a principle stance of the Black Panther Party: economic exploitation is at the root of all oppression in the United States and abroad, and the abolition of capitalism is a precondition of social justice. In the 1960s this socialist economic outlook, informed by a Marxist political philosophy, resonated with other social movements in the United States and in other parts of the world. Therefore, even as the Black Panther Party found allies both within and beyond the borders of North America, the organization also found itself squarely in the crosshairs of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and its counterintelligence program, COINTELPRO. In fact, in 1969 FBI director J. Edgar Hoover considered the Black Panther Party the greatest threat to national security.

The Black Panther Party came into the national spotlight in May 1967 when a small group of its members, led by its chair, Seale, marched fully armed into the California state legislature in Sacramento. Emboldened by the view that African Americans had a constitutional right to bear arms (based on the Second Amendment of the U.S. Constitution), the Black Panther Party marched on the body as a protest against the pending Mulford Act. The Black Panther Party viewed the legislation, a gun control bill, as a political maneuver to thwart the organizations effort to combat police brutality in the Oakland community. The images of gun-toting Black Panthers entering the Capitol were supplemented, later that year, with news of Newtons arrest after a shoot-out with police in which an officer was killed. With this newfound publicity, the Black Panther Party grew from an Oakland-based organization into an international one with chapters in 48 states in North America and support groups in Japan, China, France, England, Germany, Sweden, Mozambique, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Uruguay, and elsewhere.

In addition to challenging police brutality, the Black Panther Party launched more than 35 Survival Programs and provided community help, such as education, tuberculosis testing, legal aid, transportation assistance, ambulance service, and the manufacture and distribution of free shoes to poor people. Of particular note was the Free Breakfast for Children Program that spread to every major American city with a Black Panther Party chapter; to the chagrin of Hoover, the government adopted it as a federal program that survived into the 21st century.

Notwithstanding the social services the Black Panther Party provided, the FBI declared the group a communist organization and an enemy of the U.S. government. Hoover had pledged that 1969 would be the last year of the Black Panther Party and devoted the resources of the FBI, through COINTELPRO, toward that end. In a protracted program against the Black Panther Party, COINTELPRO used agent provocateurs, sabotage, misinformation, and lethal force to eviscerate the national organization. The FBIs campaign culminated in December 1969 with a five-hour police shoot-out at the Southern California headquarters of the Black Panther Party and an Illinois state police raid in which Chicago Black Panther leader Fred Hampton was killed. The measures employed by the FBI were so extreme that, years later when they were revealed, the director of the agency publicly apologized for wrongful uses of power.

From the mid-1970s through the 80s, the activities of the Black Panther Party all but ceased. Although COINTELPRO contributed to its demise, the dissolution of the partys leadership also contributed to the downfall of the organization. Assata Shakur went into exile in Cuba. Kathleen Cleaver earned a law degree and took an appointment as a professor. After returning from exile in Cuba, Newton was killed in a drug dispute in August 1989, perishing in an alley in West Oakland, not far from where he and Seale had founded the first Black Panther Party chapter. Eldridge Cleaver designed clothes in the 1970s and 80s before joining the anticommunist Unification Church en route to becoming a born-again Christian and a registered member of the Republican Party.

From its founding in 1966, the influence of the Black Panther Party assumed a transnational character that went beyond the creation of support groups for the organization. Activists in Australian urban centres, for example, incorporated the works of Black Panther Party members into their social movements. The oppressed Dalits in India emulated the rhetoric of the Black Panthers, and the representatives of the Vietnamese National Liberation Front, who called themselves Yellow Panthers, also used the organization as a model. Closer to the United States, the Vanguard Party in the Bahamas closely studied the Black Panther Party, drew on its political philosophy, adopted its use of uniforms and its Ten Point Program, and published the newspaper Vanguard, whose scope and format mirrored the Black Panther Partys newspaper, Black Panther, to shape its program of activism.

Even decades after the founding of the organization, the Black Panther Party survived in the public imagination in the United States as a result of the publication of a number of memoirs by its members and the use of its rhetoric in rap music. In 1990 Milwaukee Alderman Michael McGee, a former Black Panther Party member, sought to resurrect the organization when he formed the Black Panther Militia in response to the neglect of his community by local politicians and business leaders. The militia inspired other chapters and eventually became the New Black Panther Party, under the leadership of community activist Aaron Michaels. By 1998, Khallid Abdul Muhammad, the former national spokesperson for the Chicago-based Nation of Islam, had assumed the de facto leadership of the organization when he led a group of shotgun- and rifle-toting New Black Panther Party members to Jasper, Texas, in the wake of the murder of James Byrd, Jr., a 49-year-old African American man who had been dragged behind a pickup truck by three members of the Ku Klux Klan. The New Black Panther Party also became known to the public through the Million Youth March it first organized in New York in 1998.

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Black Panther Party | American organization | Britannica.com

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Black Panther Party – Marxists Internet Archive

This text is available as an audio book.

In October of 1966, in Oakland California, Huey Newton and Bobby Seale founded the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense . The Panthers practiced militant self-defense of minority communities against the U.S. government, and fought to establish revolutionary socialism through mass organizing and community based programs. The party was one of the first organizations in U.S. history to militantly struggle for ethnic minority and working class emancipation a party whose agenda was the revolutionary establishment of real economic, social, and political equality across gender and color lines.

The Ten-Point Program Rules of the Black Panther Party

Black Panther Theory: The practices of the late Malcolm X were deeply rooted in the theoretical foundations of the Black Panther Party. Malcolm had represented both a militant revolutionary, with the dignity and self-respect to stand up and fight to win equality for all oppressed minorities; while also being an outstanding role model, someone who sought to bring about positive social services; something the Black Panthers would take to new heights. The Panthers followed Malcolm’s belief of international working class unity across the spectrum of color and gender, and thus united with various minority and white revolutionary groups. From the tenets of Maoism they set the role of their Party as the vanguard of the revolution and worked to establish a united front, while from Marxism they addressed the capitalist economic system, embraced the theory of dialectical materialism, and represented the need for all workers to forcefully take over the means of production.

Black Panther History: On April 25th, 1967, the first issue of The Black Panther, the party’s official news organ, goes into distribution. In the following month, the party marches on the California state capital fully armed, in protest of the state’s attempt to outlaw carrying loaded weapons in public. Bobby Seale reads a statement of protest; while the police respond by immediately arresting him and all 30 armed Panthers. This early act of political repression kindles the fires to the burning resistance movement in the United States; soon initiating minority workers to take up arms and form new Panther chapters outside the state.

The Black Panther: [off-site link] Articles from 1968-69

In October of 1967, the police arrest the Defense Minister of the Panthers, Huey Newton, for killing an Oakland cop. Panther Eldridge Cleaver begins the movement to “Free Huey”, a struggle the Panthers would devote a great deal of their attention to in the coming years, while the party spreads its roots further into the political spectrum, forming coalitions with various revolutionary parties. Stokely Carmichael, the former chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and a nationally known proponent of Black Power, is recruited into the party through this struggle, and soon becomes the party’s Prime Minister in February, 1968. Carmichael is adamantly against allowing whites into the black liberation movement, explaining whites cannot relate to the black experience and have an intimidating effect on blacks; a position that stirs opposition within the Panthers. Carmichael explains: “Whites who come into the black community with ideas of change seem to want to absolve the power structure of its responsibility for what it is doing, and say that change can only come through black unity, which is the worst kind of paternalism….. If we are to proceed toward true liberation, we must cut ourselves off from white people….. [otherwise] we will find ourselves entwined in the tentacles of the white power complex that controls this country.

Stokely Carmichael: The Basis of Black Power

In the beginning of 1968, after selling Mao’s Red Book to university students in order to buy shotguns, the Party makes the book required reading. Meanwhile, the FBI, under J. Edgar Hoover, begins a program called COINTELPRO (counterintelligence program) to break up the spreading unity of revolutionary groups that had begun solidifying through the work and examaple of the Panthers the Peace and Freedom Party, Brown Berets, Students for a Democratic Society, the SNCC, SCLC, Poor People’s March, Cesar Chavez and others in the farm labor movement, the American Indian Movement, Young Puerto Rican Brothers, the Young Lords and many others. To destroy the party, the FBI begins with a program of surgical assassinations killing leading members of the party who they know cannot be otherwise subverted. Following these mass killings would be a series of arrests, followed by a program of psychological warfare, designed to split the party both politically and morally through the use of espionage, provocatures, and chemical warfare.

Warning to So-Called Paper Panthers, The Black Panther, September 28, 1968

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Black Panther Party – Marxists Internet Archive

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Black Panther Party

This article is about the American political organization. For other meanings of the term, see Black panther (disambiguation).

The Black Panther Party (originally called the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was an African-American organization established to promote civil rights and self-defense. It was active in the United States from the mid-1960s into the 1970s.

Founded in Oakland, California, by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale in October 1966, the organization initially set forth a doctrine calling for the protection of African American neighborhoods from police brutality, in the interest of African-American justice.[1] Its objectives and philosophy changed radically during the party’s existence. While the organization’s leaders passionately espoused socialist doctrine, the Party’s black nationalist reputation attracted an ideologically diverse membership.[2] Ideological consensus within the party was difficult to achieve. Some members openly disagreed with the views of the leaders.

In 1967 the organization marched on the California State Capitol in Sacramento in protest of a ban on weapons. The official newspaper the Black Panther was also first circulated that year. By 1968, the party had expanded into many cities throughout the United States, including Chicago, Los Angeles, San Diego, Denver, Newark, New York City, and Baltimore. That same year, membership reached 5,000, and their newspaper had grown to a circulation of 250,000.[3]

The group created a Ten-Point Program, a document that called for “Land, Bread, Housing, Education, Clothing, Justice and Peace”, as well as exemption from military service for African-American men, among other demands.[4] While firmly grounded in black nationalism and begun as an organization that accepted only African Americans as members, the party changed as it grew to national prominence and became an icon of the counterculture of the 1960s.[5] The Black Panthers ultimately condemned black nationalism as “black racism”. They became more focused on socialism without racial exclusivity.[6] They instituted a variety of community programs to alleviate poverty and improve health among communities deemed most needful of aid. While the party retained its all-black membership, it recognized that different minority communities (those it deemed oppressed by the American government) needed to organize around their own set of issues and encouraged alliances with such organizations.

The group’s political goals were often overshadowed by their confrontational and militant tactics, and by their suspicions of law enforcement agents. The Black Panthers considered them as oppressors to be overcome by a willingness to take up armed self-defense.[7] After party membership started to decline during Huey Newton’s 1968 manslaughter trial, the Black Panther Party collapsed in the early 1970s. Writers such as Black Panther and Socialist Angela Davis and American writer and political activist Ward Churchill have alleged that law enforcement officials went to great lengths to discredit and destroy the organization, including assassination.[8]

In 1965, Huey Newton was released from jail. With his friend Bobby Seale from Oakland City College, he joined a black power group called the Revolutionary Action Movement (RAM). RAM had a chapter in Oakland and followed the writings of Robert F. Williams. Originally from North Carolina, Williams published a newsletter called The Crusader from China, where he fled to escape kidnapping charges. RAM was often seen as extremely violent. In 1965, three East Coast RAM members were charged with conspiring to blow up the Statue of Liberty, the Liberty Bell, and the Washington Monument.

The Oakland chapter consisted mainly of students, who were not interested in this extreme form of activism. Newton and Seale’s attitudes were more militant. The pair left RAM searching for a group more meaningful to them. [9]

The pair worked at the North Oakland Neighborhood Anti-Poverty Center, where they also served on the advisory board. To combat police brutality, the advisory board obtained five thousand signatures in support of the City Council’s setting up a police review board to review complaints. Newton was also taking classes at the City College and at San Francisco Law School. Both institutions were active in the North Oakland Center. Thus the pair had numerous connections with whom they talked about a new organization. Inspired by the success of the Lowndes County Freedom Organization and Stokely Carmichael’s, calls for separate black political organizations,[10] they wrote their initial platform statement, the ten-point program. With the help of Huey’s brother Melvin, they decided on a uniform of blue shirts, black pants, black leather jackets, black berets, and openly displayed loaded shotguns.[11]

The Watts Riots occurred in 1965. According to Huey P. Newton, the riots were the result of police brutality. The Oakland Police and the California Highway Patrol carried shotguns in full view, to scare the community. Martin Luther King Jr. attempted to calm the situation, but his philosophy of nonviolence was seen as useless. The rising consciousness of black people convinced them that their time had come to rise up. The Black Panther party saw its purpose to further the African-American civil rights movement and to find solutions to the growing problems caused by the oppression of black people.[12]

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Black Panther Party

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Report: New Black Panthers will go to Cleveland with guns …

Last Updated Jul 13, 2016 9:59 AM EDT The New Black Panther Party, a “black power” organization, plans to attend demonstrations in Cleveland ahead of the Republican National Convention, and members plan to bring their firearms. Hashim Nzinga, chairman of the New Black Panther Party, told Reuters in an interview on Tuesday that the group planned on exercising its Second Amendment rights in Ohio, an open-carry state, because “there are other groups threatening to be there that are threatening to do harm to us.” In a statement released Wednesday clarifying the organization’s position, the NBPP said: “The NEW BLACK PANTHER PARTY IS NOT INSTRUCTING ANYONE in any way, shape, form, or fashion, to bring weapons to Cleveland.” Ohio’s open-carry laws are the same as Texas, where lone gunman Micah Johnson killed five Dallas police officers during a peaceful Black Lives Matter protest last week. In the wake of that incident, the law is raising security concerns for law enforcement. Nzinga expects that a few hundred members of the New Black Panther Party will be attending the Black Unity rally that will begin on Thursday and run through Sunday, the day before the convention begins. Play Video Chief David Brown said Monday the investigation into Thursday’s Dallas attack includes reviewing 170 hours of body camera footage and countless h… The 25-year-old Dallas gunman was not an official member of any Black Power group but had an affinity for the separatist movement. The New Black Panther Party has been described by the Southern Poverty Law Center as a “a virulently racist and anti-Semitic organization whose leaders have encouraged violence against whites, Jews and law enforcement officers.” But Nzinga denounced the attack in Dallas and told Reuters that the group is not racist. The New Black Panthers aren’t the only group planning to go to Cleveland packing heat. The New York Times reported that the group “Oath Keepers,” which consists of former members of the military, has plans to attend the demonstrations surrounding the Cleveland convention heavily armed. Tim Selaty, the director of the pro-Trump group Citizens for Trump, has said that people should be allowed to carry guns. However, Selaty has called for a ban on long weapons for the rally that will take place on Monday outside of the convention. Cleveland.com points out that there is a designated “event zone” outside the Quicken Loans arena where the convention will be held. This outer zone is essentially downtown Cleveland, and open-carry laws will apply here. The arena, however, is part of an inner security perimeter that is controlled by the U.S. Secret Service, which will prohibit guns on the floor of the convention. 2016 CBS Interactive Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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New Black Panther Party to carry guns at the Republican …

Demonstrators, wearing the insignia of the New Black Panthers Party, protest the shooting death of Alton Sterling near the headquarters of the Baton Rouge Police Department in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, U.S. July 9, 2016. REUTERS/Jonathan Bachman The chairman of the New Black Panther Party, a black power movement, said his group will carry arms for self-defense during protests at the Republican convention next week if allowed under Ohio law. If it is an open state to carry, we will exercise our second amendment rights because there are other groups threatening to be there that are threatening to do harm to us, Hashim Nzinga, chairman of the New Black Panther Party, told Reuters in an interview. If that state allows us to bear arms, the Panthers and the others who can legally bear arms will bear arms. Nzinga condemned the killing of five police officers in Dallas last week as a massacre and said his group played no role in the attack. Officials in Ohio have said it will be legal for protesters to carry weapons at demonstrations outside the convention under the states open carry laws. Several other groups, including some supporters of presumptive Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump, have said they will carry weapons in protests as well, leading to concerns about rival groups being armed in close proximity. Nzinga said he expected a couple hundred members of the New Black Panther Party to join a black unity protest that is scheduled to be held on Thursday in Cleveland. (Reporting By Ned Parker; Editing by David Rohde and Stuart Grudgings)

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Black Panthers in North Carolina? | Yahoo Answers

It’s not impossible, but it’s very unlikely. ‘Black panther’ is the name commonly used for melanistic leopards – that is, leopards with an excess of the dark pigment melanin, resulting in an almost totally black coat. Leopards are native to Asia and Africa, so would not naturally be found in your location, but there’s always the possibility of it being an escapee from a zoo, or a privately-owned animal that escaped or was deliberately released (non-native large cats are reported in the UK, where I live, occasionally – these are believed to be descendants of pets released in the 1970s, after new laws required a licence to keep them). Melanistic jaguars are also referred to as panthers by some people, but again they are not naturally found in your region – jaguars are found in South and Central America. There have been a few sightings in the extreme southern US in recent years, but I’d be very surprised if one had made it as far as NC. The only large cat you might expect to see in the US is the puma, also called the cougar, mountain lion and various other names. It is normally tawny-coloured, and whilst melanism is possible in any species this would be extremely unusual. If your fiance saw a melanistic puma he is very lucky! Does he have a reason for believing what he saw was some kind of cat, rather than, say, a large dog, a wolf, or a bear? Did he notice a long tail, for example? EDIT: Hmm, a long thick tail would suggest a puma – leopards and jaguars have quite slim tails. Next question: was it definitely black? I mean, it didn’t just look black because it was in silhouette, or covered in mud, or something like that? Here’s some images, ask your fiance if it looked like any of these: Puma: http://www.banffnationalpark.com/wp-cont… Leopard: http://www.consbio.umn.edu/student_image… Black leopard: http://www.dkimages.com/discover/preview… Jaguar: http://aura0.gaia.com/photos/47/462880/large/PV-Jaguar-InJungle-WaterMirror.jpg Black jaguar: http://dinets.travel.ru/bjaguarmexl.jpg

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Seattle Black Panther Party History and Memory Project

The Black Panther Party for Self Defense established its Seattle chapter in the spring of 1968. It was one of the first to be created outside of California. The Seattle chapter also lasted longer than most, surviving until 1978. Although the membership was never large, the organization made a major impact on the region. With their black berets and leather jackets and their commitment to armed self defense, the Panthers became role models to some while scaring others. Either way, the organization showed Seattle that its struggles for racial justice had moved beyond persuasion and nonviolent protest. This page introduces the Seattle Black Panther Party — History and Memory Project. The unit comprises the most extensive online collection of materials for any chapter of the Black Panther Party, including the Oakland chapter. The links above and below lead to more than a dozen oral histories, scores of photographs, rare documents, and BPP publications, more than 100 newspaper articles, and the complete transcript and exhibits from the 1970 Congressional Hearings into the activities of the chapter. * * * Huey Newton and Bobby Seale founded t he Black Panther Party in Oakland, California, in late 1966. The rest of the world learned about the organization the following year, after a contingent of heavily armed Panthers marched onto the floor of the California legislature protesting a bill to ban firearms in public places. Weapons and armed self defense were key elements in the Panther program, one part of which focused on protecting black communities from brutal policing practices. Calling police officers “pigs,” and following them as they patrolled black neighborhoods, the Panthers were soon involved in deadly gun battles with police in Oakland and later in other cities. The uninformed thought of the Panthers as Black Nationalists, but the Party was actually committed to revolutionary internationalism, taking some of its program from the “Little Red Book” (Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse Tung) and identifying with third-world revolutionary movements. The Washington state chapter of the BPP was established in April, 1968 after Aaron Dixon, Elmer Dixon, Anthony Ware, Gary Owens and several other future Panthers attended a memorial service in San Francisco for 17 year-old Bobby Hutton. Hutton had been killed by Oakland police in a shootout in which Party leader Eldridge Cleaver was also wounded. While in Oakland, the Seattle youth met BPP Chairman Bobby Seale, whose subsequent visit to Seattle marked the beginning of the Washington State chapter. The history of the Washington State chapter can be followed in the accompanying pages. Janet Jones is the coordinator of this special section and conducted all of the interviews. Alexander Morrow and Nathan Roberts served as Associate Editors. We wish to thank members of the BPP Legacy Committee for sharing stories, photographs, and documents. Thanks also to the Seattle Times, Seattle Post Intelligencer, Seattle Medium, University of Washington Daily, and Afro American Journal, and Seattle Magazine for the articles and photographs that appear on the News Coverage page. “Black Panthers Tell Their Stories”: This powerpoint slideshow introduces the special section. In videotaped oral history segments, former Panthers talk about their reasons for joining the Party and their experiences in the organization. Former mayor Wes Uhlman tells of FBI plans to raid Panther headquarters and his reasons for intervening to prevent bloodshed. Photographs: From the Washington State Archives; Eugene Tagawa collection; Aaron Dixon collection; Fred Lonidier collection, and the Musuem of History and Industry. News Coverage: We have digitized more than 100 newspaper articles that appeared between 1968 and 1979, making it possible to follow the news coverage that surrounded the BPP. Congressional Hearings: In 1970, Congress launched a full-scale investigation of the Black Panther Party. One set of hearings focused on the Seattle chapter. Here you can read the testimony and view the exhibits collected by Congressional investigators. Included are photographs of members and buildings that served as Party offices or breakfast program centers, and testimony from police officers and a secret undercover witness. History: This three part essay by Kurt Schaefer explores the first three years of the Seattle chapter of the Black Panther Party from its founding by Black Student Union members in 1968 through the 1970 crisis negotiated by Mayor Wes Uhlman. Documents: The five issues of the Seattle Party Bulletin and many leaflets and other printed material. Links: Online links to information about the Seattle chapter, other chapters, and the Black Panther Party headquarters. For Teachers: a lesson plan and materials suitable for high school classes. Mirroring the incident in Sacramento that had brought so much attention in 1967, on February 28, 1969, a group of Seattle Panthers led by Lt. Elmer Dixon gathered on the steps of the Capitol in Olympia to protest a bill that would make it a crime to exhibit firearms “in a manner manifesting an intent to intimidate others. In contrast to the California demonstration, they did not enter the building and they were not arrested. (Photo: Washington State Archives) The first BPP office at 1127 34th Ave. Here a are photos of all of the Party headquarters and Breakfast Program centers. Video Oral Histories: Short biographies and streaming video excerpts of interviews with BPP veterans.

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Black panther – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A black panther is the melanistic color variant of any Panthera species. Black panthers in Asia and Africa are leopards (Panthera pardus) and black panthers in the Americas are black jaguars (Panthera onca).[1] Melanism in the jaguar (Panthera onca) is conferred by a dominant allele, and in the leopard (Panthera pardus) by a recessive allele. Close examination of the color of these black cats will show that the typical markings are still present, but are hidden by the excess black pigment melanin, giving an effect similar to that of printed silk. This is called “ghost striping”. Melanistic and non-melanistic animals can be littermates. It is thought that melanism may confer a selective advantage under certain conditions since it is more common in regions of dense forest, where light levels are lower. Recently, preliminary studies also suggest that melanism might be linked to beneficial mutations in the immune system.[2] The Javan leopard was initially described as being black with dark black spots and silver-grey eyes.[3] Black leopards are common in the equatorial rainforest of Malaya and the tropical rainforest on the slopes of some African mountains such as Mount Kenya.[4] They are also common in Java, and are reported from densely forested areas in southwestern China, Myanmar, Assam and Nepal, from Travancore and other parts of southern India where they may be more numerous than spotted leopards.[5] One was recorded in the equatorial forest of Cameroon.[citation needed] Melanistic leopards are the most common form of black panther in captivity and they have been selectively bred for decades in the zoo and exotic pet trades. According to Funk and Wagnalls’ Wildlife Encyclopedia, captive black leopards are less fertile than spotted leopards, with average litter sizes of 1.8 and 2.1, respectively. This is likely due to inbreeding depression.[6] In the early 1980s, Glasgow Zoo acquired a 10-year-old black leopard, nicknamed the Cobweb Panther, from Dublin Zoo. She was exhibited for several years before being moved to the Madrid Zoo. This leopard had a uniformly black coat profusely sprinkled with white hairs as though draped with spider webs. The condition appeared to be vitiligo; as she aged, the white became more extensive.[citation needed] Since then, other “cobweb panthers” have been reported and photographed in zoos. In jaguars, the melanism allele is dominant. Consequently, black jaguars may produce either black or spotted cubs, but a pair of spotted jaguars can only produce spotted cubs. Individuals with two copies of the allele are darker (the black background colour is more dense) than ones with just one copy, whose background colour may appear to be dark charcoal rather than black. The black jaguar was considered a separate species by indigenous peoples. W H Hudson wrote, “The jaguar is a beautiful creature, the ground-colour of the fur a rich golden-red tan, abundantly marked with black rings, enclosing one or two small spots within. This is the typical colouring and it varies little in the temperate regions; in the hot region the Indians recognise three strongly marked varieties, which they regard as distinct species the one described; the smaller jaguar, less aquatic in his habits and marked with spots, not rings; and, thirdly, the black variety. They scout the notion that their terrible “black tiger” is a mere melanic variation, like the black leopard of the Old World and the wild black rabbit. They regard it as wholly distinct, and affirm that it is larger and much more dangerous than the spotted jaguar; that they recognise it by its cry; that it belongs to the terra firma rather than to the water-side; finally, that black pairs with black, and that the cubs are invariably black. Nevertheless, naturalists have been obliged to make it specifically one with Felis onca [Panthera onca], the familiar spotted jaguar, since, when stripped of its hide, it is found to be anatomically as much like that beast as the black is like the spotted leopard.”[7] A black jaguar named “Diablo” was inadvertently crossed with a lioness named “Lola” at the Bear Creek Wildlife Sanctuary in Barrie, Ontario, Canada.[8] The offspring were a charcoal black jaglion female and a tan-coloured, spotted jaglion male. It therefore appears that the jaguar melanism gene is also dominant over normal lion colouration (the black jaguar sire was presumably carrying the black on only one allele). In preserved, stuffed specimens, black leopards often fade to a rusty colour but black jaguars fade to a chocolate brown colour.[citation needed] There are no authenticated cases of truly melanistic cougars (pumas). Melanistic cougars have never been photographed or shot in the wild and none has ever been bred. Unconfirmed sightings, known as the “North American black panther”, are currently attributed to errors in species identification by non-experts, and by the memetic exaggeration of size. Black panthers in the American Southeast feature prominently in Choctaw folklore where, along with the owl, they are often thought to symbolize Death. In his Histoire Naturelle (1749), Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, wrote of the “Black Cougar”:[9] “M. de la Borde, Kings physician at Cayenne, informs me, that in the [South American] Continent there are three species of rapacious animals; that the first is the jaguar, which is called the tiger; that the second is the couguar [sic], called the red tiger, on account of the uniform redness of his hair; that the jaguar is of the size of a large bull-dog, and weighs about 200 pounds [90kg]; that the cougar is smaller, less dangerous, and not so frequent in the neighbourhood of Cayenne as the jaguar; and that both these animals take six years in acquiring their full growth. He adds, that there is a third species in these countries, called the black tiger, of which we have given a figure under the appellation of the black cougar. The head is pretty similar to that of the common cougar; but the animal has long black hair, and likewise a long tail, with strong whiskers. He weighs not much above forty pounds [18 kg]. The female brings forth her young in the hollows of old trees.” This “black cougar” was most likely a margay or ocelot, which are under 18kg (40lb) in weight, live in trees, and do have melanistic phases. Another description of a black cougar[10] was provided by Thomas Pennant: “Black tiger, or cat, with the head black, sides, fore part of the legs, and the tail, covered with short and very glossy hairs, of a dusky colour, sometimes spotted with black, but generally plain: Upper lips white: At the corner of the mouth a black spot: Long hairs above each eye, and long whiskers on the upper lip: Lower lip, throat, belly and the inside of the legs, whitish, or very pale ash-colour: Paws white: Ears pointed: Grows to the size of a heifer of a year old: Has vast strength in its limbs.– Inhabits Brasil and Guiana: Is a cruel and fierce beast; much dreaded by the Indians; but happily is a scarce species.” According to his translator Smellie (1781), the description was taken from two black jaguars exhibited in London some years previously. Black panther sightings are frequently recorded in rural Victoria and New South Wales[11] and Western Australia. The Australian “phantom panthers” are said to be responsible for the disappearances and deaths of numerous cats, dogs and livestock. Animal X Natural Mysteries Unit led an investigation into the phantom panther. Mike Williams, a local researcher, said he had sent feces and hair found by locals to labs for analysis, which identified it as feces from dogs that had feasted on swamp wallaby, and hair from a domestic cat. Mr Williams said he also had known leopard feces and hair collected from a private zoo tested by one of the same labs, but that these samples came back with the same results of dog feces and domestic cat hair. This indicated the lab incapable of distinguishing between leopard hairs and those of domestic animals, casting doubt on the previous findings. The lab used was not identified in the episode.[12] Pseudo-melanism (abundism) occurs in leopards. A pseudo-melanistic leopard has a normal background color, but the spots are more densely packed than normal and merge to obscure the golden-brown background color. Any spots on the flanks and limbs that have not merged into the mass of swirls and stripes are unusually small and discrete, rather than forming rosettes. The face and underparts are paler and dappled like those of ordinary spotted leopards.[13] Richard Lydekker described specimens of pseudo-melanistic leopards found in South Africa in the late nineteenth century:[14] “The ground-color of this animal was a rich tawny, with an orange tinge; but the spots, instead of being of the usual rosette-like form, were nearly all small and solid, like those on the head of an ordinary leopard; while from the top of the head to near the root of the tail the spots became almost confluent, producing the appearance of a broad streak of black running down the back. A second skin had the black area embracing nearly the whole of the back and flanks, without showing any trace of the spots. These dark-coloured South African leopards differ from the black leopards of the northern and eastern parts of Africa and Asia in that while in the latter the rosette-like spots are always retained and clearly visible, in the former the rosettes are lost…” Lydekker, R. (1910), Harmsworth Natural History Most other color morphs of leopards are known only from paintings or museum specimens. In May 1936, the British Natural History Museum exhibited the mounted skin of an unusual Somali leopard.[14] The pelt was richly decorated with an intricate pattern of swirling stripes, blotches, curls and fine-line traceries. This is different from a spotted leopard, but similar to a king cheetah, hence the modern cryptozoology term king leopard. Between 1885 and 1934, six pseudo-melanistic leopards were recorded in the Albany and Grahamstown districts of South Africa.[14] This indicated a mutation in the local leopard population. Other king leopards have been recorded from Malabar in southwestern India.[14] Shooting for trophies may have contributed to the loss of these populations.

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Home | Black Panthers

Change was coming to America and the fault lines could no longer be ignoredcities were burning, Vietnam was exploding, and disputes raged over equality and civil rights. A new revolutionary culture was emerging and it sought to drastically transform the system. The Black Panther Party for Self-Defense would, for a short time, put itself at the vanguard of that change. THE BLACK PANTHERS: VANGUARD OF THE REVOLUTION is the first feature length documentary to explore the Black Panther Party, its significance to the broader American culture, its cultural and political awakening for black people, and the painful lessons wrought when a movement derails. Master documentarian Stanley Nelson goes straight to the source, weaving a treasure trove of rare archival footage with the voices of the people who were there: police, FBI informants, journalists, white supporters and detractors, and Black Panthers who remained loyal to the party and those who left it. Featuring Kathleen Cleaver,Jamal Joseph, and many others, THE BLACK PANTHERS: VANGUARD OF THE REVOLUTION is an essential history and a vibrant chronicle of this pivotal movement that birthed a new revolutionary culture in America.

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Black Panther Party | American organization | Britannica.com

Black Panther Party,original name Black Panther Party for Self-Defense, Black Panther Party: Newton and Seale near party headquartersAPAfrican American revolutionary party, founded in 1966 in Oakland, California, by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale. The partys original purpose was to patrol African American neighbourhoods to protect residents from acts of police brutality. The Panthers eventually developed into a Marxist revolutionary group that called for the arming of all African Americans, the exemption of African Americans from the draft and from all sanctions of so-called white America, the release of all African Americans from jail, and the payment of compensation to African Americans for centuries of exploitation by white Americans. At its peak in the late 1960s, Panther membership exceeded 2,000, and the organization operated chapters in several major American cities. Black Panther PartyPrints and Photographs Division/Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. (digital file no. LC-USZ62-128087)Despite passage of the 1960s civil rights legislation that followed the landmark U.S. Supreme Court ruling in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954), African Americans living in cities throughout North America continued to suffer economic and social inequality. Poverty and reduced public services characterized these urban centres, where residents were subject to poor living conditions, joblessness, chronic health problems, violence, and limited means to change their circumstances. Such conditions contributed to urban uprisings in the 1960s (such as those in the Watts district of Los Angeles in 1965, among others) and to the increased use of police violence as a measure to impose order on cities throughout North America. It was in this context, and in the wake of the assassination of Malcolm X in 1965, that Merritt Junior College students Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale founded the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense on October 15, 1966, in West Oakland (officially Western Oakland, a district of the city of Oakland), California. Shortening its name to the Black Panther Party, the organization immediately sought to set itself apart from African American cultural nationalist organizations, such as the Universal Negro Improvement Association and the Nation of Islam, to which it was commonly compared. Although the groups shared certain philosophical positions and tactical features, the Black Panther Party and cultural nationalists differed on a number of basic points. For instance, whereas African American cultural nationalists generally regarded all white people as oppressors, the Black Panther Party distinguished between racist and nonracist whites and allied themselves with progressive members of the latter group. Also, whereas cultural nationalists generally viewed all African Americans as oppressed, the Black Panther Party believed that African American capitalists and elites could and typically did exploit and oppress others, particularly the African American working class. Perhaps most importantly, whereas cultural nationalists placed considerable emphasis on symbolic systems, such as language and imagery, as the means to liberate African Americans, the Black Panther Party believed that such systems, though important, are ineffective in bringing about liberation. It considered symbols as woefully inadequate to ameliorate the unjust material conditions, such as joblessness, created by capitalism. From the outset, the Black Panther Party outlined a Ten Point Program, not unlike those of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and Nation of Islam, to initiate national African American community survival projects and to forge alliances with progressive white radicals and other organizations of people of colour. A number of positions outlined in the Ten Point Program address a principle stance of the Black Panther Party: economic exploitation is at the root of all oppression in the United States and abroad, and the abolition of capitalism is a precondition of social justice. In the 1960s this socialist economic outlook, informed by a Marxist political philosophy, resonated with other social movements in the United States and in other parts of the world. Therefore, even as the Black Panther Party found allies both within and beyond the borders of North America, the organization also found itself squarely in the crosshairs of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and its counterintelligence program, COINTELPRO. In fact, in 1969 FBI director J. Edgar Hoover considered the Black Panther Party the greatest threat to national security. The Black Panther Party came into the national spotlight in May 1967 when a small group of its members, led by its chair, Seale, marched fully armed into the California state legislature in Sacramento. Emboldened by the view that African Americans had a constitutional right to bear arms (based on the Second Amendment of the U.S. Constitution), the Black Panther Party marched on the body as a protest against the pending Mulford Act. The Black Panther Party viewed the legislation, a gun control bill, as a political maneuver to thwart the organizations effort to combat police brutality in the Oakland community. The images of gun-toting Black Panthers entering the Capitol were supplemented, later that year, with news of Newtons arrest after a shoot-out with police in which an officer was killed. With this newfound publicity, the Black Panther Party grew from an Oakland-based organization into an international one with chapters in 48 states in North America and support groups in Japan, China, France, England, Germany, Sweden, Mozambique, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Uruguay, and elsewhere. In addition to challenging police brutality, the Black Panther Party launched more than 35 Survival Programs and provided community help, such as education, tuberculosis testing, legal aid, transportation assistance, ambulance service, and the manufacture and distribution of free shoes to poor people. Of particular note was the Free Breakfast for Children Program that spread to every major American city with a Black Panther Party chapter; to the chagrin of Hoover, the government adopted it as a federal program that survived into the 21st century. Notwithstanding the social services the Black Panther Party provided, the FBI declared the group a communist organization and an enemy of the U.S. government. Hoover had pledged that 1969 would be the last year of the Black Panther Party and devoted the resources of the FBI, through COINTELPRO, toward that end. In a protracted program against the Black Panther Party, COINTELPRO used agent provocateurs, sabotage, misinformation, and lethal force to eviscerate the national organization. The FBIs campaign culminated in December 1969 with a five-hour police shoot-out at the Southern California headquarters of the Black Panther Party and an Illinois state police raid in which Chicago Black Panther leader Fred Hampton was killed. The measures employed by the FBI were so extreme that, years later when they were revealed, the director of the agency publicly apologized for wrongful uses of power. From the mid-1970s through the 80s, the activities of the Black Panther Party all but ceased. Although COINTELPRO contributed to its demise, the dissolution of the partys leadership also contributed to the downfall of the organization. Assata Shakur went into exile in Cuba. Kathleen Cleaver earned a law degree and took an appointment as a professor. After returning from exile in Cuba, Newton was killed in a drug dispute in August 1989, perishing in an alley in West Oakland, not far from where he and Seale had founded the first Black Panther Party chapter. Eldridge Cleaver designed clothes in the 1970s and 80s before joining the anticommunist Unification Church en route to becoming a born-again Christian and a registered member of the Republican Party. From its founding in 1966, the influence of the Black Panther Party assumed a transnational character that went beyond the creation of support groups for the organization. Activists in Australian urban centres, for example, incorporated the works of Black Panther Party members into their social movements. The oppressed Dalits in India emulated the rhetoric of the Black Panthers, and the representatives of the Vietnamese National Liberation Front, who called themselves Yellow Panthers, also used the organization as a model. Closer to the United States, the Vanguard Party in the Bahamas closely studied the Black Panther Party, drew on its political philosophy, adopted its use of uniforms and its Ten Point Program, and published the newspaper Vanguard, whose scope and format mirrored the Black Panther Partys newspaper, Black Panther, to shape its program of activism. Even decades after the founding of the organization, the Black Panther Party survived in the public imagination in the United States as a result of the publication of a number of memoirs by its members and the use of its rhetoric in rap music. In 1990 Milwaukee Alderman Michael McGee, a former Black Panther Party member, sought to resurrect the organization when he formed the Black Panther Militia in response to the neglect of his community by local politicians and business leaders. The militia inspired other chapters and eventually became the New Black Panther Party, under the leadership of community activist Aaron Michaels. By 1998, Khallid Abdul Muhammad, the former national spokesperson for the Chicago-based Nation of Islam, had assumed the de facto leadership of the organization when he led a group of shotgun- and rifle-toting New Black Panther Party members to Jasper, Texas, in the wake of the murder of James Byrd, Jr., a 49-year-old African American man who had been dragged behind a pickup truck by three members of the Ku Klux Klan. The New Black Panther Party also became known to the public through the Million Youth March it first organized in New York in 1998.

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August 7, 2015   Posted in: Black Panthers  Comments Closed

Black Panther Party – Marxists Internet Archive

This text is available as an audio book. In October of 1966, in Oakland California, Huey Newton and Bobby Seale founded the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense . The Panthers practiced militant self-defense of minority communities against the U.S. government, and fought to establish revolutionary socialism through mass organizing and community based programs. The party was one of the first organizations in U.S. history to militantly struggle for ethnic minority and working class emancipation a party whose agenda was the revolutionary establishment of real economic, social, and political equality across gender and color lines. The Ten-Point Program Rules of the Black Panther Party Black Panther Theory: The practices of the late Malcolm X were deeply rooted in the theoretical foundations of the Black Panther Party. Malcolm had represented both a militant revolutionary, with the dignity and self-respect to stand up and fight to win equality for all oppressed minorities; while also being an outstanding role model, someone who sought to bring about positive social services; something the Black Panthers would take to new heights. The Panthers followed Malcolm’s belief of international working class unity across the spectrum of color and gender, and thus united with various minority and white revolutionary groups. From the tenets of Maoism they set the role of their Party as the vanguard of the revolution and worked to establish a united front, while from Marxism they addressed the capitalist economic system, embraced the theory of dialectical materialism, and represented the need for all workers to forcefully take over the means of production. Black Panther History: On April 25th, 1967, the first issue of The Black Panther, the party’s official news organ, goes into distribution. In the following month, the party marches on the California state capital fully armed, in protest of the state’s attempt to outlaw carrying loaded weapons in public. Bobby Seale reads a statement of protest; while the police respond by immediately arresting him and all 30 armed Panthers. This early act of political repression kindles the fires to the burning resistance movement in the United States; soon initiating minority workers to take up arms and form new Panther chapters outside the state. The Black Panther: [off-site link] Articles from 1968-69 In October of 1967, the police arrest the Defense Minister of the Panthers, Huey Newton, for killing an Oakland cop. Panther Eldridge Cleaver begins the movement to “Free Huey”, a struggle the Panthers would devote a great deal of their attention to in the coming years, while the party spreads its roots further into the political spectrum, forming coalitions with various revolutionary parties. Stokely Carmichael, the former chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and a nationally known proponent of Black Power, is recruited into the party through this struggle, and soon becomes the party’s Prime Minister in February, 1968. Carmichael is adamantly against allowing whites into the black liberation movement, explaining whites cannot relate to the black experience and have an intimidating effect on blacks; a position that stirs opposition within the Panthers. Carmichael explains: “Whites who come into the black community with ideas of change seem to want to absolve the power structure of its responsibility for what it is doing, and say that change can only come through black unity, which is the worst kind of paternalism….. If we are to proceed toward true liberation, we must cut ourselves off from white people….. [otherwise] we will find ourselves entwined in the tentacles of the white power complex that controls this country. Stokely Carmichael: The Basis of Black Power In the beginning of 1968, after selling Mao’s Red Book to university students in order to buy shotguns, the Party makes the book required reading. Meanwhile, the FBI, under J. Edgar Hoover, begins a program called COINTELPRO (counterintelligence program) to break up the spreading unity of revolutionary groups that had begun solidifying through the work and examaple of the Panthers the Peace and Freedom Party, Brown Berets, Students for a Democratic Society, the SNCC, SCLC, Poor People’s March, Cesar Chavez and others in the farm labor movement, the American Indian Movement, Young Puerto Rican Brothers, the Young Lords and many others. To destroy the party, the FBI begins with a program of surgical assassinations killing leading members of the party who they know cannot be otherwise subverted. Following these mass killings would be a series of arrests, followed by a program of psychological warfare, designed to split the party both politically and morally through the use of espionage, provocatures, and chemical warfare. Warning to So-Called Paper Panthers, The Black Panther, September 28, 1968

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May 19, 2015   Posted in: Black Panthers  Comments Closed

Black Panther Party

This article is about the American political organization. For other meanings of the term, see Black panther (disambiguation). The Black Panther Party (originally called the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was an African-American organization established to promote civil rights and self-defense. It was active in the United States from the mid-1960s into the 1970s. Founded in Oakland, California, by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale in October 1966, the organization initially set forth a doctrine calling for the protection of African American neighborhoods from police brutality, in the interest of African-American justice.[1] Its objectives and philosophy changed radically during the party’s existence. While the organization’s leaders passionately espoused socialist doctrine, the Party’s black nationalist reputation attracted an ideologically diverse membership.[2] Ideological consensus within the party was difficult to achieve. Some members openly disagreed with the views of the leaders. In 1967 the organization marched on the California State Capitol in Sacramento in protest of a ban on weapons. The official newspaper the Black Panther was also first circulated that year. By 1968, the party had expanded into many cities throughout the United States, including Chicago, Los Angeles, San Diego, Denver, Newark, New York City, and Baltimore. That same year, membership reached 5,000, and their newspaper had grown to a circulation of 250,000.[3] The group created a Ten-Point Program, a document that called for “Land, Bread, Housing, Education, Clothing, Justice and Peace”, as well as exemption from military service for African-American men, among other demands.[4] While firmly grounded in black nationalism and begun as an organization that accepted only African Americans as members, the party changed as it grew to national prominence and became an icon of the counterculture of the 1960s.[5] The Black Panthers ultimately condemned black nationalism as “black racism”. They became more focused on socialism without racial exclusivity.[6] They instituted a variety of community programs to alleviate poverty and improve health among communities deemed most needful of aid. While the party retained its all-black membership, it recognized that different minority communities (those it deemed oppressed by the American government) needed to organize around their own set of issues and encouraged alliances with such organizations. The group’s political goals were often overshadowed by their confrontational and militant tactics, and by their suspicions of law enforcement agents. The Black Panthers considered them as oppressors to be overcome by a willingness to take up armed self-defense.[7] After party membership started to decline during Huey Newton’s 1968 manslaughter trial, the Black Panther Party collapsed in the early 1970s. Writers such as Black Panther and Socialist Angela Davis and American writer and political activist Ward Churchill have alleged that law enforcement officials went to great lengths to discredit and destroy the organization, including assassination.[8] In 1965, Huey Newton was released from jail. With his friend Bobby Seale from Oakland City College, he joined a black power group called the Revolutionary Action Movement (RAM). RAM had a chapter in Oakland and followed the writings of Robert F. Williams. Originally from North Carolina, Williams published a newsletter called The Crusader from China, where he fled to escape kidnapping charges. RAM was often seen as extremely violent. In 1965, three East Coast RAM members were charged with conspiring to blow up the Statue of Liberty, the Liberty Bell, and the Washington Monument. The Oakland chapter consisted mainly of students, who were not interested in this extreme form of activism. Newton and Seale’s attitudes were more militant. The pair left RAM searching for a group more meaningful to them. [9] The pair worked at the North Oakland Neighborhood Anti-Poverty Center, where they also served on the advisory board. To combat police brutality, the advisory board obtained five thousand signatures in support of the City Council’s setting up a police review board to review complaints. Newton was also taking classes at the City College and at San Francisco Law School. Both institutions were active in the North Oakland Center. Thus the pair had numerous connections with whom they talked about a new organization. Inspired by the success of the Lowndes County Freedom Organization and Stokely Carmichael’s, calls for separate black political organizations,[10] they wrote their initial platform statement, the ten-point program. With the help of Huey’s brother Melvin, they decided on a uniform of blue shirts, black pants, black leather jackets, black berets, and openly displayed loaded shotguns.[11] The Watts Riots occurred in 1965. According to Huey P. Newton, the riots were the result of police brutality. The Oakland Police and the California Highway Patrol carried shotguns in full view, to scare the community. Martin Luther King Jr. attempted to calm the situation, but his philosophy of nonviolence was seen as useless. The rising consciousness of black people convinced them that their time had come to rise up. The Black Panther party saw its purpose to further the African-American civil rights movement and to find solutions to the growing problems caused by the oppression of black people.[12]

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May 11, 2015   Posted in: Black Panthers  Comments Closed


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