Archive for the ‘Black Racism’ Category

A History of Race and Racism in America, in 24 Chapters – New York Times


New York Times
A History of Race and Racism in America, in 24 Chapters
New York Times
No list can ever be comprehensive, and most influential by no means signifies best. But I would argue that together, these works tell the history of anti-black racism in the United States as painfully, as eloquently, as disturbingly as words can

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A History of Race and Racism in America, in 24 Chapters – New York Times

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February 23, 2017   Posted in: Black Racism  Comments Closed

VIDEO: Black Lives Matter: racist provocation with radical roots – Canada Free Press

In her recent book The War on Cops, Manhattan Institute fellow Heather Mac Donald argues that the BLM movement and the fallout from it have made the inner city much more dangerous, as police forces adopt hands-off policies in response to growing hostility. Some call it the Ferguson effect, named after the Missouri town where a young black man, Michael Brown, was killed when he tried to kill a white police officer. Cops across the nation are afraid to patrol black neighborhoods and are overly cautious when dealing with black suspects. Despite their diminished forcefulness in high-crime neighborhoods, police are still being assaulted and killed.

Crime had been trending down for decades, but in 2015 homicide rates increased dramatically over 2014. In Houston, homicides were up 25.2 percent; in Washington, D.C., 54 percent; Baltimore, 58.5 percent; Milwaukee, 72.6 percent; and in Cleveland, a whopping 90 percent. Overall, homicides increased 17 percent in the 50 largest citiesthe greatest increase in 25 years.

Capitalizing on inaccurate and sometimes outright deceptive media reporting on police-involved shootings, BLM agitation has provoked numerous police killings, violence, lawlessness, and unrest in minority communities throughout the U.S., culminating most recently with the horrific ambush-murders of five policemen in Dallas and three in Baton Rouge, with many more wounded. If allowed to continue, BLM agitation could lead to greater civil unrest, anarchy, civil war. With the support and sympathy of President Obama, the Black Lives Matter crowd appears to be spoiling for just such an outcome.

Black Lives Matter began in 2013 with a Twitter hashtag, #BlackLivesMatter, after neighborhood watchman George Zimmerman, called a white Hispanic in the press, was acquitted in the killing of black teenager Trayvon Martin. Radical-left activists Alicia Garza, Patrisse Cullors, and Opal Tometi claim credit for the slogan and hashtag. Following the Michael Brown shooting in August 2014, Dream Defenders, an organization co-founded by (the ACORN-affiliated) Working Families Party activist and Occupy Wall Street organizer Nelini Stamp, popularized the phrase Hands UpDont Shoot! which has since become BLMs widely recognized slogan. Not surprisingly, former Communist Party USA vice presidential candidate Angela Davis sits on the Dream Defenders advisory board.

Garza, Cullors, and Tometi all work for front groups of the Freedom Road Socialist Organization, one of the four largest radical Left organizations in the country. The others are the Communist Party USA, Democratic Socialists of America, and the Committees of Correspondence for Democracy and Socialism. Stamps ACORNnow rebranded under a variety of different names after its official 2010 bankruptcyworks with all four organizations, and Dream Defenders is backed by the Service Employees International Union (SEIU), ACLU, and Southern Poverty Law Center, among others.

The Freedom Road Socialist Organization is a hereditary descendant of the New Communist Movement inspired by Chinese dictator Mao Zedong and the many communist revolutions occurring throughout the world in the 1960s and 70s. Freedom Road split into two separate groups in 1999, FRSO/Fight Back and FRSO/OSCL (Freedom Road Socialist Organization/Organizacin Socialista del Camino Para la Libertad). Black Lives Matter and its founders are allied w

ith the latter. (Future references to Freedom Road in this article refer to FRSO/OSCL.)

And lest anyone think the terms used to describe Freedom Road are too extreme, heres an excerpt from an April 21, 2016 blog post on its website, mourning the death of our comrade, Tim Thomas, at 71:

Tim was a revolutionary organizer, writer and educator. At George Washington University, Tim became active in the Black Liberation and Marxist movement that remained his lifelong passion. Tim was a leader of SOBU (Student Organization for Black Unity) and later YOBU (Youth Organization for Black Unity). He was also very active in the African Liberation Support Committee.

Tim joined the Revolutionary Workers League in 1972 and later the League of Revolutionary Struggle (LRS), a New Communist Movement group that brought together in one organization Asian-American, Chicano, Puerto Rican, African American, and white communists who shared a vision of national liberation as a critical element of communist revolution. After that group dissolved in 1990, Tim and a number of former LRS comrades came into the Freedom Road Socialist Organization, where they continue to advance the theory and practice of self-determination socialism.

As Co-Chair of FRSOs Oppressed Nationality Commission, Tim helped us live up to our commitment to building the Black Liberation Movement through its downturns and upsurges. He wrote extensively about Bay area peoples movements, organizing methodology, and developments in the Black Liberation Movement. Tim saw to completion an extensive update of our Oppressed Nationality Unity Document, which was passed just last month at FRSOs 2016 Congress. Tim also chaired a FRSO working group on immigrant rights. At the time of his death, he was collaborating with comrades on a comprehensive paper about the Black Liberation Movement.

Freedom Road is comprised of dozens of groups. The radical-left model is based on building alliances of many organizations, small and large, working separate issues but dedicated ultimately to the same thing: overthrowing our society to replace it with a hardcore socialist (or communist) one.

BLM is one of many projects undertaken by Freedom Road. Except for the website, BlackLivesMatter.com, there is no actual organization. The website implicitly acknowledges this, describing #BlackLivesMatter as, an online forum intended to build connections between Black people and our allies to fight anti-Black racism, to spark dialogue among Black people, and to facilitate the types of connections necessary to encourage social action and engagement.

But today the movement has become so widely recognized that it may receive funding from the Lefts granddaddy funder, the radical billionaires donor consortium known as the Democracy Alliance.

Blacks, gays, and women are disproportionately represented among the membership of Freedom Road, which self-consciously emphasizes issues related to those groups. Alicia Garza penned a Herstory of BLM and is a queer, black veteran activist of numerous Freedom Road organizations. Her rsum includes

FPatrisse Cullors describes herself as a working class, queer, black woman. She claims the country killed her father, a drug addict. At a 2015 Netroots Nation conference, Cullors led chants shouting, If I die in police custody, burn everything down & rise the fk up! That is the only way motherfkers like you will listen! Cullors founded and directs Dignity and Power Now, which claims to seek dignity and power of incarcerated people, their families, and communities.

Cullors was trained by Eric Mann, a former Weather Underground leader who exhorts followers to become anti-racist, anti-imperialist activists. Mann runs another Freedom Road front, the Labor/Community Strategy Center. Like many professional leftists, he makes good moneyover $225,000living in the system he advocates destroying.

Opal Tometi is the daughter of illegal aliens from Nigeria. While in college, she worked for the ACLU defending illegal aliens against vigilantes opposed to illegal immigration. She is currently executive director of Black Alliance for Just Immigration.

Freedom Road/BLM organizations are generously supported by a universe of wealthy foundations. Some of the groups, like those employing BLM founders Garza and Tometi, receive money directly. Others, like Cullors Dignity and Power Now, are financed by organizations designed specifically to underwrite the activities of others. These will be taken in turn.

National Domestic Workers Alliance (Garza)In business since 2007, the Alliances 2014 revenues were $7.6 million, with net assets of $5.2 million. Its board includes two members of CASA de Maryland, a vocal advocate for illegal aliens that takes in millions of dollars in government grants (see Organization Trends, September 2012). CASA received grants from the Alliance in 2013 and 2014 as did the radical-left Institute for Policy Studies in 2013. The Alliance received $6.5 million between 2011 and 2014 from a number of familiar foundations, Ford ($1.9 million), both of George Soross major philanthropies (Open Society Foundations, formerly Open Society Institute, and the Foundation to Promote Open Society) ($1.3 million), Marguerite ($450,000), Surdna ($595,000), Kellogg ($250,000), Ben & Jerrys ($30,000), and others.

People Organized to Win Employment Rights or POWER (Garza) reports 2013 revenues of $456,676, including $92,173 in government grants. POWER evolved from the now defunct communist group STORM (Standing Together to Organize a Revolutionary Movement). Obamas former green jobs czar, the self-described communist and rowdy black nationalist Van Jones, served on STORMs board. Since 1999, POWER has received money from the Marguerite Casey Foundation ($655,000), Surdna ($464,000), Public Welfare (301,000), Tides ($168,000), Ben & Jerrys ($62,000) and many otherseven the American Heart Association ($90,000 in 2014). In January 2015, POWER merged with another Freedom Road group, Causa Justa, and Garza left.

Right to the City Alliance (Garza) discloses 2014 revenues of $844,206. The Alliance is a nationwide network of activist organizations that resist gentrification of inner cities because it displaces low-income people, people of color, marginalized LGBTQ communities, and youths of color. In business since 2009, it has received funding from the Ford Foundation ($1.3 million), both major Soros philanthropies ($600,000), Surdna ($400,000), Marguerite Casey ($387,500), Tides ($165,000), Ben & Jerrys ($50,000) and others.

School of Unity and Liberation or SOUL (Garza) has enjoyed rapid revenue growth since Alicia Garzas rise to fame as a BLM leader. Revenues skyrocketed from $110,304 in 2013 to $660,237 in 2014. SOUL claims to have trained 712 organizers in 2014. The group trained 679 in 2013, and costs are roughly the same, so SOUL was able to more than double its net assets in 2014. It receives funding from the Akonadi Foundation ($322,500), Heinz ($255,000), Rockefeller ($210,000), Surdna ($460,000), Tides ($298,000), and others.

Forward Together (Garza) describes itself as a multi-racial organization that works with community leaders and organizations to transform culture and policy to catalyze social change. Its 2014 revenues were $4.0 million with net assets of $4.2 million. Between 2012 and 2014, the organization received a total of $2.9 million from Ford ($655,000), Susan Thompson Buffett ($604,318), General Service ($190,000), and others. Garza serves on the board.

Black Alliance for Just Immigration (Tometi) reports 2014 revenues of $554,434. This modest organization only lists two full-time staff, yet receives support from many recognizable foundations. Since 2010 this includes Kellogg, ($75,000), Marguerite Casey ($337,500), both major Soros philanthropies ($100,000), Ben & Jerrys ($10,000), and others. Tometi was paid $60,000 in 2014 to direct the group.

Cullors Dignity and Power Now is underwritten by Community Partners, a 501(c)(3) nonprofit based in Los Angeles with a $24 million budget (including $4 million in government grants) that fiscally sponsors nonprofits; that is to say, it is an existing nonprofit that lets unincorporated groups use its nonprofit status to receive tax-deductible donations. It is not a Freedom Road organization.

Advancement Project is a Freedom Road group that funds a variety of radical causes. The Project sees America as a racist, oppressive nation and, according to Discover the Networks, works to organize communities of color into politically cohesive units while disseminating its leftist worldviews and values as broadly as possible by way of a sophisticated communications department. Its 2013 revenues were $11.3 million. The Project receives generous funding from a wide variety of wealthy foundations, including the California Endowment ($7.3 million), Ford ($8.5 million), Kellogg ($3 million), Hewlett ($2.5 million), Rockefeller ($2.5 million), both major Soros philanthropies ($8.6 million), Tides ($1.3 million), and many others, totaling approximately $55 million over the past decade.

Movement Strategy Center (MSC) also facilitates funding, development and advancement of Freedom Road organizations. Its 2013 revenues were $7.5 million, including $156,032 in government grants. MSC has received funding from the California Endowment ($2.3 million), Ford ($1.8 million), both major Soros philanthropies ($1.1 million), Surdna ($1.4 million), Tides ($1.6 million), Akonadi ($1.1 million), Robert Wood Johnson ($378,750), Ben & Jerrys ($60,000), and others.

The Surdna Foundation (2014 revenues $64.9 million, with net assets of $1 billion) appears repeatedly in the above lists and is one of the oldest foundations supporting BLM. It was formed in 1917 by John Emory Andrus, at the time one of the wealthiest people in America. Surdna is his name spelled backwards.

In addition to its Freedom Road funding, Surdna has provided $145,000 to Race Forward over the past two years for Equitable Economic Development, as part of its Strong Local Economies initiative. The grant descriptions, however, have little to do with economics; for example, this one from 2015: This general operating support grant will help Race Forward (RF) to advance racial justice and address inequalities in key areas through research, media, and practice (training). (For more information on the Surdna Foundation, see the January 2014 and September 2007 issues of Foundation Watch.)

While not a Freedom Road organization, Race Forward is the rebranded Applied Research Center (ARC), a think tank dedicated to racial justice, and it participated in the Ferguson protests. Race Forward publishes ColorLines, which focuses on police violence, gender and sexuality, Islamophobia, and other predictable leftist themes. Race Forward and ARC are directed by radical leftist Rinku Sen who has positioned ARC as the home for media and activism on racial justice& according to Tufts Universitys Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Center. Prior to its rebranding, ARC received millions from a host of well-heeled funders over the past 10 years including Arcus, ($927,784), Ford ($2 million), both major Soros philanthropies ($1.2 million), Tides ($1.3 million), Kellogg ($4 million), and many others.

Both of George Soross major philanthropies are listed among the many donors to Freedom Road and other racial justice groups like ARC. But according to the Washington Times, Soros has been a much larger racial justice funder than these figures reveal, having donated at least $33 million in one year to groups that organized unrest in Ferguson and other riots, including:

Mainstream funders have jumped in as well. For example, United Way has partnered with A&E and iHeartMedia to create Shining the Light Advisors, a committee of nationally known experts and leaders in racial and social justice, to oversee grant disbursements. These advisors include such radicals as Van Jones, Advancement Project co-director Judith Browne Dianis, and Race Forwards Rinku Sen.

BLMs mission includes a kitchen sink of favored radical-left causes, including poverty, prisoner deinstitutionalization, illegal immigration, and gay rights. Highlighting Freedom Roads orientation toward gay blacks, it describes how Black, queer and trans folks bear a unique burden from a hetero-patriarchal society that disposes of us like garbage and simultaneously fetishizes us and profits off of us, and that is state violence.

Its wide network of affiliates and partner organizations like the Communist Party USA and the remnants of the ACORN network allows BLM to turn out large crowds. Many participate simply to protest, commit violence, loot, or all three.

Freedom Road, for example, was prominent at the Ferguson protests and took video of the event. It even created a Black Lives Matter button. Following are more Freedom Road organizations involved with BLM. (Funding estimates provided when known.)

Black Left UnityA Marxist-Leninist organization that supports favored causes of the communist Left, including unity with Cuba, war against capitalism, and Occupy Wall Street.

Black Workers for JusticeA group based in North Carolina which claims to struggle on behalf of oppressed nationalities.

Causa Justa/Just Causea Black-Latino solidarity organization allied with the Grassroots Global Justice Alliance, the Right to the City Alliance, and others. Its 2013 revenues, $1.6 million, included $689,484 in government grants. Causa Justa has received over $2.3 million since 2010, mostly from the California Endowment, Marguerite Casey, and a few others. As noted above, POWER was absorbed into Causa Justa.

Grassroots Global Justice AllianceA national alliance of US-based grassroots organizing (GRO) groups organizing to build an agenda for power for working and poor people and communities of color. It has received $20,000 from Ben & Jerrys since 2010.

Hands Up Unitedworks for liberation of oppressed Black, Brown, and poor people through education, art, civil disobedience, advocacy, and agriculture.

Intelligent Mischiefits Black Body Survival Guide is in the works and has raised $8,785 to date through crowdfunding website Indiegogo.

Organization for Black Struggle is affiliated with the Communist Party USA. Its website claims Black Workers for Justice and the Advancement Project as allies. Chaired by Freedom Road member Montague Simmons, the Organization received $277,955 in revenues in 2014, its first year as a registered 501(c)(4) nonprofit organization.

Showing Up for Racial Justice is a national network of groups and individuals organizing White people for racial justice. Showing Up quotes Garza, We need you defecting from White supremacy and changing the narrative of White supremacy by breaking White silence.

Strategic Concepts in Organizing and Policy Education (SCOPE)had 2013 revenues of $2.8 million. It is led by Anthony Thigpenn, a former Black Panther and board member of the Apollo Alliance. Apollo is a secretive alliance of labor, environment, and other left-wing activists that formulated Obamas trillion dollar stimulus plan. Board member Van Jones described Apollo as sort of a grand unified field theory for progressive left causes. Now a project of the Blue Green Alliance, SCOPE has received about $12 million since 2010 from numerous foundations, the most generous being Ford ($1.9 million), James Irvine ($2.3 million), New World ($1.4 million), Hewlett ($1.4 million), and the California Endowment ($1.2 million). (For more on the Apollo Alliance, see Green Watch, November 2012).

BLM groups have also joined with the Communist Party USA, the Committees of Correspondence for Democracy and Socialism, Democratic Socialists of America, SEIU, Color of Change, and many others. Anarchist and top Occupy Wall Street organizer Lisa Fithian, who orchestrated the 1999 Seattle World Trade Organization riots, trained Ferguson protesters. Fithian says create crisis, because crisis is that edge where change is possible.

Fithian echoes Richard Cloward and Frances Fox Piven, the creators of the infamous Cloward-Piven Crisis Strategy, who spent decades attempting to provoke poor, inner-city blacks to riot, because as Cloward said, poor people advance only when the rest of society is afraid of them.

Rasheen Aldridge was a leader of the Ferguson protests. He has participated in numerous Communist Party USA events in 2013, 2014, and 2015. Another prominent Communist Party member active in BLM protests is Michael McPhearson, who leads the Dont Shoot Coalition.

Carl Davidson and Pat Fry, co-chairs of the Committees of Correspondence for Democracy and Socialism, exploited the revolutionary atmosphere of the Ferguson riots to create an eight-point plan for Left Unity demanding a common aspiration for socialism.

Missourians Organizing for Reform and Empowerment (MORE), is Missouris rebranded ACORN group. It created an illustrative chart offering a snapshot of the Lefts grievance agenda. Capitalism is always the problem. Socialism is always the solution.

Interestingly, MORE doesnt believe in socialism when it is footing the bill. MORE promised to pay Ferguson protesters $5,000 a month to cause trouble. But just as ACORN stiffed its employees while preaching socialist generosity, so MORE stiffed its own rent-a-mob protesters. (Ferguson rent-a-mobs exposed, by Matthew Vadum, FrontPage Magazine, May 18, 2015.)

Islamist organizations have also jumped on the BLM bandwagon, reminding us of the unholy alliance that exists between them and the radical Left. In September 2015, the Muslim Brotherhood-front Council on American Islamic Relations (CAIR) joined BLM activists in storming California Governor Jerry Browns office. CAIR also participated in the Ferguson protests. Meanwhile, ISIS is reportedly recruiting American blacks for its cause.

We must be ready to employ trickery, deceit, law-breaking, withholding and concealing truth. We can and must write in a language which sows among the masses hate, revulsion, and scorn toward those who disagree with usVladimir Lenin

That quote from the Soviet Unions first leader captures the entire essence of the Lefts strategy. No matter what the issue, no matter what the facts, the Left advances a relentless, hate-filled narrative that America is irredeemably evil and must be destroyed as soon as possible. The BLM movement is only the latest, but perhaps most dangerous variant on this subversive theme.

Communists use language and psychology as a weapon. Their constant vilification of enemies is a form of psychological warfare. It puts America and Americans on trial. The verdict is always guilty. Facts dont matter because the Left does not want to resolve the problems they complain about. They use those problems to agitate and provoke, hoping conflict becomes unavoidable and thereby creating a self-fulfilling prophecy. Their hatred is tactical.

Obamas favorite Harvard professor, Derrick Bell, devised Critical Race Theory, which exemplifies Lenins strategy as applied to race. According to Discover the Networks:

Critical race theory contends that America is permanently racist to its core, and that consequently the nations legal structures are, by definition, racist and invalid members of oppressed racial groups are entitledin fact obligatedto determine for themselves which laws and traditions have merit and are worth observing.

Bells theory is in turn an innovation of Critical Theory, which was developed by Marxist thinkers of the Frankfurt School who were affiliated with the Institute for Social Research, founded in Frankfurt, Germany, in 1923. The Institutes left-wing scholars were mostly Jewish and fled Hitlers Germany in the 1930s, relocating to Columbia Universitys Teachers College in New York. Critical Theory, which discredits all aspects of Western society, rapidly infected the minds of newly minted college professors, who then spread its poison throughout the university system.

We know it today as political correctness. One of its most famous purveyors was the Frankfurt Schools Herbert Marcuse, longtime associate of the Southern Poverty Law Centers Julian Bond. Marcuse invented the concept of partisan tolerance, that is, tolerance for leftist ideas and intolerance of all others. The Southern Poverty Law Center applied Marcuses strategy in developing its Hate Watch list, and Rules for Radicals author Saul Alinsky used it in his own lifes work.

The racist narrative was turbocharged with the concept of White Privilege, the notion that whitesthe dominant demographic group in capitalist Americaare irretrievably racist, sexist, homophobic, xenophobic, fill-in-the-blank-ophobic, imperialistic oppressors who exploit everyone. Whites are the only true evil in the world and should be exterminated. Dr. Kamau Kambon, who taught Africana Studies 241 in the Spring 2005 semester at North Carolina State University, also said this needs to be done because white people want to kill us. (Activist: exterminate white people, by Jon Sanders, Carolina Journal, Oct. 21, 2015.)

The White Skin Privilege idea was created in 1967 by Noel Ignatiev, an acolyte of Derrick Bell and professor at Harvards W.E.B. Du Bois Institute. (Du Bois was a black leader who helped found the NAACP and joined the Communist Party in 1961.) Ignatiev was a member of the Communist Party USAs most radical wing, the Provisional Organizing Committee to Reconstitute the Marxist-Leninist Communist Party from 1958-66. The Provisional Organizing Committee was the intellectual forerunner to Freedom Road.

Writing under the alias Noel Ignatin, Ignatiev co-authored a Students for Democratic Society (SDS) pamphlet with fellow radical Ted Allen titled, White Blindspot. In 1992 he co-founded Race Traitor: Journal of the New Abolitionism. Its first issue coined the slogan Treason to whiteness is loyalty to humanity. Its stated objective was to abolish the white race. More specifically, the New Abolitionist newsletter declared:

The way to abolish the white race is to challenge, disrupt and eventually overturn the institutions and behavior patterns that reproduce the privileges of whiteness, including the schools, job and housing markets, and the criminal justice system. The abolitionists do not limit themselves to socially acceptable means of protest, but reject in advance no means of attaining their goal [emphasis added].

But do not be confused: White with an uppercase W does not mean white as most Americans use the word. White in radical parlance means anyone of any race, creed, nationality, color, sex, or sexual preference who embraces capitalism, free markets, limited government, and American traditional culture and values. These beliefs are deemed to be irredeemably evil, and anyone who aligns with them is white in spirit and thus equally guilty of white crimes. Ignatiev still teaches, now at Massachusetts College of Art and Design.

The Black Lives Matter movement carries this narrative to unprecedented heights, claiming that only whites can be racists. (The Result of Victimhood and Lies: Great Evil, by Dennis Prager, National Review Online, Sept. 1, 2015.) And while justifying violence to achieve social justice, the movements goal is to overthrow our society to replace it with a Marxist one. Many members of the black community would be shocked to learn that the intellectual godfathers of this movement are mostly white Communists, queers, and leftist Democrats, intent on making blacks cannon fodder, the shock troops of the coming revolution.

James Simpson is an economist, former White House budget analyst, businessman, and investigative journalist. Veteran researchers Trevor Loudon and Matthew Vadum (senior vice president, Capital Research Center) contributed to this report.

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VIDEO: Black Lives Matter: racist provocation with radical roots – Canada Free Press

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February 20, 2017   Posted in: Black Racism  Comments Closed

Death of another rugby player unleashes more ‘inappropriate’ black racism – Citizen

Citizen reporter

Dan Vickerman. Picture: Gallo Images

Shortly after news broke on Sunday of the tragic death of 37-year-old former Wallaby star lock Dan Vickerman, anotherracial storm broke out on Facebook after a number of users made light of the news.

Earlier this month, Riaan Lucas found himself in hot water when he shared a meme of how happy he was to hear the news of Joost van der Westhuizens passing.

Bantu Qaphelani Zathu Mtika now wrote on Sunday about: That face you make when a white man dies, priceless, presumably a reference to the famous MasterCard ad about great things that money cant buy.

When she was taken on for alleged racism, she denied it, saying the face she had meant was that she was crying.

She later added that her ability to wish Vickerman to rest in peace went with Nelson Mandela.

My rest in peaces went with Nelson Mandela got none left.

Simbongile Nogqaza took her to task, saying that black people were not only racist but inappropriately racist at times.

Thulani Ncube had earlier written that Vickerman should rest in peace, but the responses to that comment quickly became a conflict about how white people should give back the land.

Lucas is being investigated by the SA Human Rights Commission for his racist Joost meme.

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Death of another rugby player unleashes more ‘inappropriate’ black racism – Citizen

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February 19, 2017   Posted in: Black Racism  Comments Closed

Seminar says education is the key to black healing – Louisville Cardinal Online

By Paul Logsdon

A scholar says many African Americans suffer from misguided ideas of culture born of slavery, and the HSC Office of Diversity and Inclusion hosted a seminar Feb. 6 to discuss it.

The Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome and Black Healing talk drew 40 people to the School of Public Health and Information Sciences.

Black justice cant exist if all Americans arent working on their own healing, facilitator Pam Newton said.

Newman honored her ancestors at a miniature shrine consisting of pictures, water and four tea candles, asking for a moment of silence.

Newman played a video of Joy DeGruy reading excerptsfrom her book Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome. DeGruy said she wrote her book to heal.

You cant heal that which you dont understand, DeGruy said. The worst thing you can do to a people is rob them of the memory of themselves. We cant possibly know where were going if we dont know where we came from We cant possibly embrace who we are if we can not honor the shoulders upon which we stand.

DeGruy, who studies multi-generational trauma, contrasted the Holocaust withslavery. She noted there is no pushback when discussing the Holocaust because Jews honor it, the complete opposite of how slavery is treated.

She denounced white racism, saying it doesnt adversely impact the lives of black people as an entire group the way black racism adversely affects the lives of white people.

Racism not only implies that I dont like you, but also that I have the power to impact you as an entire group, DeGruy said.

DeGruy said the U.S. Constitution isa contradiction: the notion of freedom and democracy coexisted with the genocide of Native Americans and the enslavement of African people. She alsocited omissions in black history, saying education is crucial to black healing.

The 300 years of oppression has led to African Americans exhibiting symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.

She said that the broken behavior of African American ancestors is now called culture. In order to heal, DeGruy suggested African Americans must know the past that makes them who they are today.

After the reading,multiple attendants spoke about how they felt.

Alona Pack of the School of Nursing ended the discussion on a positive note, saying she feels encouraged, speaking to the group.

I have felt your pain but I know your power, Pack said. We are a strong people, we will survive and we will get through this and its going to get better.

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Seminar says education is the key to black healing – Louisville Cardinal Online

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February 13, 2017   Posted in: Black Racism  Comments Closed

Black-on-Black Racism: The Hazards of Implicit Bias – The …

In his year-end press conference, President Obama was asked about the state of black America. He responded by saying blacks are better off than they were, but juxtaposed that with the lingering issues evinced in the recent tragic police encounters with unarmed black men. Interestingly, he took particular care in calling out the hidden biases that we all carry around, a sentiment he echoed in another recent interview.

My own hidden biases punched me in the gut last week, as I stared in disbelief at a test result on my computer screen. Before I started the racial-bias assessment, a disclaimer explicitly warned me that those who are not prepared to receive uncomfortable news should not proceed. I was too intrigued to turn back, but it turns out I was unprepared for the outcome.

Hidden Racial Anxiety in an Age of Waning Racism

According to the Implicit Association Test, I have a “strong automatic preference for European Americans compared to African Americans.” That’s a sterile way of saying that I’m biased against black people. For most people, such a designation would probably be unsettling. After all, the United States is a nation that ostensibly aspires not to judge others “by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character.” But for me, it caused a mini-existential crisis.

Why? Because I’m black.

As I read the results, I thought about what it means to be black and biased against other black people. Does it mean harboring a subconscious contempt for my race? Or considering myself to be part of the blessed segment of an otherwise unfortunate lot? Is it even possible for a black person to be racist against black people? In a moment of self-dramatization, I felt as if Kanye had just announced on national television that I didnt care about black people.

Then, the tropes saturated my thoughts. I wondered if my bias was the undergirding of the sort of intra-race prejudice colloquially expressed in phrases like Uncle Tom, crab in a barrel, and acting white. Since my results were the same as the 88 percent of white Americans who show a bias in favor of white people, it seems to me that this demonstrated strong preference is the very definition of acting whitea well-worn pejorative that pained me as an awkward adolescent and suddenly felt fresh again.

The Project Implicit test has been around for a few years, but a recent Mother Jones article titled, The Science of Why Cops Shoot Young Black Men gave it wider currency and helped explain the role of implicit bias in the recent events in Ferguson, Cleveland, and Staten Island, where the aggressive policing of black people turned deadly. The IAT measures the ability to quickly and correctly sort selected words as positive and negative and to distinguish faces as belonging to a white or black person. Through a series of paired word and face sequences, the test detects in milliseconds the time it takes the respondent to associate black faces with positive and negative words relative to the time it takes to match white faces. When a respondent pairs black faces and negative words more quickly than other pairings, it reveals implicit bias.

As difficult as it was to learn about my black-on-black bias, such results are fairly common. This is sadly comforting. The data reveal that black respondents implicit biases are split just about evenly between pro-white and pro-black. Other research has also shown that black participants tend to have a strong pro-black explicit bias. A conflict emerges: When blacks are asked about their predilections, they express a solid preference for their group over whites, but, in general, performance on the IAT suggests they subconsciously hold a slight preference for whites over blacks.

This dynamic is obviously a direct result of racism. Too often, racism is seen as a social phenomenon that happens to black people. But it happens through black people as well. That is, the negative associations thrust upon black people and black culture can color how we black people view each other. Blacks and whites receive the same narratives and images that perpetuate stereotypes of black criminality and flippancy while synonymizing white culture with American values. It is to be expected that there will be an observable impact on black intragroup perceptions.

The construct of racism is efficiently designed to politically and socially subjugate a segment of the population. For the oppressed, a natural response is to advocate for conformity with the dominant culture as an appeal for equal treatment. If black people were only more respectable, one line of argument runs, they would be less subject to the ills of racism.

The contrast between black respondents explicit and implicit biases is a fingerprint of the politics of respectability, a term coined by Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham in her book In Righteous Discontent: The Women’s Movement in the Black Baptist Church, 1880-1920. In her conception, the politics of respectability involves the reform of individual behavior as a goal in itself and as a strategy for reform. Higginbotham argued that black Baptist women rejected white Americas depiction of black women as immoral, childlike, and unworthy of respect of protection by teaching blacks to mind their manners, dress and speak appropriately, and remain free from sexual and other vices. Thus, the politics of respectability say that if black people behaved more like the proffered white ideal, the result would be equal treatment and the demise of racial discrimination. This tactic was a form of political protest based on an appeal to white humanity, but it has had troublesome side effects.

This thread has persisted in black scholarship and society for decades. From W.E.B. DuBois Talented Tenth in 1903 to Bill Cosbys infamous Pound-Cake Speech a hundred years later, the politics of respectability has often taken on the quality of black theology. Members of the black community are told that wearing the mask, playing the game, and being twice as good are the keys to making it in America. Its as if to say, If we only knew how to act, racism would just fall away. This is, of course, absurd. Good behavior and attire deemed proper do not abrogate racism. Discrimination does not come with a dress code.

The politics of respectability is really a coping mechanism. It affirms the inferiority and unattractiveness of black culture. And it contributes to the formation of implicit biases that lead black people to prefer white people over their own.

But its not the only option. Unable to live with my strong automatic preference, I took the test a few more times. Through repeated attempts, I trained myself to react evenly to the black, white, positive, and negative pairings. In a sense, through acknowledgement of the bias and a concerted effort to modify my behavior, I suppressed the implicit bias. By my fourth and final attempt, I exhibited no preference at all. If each of us is willing to recognize our implicit biases and police our actions accordingly, there may be hope for the racial aspect of the American experiment after all.

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Black-on-Black Racism: The Hazards of Implicit Bias – The …

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Are Black People More Racist Than White People?

When I moved to the South as a teenager I got a glimpse of race relations up close for the first time in my life, and one thing that quickly became surprisingly evident was the disdain black people had for white people.This wasnt the case with everyone but the undercurrent of their resentment was noticeable.

Then I went to college where diversity, love, togetherness, and every other feel good cause were front and center and that seemed to change my hunch for a while. But when I left and went back to the real world it was right back in my face.

Diversity! Feeeelzzz! Justice!

Living in more than a dozen states over the last 20 years was enough of a sample size for me to draw the conclusion that blacks might very well be more racist than whites. My second stint in a certain city put the nail in the coffin.

Those who have read my columns know and understand that I dont exactly hold Atlanta in the highest regard. Its not a terrible city because it does have its perks (such as the abundance of Latinas in and around the city) but by and large Im not the biggest fan of The Big Peach.

The main reason I left after just6 months my second time around was because of the black people. The victim mentality, ghettos, criticism of anything not related to black culture, and a shitload of other things got old quick.

What set the tone for my short stay was when a coworker of mine was on his usual soapbox about how black people were oppressed and that racism was at an all time highthe usual bullshit that people like him talked about round the clock.

I grew increasingly tired of his preaching so rather than trying to have a conversation with him about it (which I knew wouldnt do any good), I showed him a video to let him know that we may not have it as bad as people in other countries:

His response?Well we have it worse here because racism is covert. At least they keep it real over there and say it to your face.

Un. Fucking. Believable.

These conversations were a regular occurrence with this idiot and unfortunately his mentality was prevalent in this city.

Another huge problem in Atlanta is that black people purposely separate themselves from other races. It seemed that they only associated with blacks whether it be socially, in their business dealings, religiously, or anything else they could think of. Even the shows they watch are predominantly black.

Sure, the black population down there is higher than most major cities which factors in. But how the hell can these people complain about segregation and the importance of diversity if theyre the ones actively separating themselves?

Best believe she hates white girls

Years ago my ex wife and I were at mass, and in front of us sat a black woman and her twodaughters. It was still early so people were still filing into their seats and awaiting the priest to make his appearance and start the proceedings.

Just before things got started a white family took their seats next to the black family. Nothing out of the ordinary thereexcept for the fact that the two young black girls looked at the blonde white girl with a disgust that was so pronounced my wife and I exchanged uncomfortable glances.

The sad part about this is that those two black girls were too young to dislike the white girl simply because of her pale skin. The hard truth is theyre being indirectly (and probably also directly) taught to hate white people by their mother, their culture, and everything they consume.

Those two little girls will grow up to shoot dirty looks at white girls and complain to each other that they are stealing their men. This mindset will permeate all of their thoughts and actions. Before they know it theyll start to blame white people for all of their struggles, especially their lack of romantic options.

They can say whatever they want but this is the real reason black women hate on Kim K

Even my own mother would turn up her nose at my white high school girlfriends. These days shes much more laid back about my choice in female companionship (age, introspection, and perspective will do that) but she never passed up the opportunity to ask Why cant you find a nice African-American girl, Donovan? I never answered because I knew Id earn a swift hand to the face.

This article is but a sliver of the pie that is the prevailing attitude about black men like myself who date outside our race. The title alone is all you need to know about where they stand on this issue.

Fatally obsessed with women of a lighter persuasion, Tiger Woods might be the only one on this list who actuallyhas a medical condition. Woods has had more blonde prostitutesthan a seasons worth of Game Of Thrones. Still, after losing a hefty$100 million in his divorce settlement, he swiftly scooped up another one to share the rest of his riches.

The sooner black womenaccept and understand that their lack of dating options isnt because of white girls (or any other race for that matter) the better off theyll be.

Remember the O.J. Verdict? Remember the outright glee black people reacted with when the verdict was read? Remember how uncomfortable we were watching people celebrate that someone had gotten away with murderjust because he was black?

The Simpson trial was not only the trial of the century, it shined a spotlight on how black people in this country really felt about whites. The fact that this occurred only a few short years after the Rodney King incidentand in the same geographical area only heightened the blood lust for one of ours to get over on one of theirs.

Lets face it. They had O.J.dead to rights. All the evidence pointed to his guilt (except for these) but because of the exploits of Mark Fuhrman, an obviously tainted jury pool trying to make up for what happened to King, and the best criminal defense lawyer money could buy, Simpson walked.

The most infamous mug shot of the 20th century

In an honest moment any reasonable person, black or white, would tell you he should have been convicted. Yet, to this day blacks still declare that he didnt do it(including the wannabe Malcolm XI showed the above video to)knowing damn well they wouldnt bet dollars to death on his innocence.

The cases of Trayvon Martin and Michael Brown are also prime examples where the fact that both of them being black clouded the common sense and judgement of black people. Race baiters like Al Sharpton and Jesse Jackson didnt waste any time stoking the flames of racism to line their pockets and increase their prominence in the public eye.

Is it a tragedy that both of these young men were killed as teenagers? Of course it is. Nobodys disputing that. But similar to the feminist agenda, the problem is in the narrative and this ROK article could not have stated it any better:

Janay Rice wasnt sitting on the couch minding her own business when Ray walked up and punched her in the face. Rihanna wasnt making pancakes when Chris Brown walked in the kitchen and slapped the shit out of her.

Brown and Martin werent sitting under trees studying for midterms when accosted by their would-be assassins. This isnt to say they deserved to die, but they most certainly were not innocent little snowflakes minding their own business.

And thanks to people like Louis Farrakhan, black people have a blind rage without knowing all of the facts which only further deepens the racial divide.

All they have to hear is white man shoots black man and they instantly jump to outrage because of the dangerous precedents set by the chronicling of comparable events of the past.

Black people publicly talk shit about white people (and other races) on the regular and most people dont say anything about it. Whether its out of fear or social pressure, anything that remotely resembles racism towards blacks is avoided like the plague.

Fellow columnist and friend Blair Naso is my go-to guy for anecdotes on race issues. Having lived in the South a combined 40+ years we often swap stores and have great conversations. Nasos right in the thick of things down there so hes able to offer accurate, detailed accounts of race related events.

One such conversation was the genesis of this column and when I asked Nasos opinion on this he didnt pull any punches:

Which of the two is more racist in actuality? Im not sure. But mostwhite racism is benign, whereas black racism often hurts people.Theyll gun you down for being white and walking on their side of townand then justify it because of slavery.

Well said.

Blacks, on the other hand, are given a free pass to use all sorts of racial slurs but the moment someone of a different race even broaches the subject of a possible pitfall of the black race, we get up in arms.

Good question, Captain

Political correctnessis the shield blacks hide behindthats pussy pass in neomasculine-ese. They know that if a caucasian insinuates a racial element in any given situation theyll be attacked and sometimes eviscerated. Whereas if black people do the same thing, theyre often defended by the hamster wheel of the culture and media and exonerated of any wrong doing.

Case in point: The Donald Sterling scandal. For those unfamiliar with this story, the long and short of it is Los Angeles Clippers owner Donald Sterling was recorded by his mistress during a racial tirade. This set off a media firestorm which ultimately led to the team being taken from Sterling and subsequently sold to former Microsoft CEO Steve Balmer.

I can say with near 100% certainty that if Sterling was black and made these comments about white people hed still have his team.

While I dont agree with Sterlings world view, I strongly disagreed with him being stripped of his team because of his views. Im willing to bet hes not the only owner who shares his perspective (on some level at least). But the only difference between them and Sterling is that Sterling voiced his politically incorrect opinion on front of a woman who violated his privacy and made it public.

Sterling with the woman who would eventually betray him

A spin-off of this saga was a statement made by Dallas Mavericks owner Mark Cuban in the midst of the Sterling story gaining traction:

If I see a black kid in a hoodie and its late at night, Im walking to the other side of the street. And if on that side of the street, theres a guy that has tattoos all over his facewhite guy, bald head, tattoos everywhereIm walking back to the other side of the street.

Once again the PC Police reared its ugly head and Cuban was predictably crucified for his remarks. There were a few that publicly defended him but by and large his comment was not taken very well. Nevermind the fact that he used a white person in one of his examples. All blacks heard was black kid, hoodie, and other side of the street and we lost our minds.

Black people in this country know and exploit this double standard ad nauseam, and black comedians and actors are no different. They literally trade on this double standard and use it to make quite a nice living for themselves while similar acts would all but end the careers of whites in this field. Remember this little gaffe?

Two groups in particular have made it crystal clear they have no intention of improving relations with whites: The New Black Panther Party andBlack American-born Muslims. Well get to the NBP in a minute but let me be clear here about Muslims in this country: Im not talking aboutthe onesthat are born and raised in Muslim nations. Im talking about blacks in this country that convert to Islam.

Funny thing is, most black American Muslims Ive talked to seem to have one thing in common: the utter hatred of white people.

My first stint in Atlanta showed me how crazy these converts were when one knucklehead had the gall to say Osama bin Ladin is a great man! in the wake of the 9/11 attacks. I immediately knew what he was playing at so I coolly shrugged my shoulders and asked Well why is that? What great things has he done?

Silence. He didnt have an answer because I was supposed to fly off the handle and start spewing the red white and blue blues and scream at him for betraying Murica. All his statement was designed to do was illicit a reaction. It wasnt to educate or inform me. The guy just wanted to piss me off because I poked holes in his philosophies and he threw a Hail Mary to try and win the argumentjust like a woman.

These people are unbearable

Believe it or not, the New Black Panther Party is worse. Formerly led by the outwardly racist crackpot Malik Zulu Shabazz (who felt the need to shed his slave name Paris S. Lewis), the NBP has a well earned reputation for the ridiculous notions they abide by.

How crazy are they you ask? These loons backed Crystal Mangum when she accused three Duke LaCrosse players of gang raping her.Thats pretty fucking crazy in my book.

Note: (Dis) honorable mention goes to the NAACP who is as guilty as any group out there for fanning the flames of racism.

Racism is real and it exists. I get it. I certainly dont blame older Black Americans who lived through the Civil Rights Movement and still bear the scars of past racism. That shit was tough to get through (thank God for Martin Luther King, Jr.) so I can understand if blacks of generations past still carry that resentment with them.

However, any black person who didnt live in that era and have the audacityto squawk about reparations, the man, equality, or anything related to race as it pertains to black people are as bad, if not worse, than feminists as far as Im concerned. Feminists ask where have all the good men gone but do nothing to improve themselves as women. That mentality is no different than blacks who fight the power on a daily basis.

Blacks act like were living in this age

Hell, we even shame our own when one of us doesnt toe the proverbial company line. Charles Barkley has been the target of harsh criticism for calling out the looters in Ferguson (to which he responded in kind).

Similarly, Dr. Ben Carson is also looked at as something of a villain in the black community simply because he is unafraid to publicly criticize President Obama and doesnt buy into the bullshit ideals of cooks like Shabazz or Dr. Jeremiah Wright and makes no bones about it.

Improving race relations in America is going to take a seismic shift of epic proportions in American culture. White people have been reigned in (mostly) on racist action and speech. It is high time blacks are held to the same standard. If more of us took the Barkley or Carson approach to life wed be a lot better off as a people.

Read Next: How Black America Has Predicted Our Future

Mar 31, 2015Donovan Sharpe

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Are Black People More Racist Than White People?

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Black Racism – Black Hate – Black Violence – blogspot.com

>>> All the images below are taken from my ‘victim’s list.’ If you have any questions, or complaints, leave them in the comment section at the bottom of the page. >> Imaginary of Black Victims… LINK —————————————————- 1.

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NOTE: The white female on the far right, Chianne Gast, 32, was raped and then gunned down at her place of work by a black male. Her husband was also gunned down (husband survived) – motive was robbery.

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11.

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NOTE: The Morrisons were gunned down in their”home”.

17. Below: Walk-Up Murder Victims Of Black Male Coral Eugene Watts

Note: All of Watts’ victims were white females. MO: Follow a white female home, charge up to her witha knife or screw driver, then repeatedly plunge it into her back.

18.

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White Male Let’s His Guard Down…And Pays The Price

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Walking The Street In ‘Racist’ Baltimore…RESULT?

First the knockout punch. Then…

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“Let’s kill someone”

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A Black Males’ Massacre Of

Innocent White Females

Note: The massacre of the four white females was the aftermath a home invasion robbery.

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28.

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Black Male ‘Knockout Game’ Against White People Continues…

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29.

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Crime Scene Photos Of A Black Males’ Home Invasion Massacre

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Victims Of A Black Male’s Racially Motivated Massacre

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30.

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31.

NOTE: CORRECTION: Stinney was 14-years-old when he murdered the two little white girls.

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32.

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33.

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A Determined Black Male Lands His Cowardly Sucker Punch On Unsuspecting White Male

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Lone Black Male Walks Up On A Group Of White Males…For The Sole Purpose Of Landing A Sucker Punch. After First Sucker Punch Punch … Black Male Goes For Another Punch – Then Another One…While The Other White Males Stand Around And Watch

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MORE VICTIMS ——————————————————————————————————

Gang Rape of a 16-year old White Girl By Black Males

A group of black men attacked an innocent 16-year old white female, who had been dropped off at a bus stop. She was forced into a mens room by a group black men then savagely raped. Police have identified to date only one of these black males who participated in the rape of the child. His name is:

Charles J. Davis, 45 —————————————————————————————————– 1. Ohio, June 27, 1991

Black Male Massacre

* Workplace Slaughter *

Black male teen was fired for theft and returned to the business to kill innocent people.

Black Male Murderer: Roderick Davie, 19

Victims: * Tracey Jefferys, 21 (w/f – beaten to death with a chair) * John Ira Coleman, 38 (b/m – shot in the head) * William John Everett (w/m – survived with a gun shot to the head and two other gun shots to the body)

Note: Black male Davie would likely have killed more innocent people, however, and fortunately, he ran out of bullets. ————————————————————————————————— 2. Baltimore, MD, June 6, 1991

* Black Male Thrill-Kill *

Apparently for self-amusement, two black males decided to ambush a middle-aged white female. As the white female was walking toward her car, along with her two young grandkids by her side, black male Baker ran up to her and simply shot her in the head and then fled.

Black Male Murderers: Gregory Lawrence, 33 Wesley Eugene Baker, 28

White Female: * Jane Frances Tyson, 49 ————————————————————————————————— 3. Manchester, Conn., July 2010

Black Male Massacre

Black Racism

A black male racist, Omar Thornton, already angry at the fact that he was working for a company created by white males, run by white males, and almost all the employees were white, was caught stealing and was fired by a white male, which pushed the black male racist over the edge. Before Thornton took his own life, he assassinated eight unarmed white males (former co-workers).

The innocent dead white males are:

* Bryan Cirigliano, 51 * Francis Fazio Jr., 57 * Douglas Scruton, 56 * Edwin Kennison, 49 * William Ackerman, 51 * Craig Pepin, 60 * Louis Felder Jr. 50 * Victor James, 61

Two white people survived. Many of those who died, according to police, died with multiple gunshot wounds. ————————————————————————————————— 4. Bethel, NC, 1983

Black Male Slaughters Two

Business Invasion

In the course of a robbery, a black male murdered two innocent white people (bludgeoning both with a knife).

Black Male Murderer: Harvey Lee Green, 33

White People: * Sheila Bland, 17 * John Edmundson, 33 ————————————————————————————————— 5. Houston, TX, Sept. 7, 2000

Public Abduction – Murder

Three black males and a black female, Perry Eugene Williams, Jr., 19, James Dunn, Corey Phillips, Kinita Starr Butler (girlfriend of Williams),

abducted a young white male college student hoping to get cash from his ATM card. However, for unknown reasons, on their way to the ATM that plan abruptly changed. The car stopped. Black male Williams got out of the car and then stuck his gun in the window and shot the white male in the head, killing him instantly.

The innocent white male is: * Matthew Carter (studying to be a doctor)

Note: The week crime spree of these blacks prior to the abduction and murder of Matthew Carter is beyond comprehension. http://www.tdcj.state.tx.us/stat/williamsperry.htm ————————————————————————————————— 6. Circleville, OH , July 21, 1990

Home Invasion – Elderly- Rape- Murder

A black male, James J. Hollis, 20,

invaded the home of an elderly white female. When Hollis located the elderly female he beat, raped and then strangled her to death . The innocent victim is:

* Mary Cook, 83 http://www.dispatch.com/live/content/local_news/stories/2008/05/28/hollis.html ————————————————————————————————— 7. Jacksonville, Fla., Dec. 2, 1985

Abuse Of The Elderly – Black Male Ambush – Murder

A black male, Etheria Jackson, 25,

ambushed and murdered a white male; and Jackson apparently took his time murdering the elderly white male. According to police, the white male was beat, gagged, choked, then stabbed to death. Perhaps Jackson was having fun finishing him off. Jackson’s girlfriend, Linda Riley, also according to police, was an active participant in the murder.

Innocent White Male: * Linton Moody, 64 ————————————————————————————————— 8. W. Baltimore, Maryland, April 2000

Black Male Massacre

Black Racism

A black male, Davon Temple, 20,

gunned down two innocent white people for no other reason than they were there. The two innocent white victims are:

* Jennifer Morelock, 25 * Jason Woycio, 29 ——————————————————————————————————– 9. Orange County, TX, April 21, 2010

Business Invasion – Murder

A black male, Edward Roberts Jr., 21,

walked into a white males insurance business armed with a baseball bat intending to commit robbery. In the course of the robbery the black male, unprovoked, beat the owner to death. Also seriously injured was a white female employee. The two innocent white victims are:

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Black Racism – Black Hate – Black Violence – blogspot.com

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Black Crime Facts And Figures About Rape

The Altright is using memes to spread hate propaganda, here are some examples:

black-on-white-crime

black-rape-culture

equality-fact-number-13

interracial-rape-crime

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Racism in the United States – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Racism and ethnic discrimination in the United States has been a major issue since the colonial era and the slave era. Legally or socially sanctioned privileges and rights were given to White Americans that were not granted to Native Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanic and Latino Americans. European Americans (particularly White Anglo-Saxon Protestants) were granted exclusive privileges in matters of education, immigration, voting rights, citizenship, land acquisition, and criminal procedure over periods of time extending from the 17th century to the 1960s. However, non-Protestant immigrants from Europe; particularly Irish people, Poles, and Italians, suffered xenophobic exclusion and other forms of ethnicity-based discrimination in American society, and were not considered fully white. In addition, Middle Eastern American groups like Jews and Arabs have faced continuous discrimination in the United States, and as a result, some people belonging to these groups do not identify as white. East and South Asians have similarly faced racism in America.

Major racially and ethnically structured institutions included slavery, segregation, the American Indian Wars, Native American reservations, Native American boarding schools, immigration and naturalization law and internment camps.[1] Formal racial discrimination was largely banned in the mid-20th century, and came to be perceived as socially unacceptable and/or morally repugnant as well. Racial politics remains a major phenomenon, and racism continues to be reflected in socioeconomic inequality.[2][3]Racial stratification continues to occur in employment, housing, education, lending, and government.

In the view of the U.S. Human Rights Network, a network of scores of U.S. civil rights and human rights organizations, “Discrimination in the United States permeates all aspects of life and extends to all communities of color”.[4] While the nature of the views held by average Americans have changed much over the past several decades, surveys by organizations such as ABC News have found that, even recently, large sections of Americans self-admit to holding discriminatory viewpoints; for example, a 2007 article by the organization stated that about one in ten admitted to holding prejudices against Hispanic and Latino Americans and about one in four did so regarding Arab-Americans.[5]

While the existence of slavery is arguably the root of subsequent conceptualizations of African-Americans, the origins of African enslavement have a large economic foundation. Among the European elite who structured national policy throughout the age of the Atlantic system of trade, there existed a popular ideology called mercantilism, or the belief that policy pursuits were centralized around military power and economic wealth. Colonies were sources of mineral wealth and crops, to be used to the home country’s advantage.[6] Using Native Americans for manpower was impractical; they were decimated by disease and violence.[citation needed] Using Europeans for labor proved unsustainably expensive, as well as harmful to the supply of labor in the home countries. However, African slaves were “available in large numbers at prices that made plantation agriculture in the Americas profitable”.[7]

It is also argued that, along with the economic motives underlying slavery in the Americas, European world schemas played a large role in the enslavement of Africans. According to this view, the European in-group for humane behavior included the sub-continent, while African and American Indian cultures had a more localized definition of “an insider”. While neither schema has inherent superiority, the technological advantage of Europeans became a resource to disseminate the conviction that underscored their schemas, that non-Europeans could be enslaved. With the capability to spread their schematic representation of the world, Europeans could impose a social contract, morally permitting three centuries of African slavery. While the disintegration of this social contract by the eighteenth century led to abolitionism, it is argued that the removal of barriers to “insider status” is a very slow process, uncompleted even today (2015).[8]

As a result of the above, the Atlantic slave trade prospered. According to estimates in the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database, between 1626 and 1860 more than 470,000 slaves were forcibly transported from Africa to what is now the United States.[9][10] Furthermore, approximately one Southern family in four held slaves prior to the Civil War. According to the 1860 U.S. census, there were about 385,000 slaveowners out of a white population in the slave states of approximately 7 million.[11][12]

In the early part of the 19th century, a variety of organizations were established advocating the movement of black people from the United States to locations where they would enjoy greater freedom; some endorsed colonization, while others advocated emigration. During the 1820s and 1830s the American Colonization Society (A.C.S.) was the primary vehicle for proposals to return black Americans to greater freedom and equality in Africa,[13] and in 1821 the A.C.S. established the colony of Liberia, assisting thousands of former African-American slaves and free black people (with legislated limits) to move there from the United States. The colonization effort resulted from a mixture of motives with its founder Henry Clay stating; “unconquerable prejudice resulting from their color, they never could amalgamate with the free whites of this country. It was desirable, therefore, as it respected them, and the residue of the population of the country, to drain them off”.[14]

Although in 1820 the slave trade was equated with piracy, punishable by death,[15] the practice of chattel slavery existed for the next half century. All slaves in only the areas of the Confederate States of America that were not under direct control of the United States government were declared free by the Emancipation Proclamation, which was issued on January 1, 1863, by President Abraham Lincoln.[16] While personally opposed to slavery, Lincoln believed that the Constitution did not give Congress the power to end slavery, stating in his first Inaugural Address that he “had no objection to [this] being made express and irrevocable” via the Corwin Amendment.[17] On social and political rights for blacks, Lincoln stated, “I am not, nor ever have been in favor of making voters or jurors of negroes, nor of qualifying them to hold office, nor to intermarry with white people, I as much as any man am in favor of the superior position assigned to the white race.”[18] The Emancipation Proclamation did not apply to areas loyal to, or controlled by, the Union. Slavery was not actually abolished in the United States until the passage of the 13th Amendment which was declared ratified on December 6, 1865.[19]

About 4 million black slaves were freed in 1865. Ninety-five percent of blacks lived in the South, comprising one third of the population there as opposed to one percent of the population of the North. Consequently, fears of eventual emancipation were much greater in the South than in the North.[20] Based on 1860 census figures, 8% of males aged 13 to 43 died in the civil war, including 6% in the North and 18% in the South.[21]

After the Civil War, the 13th amendment in 1865, formally abolishing slavery, was ratified. Furthermore, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which broadened a range of civil rights to all persons born in the United States. Despite this, the emergence of “Black Codes”, sanctioned acts of subjugation against blacks, continued to bar African-Americans from due civil rights. The Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U.S. citizenship to whites only, and in 1868 the effort toward civil rights was underscored with the 14th amendment which granted citizenship to blacks.[22] The Civil Rights Act of 1875 followed, which was eliminated in a decision that undermined federal power to thwart private racial discrimination.[23] Nonetheless, the last of the Reconstruction Era amendments, the 15th amendment promised voting rights to African-American men, and these cumulative federal efforts, African-Americans began taking advantage of enfranchisement. African-Americans began voting, seeking office positions, utilizing public education. Yet by the end of Reconstruction in the mid 1870s, violent white supremacists came to power via paramilitary groups such as the Red Shirts and the White League and imposed Jim Crow laws that deprived African-Americans of voting rights and instituted systemic discriminatory policies through policies of unequal racial segregation.[24]

The new century saw a hardening of institutionalized racism and legal discrimination against citizens of African descent in the United States. Throughout this post Civil War period, racial stratification was informally and systemically enforced, in order to solidify the pre-existing social order. Although technically able to vote, poll taxes, pervasive acts of terror such as lynching in the United States (often perpetrated by groups such as the reborn Ku Klux Klan, founded in the Reconstruction South), and discriminatory laws such as grandfather clauses kept black Americans disenfranchised particularly in the South. Furthermore, discrimination extended to state legislation that “allocated vastly unequal financial support” for black and white schools. In addition to this, county officials sometimes redistributed resources earmarked for blacks to white schools, further undermining educational opportunities.[25] In response to de jure racism, protest and lobbyist groups emerged, most notably, the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) in 1909.

This time period is sometimes referred to as the nadir of American race relations because racism, segregation, racial discrimination, and expressions of white supremacy all increased. So did anti-black violence, including race riots such as the Atlanta Race Riot of 1906 and the Tulsa race riot of 1921.

In addition, racism which had been viewed primarily as a problem in the Southern states, burst onto the national consciousness following the Great Migration, the relocation of millions of African Americans from their roots in the Southern states to the industrial centers of the North after World War I, particularly in cities such as Boston, Chicago, and New York (Harlem). Within Chicago, for example, between 1910 and 1970, the percentage of African-Americans leapt from 2.0 percent to 32.7 percent.[26] The demographic patterns of black migrants and external economic conditions are largely studied stimulants regarding the Great Migration.[27] For example, migrating blacks (between 1910 and 1920) were more likely to be literate than blacks that remained in the South. Known economic push factors played a role in migration, such as the emergence of a split labor market and agricultural distress from the boll weevil destruction of the cotton economy.[28]

Southern migrants were often treated in accordance with pre-existing racial stratification. The rapid influx of blacks disturbed the racial balance within cities, exacerbating hostility between both black and white Northerners. Stereotypic schemas of Southern blacks were used to attribute issues in urban areas, such as crime and disease, to the presence of African-Americans. Overall, African-Americans in Northern cities experienced systemic discrimination in a plethora of aspects of life. Within employment, economic opportunities for blacks were routed to the lowest-status and restrictive in potential mobility . Within the housing market, stronger discriminatory measures were used in correlation to the influx, resulting in a mix of “targeted violence, restrictive covenants, redlining and racial steering”[29]

Throughout this period, racial tensions exploded, most violently in Chicago, and lynchingsmob-directed hangings, usually racially motivatedincreased dramatically in the 1920s.

The Jim Crow Laws were state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965. They mandated “separate but equal” status for black Americans. In reality, this led to treatment and accommodations that were almost always inferior to those provided to white Americans. The most important laws required that public schools, public places and public transportation, like trains and buses, have separate facilities for whites and blacks. State-sponsored school segregation was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of the United States in 1954 in Brown v. Board of Education. One of the first federal court cases to challenge segregation in schools was Mendez v. Westminster in 1946.

In response to heightening discrimination and violence, non-violent acts of protest began to occur. For example, in February 1960, in Greensboro, North Carolina, four young African-American college students entered a Woolworth store and sat down at the counter but were refused service. The men had learned about non-violent protest in college, and continued to sit peacefully as whites tormented them at the counter, pouring ketchup on their heads and burning them with cigarettes. After this, many sit-ins took place in order to non-violently protest against racism and inequality. Sit-ins continued throughout the South and spread to other areas. Eventually, after many sit-ins and other non-violent protests, including marches and boycotts, places began to agree to desegregate.[30][full citation needed]

The 16th Street Baptist Church bombing marked a turning point during the Civil Rights Era, by attracting national attention. On Sunday, September 15, 1963 with a stack of dynamite hidden on an outside staircase, Ku Klux Klansmen destroyed one side of the Birmingham church. The bomb exploded in proximity to twenty-six children who were preparing for choir practice in the basement assembly room. The explosion killed four black girls, Carole Robertson (14), Cynthia Wesley (14), Denise McNair (11) and Addie Mae Collins (14).[31][32]

With the bombing occurring only a couple of weeks after Martin Luther King Jr.’s March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, it became an integral aspect of transformed perceptions of conditions for blacks in America. It influenced the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965 which overruled remaining Jim Crow laws. Nonetheless, neither had been implemented by the end of the 1960s as civil rights leaders continued to strive for political and social freedom. Many U.S. states banned interracial marriage. In 1967, Mildred Loving, a black woman, and Richard Loving, a white man, were sentenced to a year in prison in Virginia for marrying each other.[33] Their marriage violated the state’s anti-miscegenation statute, the Racial Integrity Act of 1924, which prohibited marriage between people classified as white and people classified as “colored” (persons of African or Native American ancestry).[34] In the Loving v. Virginia case in 1967, the Supreme Court invalidated laws prohibiting interracial marriage in the U.S.[35]

Segregation continued even after the demise of the Jim Crow laws. Data on house prices and attitudes toward integration from suggest that in the mid-20th century, segregation was a product of collective actions taken by whites to exclude blacks from their neighborhoods.[36] Segregation also took the form of redlining, the practice of denying or increasing the cost of services, such as banking, insurance, access to jobs,[37] access to health care,[38] or even supermarkets[39] to residents in certain, often racially determined,[40] areas. Although in the United States informal discrimination and segregation have always existed, redlining began with the National Housing Act of 1934, which established the Federal Housing Administration (FHA). The practice was fought first through passage of the Fair Housing Act of 1968 (which prevents redlining when the criteria for redlining are based on race, religion, gender, familial status, disability, or ethnic origin), and later through the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977, which requires banks to apply the same lending criteria in all communities.[41] Although redlining is illegal some argue that it continues to exist in other forms.

While substantial gains were made in the succeeding decades through middle class advancement and public employment, black poverty and lack of education[42] deepened in the context of de-industrialization.[43] Prejudice, discrimination, and institutional racism (see below) continue to affect African Americans. Despite gains made after the 16th Street Baptist Church bombing, violence against black churches has also continued fires set to churches around the South in the 1990s,[44] for example, and the Charleston church shooting of 2015, when nine people were shot and killed.[45]

From 1981 to 1997, the United States Department of Agriculture discriminated against tens of thousands of black American farmers, denying loans that were provided to white farmers in similar circumstances. The discrimination was the subject of the Pigford v. Glickman lawsuit brought by members of the National Black Farmers Association, which resulted in two settlement agreements of $1.25 billion in 1999 and of $1.15 billion in 2009.[46]

It is argued[by whom?] that there exists a color blindness or an “understanding that cultural differences rooted in racial identities are irrelevant for peoples’ prospects and their overall well-being”.[47] Yet, one counter-example to this claim is that employer interviews reveal reluctance from both black and white employers to employ “urban young males who exhibit lower-class behavioral styles”, highlighting the existence of embedded socio-economic preconceptions.[48]

Furthermore, many cite the United States presidential election, 2008 as a step forward in race relations: White Americans played a role in electing Barack Obama, the country’s first black president.[49] In fact, Obama received a greater percentage of the white vote (43%),[50] than did the previous Democratic candidate, John Kerry (41%).[51] Racial divisions persisted throughout the election; wide margins of Black voters gave Obama an edge during the presidential primary, where 8 out of 10 African-Americans voted for him in the primaries, and an MSNBC poll found that race was a key factor in whether a candidate was perceived as being ready for office. In South Carolina, for instance,”Whites were far likelier to name Clinton than Obama as being most qualified to be commander in chief, likeliest to unite the country and most apt to capture the White House in November. Blacks named Obama over Clinton by even stronger margins two- and three-to one in all three areas.”[52]

Sociologist Russ Long stated in 2013 that there is now a more subtle racism that associates a specific race with a specific characteristic.[53] In a 1993 study conducted by Katz and Braly, it was presented that “blacks and whites hold a variety of stereotypes towards each other, often negative.”[54] The Katz and Braley study also found that African-Americans and Whites view the traits that they identify each other with as threatening, interracial communication between the two is likely to be “hesitant, reserved, and concealing.”[54] Interracial communication is guided by stereotypes; stereotypes are transferred into personality and character traits which lead to have an effect on communication. Multiple factors go into how stereotypes are established, such as age and the setting in which they are being applied.[54] For example, in a study done by the Entman-Rojecki Index of Race and Media in 2014, 89% of black women in movies are shown swearing and acting in offensive behavior while only 17% of white women are portrayed in this manner.[55]

The Naturalization Act of 1790 made Asians ineligible for citizenship, with citizenship limited to whites only.[56]

Asian Americans, including those of East Asian, Southeast Asian, and South Asian descent, have experienced racism since the first major groups of Chinese immigrants arrived in America. First-generation immigrants, children of immigrants, and Asians adopted by non-Asian families have all been impacted.[57]

In the 19th century, America was undergoing rapid industrialization, leading to labor shortages in the mining and rail industries. Chinese immigrant labor was often used to fill this gap, most notably with the construction of the First Transcontinental Railroad, leading to large-scale Chinese immigration.[57] These Chinese immigrants were despised because they took the jobs of whites for cheaper pay, and the phrase Yellow Peril, which predicted the demise of Western “civilization” as a result of Chinese immigrants, gained popularity.[58] This discrimination apexed with the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act, which banned Chinese immigration to the United States. This was the first time that a law was passed to exclude a major group from the nation that was based on ethnicity and class.[57]

Local discriminatory laws were also enacted to stifle Chinese business and job opportunities; for example, in the 1886 Supreme Court case of Yick Wo v. Hopkins, a San Francisco city ordinance requiring permits for laundries (which were mostly Chinese-owned) was struck down, as it was clear the law solely targeted Chinese Americans. When the law was in effect, the city issued permits to virtually all non-Chinese permit applicants, while only granting one permit out of two hundred applications from Chinese laundry owners. When the Chinese laundries continued to operate, the city tried to fine the owners. In 1913, California, home to many Chinese immigrants, enacted an Alien Land Law, which significantly restricted land ownership by Asian immigrants, and extended it in 1920, ultimately banning virtually all land ownership by Asians.[59]

In 1907, Japanese immigrants, which were unaffected by the Exclusion Act, began to enter the United States, filling labor shortages that were once filled by Chinese workers. This influx also led to discrimination and was stymied when President Theodore Roosevelt restricted Japanese immigration. Later, Japanese immigration was closed when Japan entered into the Gentlemen’s Agreement of 1907 to stop issuing passports to Japanese workers intending to move to the U.S.[60]

During World War II, the Republic of China was an ally of the United States, and the federal government praised the resistance of the Chinese against Japan in the Second Sino-Japanese War, attempting to reduce anti-Chinese sentiment. In 1943, the Magnuson Act was passed by Congress, repealing the Chinese Exclusion Act and reopening Chinese immigration. However, at the time, the United States was actively fighting the Empire of Japan, which was a member of the Axis powers. Anti-Japanese racism, which spiked after the attack on Pearl Harbor, was tacitly encouraged by the government, which used slurs such as “Jap” in propaganda posters and even interned Japanese Americans, citing possible security threats. This prejudice continued for some time after the war had concluded.

Prior to 1965, Indian immigration to the U.S. was small and isolated, with fewer than fifty thousand Indian immigrants in the country. The Bellingham riots in Bellingham, Washington on September 5, 1907 epitomized the low tolerance in the U.S. for Indians and Hindus. In the 1923 case, United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind, the Supreme Court ruled that high caste Hindus were not “white persons” and were therefore racially ineligible for naturalized citizenship.[61] The Court argued that the racial difference between Indians and whites was so great that the “great body of our people” would reject assimilation with Indians.[61] It was after the LuceCeller Act of 1946 that a quota of 100 Indians per year could immigrate to the U.S. and become citizens.[62]

The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 dramatically opened entry to the U.S. to immigrants other than traditional Northern European and Germanic groups, and as a result would significantly alter the demographic mix in the U.S.[63] On the U.S. immigration laws prior to 1965, sociologist Stephen Klineberg states: “The law was just unbelievable in its clarity of racism. It declared that Northern Europeans are a superior subspecies of the white race.”[63] In 1990, Asian immigration was encouraged when nonimmigrant temporary working visas were given to help with the shortage of skilled labor within the United States.[57]

In modern times, Asians have been perceived as a “model minority”. They are seen as more educated and successful, and are stereotyped as intelligent and hard-working, but socially inept.[64] Asians may experience expectations of natural intelligence and excellence from whites as well as other minorities.[59][65] This has led to discrimination in the workplace, as Asian Americans may face unreasonable expectations because of the “model minority” stereotype. In 2000, out of 1,218 adult Asian Americans, 92 percent of those who experienced personal discrimination believed that the unfair treatment was due to their ethnicity.[64]

Asian American stereotypes can also obstruct career paths; because Asians are seen as better skilled in engineering, computing, and mathematics, they are often encouraged to pursue technical careers. They are also discouraged from pursuing non-technical occupations or executive occupations requiring more social interaction, since Asians are expected to have poor social skills. In the 2000 study, forty percent of those surveyed who experienced discrimination believed that they had lost hiring or promotion opportunities. In 2007, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission reported that Asians make up 10 percent of professional jobs, while 3.7 percent of them held executive, senior level, or manager positions.[64]

Other forms of discrimination include racial profiling and hate crimes. Research shows that discrimination has led to more use of informal mental health services by Asian Americans.[66] Asian Americans who feel discriminated against also tend to smoke more.[67]

Various European American immigrant groups have been subject to discrimination either on the basis of their immigrant status (known as “Nativism”) or on the basis of their ethnicities (country of origin).

In the 19th century, this was particularly true of anti-Irish prejudice, which was partly anti-Catholic sentiment, partly anti-Irish as an ethnicity. This was especially true for Irish Catholics who immigrated to the U.S. in the mid-19th century; the large number of Irish (both Catholic and Protestant) who settled in America in the 18th century had largely (but not entirely) escaped such discrimination and eventually blended into the American white population. During the 1830s in the U.S., riots for control of job sites broke out in rural areas among rival labour teams from different parts of Ireland, and between Irish and local American work teams competing for construction jobs.[68]

The Native American Party, commonly called the Know Nothing movement was a political party, whose membership was limited to Protestant men, that operated on a national basis during the mid-1850s and sought to limit the influence of Irish Catholics and other immigrants, thus reflecting nativism and anti-Catholic sentiment. There was widespread anti-Irish job discrimination in the United States and “No Irish need apply” signs were common.[69][70][71]

The second era Ku Klux Klan was a very large nationwide organization in the 1920s, consisting of between four to six million members (15% of the nation’s eligible population) that especially opposed Catholics.[72] Anti-Catholic sentiment, which commenced in North America with the first Pilgrim and Puritan settlers in New England in the early 17th century, remained evident in the U.S. up to the presidential campaign of John F. Kennedy, who went on to become the first Catholic (and first non-Protestant) U.S. president in 1961.[73]

The 20th century saw discrimination against immigrants from southern and eastern Europe (notably Italian Americans and Polish Americans), partly from anti-Catholic sentiment (as well as discrimination against Irish-Americans), and partly from Nordicism, which considered all non-Germanic, non-Scandinavian, or non-British immigrants as racially inferior.[citation needed]

Nordicism led to the reduction in Southern European, along with Slavic Eastern European and Russian immigrants in the National Origins Formula of the Emergency Quota Act of 1921 and the Immigration Act of 1924, whose goal was to maintain the status quo distribution of ethnicity by limiting immigration in proportion to existing populations. This reduced the inflow from the average prior to 1921 of 176,983 from northern, central and western Europe, and 685,531 for other countries, principally Southern and Russia, to a 1924 level of 140,999 for northern, central and western Europe, and 21,847 for other countries, principally Southern and Russia (from a 1:3.9 ratio to a 6.4:1 ratio).[citation needed]

There was also discrimination against German Americans and Italian Americans due to Germany and Italy being enemy countries during World War I (Germany) and World War II (Germany and Italy). This resulted in a sharp decrease in German-American ethnic identity and a sharp decrease in the use of German in the United States following WWI, which had hitherto been significant, and to German American internment and Italian American internment during WWII; see also World War I anti-German sentiment.

Beginning in World War I, German Americans were sometimes accused of having political allegiances to Germany, and thus not to the United States.[75] The Justice Department attempted to prepare a list of all German aliens, counting approximately 480,000 of them, more than 4,000 of whom were imprisoned in 191718. The allegations included spying for Germany, or endorsing the German war effort.[76] Thousands were forced to buy war bonds to show their loyalty.[77] The Red Cross barred individuals with German last names from joining in fear of sabotage. One person was killed by a mob; in Collinsville, Illinois, German-born Robert Prager was dragged from jail as a suspected spy and lynched.[78] Questions of German American loyalty increased due to events like the German bombing of Black Tom island[79] and the U.S. entering World War I, many German Americans were arrested for refusing allegiance to the U.S.[80] War hysteria led to the removal of German names in public, names of things such as streets,[81] and businesses.[82] Schools also began to eliminate or discourage the teaching of the German language.[83] Years later during the Second World War, German Americans were once again the victims of war hysteria discrimination. Following its entry into the Second World War, the US Government interned at least 11,000 American citizens of German ancestry. The last to be released, a German-American, remained imprisoned until 1948 at Ellis Island,[84] three and a half years after the cessation of hostilities against Germany.

Specific European-American ethnicities significantly diminished as a political issue in the 1930s, being replaced by a bi-racialism of black/white, as described and predicted by Lothrop Stoddard, due to numerous causes. The National Origins Formula significantly reduced inflows of non-Nordic ethnicities; the Great Migration (of African-Americans out of the South) displaced anti-white immigrant racism with anti-black racism; and the Great Depression brought economic concerns to the fore.[citation needed]

Americans of Latin American ancestry (often categorized as “Hispanic”) come from a wide variety of racial and ethnic backgrounds. Latinos are not all distinguishable as a racial minority.

After the MexicanAmerican War (18461848), the U.S. annexed much of the current Southwestern region from Mexico. Mexicans residing in that territory found themselves subject to discrimination. It is estimated that at least 597 Mexicans were lynched between 1848 and 1928 (this is a conservative estimate due to lack of records in many reported lynchings). Mexicans were lynched at a rate of 27.4 per 100,000 of population between 1880 and 1930. This statistic is second only to that of the African American community during the same period, which suffered an average of 37.1 per 100,000 of population.[85] Between 1848 and 1879, Mexicans were lynched at an unprecedented rate of 473 per 100,000 of population.[86]

During The Great Depression, the U.S. government sponsored a Mexican Repatriation program which was intended to encourage Mexican immigrants to voluntarily return to Mexico, however, many were forcibly removed against their will. In total, up to one million persons of Mexican ancestry were deported, approximately 60 percent of those individuals were actually U.S. citizens.

The Zoot Suit Riots were vivid incidents of racial violence against Latinos (e.g., Mexican-Americans) in Los Angeles in 1943. Naval servicemen stationed in a Latino neighborhood conflicted with youth in the dense neighborhood. Frequent confrontations between small groups and individuals had intensified into several days of non-stop rioting. Large mobs of servicemen would enter civilian quarters looking to attack Mexican American youths, some of whom were wearing zoot suits, a distinctive exaggerated fashion popular among that group.[87] The disturbances continued unchecked, and even assisted, by the local police for several days before base commanders declared downtown Los Angeles and Mexican American neighborhoods off-limits to servicemen.[88]

Many public institutions, businesses, and homeowners associations had official policies to exclude Mexican Americans. School children of Mexican American descent were subject to racial segregation in the public school system. In many counties, Mexican Americans were excluded from serving as jurors in court cases, especially in those that involved a Mexican American defendant. In many areas across the Southwest, they lived in separate residential areas, due to laws and real estate company policies.[89][90][91][92]

During the 1960s, Mexican American youth formed the Chicano Civil Rights Movement.

People of Middle Eastern and South Asian descent historically occupied an ambiguous racial status in the United States. Middle Eastern and South Asian immigrants were among those who sued in the late 19th and early 20th century to determine whether they were “white” immigrants as required by naturalization law. By 1923, courts had vindicated a “common-knowledge” standard, concluding that “scientific evidence”, including the notion of a “Caucasian race” including Middle Easterners and many South Asians, was incoherent. Legal scholar John Tehranian argues that in reality this was a “performance-based” standard, relating to religious practices, education, intermarriage and a community’s role in the United States.[94]

Racism against Arab Americans[95] and racialized Islamophobia against Muslims has risen concomitantly with tensions between the American government and the Islamic world.[96] Following the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States, discrimination and racialized violence has markedly increased against Arab Americans and many other religious and cultural groups.[97] Scholars, including Sunaina Maira and Evelyn Alsultany, argue that in the post-September 11 climate, Muslim Americans have been racialized within American society, although the markers of this racialization are cultural, political, and religious rather than phenotypic.[98][99]

Arab Americans in particular were most demonized which led to hatred towards Middle Easterners living in the United States and elsewhere in the Western world.[100][101] There have been attacks against Arabs not only on the basis of their religion (Islam), but also on the basis of their ethnicity; numerous Christian Arabs have been attacked based on their appearances.[102] In addition, other Middle Eastern peoples (Iranians, Assyrians, Armenians, Jews, Turks, Yezidis, Kurds, etc.) who are mistaken for Arabs because of perceived similarities in appearance have been collateral victims of anti-Arabism.

Non-Arab and non-Muslim Middle Eastern people, as well as South Asians of different ethnic/religious backgrounds (Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs) have been stereotyped as “Arabs”. The case of Balbir Singh Sodhi, a Sikh who was murdered at a Phoenix gas station by a white supremacist for “looking like an Arab terrorist” (because of the turban that is a requirement of Sikhism), as well as that of Hindus being attacked for “being Muslims” have achieved prominence and criticism following the September 11 attacks.[103][104]

Those of Middle Eastern descent who are in the United States military sometimes face racism from fellow soldiers. Army Spc Zachari Klawonn endured numerous instances of racism during his enlistment at Fort Hood, Texas. During his basic training he was made to put cloth around his head and play the role of terrorist. His fellow soldiers had to take him down to the ground and draw guns on him. He was also called things such as “raghead”, “sand monkey”, and “Zachari bin Laden”.[105][106]

According to a 2004 study, although official parameters encompass Arabs as part of the White American racial category, many Arab Americans from places other than the Levant feel they are not white and are not perceived as white by American society.[107]

The November 1979 Iranian hostage crisis of the U.S. embassy in Tehran precipitated a wave of anti-Iranian sentiment in the United States, directed both against the new Islamic regime and Iranian nationals and immigrants. Even though such sentiments gradually declined after the release of the hostages at the start of 1981, they sometimes flare up. In response, some Iranian immigrants to the U.S. have distanced themselves from their nationality and instead identify primarily on the basis of their ethnic or religious affiliations.[108]

Since the 1980s and especially since the 1990s, it has been argued, Hollywood’s depiction of Iranians has gradually shown signs of vilifying Iranians.[109] Hollywood network productions such as 24,[110]John Doe, On Wings of Eagles (1986),[111]Escape from Iran: The Canadian Caper (1981),[112] and JAG almost regularly host Persian speaking villains in their storyline.

Antisemitism has also played a role in the United States. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, hundreds of thousands of ethnic Jews were escaping the pogroms in Europe. They boarded boats from ports on the Baltic Sea and in Northern Germany, and largely arrived at Ellis Island, New York.[113]

It is suggested by Leo Rosten, in his book The Joys of Yiddish, that as soon as they left the boat, they were subject to racism from the port immigration authorities. The derogatory term kike was adopted when referring to Jews (because they often could not write so they may have signed their immigration papers with circles or kikel in Yiddish).[114] Efforts were also made by the Asiatic Exclusion League to bar Jewish immigrants (along with other Middle Eastern ethnic groups, like Arabs, Assyrians, and Armenians) from naturalization, but they (along with Assyrians and Armenians) were nevertheless granted US citizenship, despite being classified as Asian.[115]

From the 1910s, the Southern Jewish communities were attacked by the Ku Klux Klan, who objected to Jewish immigration, and often used “The Jewish Banker” in their propaganda. In 1915, Leo Frank was lynched in Georgia after being convicted of rape and sentenced to death (his punishment was commuted to life imprisonment).[116] This event was a catalyst in the re-formation of the new Ku Klux Klan.[117]

The events in Nazi Germany also attracted attention from the United States. Jewish lobbying for intervention in Europe drew opposition from the isolationists, amongst whom was Father Charles Coughlin, a well known radio priest, who was known to be critical of Jews, believing that they were leading the United States into the war.[118] He preached in weekly, overtly anti-Semitic sermons and, from 1936, began publication of a newspaper, Social Justice, in which he printed anti-Semitic accusations such as The Protocols of the Elders of Zion.[119]

A number of Jewish organizations, Christian organizations, Muslim organizations, and academics consider the Nation of Islam to be anti-Semitic. Specifically, they claim that the Nation of Islam has engaged in revisionist and antisemitic interpretations of the Holocaust and exaggerates the role of Jews in the African slave trade.[120] The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) alleged that the NOI’s Health Minister, Dr. Abdul Alim Muhammad, accused Jewish doctors of injecting blacks with the AIDS virus,[121] an allegation that Muhammad and The Washington Post have refuted.[122]

Although Jews are often perceived as white in the American mainstream, the relationship of Jews to whiteness remains complex, with some preferring not to identify as white.[123][124][125][126] Prominent activist and rabbi Michael Lerner argues, in a 1993 Village Voice article, that “in America, to be ‘white’ means to be the beneficiary of the past 500 years of European exploration and exploitation of the rest of the world” and that “Jews can only be deemed white if there is massive amnesia on the part of non-Jews about the monumental history of anti-Semitism”.[127]African-American activist Cornel West, in an interview with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, has explained:

Even if some Jews do believe that they’re white, I think that they’ve been duped. I think that antisemitism has proven itself to be a powerful force in nearly every post of Western civilization where Christianity has a presence. And so even as a Christian, I say continually to my Jewish brothers and sisters: don’t believe the hype about your full scale assimilation and integration into the mainstream. It only takes an event or two for a certain kind of anti-Jewish, antisemitic sensibility to surface in places that you would be surprised. But I’m just thoroughly convinced that America is not the promised land for Jewish brothers and sisters. A lot of Jewish brothers say, “No, that’s not true. We finally…” Yeahthey said that in Alexandria. You said that in Weimar Germany.[128]

In recent years some scholars have advanced the concept of New antisemitism, coming simultaneously from the Far Left, the far right, and radical Islam, which tends to focus on opposition to the creation of a Jewish homeland in the State of Israel, and argue that the language of Anti-Zionism and criticism of Israel are used to attack Jews more broadly. In this view, the proponents of the new concept believe that criticisms of Israel and Zionism are often disproportionate in degree and unique in kind, and attribute this to antisemitism.[129]

Yehuda Bauer, Professor of Holocaust Studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, has argued that the concept of a “new antisemitism” is essentially false since it is in fact an alternative form of the old antisemitism of previous decades, which he believes remains latent at times but recurs whenever it is triggered. In his view, the current trigger is the Israeli situation; if a compromise making ground in the Arab-Israeli peace process were achieved, he believes that antisemitism would decline but not disappear.

Noted critics of Israel, such as Noam Chomsky and Norman Finkelstein, question the extent of new antisemitism in the United States. Chomsky has written in his work Necessary Illusions that the Anti-Defamation League casts any question of pro-Israeli policy as antisemitism, conflating and muddling issues as even Zionists receive the allegation.[130] Finkelstein has stated that supposed “new antisemitism” is a preposterous concept advanced by the ADL to combat critics of Israeli policy.[131]

The Roma population in America has blended more-or-less seamlessly into the rest of society.[citation needed] In the U.S., the term “Gypsy” has come to be associated with a trade, profession, or lifestyle more than with the Romani ethnic/racial group.[citation needed] Some Americans, especially those self-employed in the fortune-telling and psychic reading business,[132] use the term “Gypsy” to describe themselves or their enterprise, despite having no ties to the Roma people. This can be chalked up to misperception and ignorance regarding the term rather than any bigotry or even anti-ziganism.[133][dubious discuss]

Native Americans, who have lived on the North American continent for at least 10,000 years,[134] had an enormously complex impact on American history and racial relations. During the colonial and independent periods, a long series of conflicts were waged, often with the objective of obtaining resources of Native Americans. Through wars, forced displacement (such as in the Trail of Tears), and the imposition of treaties, land was taken. The loss of land often resulted in hardships for Native Americans. In the early 18th century, the English had enslaved nearly 800 Choctaws.[135] After the creation of the United States, the idea of Indian removal gained momentum. However, some Native Americans chose or were allowed to remain and avoided removal whereafter they were subjected to official racism. The Choctaws in Mississippi described their situation in 1849, “we have had our habitations torn down and burned, our fences destroyed, cattle turned into our fields and we ourselves have been scourged, manacled, fettered and otherwise personally abused, until by such treatment some of our best men have died.”[136] Joseph B. Cobb, who moved to Mississippi from Georgia, described Choctaws as having “no nobility or virtue at all,” and in some respect he found blacks, especially native Africans, more interesting and admirable, the red man’s superior in every way. The Choctaw and Chickasaw, the tribes he knew best, were beneath contempt, that is, even worse than black slaves.[137] Ideological expansionist justification (Manifest Destiny) included stereotyped perceptions of all Native Americans as “merciless Indian savages” (as described in the United States Declaration of Independence) despite successful American efforts at civilization as proven with the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Creek, and Choctaw. In 1861, residents of Mankato, Minnesota, formed the Knights of the Forest, with a goal of ‘eliminating all Indians from Minnesota.’ An egregious attempt occurred with the California gold rush, the first two years of which saw the deaths of thousands of Native Americans. Under Mexican rule in California, Indians were subjected to de facto enslavement under a system of peonage by the white elite. While in 1850, California formally entered the Union as a free state, with respect to the issue of slavery, the practice of Indian indentured servitude was not outlawed by the California Legislature until 1863.[138]

During the period surrounding the 1890 Wounded Knee Massacre, author L. Frank Baum wrote two editorials about Native Americans. Five days after the killing of the Lakota Sioux holy man, Sitting Bull, Baum wrote, “The proud spirit of the original owners of these vast prairies inherited through centuries of fierce and bloody wars for their possession, lingered last in the bosom of Sitting Bull. With his fall the nobility of the Redskin is extinguished, and what few are left are a pack of whining curs who lick the hand that smites them. The Whites, by law of conquest, by justice of civilization, are masters of the American continent, and the best safety of the frontier settlements will be secured by the total annihilation of the few remaining Indians. Why not annihilation? Their glory has fled, their spirit broken, their manhood effaced; better that they die than live the miserable wretches that they are.”[139] Following the December 29, 1890, massacre, Baum wrote, “The Pioneer has before declared that our only safety depends upon the total extirmination [sic] of the Indians. Having wronged them for centuries we had better, in order to protect our civilization, follow it up by one more wrong and wipe these untamed and untamable creatures from the face of the earth. In this lies safety for our settlers and the soldiers who are under incompetent commands. Otherwise, we may expect future years to be as full of trouble with the redskins as those have been in the past.”[139][140]

Military and civil resistance by Native Americans has been a constant feature of American history. So too have a variety of debates around issues of sovereignty, the upholding of treaty provisions, and the civil rights of Native Americans under U.S. law.

Once their territories were incorporated into the United States, surviving Native Americans were denied equality before the law and often treated as wards of the state.[141]

Many Native Americans were moved to reservationsconstituting 4% of U.S. territory. In a number of cases treaties signed with Native Americans were violated. Tens of thousands of American Indians and Alaska Natives were forced to attend a residential school system which sought to reeducate them in white settler American values, culture and economy.[142][143]

Further dispossession of various kinds continues into the present, although these current dispossessions, especially in terms of land, rarely make major news headlines in the country (e.g., the Lenape people’s recent fiscal troubles and subsequent land grab by the State of New Jersey), and sometimes even fail to make it to headlines in the localities in which they occur. Through concessions for industries such as oil, mining and timber and through division of land from the Allotment Act forward, these concessions have raised problems of consent, exploitation of low royalty rates, environmental injustice, and gross mismanagement of funds held in trust, resulting in the loss of $1040 billion.[144]

The Worldwatch Institute notes that 317 reservations are threatened by environmental hazards, while Western Shoshone land has been subjected to more than 1,000 nuclear explosions.[145]

The government appointed agents, like Benjamin Hawkins, to live among the Native Americans and to teach them, through example and instruction, how to live like whites.[146] America’s first president, George Washington, formulated a policy to encourage the “civilizing” process.[147] Washington had a six-point plan for civilization which included:

1. impartial justice toward Native Americans 2. regulated buying of Native American lands 3. promotion of commerce 4. promotion of experiments to civilize or improve Native American society 5. presidential authority to give presents 6. punishing those who violated Native American rights.[148]

The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U.S. citizenship to all Native Americans. Prior to the passage of the act, nearly two-thirds of Native Americans were already U.S. citizens.[149] The earliest recorded date of Native Americans becoming U.S. citizens was in 1831 when the Mississippi Choctaw became citizens after the United States Legislature ratified the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek. Under article XIV of that treaty, any Choctaw who elected not to move to Native American Territory could become an American citizen when he registered and if he stayed on designated lands for five years after treaty ratification. Citizenship could also be obtained by:

1. Treaty Provision (as with the Mississippi Choctaw) 2. Allotment under the Act of February 8, 1887 3. Issuance of Patent in Fee Simple 4. Adopting Habits of Civilized Life 5. Minor Children 6. Citizenship by Birth 7. Becoming Soldiers and Sailors in the U.S. Armed Forces 8. Marriage 9. Special Act of Congress.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That all noncitizen Native Americans born within the territorial limits of the United States be, and they are hereby, declared to be citizens of the United States: Provided, That the granting of such citizenship shall not in any manner impair or otherwise affect the right of any Native American to tribal or other property.

Indian Citizenship Act of 1924

While formal equality has been legally recognized, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders remain among the most economically disadvantaged groups in the country, and according to National mental health studies, American Indians as a group tend to suffer from high levels of alcoholism, depression and suicide.[150]

Using The Schedule of Racist Events (SRE), an 18-item self-report inventory that assesses the frequency of racist discrimination, Hope Landrine and Elizabeth A. Klonoff found that racist discrimination is rampant in the lives of African Americans and is strongly related to psychiatric symptoms.[151] A study on racist events in the lives of African American women found that lifetime experiences of racism were positively related to lifetime history of both physical disease and frequency of recent common colds. These relationships were largely unaccounted for by other variables. Demographic variables such as income and education were not related to experiences of racism. The results suggest that racism can be detrimental to African American’s well being.[152] The physiological stress caused by racism has been documented in studies by Claude Steele, Joshua Aronson, and Steven Spencer on what they term “stereotype threat.”[153] Quite similarly, another example of the psychosocial consequences of discrimination have been observed in a study sampling Mexican-origin participants in Fresno, California. It was found that perceived discrimination is correlated with depressive symptoms, especially for those less acculturated in the United States, like Mexican immigrants and migrants.[154]

Along the vein of somatic responses to discrimination, Kennedy et al. found that both measures of collective disrespect were strongly correlated with black mortality (r = 0.53 to 0.56), as well as with white mortality (r = 0.48 to 0.54). These data suggest that racism, measured as an ecologic characteristic, is associated with higher mortality in both blacks and whites.[155] Some researchers also suggest that racial segregation may lead to disparities in health and mortality. Thomas LaVeist (1989; 1993) tested the hypothesis that segregation would aid in explaining race differences in infant mortality rates across cities. Analyzing 176 large and midsized cities, LaVeist found support for the hypothesis. Since LaVeist’s studies, segregation has received increased attention as a determinant of race disparities in mortality.[156] Studies have shown that mortality rates for male and female African Americans are lower in areas with lower levels of residential segregation. Mortality for male and female Whites was not associated in either direction with residential segregation.[157]

Researchers Sharon A. Jackson, Roger T. Anderson, Norman J. Johnson and Paul D. Sorlie found that, after adjustment for family income, mortality risk increased with increasing minority residential segregation among Blacks aged 25 to 44 years and non-Blacks aged 45 to 64 years. In most age/race/gender groups, the highest and lowest mortality risks occurred in the highest and lowest categories of residential segregation, respectively. These results suggest that minority residential segregation may influence mortality risk and underscore the traditional emphasis on the social underpinnings of disease and death.[158] Rates of heart disease among African Americans are associated with the segregation patterns in the neighborhoods where they live (Fang et al. 1998). Stephanie A. Bond Huie writes that neighborhoods affect health and mortality outcomes primarily in an indirect fashion through environmental factors such as smoking, diet, exercise, stress, and access to health insurance and medical providers.[159] Moreover, segregation strongly influences premature mortality in the US.[160]

As early as 1866, the Civil Rights Act provided a remedy for intentional race discrimination in employment by private employers and state and local public employers. The Civil Rights Act of 1871 applies to public employment or employment involving state action prohibiting deprivation of rights secured by the federal constitution or federal laws through action under color of law. Title VII is the principal federal statute with regard to employment discrimination prohibiting unlawful employment discrimination by public and private employers, labor organizations, training programs and employment agencies based on race or color, religion, gender, and national origin. Title VII also prohibits retaliation against any person for opposing any practice forbidden by statute, or for making a charge, testifying, assisting, or participating in a proceeding under the statute. The Civil Rights Act of 1991 expanded the damages available in Title VII cases and granted Title VII plaintiffs the right to a jury trial. Title VII also provides that race and color discrimination against every race and color is prohibited.

Media

Popular culture (songs, theater) for European American audiences in the 19th century created and perpetuated negative stereotypes of African Americans. One key symbol of racism against African Americans was the use of blackface. Directly related to this was the institution of minstrelsy. Other stereotypes of African Americans included the fat, dark-skinned “mammy” and the irrational, hypersexual male “buck”.

In recent years increasing numbers of African-American activists have asserted that rap music videos commonly utilize scantily clothed African-American performers posing as thugs or pimps. The NAACP and the National Congress of Black Women also have called for the reform of images on videos and on television. Julian Bond said that in a segregated society, people get their impressions of other groups from what they see in videos and what they hear in music.[161][162][163][164]

In a similar vein, activists protested against the BET show, Hot Ghetto Mess, which satirizes the culture of working-class African-Americans. The protests resulted in the change of the television show name to We Got to Do Better.[161]

It is understood that representations of minorities in the media have the ability to reinforce or change stereotypes. For example, in one study, a collection of white subjects were primed by a comedy skit either showing a stereotypical or neutral portrayal of African-American characters. Participants were then required to read a vignette describing an incident of sexual violence, with the alleged offender either white or black, and assign a rating for perceived guilt. For those shown the stereotypical African-American character, there was a significantly higher guilt rating for black alleged offender in the subsequent vignette, in comparison to the other conditions.[165]

While schemas have an overt societal consequence, the strong development of them have lasting effect on recipients. Overall, it is found that strong in-group attitudes are correlated with academic and economic success. In a study analyzing the interaction of assimilation and racial-ethnic schemas for Hispanic youth found that strong schematic identities for Hispanic youth undermined academic achievement.[166]

Additional stereotypes attributed to minorities continue to influence societal interactions. For example, a 1993 Harvard Law Review article states that Asian-Americans are commonly viewed as submissive, as a combination of relative physical stature and Western comparisons of cultural attitudes. Furthermore, Asian-Americans are depicted as the model minority, unfair competitors, foreigners, and indistinguishable. These stereotypes can serve to dehumanize Asian-Americans and catalyze hostility and violence.[167]

Formal discrimination against minorities has been present throughout American history. Leland T. Saito, Associate Professor of Sociology and American Studies & Ethnicity at the University of Southern California, writes, “Political rights have been circumscribed by race, class and gender since the founding of the United States, when the right to vote was restricted to white men of property. Throughout the history of the United States race has been used by whites a category that has also shifted through time for legitimizing and creating difference and social, economic and political exclusion.”[168]

Within education, a survey of black students in sixteen majority white universities found that four of five African-Americans reported some form of racial discrimination. For example, in February 1988, the University of Michigan enforced a new anti discrimination code following the distribution of fliers saying blacks “don’t belong in classrooms, they belong hanging from trees”. Other forms of reported discrimination were refusal to sit next to black in lecture, ignored input in class settings, and informal segregation. While the penalties are imposed, the psychological consequences of formal discrimination can still manifest. Black students, for example, reported feelings of heightened isolation and suspicion. Furthermore, studies have shown that academic performance is stunted for black students with these feelings as a result of their campus race interactions.[169]

Minority racism is sometimes considered controversial because of theories of power in society. Some theories of racism insist that racism can only exist in the context of social power to impose it upon others.[170] Yet discrimination and racism between racially marginalized groups has been noted. For example, there has been ongoing violence between African American and Mexican American gangs, particularly in Southern California.[171][172][173][174] There have been reports of racially motivated attacks against Mexican Americans who have moved into neighborhoods occupied mostly by African Americans, and vice versa.[175][176] According to gang experts and law enforcement agents, a longstanding race war between the Mexican Mafia and the Black Guerilla Family, a rival African American prison gang, has generated such intense racial hatred among Mexican Mafia leaders, or shot callers, that they have issued a “green light” on all blacks. This amounts to a standing authorization for Latino gang members to prove their mettle by terrorizing or even murdering any blacks sighted in a neighborhood claimed by a gang loyal to the Mexican Mafia.[dead link][177] There have been several significant riots in California prisons where Mexican American inmates and African Americans have targeted each other particularly, based on racial reasons.[178][179]

There has also been noted conflict between recent immigrant groups and their established ethnic counterparts within the United States. Rapid growth in African and Caribbean immigrants has come into conflict with American blacks. Interaction and cooperation between black immigrants and American blacks are, ironically, debatable. One can argue that racial discrimination and cooperation is not ordinarily based on color of skin but more on shared common, cultural experiences, and beliefs.[180][181] Furthermore, conflict between Chinese immigrants and Japanese Americans are known to have occurred in the San Gabriel Valley of the Los Angeles area in the 1980s.[citation needed]

In a manner that defines interpersonal discrimination in the United States, Darryl Brown of the Virginia Law Review states that while “our society has established a consensus against blatant, intentional racism and in decades since Brown v Board of Education has developed a sizeable set of legal remedies to address it”, our legal system “ignores the possibility that ‘race’ is structural or interstitial, that it can be the root of injury even when not traceable to a specific intention or action”[182]

More here:

Racism in the United States – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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A History of Race and Racism in America, in 24 Chapters – New York Times

New York Times A History of Race and Racism in America, in 24 Chapters New York Times No list can ever be comprehensive, and most influential by no means signifies best. But I would argue that together, these works tell the history of anti- black racism in the United States as painfully, as eloquently, as disturbingly as words can …

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February 23, 2017   Posted in: Black Racism  Comments Closed

VIDEO: Black Lives Matter: racist provocation with radical roots – Canada Free Press

In her recent book The War on Cops, Manhattan Institute fellow Heather Mac Donald argues that the BLM movement and the fallout from it have made the inner city much more dangerous, as police forces adopt hands-off policies in response to growing hostility. Some call it the Ferguson effect, named after the Missouri town where a young black man, Michael Brown, was killed when he tried to kill a white police officer. Cops across the nation are afraid to patrol black neighborhoods and are overly cautious when dealing with black suspects. Despite their diminished forcefulness in high-crime neighborhoods, police are still being assaulted and killed. Crime had been trending down for decades, but in 2015 homicide rates increased dramatically over 2014. In Houston, homicides were up 25.2 percent; in Washington, D.C., 54 percent; Baltimore, 58.5 percent; Milwaukee, 72.6 percent; and in Cleveland, a whopping 90 percent. Overall, homicides increased 17 percent in the 50 largest citiesthe greatest increase in 25 years. Capitalizing on inaccurate and sometimes outright deceptive media reporting on police-involved shootings, BLM agitation has provoked numerous police killings, violence, lawlessness, and unrest in minority communities throughout the U.S., culminating most recently with the horrific ambush-murders of five policemen in Dallas and three in Baton Rouge, with many more wounded. If allowed to continue, BLM agitation could lead to greater civil unrest, anarchy, civil war. With the support and sympathy of President Obama, the Black Lives Matter crowd appears to be spoiling for just such an outcome. Black Lives Matter began in 2013 with a Twitter hashtag, #BlackLivesMatter, after neighborhood watchman George Zimmerman, called a white Hispanic in the press, was acquitted in the killing of black teenager Trayvon Martin. Radical-left activists Alicia Garza, Patrisse Cullors, and Opal Tometi claim credit for the slogan and hashtag. Following the Michael Brown shooting in August 2014, Dream Defenders, an organization co-founded by (the ACORN-affiliated) Working Families Party activist and Occupy Wall Street organizer Nelini Stamp, popularized the phrase Hands UpDont Shoot! which has since become BLMs widely recognized slogan. Not surprisingly, former Communist Party USA vice presidential candidate Angela Davis sits on the Dream Defenders advisory board. Garza, Cullors, and Tometi all work for front groups of the Freedom Road Socialist Organization, one of the four largest radical Left organizations in the country. The others are the Communist Party USA, Democratic Socialists of America, and the Committees of Correspondence for Democracy and Socialism. Stamps ACORNnow rebranded under a variety of different names after its official 2010 bankruptcyworks with all four organizations, and Dream Defenders is backed by the Service Employees International Union (SEIU), ACLU, and Southern Poverty Law Center, among others. The Freedom Road Socialist Organization is a hereditary descendant of the New Communist Movement inspired by Chinese dictator Mao Zedong and the many communist revolutions occurring throughout the world in the 1960s and 70s. Freedom Road split into two separate groups in 1999, FRSO/Fight Back and FRSO/OSCL (Freedom Road Socialist Organization/Organizacin Socialista del Camino Para la Libertad). Black Lives Matter and its founders are allied w ith the latter. (Future references to Freedom Road in this article refer to FRSO/OSCL.) And lest anyone think the terms used to describe Freedom Road are too extreme, heres an excerpt from an April 21, 2016 blog post on its website, mourning the death of our comrade, Tim Thomas, at 71: Tim was a revolutionary organizer, writer and educator. At George Washington University, Tim became active in the Black Liberation and Marxist movement that remained his lifelong passion. Tim was a leader of SOBU (Student Organization for Black Unity) and later YOBU (Youth Organization for Black Unity). He was also very active in the African Liberation Support Committee. Tim joined the Revolutionary Workers League in 1972 and later the League of Revolutionary Struggle (LRS), a New Communist Movement group that brought together in one organization Asian-American, Chicano, Puerto Rican, African American, and white communists who shared a vision of national liberation as a critical element of communist revolution. After that group dissolved in 1990, Tim and a number of former LRS comrades came into the Freedom Road Socialist Organization, where they continue to advance the theory and practice of self-determination socialism. As Co-Chair of FRSOs Oppressed Nationality Commission, Tim helped us live up to our commitment to building the Black Liberation Movement through its downturns and upsurges. He wrote extensively about Bay area peoples movements, organizing methodology, and developments in the Black Liberation Movement. Tim saw to completion an extensive update of our Oppressed Nationality Unity Document, which was passed just last month at FRSOs 2016 Congress. Tim also chaired a FRSO working group on immigrant rights. At the time of his death, he was collaborating with comrades on a comprehensive paper about the Black Liberation Movement. Freedom Road is comprised of dozens of groups. The radical-left model is based on building alliances of many organizations, small and large, working separate issues but dedicated ultimately to the same thing: overthrowing our society to replace it with a hardcore socialist (or communist) one. BLM is one of many projects undertaken by Freedom Road. Except for the website, BlackLivesMatter.com, there is no actual organization. The website implicitly acknowledges this, describing #BlackLivesMatter as, an online forum intended to build connections between Black people and our allies to fight anti-Black racism, to spark dialogue among Black people, and to facilitate the types of connections necessary to encourage social action and engagement. But today the movement has become so widely recognized that it may receive funding from the Lefts granddaddy funder, the radical billionaires donor consortium known as the Democracy Alliance. Blacks, gays, and women are disproportionately represented among the membership of Freedom Road, which self-consciously emphasizes issues related to those groups. Alicia Garza penned a Herstory of BLM and is a queer, black veteran activist of numerous Freedom Road organizations. Her rsum includes FPatrisse Cullors describes herself as a working class, queer, black woman. She claims the country killed her father, a drug addict. At a 2015 Netroots Nation conference, Cullors led chants shouting, If I die in police custody, burn everything down & rise the fk up! That is the only way motherfkers like you will listen! Cullors founded and directs Dignity and Power Now, which claims to seek dignity and power of incarcerated people, their families, and communities. Cullors was trained by Eric Mann, a former Weather Underground leader who exhorts followers to become anti-racist, anti-imperialist activists. Mann runs another Freedom Road front, the Labor/Community Strategy Center. Like many professional leftists, he makes good moneyover $225,000living in the system he advocates destroying. Opal Tometi is the daughter of illegal aliens from Nigeria. While in college, she worked for the ACLU defending illegal aliens against vigilantes opposed to illegal immigration. She is currently executive director of Black Alliance for Just Immigration. Freedom Road/BLM organizations are generously supported by a universe of wealthy foundations. Some of the groups, like those employing BLM founders Garza and Tometi, receive money directly. Others, like Cullors Dignity and Power Now, are financed by organizations designed specifically to underwrite the activities of others. These will be taken in turn. National Domestic Workers Alliance (Garza)In business since 2007, the Alliances 2014 revenues were $7.6 million, with net assets of $5.2 million. Its board includes two members of CASA de Maryland, a vocal advocate for illegal aliens that takes in millions of dollars in government grants (see Organization Trends, September 2012). CASA received grants from the Alliance in 2013 and 2014 as did the radical-left Institute for Policy Studies in 2013. The Alliance received $6.5 million between 2011 and 2014 from a number of familiar foundations, Ford ($1.9 million), both of George Soross major philanthropies (Open Society Foundations, formerly Open Society Institute, and the Foundation to Promote Open Society) ($1.3 million), Marguerite ($450,000), Surdna ($595,000), Kellogg ($250,000), Ben & Jerrys ($30,000), and others. People Organized to Win Employment Rights or POWER (Garza) reports 2013 revenues of $456,676, including $92,173 in government grants. POWER evolved from the now defunct communist group STORM (Standing Together to Organize a Revolutionary Movement). Obamas former green jobs czar, the self-described communist and rowdy black nationalist Van Jones, served on STORMs board. Since 1999, POWER has received money from the Marguerite Casey Foundation ($655,000), Surdna ($464,000), Public Welfare (301,000), Tides ($168,000), Ben & Jerrys ($62,000) and many otherseven the American Heart Association ($90,000 in 2014). In January 2015, POWER merged with another Freedom Road group, Causa Justa, and Garza left. Right to the City Alliance (Garza) discloses 2014 revenues of $844,206. The Alliance is a nationwide network of activist organizations that resist gentrification of inner cities because it displaces low-income people, people of color, marginalized LGBTQ communities, and youths of color. In business since 2009, it has received funding from the Ford Foundation ($1.3 million), both major Soros philanthropies ($600,000), Surdna ($400,000), Marguerite Casey ($387,500), Tides ($165,000), Ben & Jerrys ($50,000) and others. School of Unity and Liberation or SOUL (Garza) has enjoyed rapid revenue growth since Alicia Garzas rise to fame as a BLM leader. Revenues skyrocketed from $110,304 in 2013 to $660,237 in 2014. SOUL claims to have trained 712 organizers in 2014. The group trained 679 in 2013, and costs are roughly the same, so SOUL was able to more than double its net assets in 2014. It receives funding from the Akonadi Foundation ($322,500), Heinz ($255,000), Rockefeller ($210,000), Surdna ($460,000), Tides ($298,000), and others. Forward Together (Garza) describes itself as a multi-racial organization that works with community leaders and organizations to transform culture and policy to catalyze social change. Its 2014 revenues were $4.0 million with net assets of $4.2 million. Between 2012 and 2014, the organization received a total of $2.9 million from Ford ($655,000), Susan Thompson Buffett ($604,318), General Service ($190,000), and others. Garza serves on the board. Black Alliance for Just Immigration (Tometi) reports 2014 revenues of $554,434. This modest organization only lists two full-time staff, yet receives support from many recognizable foundations. Since 2010 this includes Kellogg, ($75,000), Marguerite Casey ($337,500), both major Soros philanthropies ($100,000), Ben & Jerrys ($10,000), and others. Tometi was paid $60,000 in 2014 to direct the group. Cullors Dignity and Power Now is underwritten by Community Partners, a 501(c)(3) nonprofit based in Los Angeles with a $24 million budget (including $4 million in government grants) that fiscally sponsors nonprofits; that is to say, it is an existing nonprofit that lets unincorporated groups use its nonprofit status to receive tax-deductible donations. It is not a Freedom Road organization. Advancement Project is a Freedom Road group that funds a variety of radical causes. The Project sees America as a racist, oppressive nation and, according to Discover the Networks, works to organize communities of color into politically cohesive units while disseminating its leftist worldviews and values as broadly as possible by way of a sophisticated communications department. Its 2013 revenues were $11.3 million. The Project receives generous funding from a wide variety of wealthy foundations, including the California Endowment ($7.3 million), Ford ($8.5 million), Kellogg ($3 million), Hewlett ($2.5 million), Rockefeller ($2.5 million), both major Soros philanthropies ($8.6 million), Tides ($1.3 million), and many others, totaling approximately $55 million over the past decade. Movement Strategy Center (MSC) also facilitates funding, development and advancement of Freedom Road organizations. Its 2013 revenues were $7.5 million, including $156,032 in government grants. MSC has received funding from the California Endowment ($2.3 million), Ford ($1.8 million), both major Soros philanthropies ($1.1 million), Surdna ($1.4 million), Tides ($1.6 million), Akonadi ($1.1 million), Robert Wood Johnson ($378,750), Ben & Jerrys ($60,000), and others. The Surdna Foundation (2014 revenues $64.9 million, with net assets of $1 billion) appears repeatedly in the above lists and is one of the oldest foundations supporting BLM. It was formed in 1917 by John Emory Andrus, at the time one of the wealthiest people in America. Surdna is his name spelled backwards. In addition to its Freedom Road funding, Surdna has provided $145,000 to Race Forward over the past two years for Equitable Economic Development, as part of its Strong Local Economies initiative. The grant descriptions, however, have little to do with economics; for example, this one from 2015: This general operating support grant will help Race Forward (RF) to advance racial justice and address inequalities in key areas through research, media, and practice (training). (For more information on the Surdna Foundation, see the January 2014 and September 2007 issues of Foundation Watch.) While not a Freedom Road organization, Race Forward is the rebranded Applied Research Center (ARC), a think tank dedicated to racial justice, and it participated in the Ferguson protests. Race Forward publishes ColorLines, which focuses on police violence, gender and sexuality, Islamophobia, and other predictable leftist themes. Race Forward and ARC are directed by radical leftist Rinku Sen who has positioned ARC as the home for media and activism on racial justice& according to Tufts Universitys Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Center. Prior to its rebranding, ARC received millions from a host of well-heeled funders over the past 10 years including Arcus, ($927,784), Ford ($2 million), both major Soros philanthropies ($1.2 million), Tides ($1.3 million), Kellogg ($4 million), and many others. Both of George Soross major philanthropies are listed among the many donors to Freedom Road and other racial justice groups like ARC. But according to the Washington Times, Soros has been a much larger racial justice funder than these figures reveal, having donated at least $33 million in one year to groups that organized unrest in Ferguson and other riots, including: Mainstream funders have jumped in as well. For example, United Way has partnered with A&E and iHeartMedia to create Shining the Light Advisors, a committee of nationally known experts and leaders in racial and social justice, to oversee grant disbursements. These advisors include such radicals as Van Jones, Advancement Project co-director Judith Browne Dianis, and Race Forwards Rinku Sen. BLMs mission includes a kitchen sink of favored radical-left causes, including poverty, prisoner deinstitutionalization, illegal immigration, and gay rights. Highlighting Freedom Roads orientation toward gay blacks, it describes how Black, queer and trans folks bear a unique burden from a hetero-patriarchal society that disposes of us like garbage and simultaneously fetishizes us and profits off of us, and that is state violence. Its wide network of affiliates and partner organizations like the Communist Party USA and the remnants of the ACORN network allows BLM to turn out large crowds. Many participate simply to protest, commit violence, loot, or all three. Freedom Road, for example, was prominent at the Ferguson protests and took video of the event. It even created a Black Lives Matter button. Following are more Freedom Road organizations involved with BLM. (Funding estimates provided when known.) Black Left UnityA Marxist-Leninist organization that supports favored causes of the communist Left, including unity with Cuba, war against capitalism, and Occupy Wall Street. Black Workers for JusticeA group based in North Carolina which claims to struggle on behalf of oppressed nationalities. Causa Justa/Just Causea Black-Latino solidarity organization allied with the Grassroots Global Justice Alliance, the Right to the City Alliance, and others. Its 2013 revenues, $1.6 million, included $689,484 in government grants. Causa Justa has received over $2.3 million since 2010, mostly from the California Endowment, Marguerite Casey, and a few others. As noted above, POWER was absorbed into Causa Justa. Grassroots Global Justice AllianceA national alliance of US-based grassroots organizing (GRO) groups organizing to build an agenda for power for working and poor people and communities of color. It has received $20,000 from Ben & Jerrys since 2010. Hands Up Unitedworks for liberation of oppressed Black, Brown, and poor people through education, art, civil disobedience, advocacy, and agriculture. Intelligent Mischiefits Black Body Survival Guide is in the works and has raised $8,785 to date through crowdfunding website Indiegogo. Organization for Black Struggle is affiliated with the Communist Party USA. Its website claims Black Workers for Justice and the Advancement Project as allies. Chaired by Freedom Road member Montague Simmons, the Organization received $277,955 in revenues in 2014, its first year as a registered 501(c)(4) nonprofit organization. Showing Up for Racial Justice is a national network of groups and individuals organizing White people for racial justice. Showing Up quotes Garza, We need you defecting from White supremacy and changing the narrative of White supremacy by breaking White silence. Strategic Concepts in Organizing and Policy Education (SCOPE)had 2013 revenues of $2.8 million. It is led by Anthony Thigpenn, a former Black Panther and board member of the Apollo Alliance. Apollo is a secretive alliance of labor, environment, and other left-wing activists that formulated Obamas trillion dollar stimulus plan. Board member Van Jones described Apollo as sort of a grand unified field theory for progressive left causes. Now a project of the Blue Green Alliance, SCOPE has received about $12 million since 2010 from numerous foundations, the most generous being Ford ($1.9 million), James Irvine ($2.3 million), New World ($1.4 million), Hewlett ($1.4 million), and the California Endowment ($1.2 million). (For more on the Apollo Alliance, see Green Watch, November 2012). BLM groups have also joined with the Communist Party USA, the Committees of Correspondence for Democracy and Socialism, Democratic Socialists of America, SEIU, Color of Change, and many others. Anarchist and top Occupy Wall Street organizer Lisa Fithian, who orchestrated the 1999 Seattle World Trade Organization riots, trained Ferguson protesters. Fithian says create crisis, because crisis is that edge where change is possible. Fithian echoes Richard Cloward and Frances Fox Piven, the creators of the infamous Cloward-Piven Crisis Strategy, who spent decades attempting to provoke poor, inner-city blacks to riot, because as Cloward said, poor people advance only when the rest of society is afraid of them. Rasheen Aldridge was a leader of the Ferguson protests. He has participated in numerous Communist Party USA events in 2013, 2014, and 2015. Another prominent Communist Party member active in BLM protests is Michael McPhearson, who leads the Dont Shoot Coalition. Carl Davidson and Pat Fry, co-chairs of the Committees of Correspondence for Democracy and Socialism, exploited the revolutionary atmosphere of the Ferguson riots to create an eight-point plan for Left Unity demanding a common aspiration for socialism. Missourians Organizing for Reform and Empowerment (MORE), is Missouris rebranded ACORN group. It created an illustrative chart offering a snapshot of the Lefts grievance agenda. Capitalism is always the problem. Socialism is always the solution. Interestingly, MORE doesnt believe in socialism when it is footing the bill. MORE promised to pay Ferguson protesters $5,000 a month to cause trouble. But just as ACORN stiffed its employees while preaching socialist generosity, so MORE stiffed its own rent-a-mob protesters. (Ferguson rent-a-mobs exposed, by Matthew Vadum, FrontPage Magazine, May 18, 2015.) Islamist organizations have also jumped on the BLM bandwagon, reminding us of the unholy alliance that exists between them and the radical Left. In September 2015, the Muslim Brotherhood-front Council on American Islamic Relations (CAIR) joined BLM activists in storming California Governor Jerry Browns office. CAIR also participated in the Ferguson protests. Meanwhile, ISIS is reportedly recruiting American blacks for its cause. We must be ready to employ trickery, deceit, law-breaking, withholding and concealing truth. We can and must write in a language which sows among the masses hate, revulsion, and scorn toward those who disagree with usVladimir Lenin That quote from the Soviet Unions first leader captures the entire essence of the Lefts strategy. No matter what the issue, no matter what the facts, the Left advances a relentless, hate-filled narrative that America is irredeemably evil and must be destroyed as soon as possible. The BLM movement is only the latest, but perhaps most dangerous variant on this subversive theme. Communists use language and psychology as a weapon. Their constant vilification of enemies is a form of psychological warfare. It puts America and Americans on trial. The verdict is always guilty. Facts dont matter because the Left does not want to resolve the problems they complain about. They use those problems to agitate and provoke, hoping conflict becomes unavoidable and thereby creating a self-fulfilling prophecy. Their hatred is tactical. Obamas favorite Harvard professor, Derrick Bell, devised Critical Race Theory, which exemplifies Lenins strategy as applied to race. According to Discover the Networks: Critical race theory contends that America is permanently racist to its core, and that consequently the nations legal structures are, by definition, racist and invalid members of oppressed racial groups are entitledin fact obligatedto determine for themselves which laws and traditions have merit and are worth observing. Bells theory is in turn an innovation of Critical Theory, which was developed by Marxist thinkers of the Frankfurt School who were affiliated with the Institute for Social Research, founded in Frankfurt, Germany, in 1923. The Institutes left-wing scholars were mostly Jewish and fled Hitlers Germany in the 1930s, relocating to Columbia Universitys Teachers College in New York. Critical Theory, which discredits all aspects of Western society, rapidly infected the minds of newly minted college professors, who then spread its poison throughout the university system. We know it today as political correctness. One of its most famous purveyors was the Frankfurt Schools Herbert Marcuse, longtime associate of the Southern Poverty Law Centers Julian Bond. Marcuse invented the concept of partisan tolerance, that is, tolerance for leftist ideas and intolerance of all others. The Southern Poverty Law Center applied Marcuses strategy in developing its Hate Watch list, and Rules for Radicals author Saul Alinsky used it in his own lifes work. The racist narrative was turbocharged with the concept of White Privilege, the notion that whitesthe dominant demographic group in capitalist Americaare irretrievably racist, sexist, homophobic, xenophobic, fill-in-the-blank-ophobic, imperialistic oppressors who exploit everyone. Whites are the only true evil in the world and should be exterminated. Dr. Kamau Kambon, who taught Africana Studies 241 in the Spring 2005 semester at North Carolina State University, also said this needs to be done because white people want to kill us. (Activist: exterminate white people, by Jon Sanders, Carolina Journal, Oct. 21, 2015.) The White Skin Privilege idea was created in 1967 by Noel Ignatiev, an acolyte of Derrick Bell and professor at Harvards W.E.B. Du Bois Institute. (Du Bois was a black leader who helped found the NAACP and joined the Communist Party in 1961.) Ignatiev was a member of the Communist Party USAs most radical wing, the Provisional Organizing Committee to Reconstitute the Marxist-Leninist Communist Party from 1958-66. The Provisional Organizing Committee was the intellectual forerunner to Freedom Road. Writing under the alias Noel Ignatin, Ignatiev co-authored a Students for Democratic Society (SDS) pamphlet with fellow radical Ted Allen titled, White Blindspot. In 1992 he co-founded Race Traitor: Journal of the New Abolitionism. Its first issue coined the slogan Treason to whiteness is loyalty to humanity. Its stated objective was to abolish the white race. More specifically, the New Abolitionist newsletter declared: The way to abolish the white race is to challenge, disrupt and eventually overturn the institutions and behavior patterns that reproduce the privileges of whiteness, including the schools, job and housing markets, and the criminal justice system. The abolitionists do not limit themselves to socially acceptable means of protest, but reject in advance no means of attaining their goal [emphasis added]. But do not be confused: White with an uppercase W does not mean white as most Americans use the word. White in radical parlance means anyone of any race, creed, nationality, color, sex, or sexual preference who embraces capitalism, free markets, limited government, and American traditional culture and values. These beliefs are deemed to be irredeemably evil, and anyone who aligns with them is white in spirit and thus equally guilty of white crimes. Ignatiev still teaches, now at Massachusetts College of Art and Design. The Black Lives Matter movement carries this narrative to unprecedented heights, claiming that only whites can be racists. (The Result of Victimhood and Lies: Great Evil, by Dennis Prager, National Review Online, Sept. 1, 2015.) And while justifying violence to achieve social justice, the movements goal is to overthrow our society to replace it with a Marxist one. Many members of the black community would be shocked to learn that the intellectual godfathers of this movement are mostly white Communists, queers, and leftist Democrats, intent on making blacks cannon fodder, the shock troops of the coming revolution. James Simpson is an economist, former White House budget analyst, businessman, and investigative journalist. Veteran researchers Trevor Loudon and Matthew Vadum (senior vice president, Capital Research Center) contributed to this report.

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February 20, 2017   Posted in: Black Racism  Comments Closed

Death of another rugby player unleashes more ‘inappropriate’ black racism – Citizen

Citizen reporter Dan Vickerman. Picture: Gallo Images Shortly after news broke on Sunday of the tragic death of 37-year-old former Wallaby star lock Dan Vickerman, anotherracial storm broke out on Facebook after a number of users made light of the news. Earlier this month, Riaan Lucas found himself in hot water when he shared a meme of how happy he was to hear the news of Joost van der Westhuizens passing. Bantu Qaphelani Zathu Mtika now wrote on Sunday about: That face you make when a white man dies, priceless, presumably a reference to the famous MasterCard ad about great things that money cant buy. When she was taken on for alleged racism, she denied it, saying the face she had meant was that she was crying. She later added that her ability to wish Vickerman to rest in peace went with Nelson Mandela. My rest in peaces went with Nelson Mandela got none left. Simbongile Nogqaza took her to task, saying that black people were not only racist but inappropriately racist at times. Thulani Ncube had earlier written that Vickerman should rest in peace, but the responses to that comment quickly became a conflict about how white people should give back the land. Lucas is being investigated by the SA Human Rights Commission for his racist Joost meme. . . .

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February 19, 2017   Posted in: Black Racism  Comments Closed

Seminar says education is the key to black healing – Louisville Cardinal Online

By Paul Logsdon A scholar says many African Americans suffer from misguided ideas of culture born of slavery, and the HSC Office of Diversity and Inclusion hosted a seminar Feb. 6 to discuss it. The Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome and Black Healing talk drew 40 people to the School of Public Health and Information Sciences. Black justice cant exist if all Americans arent working on their own healing, facilitator Pam Newton said. Newman honored her ancestors at a miniature shrine consisting of pictures, water and four tea candles, asking for a moment of silence. Newman played a video of Joy DeGruy reading excerptsfrom her book Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome. DeGruy said she wrote her book to heal. You cant heal that which you dont understand, DeGruy said. The worst thing you can do to a people is rob them of the memory of themselves. We cant possibly know where were going if we dont know where we came from We cant possibly embrace who we are if we can not honor the shoulders upon which we stand. DeGruy, who studies multi-generational trauma, contrasted the Holocaust withslavery. She noted there is no pushback when discussing the Holocaust because Jews honor it, the complete opposite of how slavery is treated. She denounced white racism, saying it doesnt adversely impact the lives of black people as an entire group the way black racism adversely affects the lives of white people. Racism not only implies that I dont like you, but also that I have the power to impact you as an entire group, DeGruy said. DeGruy said the U.S. Constitution isa contradiction: the notion of freedom and democracy coexisted with the genocide of Native Americans and the enslavement of African people. She alsocited omissions in black history, saying education is crucial to black healing. The 300 years of oppression has led to African Americans exhibiting symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. She said that the broken behavior of African American ancestors is now called culture. In order to heal, DeGruy suggested African Americans must know the past that makes them who they are today. After the reading,multiple attendants spoke about how they felt. Alona Pack of the School of Nursing ended the discussion on a positive note, saying she feels encouraged, speaking to the group. I have felt your pain but I know your power, Pack said. We are a strong people, we will survive and we will get through this and its going to get better.

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February 13, 2017   Posted in: Black Racism  Comments Closed

Black-on-Black Racism: The Hazards of Implicit Bias – The …

In his year-end press conference, President Obama was asked about the state of black America. He responded by saying blacks are better off than they were, but juxtaposed that with the lingering issues evinced in the recent tragic police encounters with unarmed black men. Interestingly, he took particular care in calling out the hidden biases that we all carry around, a sentiment he echoed in another recent interview. My own hidden biases punched me in the gut last week, as I stared in disbelief at a test result on my computer screen. Before I started the racial-bias assessment, a disclaimer explicitly warned me that those who are not prepared to receive uncomfortable news should not proceed. I was too intrigued to turn back, but it turns out I was unprepared for the outcome. Hidden Racial Anxiety in an Age of Waning Racism According to the Implicit Association Test, I have a “strong automatic preference for European Americans compared to African Americans.” That’s a sterile way of saying that I’m biased against black people. For most people, such a designation would probably be unsettling. After all, the United States is a nation that ostensibly aspires not to judge others “by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character.” But for me, it caused a mini-existential crisis. Why? Because I’m black. As I read the results, I thought about what it means to be black and biased against other black people. Does it mean harboring a subconscious contempt for my race? Or considering myself to be part of the blessed segment of an otherwise unfortunate lot? Is it even possible for a black person to be racist against black people? In a moment of self-dramatization, I felt as if Kanye had just announced on national television that I didnt care about black people. Then, the tropes saturated my thoughts. I wondered if my bias was the undergirding of the sort of intra-race prejudice colloquially expressed in phrases like Uncle Tom, crab in a barrel, and acting white. Since my results were the same as the 88 percent of white Americans who show a bias in favor of white people, it seems to me that this demonstrated strong preference is the very definition of acting whitea well-worn pejorative that pained me as an awkward adolescent and suddenly felt fresh again. The Project Implicit test has been around for a few years, but a recent Mother Jones article titled, The Science of Why Cops Shoot Young Black Men gave it wider currency and helped explain the role of implicit bias in the recent events in Ferguson, Cleveland, and Staten Island, where the aggressive policing of black people turned deadly. The IAT measures the ability to quickly and correctly sort selected words as positive and negative and to distinguish faces as belonging to a white or black person. Through a series of paired word and face sequences, the test detects in milliseconds the time it takes the respondent to associate black faces with positive and negative words relative to the time it takes to match white faces. When a respondent pairs black faces and negative words more quickly than other pairings, it reveals implicit bias. As difficult as it was to learn about my black-on-black bias, such results are fairly common. This is sadly comforting. The data reveal that black respondents implicit biases are split just about evenly between pro-white and pro-black. Other research has also shown that black participants tend to have a strong pro-black explicit bias. A conflict emerges: When blacks are asked about their predilections, they express a solid preference for their group over whites, but, in general, performance on the IAT suggests they subconsciously hold a slight preference for whites over blacks. This dynamic is obviously a direct result of racism. Too often, racism is seen as a social phenomenon that happens to black people. But it happens through black people as well. That is, the negative associations thrust upon black people and black culture can color how we black people view each other. Blacks and whites receive the same narratives and images that perpetuate stereotypes of black criminality and flippancy while synonymizing white culture with American values. It is to be expected that there will be an observable impact on black intragroup perceptions. The construct of racism is efficiently designed to politically and socially subjugate a segment of the population. For the oppressed, a natural response is to advocate for conformity with the dominant culture as an appeal for equal treatment. If black people were only more respectable, one line of argument runs, they would be less subject to the ills of racism. The contrast between black respondents explicit and implicit biases is a fingerprint of the politics of respectability, a term coined by Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham in her book In Righteous Discontent: The Women’s Movement in the Black Baptist Church, 1880-1920. In her conception, the politics of respectability involves the reform of individual behavior as a goal in itself and as a strategy for reform. Higginbotham argued that black Baptist women rejected white Americas depiction of black women as immoral, childlike, and unworthy of respect of protection by teaching blacks to mind their manners, dress and speak appropriately, and remain free from sexual and other vices. Thus, the politics of respectability say that if black people behaved more like the proffered white ideal, the result would be equal treatment and the demise of racial discrimination. This tactic was a form of political protest based on an appeal to white humanity, but it has had troublesome side effects. This thread has persisted in black scholarship and society for decades. From W.E.B. DuBois Talented Tenth in 1903 to Bill Cosbys infamous Pound-Cake Speech a hundred years later, the politics of respectability has often taken on the quality of black theology. Members of the black community are told that wearing the mask, playing the game, and being twice as good are the keys to making it in America. Its as if to say, If we only knew how to act, racism would just fall away. This is, of course, absurd. Good behavior and attire deemed proper do not abrogate racism. Discrimination does not come with a dress code. The politics of respectability is really a coping mechanism. It affirms the inferiority and unattractiveness of black culture. And it contributes to the formation of implicit biases that lead black people to prefer white people over their own. But its not the only option. Unable to live with my strong automatic preference, I took the test a few more times. Through repeated attempts, I trained myself to react evenly to the black, white, positive, and negative pairings. In a sense, through acknowledgement of the bias and a concerted effort to modify my behavior, I suppressed the implicit bias. By my fourth and final attempt, I exhibited no preference at all. If each of us is willing to recognize our implicit biases and police our actions accordingly, there may be hope for the racial aspect of the American experiment after all.

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January 22, 2017   Posted in: Black Racism  Comments Closed

Are Black People More Racist Than White People?

When I moved to the South as a teenager I got a glimpse of race relations up close for the first time in my life, and one thing that quickly became surprisingly evident was the disdain black people had for white people.This wasnt the case with everyone but the undercurrent of their resentment was noticeable. Then I went to college where diversity, love, togetherness, and every other feel good cause were front and center and that seemed to change my hunch for a while. But when I left and went back to the real world it was right back in my face. Diversity! Feeeelzzz! Justice! Living in more than a dozen states over the last 20 years was enough of a sample size for me to draw the conclusion that blacks might very well be more racist than whites. My second stint in a certain city put the nail in the coffin. Those who have read my columns know and understand that I dont exactly hold Atlanta in the highest regard. Its not a terrible city because it does have its perks (such as the abundance of Latinas in and around the city) but by and large Im not the biggest fan of The Big Peach. The main reason I left after just6 months my second time around was because of the black people. The victim mentality, ghettos, criticism of anything not related to black culture, and a shitload of other things got old quick. What set the tone for my short stay was when a coworker of mine was on his usual soapbox about how black people were oppressed and that racism was at an all time highthe usual bullshit that people like him talked about round the clock. I grew increasingly tired of his preaching so rather than trying to have a conversation with him about it (which I knew wouldnt do any good), I showed him a video to let him know that we may not have it as bad as people in other countries: His response?Well we have it worse here because racism is covert. At least they keep it real over there and say it to your face. Un. Fucking. Believable. These conversations were a regular occurrence with this idiot and unfortunately his mentality was prevalent in this city. Another huge problem in Atlanta is that black people purposely separate themselves from other races. It seemed that they only associated with blacks whether it be socially, in their business dealings, religiously, or anything else they could think of. Even the shows they watch are predominantly black. Sure, the black population down there is higher than most major cities which factors in. But how the hell can these people complain about segregation and the importance of diversity if theyre the ones actively separating themselves? Best believe she hates white girls Years ago my ex wife and I were at mass, and in front of us sat a black woman and her twodaughters. It was still early so people were still filing into their seats and awaiting the priest to make his appearance and start the proceedings. Just before things got started a white family took their seats next to the black family. Nothing out of the ordinary thereexcept for the fact that the two young black girls looked at the blonde white girl with a disgust that was so pronounced my wife and I exchanged uncomfortable glances. The sad part about this is that those two black girls were too young to dislike the white girl simply because of her pale skin. The hard truth is theyre being indirectly (and probably also directly) taught to hate white people by their mother, their culture, and everything they consume. Those two little girls will grow up to shoot dirty looks at white girls and complain to each other that they are stealing their men. This mindset will permeate all of their thoughts and actions. Before they know it theyll start to blame white people for all of their struggles, especially their lack of romantic options. They can say whatever they want but this is the real reason black women hate on Kim K Even my own mother would turn up her nose at my white high school girlfriends. These days shes much more laid back about my choice in female companionship (age, introspection, and perspective will do that) but she never passed up the opportunity to ask Why cant you find a nice African-American girl, Donovan? I never answered because I knew Id earn a swift hand to the face. This article is but a sliver of the pie that is the prevailing attitude about black men like myself who date outside our race. The title alone is all you need to know about where they stand on this issue. Fatally obsessed with women of a lighter persuasion, Tiger Woods might be the only one on this list who actuallyhas a medical condition. Woods has had more blonde prostitutesthan a seasons worth of Game Of Thrones. Still, after losing a hefty$100 million in his divorce settlement, he swiftly scooped up another one to share the rest of his riches. The sooner black womenaccept and understand that their lack of dating options isnt because of white girls (or any other race for that matter) the better off theyll be. Remember the O.J. Verdict? Remember the outright glee black people reacted with when the verdict was read? Remember how uncomfortable we were watching people celebrate that someone had gotten away with murderjust because he was black? The Simpson trial was not only the trial of the century, it shined a spotlight on how black people in this country really felt about whites. The fact that this occurred only a few short years after the Rodney King incidentand in the same geographical area only heightened the blood lust for one of ours to get over on one of theirs. Lets face it. They had O.J.dead to rights. All the evidence pointed to his guilt (except for these) but because of the exploits of Mark Fuhrman, an obviously tainted jury pool trying to make up for what happened to King, and the best criminal defense lawyer money could buy, Simpson walked. The most infamous mug shot of the 20th century In an honest moment any reasonable person, black or white, would tell you he should have been convicted. Yet, to this day blacks still declare that he didnt do it(including the wannabe Malcolm XI showed the above video to)knowing damn well they wouldnt bet dollars to death on his innocence. The cases of Trayvon Martin and Michael Brown are also prime examples where the fact that both of them being black clouded the common sense and judgement of black people. Race baiters like Al Sharpton and Jesse Jackson didnt waste any time stoking the flames of racism to line their pockets and increase their prominence in the public eye. Is it a tragedy that both of these young men were killed as teenagers? Of course it is. Nobodys disputing that. But similar to the feminist agenda, the problem is in the narrative and this ROK article could not have stated it any better: Janay Rice wasnt sitting on the couch minding her own business when Ray walked up and punched her in the face. Rihanna wasnt making pancakes when Chris Brown walked in the kitchen and slapped the shit out of her. Brown and Martin werent sitting under trees studying for midterms when accosted by their would-be assassins. This isnt to say they deserved to die, but they most certainly were not innocent little snowflakes minding their own business. And thanks to people like Louis Farrakhan, black people have a blind rage without knowing all of the facts which only further deepens the racial divide. All they have to hear is white man shoots black man and they instantly jump to outrage because of the dangerous precedents set by the chronicling of comparable events of the past. Black people publicly talk shit about white people (and other races) on the regular and most people dont say anything about it. Whether its out of fear or social pressure, anything that remotely resembles racism towards blacks is avoided like the plague. Fellow columnist and friend Blair Naso is my go-to guy for anecdotes on race issues. Having lived in the South a combined 40+ years we often swap stores and have great conversations. Nasos right in the thick of things down there so hes able to offer accurate, detailed accounts of race related events. One such conversation was the genesis of this column and when I asked Nasos opinion on this he didnt pull any punches: Which of the two is more racist in actuality? Im not sure. But mostwhite racism is benign, whereas black racism often hurts people.Theyll gun you down for being white and walking on their side of townand then justify it because of slavery. Well said. Blacks, on the other hand, are given a free pass to use all sorts of racial slurs but the moment someone of a different race even broaches the subject of a possible pitfall of the black race, we get up in arms. Good question, Captain Political correctnessis the shield blacks hide behindthats pussy pass in neomasculine-ese. They know that if a caucasian insinuates a racial element in any given situation theyll be attacked and sometimes eviscerated. Whereas if black people do the same thing, theyre often defended by the hamster wheel of the culture and media and exonerated of any wrong doing. Case in point: The Donald Sterling scandal. For those unfamiliar with this story, the long and short of it is Los Angeles Clippers owner Donald Sterling was recorded by his mistress during a racial tirade. This set off a media firestorm which ultimately led to the team being taken from Sterling and subsequently sold to former Microsoft CEO Steve Balmer. I can say with near 100% certainty that if Sterling was black and made these comments about white people hed still have his team. While I dont agree with Sterlings world view, I strongly disagreed with him being stripped of his team because of his views. Im willing to bet hes not the only owner who shares his perspective (on some level at least). But the only difference between them and Sterling is that Sterling voiced his politically incorrect opinion on front of a woman who violated his privacy and made it public. Sterling with the woman who would eventually betray him A spin-off of this saga was a statement made by Dallas Mavericks owner Mark Cuban in the midst of the Sterling story gaining traction: If I see a black kid in a hoodie and its late at night, Im walking to the other side of the street. And if on that side of the street, theres a guy that has tattoos all over his facewhite guy, bald head, tattoos everywhereIm walking back to the other side of the street. Once again the PC Police reared its ugly head and Cuban was predictably crucified for his remarks. There were a few that publicly defended him but by and large his comment was not taken very well. Nevermind the fact that he used a white person in one of his examples. All blacks heard was black kid, hoodie, and other side of the street and we lost our minds. Black people in this country know and exploit this double standard ad nauseam, and black comedians and actors are no different. They literally trade on this double standard and use it to make quite a nice living for themselves while similar acts would all but end the careers of whites in this field. Remember this little gaffe? Two groups in particular have made it crystal clear they have no intention of improving relations with whites: The New Black Panther Party andBlack American-born Muslims. Well get to the NBP in a minute but let me be clear here about Muslims in this country: Im not talking aboutthe onesthat are born and raised in Muslim nations. Im talking about blacks in this country that convert to Islam. Funny thing is, most black American Muslims Ive talked to seem to have one thing in common: the utter hatred of white people. My first stint in Atlanta showed me how crazy these converts were when one knucklehead had the gall to say Osama bin Ladin is a great man! in the wake of the 9/11 attacks. I immediately knew what he was playing at so I coolly shrugged my shoulders and asked Well why is that? What great things has he done? Silence. He didnt have an answer because I was supposed to fly off the handle and start spewing the red white and blue blues and scream at him for betraying Murica. All his statement was designed to do was illicit a reaction. It wasnt to educate or inform me. The guy just wanted to piss me off because I poked holes in his philosophies and he threw a Hail Mary to try and win the argumentjust like a woman. These people are unbearable Believe it or not, the New Black Panther Party is worse. Formerly led by the outwardly racist crackpot Malik Zulu Shabazz (who felt the need to shed his slave name Paris S. Lewis), the NBP has a well earned reputation for the ridiculous notions they abide by. How crazy are they you ask? These loons backed Crystal Mangum when she accused three Duke LaCrosse players of gang raping her.Thats pretty fucking crazy in my book. Note: (Dis) honorable mention goes to the NAACP who is as guilty as any group out there for fanning the flames of racism. Racism is real and it exists. I get it. I certainly dont blame older Black Americans who lived through the Civil Rights Movement and still bear the scars of past racism. That shit was tough to get through (thank God for Martin Luther King, Jr.) so I can understand if blacks of generations past still carry that resentment with them. However, any black person who didnt live in that era and have the audacityto squawk about reparations, the man, equality, or anything related to race as it pertains to black people are as bad, if not worse, than feminists as far as Im concerned. Feminists ask where have all the good men gone but do nothing to improve themselves as women. That mentality is no different than blacks who fight the power on a daily basis. Blacks act like were living in this age Hell, we even shame our own when one of us doesnt toe the proverbial company line. Charles Barkley has been the target of harsh criticism for calling out the looters in Ferguson (to which he responded in kind). Similarly, Dr. Ben Carson is also looked at as something of a villain in the black community simply because he is unafraid to publicly criticize President Obama and doesnt buy into the bullshit ideals of cooks like Shabazz or Dr. Jeremiah Wright and makes no bones about it. Improving race relations in America is going to take a seismic shift of epic proportions in American culture. White people have been reigned in (mostly) on racist action and speech. It is high time blacks are held to the same standard. If more of us took the Barkley or Carson approach to life wed be a lot better off as a people. Read Next: How Black America Has Predicted Our Future Mar 31, 2015Donovan Sharpe

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January 21, 2017   Posted in: Black Racism  Comments Closed

Black Racism – Black Hate – Black Violence – blogspot.com

> > > All the images below are taken from my ‘victim’s list.’ If you have any questions, or complaints, leave them in the comment section at the bottom of the page. > Imaginary of Black Victims… LINK —————————————————- 1. ———————————- NOTE: The white female on the far right, Chianne Gast, 32, was raped and then gunned down at her place of work by a black male. Her husband was also gunned down (husband survived) – motive was robbery. ——————————————————————————— 6. 11. ————————————————————————————- 12. NOTE: The Morrisons were gunned down in their”home”. 17. Below: Walk-Up Murder Victims Of Black Male Coral Eugene Watts Note: All of Watts’ victims were white females. MO: Follow a white female home, charge up to her witha knife or screw driver, then repeatedly plunge it into her back. 18. ————————– ——————– White Male Let’s His Guard Down…And Pays The Price ———————– Walking The Street In ‘Racist’ Baltimore…RESULT? First the knockout punch. Then… ————————- —————————————————————————– 19. ——————– “Let’s kill someone” ————————————– A Black Males’ Massacre Of Innocent White Females Note: The massacre of the four white females was the aftermath a home invasion robbery. ——————————————– 28. —————————————— ——————————————- Black Male ‘Knockout Game’ Against White People Continues… ———————————————— 29. ————————- Crime Scene Photos Of A Black Males’ Home Invasion Massacre ———————- Victims Of A Black Male’s Racially Motivated Massacre ————————— ————————————- ———————————————– 30. ———————— —————————————— 31. NOTE: CORRECTION: Stinney was 14-years-old when he murdered the two little white girls. ——————————————- 32. ———————————— 33. —————————— —————————————– ————————————- A Determined Black Male Lands His Cowardly Sucker Punch On Unsuspecting White Male —————————————— Lone Black Male Walks Up On A Group Of White Males…For The Sole Purpose Of Landing A Sucker Punch. After First Sucker Punch Punch … Black Male Goes For Another Punch – Then Another One…While The Other White Males Stand Around And Watch —————————————————————————————————– MORE VICTIMS —————————————————————————————————— Gang Rape of a 16-year old White Girl By Black Males A group of black men attacked an innocent 16-year old white female, who had been dropped off at a bus stop. She was forced into a mens room by a group black men then savagely raped. Police have identified to date only one of these black males who participated in the rape of the child. His name is: Charles J. Davis, 45 —————————————————————————————————– 1. Ohio, June 27, 1991 Black Male Massacre * Workplace Slaughter * Black male teen was fired for theft and returned to the business to kill innocent people. Black Male Murderer: Roderick Davie, 19 Victims: * Tracey Jefferys, 21 (w/f – beaten to death with a chair) * John Ira Coleman, 38 (b/m – shot in the head) * William John Everett (w/m – survived with a gun shot to the head and two other gun shots to the body) Note: Black male Davie would likely have killed more innocent people, however, and fortunately, he ran out of bullets. ————————————————————————————————— 2. Baltimore, MD, June 6, 1991 * Black Male Thrill-Kill * Apparently for self-amusement, two black males decided to ambush a middle-aged white female. As the white female was walking toward her car, along with her two young grandkids by her side, black male Baker ran up to her and simply shot her in the head and then fled. Black Male Murderers: Gregory Lawrence, 33 Wesley Eugene Baker, 28 White Female: * Jane Frances Tyson, 49 ————————————————————————————————— 3. Manchester, Conn., July 2010 Black Male Massacre Black Racism A black male racist, Omar Thornton, already angry at the fact that he was working for a company created by white males, run by white males, and almost all the employees were white, was caught stealing and was fired by a white male, which pushed the black male racist over the edge. Before Thornton took his own life, he assassinated eight unarmed white males (former co-workers). The innocent dead white males are: * Bryan Cirigliano, 51 * Francis Fazio Jr., 57 * Douglas Scruton, 56 * Edwin Kennison, 49 * William Ackerman, 51 * Craig Pepin, 60 * Louis Felder Jr. 50 * Victor James, 61 Two white people survived. Many of those who died, according to police, died with multiple gunshot wounds. ————————————————————————————————— 4. Bethel, NC, 1983 Black Male Slaughters Two Business Invasion In the course of a robbery, a black male murdered two innocent white people (bludgeoning both with a knife). Black Male Murderer: Harvey Lee Green, 33 White People: * Sheila Bland, 17 * John Edmundson, 33 ————————————————————————————————— 5. Houston, TX, Sept. 7, 2000 Public Abduction – Murder Three black males and a black female, Perry Eugene Williams, Jr., 19, James Dunn, Corey Phillips, Kinita Starr Butler (girlfriend of Williams), abducted a young white male college student hoping to get cash from his ATM card. However, for unknown reasons, on their way to the ATM that plan abruptly changed. The car stopped. Black male Williams got out of the car and then stuck his gun in the window and shot the white male in the head, killing him instantly. The innocent white male is: * Matthew Carter (studying to be a doctor) Note: The week crime spree of these blacks prior to the abduction and murder of Matthew Carter is beyond comprehension. http://www.tdcj.state.tx.us/stat/williamsperry.htm ————————————————————————————————— 6. Circleville, OH , July 21, 1990 Home Invasion – Elderly- Rape- Murder A black male, James J. Hollis, 20, invaded the home of an elderly white female. When Hollis located the elderly female he beat, raped and then strangled her to death . The innocent victim is: * Mary Cook, 83 http://www.dispatch.com/live/content/local_news/stories/2008/05/28/hollis.html ————————————————————————————————— 7. Jacksonville, Fla., Dec. 2, 1985 Abuse Of The Elderly – Black Male Ambush – Murder A black male, Etheria Jackson, 25, ambushed and murdered a white male; and Jackson apparently took his time murdering the elderly white male. According to police, the white male was beat, gagged, choked, then stabbed to death. Perhaps Jackson was having fun finishing him off. Jackson’s girlfriend, Linda Riley, also according to police, was an active participant in the murder. Innocent White Male: * Linton Moody, 64 ————————————————————————————————— 8. W. Baltimore, Maryland, April 2000 Black Male Massacre Black Racism A black male, Davon Temple, 20, gunned down two innocent white people for no other reason than they were there. The two innocent white victims are: * Jennifer Morelock, 25 * Jason Woycio, 29 ——————————————————————————————————– 9. Orange County, TX, April 21, 2010 Business Invasion – Murder A black male, Edward Roberts Jr., 21, walked into a white males insurance business armed with a baseball bat intending to commit robbery. In the course of the robbery the black male, unprovoked, beat the owner to death. Also seriously injured was a white female employee. The two innocent white victims are:

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January 5, 2017   Posted in: Black Racism  Comments Closed

Black Crime Facts And Figures About Rape

The Altright is using memes to spread hate propaganda, here are some examples:

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November 5, 2016   Posted in: Black Racism  Comments Closed

Racism in the United States – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Racism and ethnic discrimination in the United States has been a major issue since the colonial era and the slave era. Legally or socially sanctioned privileges and rights were given to White Americans that were not granted to Native Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanic and Latino Americans. European Americans (particularly White Anglo-Saxon Protestants) were granted exclusive privileges in matters of education, immigration, voting rights, citizenship, land acquisition, and criminal procedure over periods of time extending from the 17th century to the 1960s. However, non-Protestant immigrants from Europe; particularly Irish people, Poles, and Italians, suffered xenophobic exclusion and other forms of ethnicity-based discrimination in American society, and were not considered fully white. In addition, Middle Eastern American groups like Jews and Arabs have faced continuous discrimination in the United States, and as a result, some people belonging to these groups do not identify as white. East and South Asians have similarly faced racism in America. Major racially and ethnically structured institutions included slavery, segregation, the American Indian Wars, Native American reservations, Native American boarding schools, immigration and naturalization law and internment camps.[1] Formal racial discrimination was largely banned in the mid-20th century, and came to be perceived as socially unacceptable and/or morally repugnant as well. Racial politics remains a major phenomenon, and racism continues to be reflected in socioeconomic inequality.[2][3]Racial stratification continues to occur in employment, housing, education, lending, and government. In the view of the U.S. Human Rights Network, a network of scores of U.S. civil rights and human rights organizations, “Discrimination in the United States permeates all aspects of life and extends to all communities of color”.[4] While the nature of the views held by average Americans have changed much over the past several decades, surveys by organizations such as ABC News have found that, even recently, large sections of Americans self-admit to holding discriminatory viewpoints; for example, a 2007 article by the organization stated that about one in ten admitted to holding prejudices against Hispanic and Latino Americans and about one in four did so regarding Arab-Americans.[5] While the existence of slavery is arguably the root of subsequent conceptualizations of African-Americans, the origins of African enslavement have a large economic foundation. Among the European elite who structured national policy throughout the age of the Atlantic system of trade, there existed a popular ideology called mercantilism, or the belief that policy pursuits were centralized around military power and economic wealth. Colonies were sources of mineral wealth and crops, to be used to the home country’s advantage.[6] Using Native Americans for manpower was impractical; they were decimated by disease and violence.[citation needed] Using Europeans for labor proved unsustainably expensive, as well as harmful to the supply of labor in the home countries. However, African slaves were “available in large numbers at prices that made plantation agriculture in the Americas profitable”.[7] It is also argued that, along with the economic motives underlying slavery in the Americas, European world schemas played a large role in the enslavement of Africans. According to this view, the European in-group for humane behavior included the sub-continent, while African and American Indian cultures had a more localized definition of “an insider”. While neither schema has inherent superiority, the technological advantage of Europeans became a resource to disseminate the conviction that underscored their schemas, that non-Europeans could be enslaved. With the capability to spread their schematic representation of the world, Europeans could impose a social contract, morally permitting three centuries of African slavery. While the disintegration of this social contract by the eighteenth century led to abolitionism, it is argued that the removal of barriers to “insider status” is a very slow process, uncompleted even today (2015).[8] As a result of the above, the Atlantic slave trade prospered. According to estimates in the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database, between 1626 and 1860 more than 470,000 slaves were forcibly transported from Africa to what is now the United States.[9][10] Furthermore, approximately one Southern family in four held slaves prior to the Civil War. According to the 1860 U.S. census, there were about 385,000 slaveowners out of a white population in the slave states of approximately 7 million.[11][12] In the early part of the 19th century, a variety of organizations were established advocating the movement of black people from the United States to locations where they would enjoy greater freedom; some endorsed colonization, while others advocated emigration. During the 1820s and 1830s the American Colonization Society (A.C.S.) was the primary vehicle for proposals to return black Americans to greater freedom and equality in Africa,[13] and in 1821 the A.C.S. established the colony of Liberia, assisting thousands of former African-American slaves and free black people (with legislated limits) to move there from the United States. The colonization effort resulted from a mixture of motives with its founder Henry Clay stating; “unconquerable prejudice resulting from their color, they never could amalgamate with the free whites of this country. It was desirable, therefore, as it respected them, and the residue of the population of the country, to drain them off”.[14] Although in 1820 the slave trade was equated with piracy, punishable by death,[15] the practice of chattel slavery existed for the next half century. All slaves in only the areas of the Confederate States of America that were not under direct control of the United States government were declared free by the Emancipation Proclamation, which was issued on January 1, 1863, by President Abraham Lincoln.[16] While personally opposed to slavery, Lincoln believed that the Constitution did not give Congress the power to end slavery, stating in his first Inaugural Address that he “had no objection to [this] being made express and irrevocable” via the Corwin Amendment.[17] On social and political rights for blacks, Lincoln stated, “I am not, nor ever have been in favor of making voters or jurors of negroes, nor of qualifying them to hold office, nor to intermarry with white people, I as much as any man am in favor of the superior position assigned to the white race.”[18] The Emancipation Proclamation did not apply to areas loyal to, or controlled by, the Union. Slavery was not actually abolished in the United States until the passage of the 13th Amendment which was declared ratified on December 6, 1865.[19] About 4 million black slaves were freed in 1865. Ninety-five percent of blacks lived in the South, comprising one third of the population there as opposed to one percent of the population of the North. Consequently, fears of eventual emancipation were much greater in the South than in the North.[20] Based on 1860 census figures, 8% of males aged 13 to 43 died in the civil war, including 6% in the North and 18% in the South.[21] After the Civil War, the 13th amendment in 1865, formally abolishing slavery, was ratified. Furthermore, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which broadened a range of civil rights to all persons born in the United States. Despite this, the emergence of “Black Codes”, sanctioned acts of subjugation against blacks, continued to bar African-Americans from due civil rights. The Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U.S. citizenship to whites only, and in 1868 the effort toward civil rights was underscored with the 14th amendment which granted citizenship to blacks.[22] The Civil Rights Act of 1875 followed, which was eliminated in a decision that undermined federal power to thwart private racial discrimination.[23] Nonetheless, the last of the Reconstruction Era amendments, the 15th amendment promised voting rights to African-American men, and these cumulative federal efforts, African-Americans began taking advantage of enfranchisement. African-Americans began voting, seeking office positions, utilizing public education. Yet by the end of Reconstruction in the mid 1870s, violent white supremacists came to power via paramilitary groups such as the Red Shirts and the White League and imposed Jim Crow laws that deprived African-Americans of voting rights and instituted systemic discriminatory policies through policies of unequal racial segregation.[24] The new century saw a hardening of institutionalized racism and legal discrimination against citizens of African descent in the United States. Throughout this post Civil War period, racial stratification was informally and systemically enforced, in order to solidify the pre-existing social order. Although technically able to vote, poll taxes, pervasive acts of terror such as lynching in the United States (often perpetrated by groups such as the reborn Ku Klux Klan, founded in the Reconstruction South), and discriminatory laws such as grandfather clauses kept black Americans disenfranchised particularly in the South. Furthermore, discrimination extended to state legislation that “allocated vastly unequal financial support” for black and white schools. In addition to this, county officials sometimes redistributed resources earmarked for blacks to white schools, further undermining educational opportunities.[25] In response to de jure racism, protest and lobbyist groups emerged, most notably, the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) in 1909. This time period is sometimes referred to as the nadir of American race relations because racism, segregation, racial discrimination, and expressions of white supremacy all increased. So did anti-black violence, including race riots such as the Atlanta Race Riot of 1906 and the Tulsa race riot of 1921. In addition, racism which had been viewed primarily as a problem in the Southern states, burst onto the national consciousness following the Great Migration, the relocation of millions of African Americans from their roots in the Southern states to the industrial centers of the North after World War I, particularly in cities such as Boston, Chicago, and New York (Harlem). Within Chicago, for example, between 1910 and 1970, the percentage of African-Americans leapt from 2.0 percent to 32.7 percent.[26] The demographic patterns of black migrants and external economic conditions are largely studied stimulants regarding the Great Migration.[27] For example, migrating blacks (between 1910 and 1920) were more likely to be literate than blacks that remained in the South. Known economic push factors played a role in migration, such as the emergence of a split labor market and agricultural distress from the boll weevil destruction of the cotton economy.[28] Southern migrants were often treated in accordance with pre-existing racial stratification. The rapid influx of blacks disturbed the racial balance within cities, exacerbating hostility between both black and white Northerners. Stereotypic schemas of Southern blacks were used to attribute issues in urban areas, such as crime and disease, to the presence of African-Americans. Overall, African-Americans in Northern cities experienced systemic discrimination in a plethora of aspects of life. Within employment, economic opportunities for blacks were routed to the lowest-status and restrictive in potential mobility . Within the housing market, stronger discriminatory measures were used in correlation to the influx, resulting in a mix of “targeted violence, restrictive covenants, redlining and racial steering”[29] Throughout this period, racial tensions exploded, most violently in Chicago, and lynchingsmob-directed hangings, usually racially motivatedincreased dramatically in the 1920s. The Jim Crow Laws were state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965. They mandated “separate but equal” status for black Americans. In reality, this led to treatment and accommodations that were almost always inferior to those provided to white Americans. The most important laws required that public schools, public places and public transportation, like trains and buses, have separate facilities for whites and blacks. State-sponsored school segregation was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of the United States in 1954 in Brown v. Board of Education. One of the first federal court cases to challenge segregation in schools was Mendez v. Westminster in 1946. In response to heightening discrimination and violence, non-violent acts of protest began to occur. For example, in February 1960, in Greensboro, North Carolina, four young African-American college students entered a Woolworth store and sat down at the counter but were refused service. The men had learned about non-violent protest in college, and continued to sit peacefully as whites tormented them at the counter, pouring ketchup on their heads and burning them with cigarettes. After this, many sit-ins took place in order to non-violently protest against racism and inequality. Sit-ins continued throughout the South and spread to other areas. Eventually, after many sit-ins and other non-violent protests, including marches and boycotts, places began to agree to desegregate.[30][full citation needed] The 16th Street Baptist Church bombing marked a turning point during the Civil Rights Era, by attracting national attention. On Sunday, September 15, 1963 with a stack of dynamite hidden on an outside staircase, Ku Klux Klansmen destroyed one side of the Birmingham church. The bomb exploded in proximity to twenty-six children who were preparing for choir practice in the basement assembly room. The explosion killed four black girls, Carole Robertson (14), Cynthia Wesley (14), Denise McNair (11) and Addie Mae Collins (14).[31][32] With the bombing occurring only a couple of weeks after Martin Luther King Jr.’s March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, it became an integral aspect of transformed perceptions of conditions for blacks in America. It influenced the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965 which overruled remaining Jim Crow laws. Nonetheless, neither had been implemented by the end of the 1960s as civil rights leaders continued to strive for political and social freedom. Many U.S. states banned interracial marriage. In 1967, Mildred Loving, a black woman, and Richard Loving, a white man, were sentenced to a year in prison in Virginia for marrying each other.[33] Their marriage violated the state’s anti-miscegenation statute, the Racial Integrity Act of 1924, which prohibited marriage between people classified as white and people classified as “colored” (persons of African or Native American ancestry).[34] In the Loving v. Virginia case in 1967, the Supreme Court invalidated laws prohibiting interracial marriage in the U.S.[35] Segregation continued even after the demise of the Jim Crow laws. Data on house prices and attitudes toward integration from suggest that in the mid-20th century, segregation was a product of collective actions taken by whites to exclude blacks from their neighborhoods.[36] Segregation also took the form of redlining, the practice of denying or increasing the cost of services, such as banking, insurance, access to jobs,[37] access to health care,[38] or even supermarkets[39] to residents in certain, often racially determined,[40] areas. Although in the United States informal discrimination and segregation have always existed, redlining began with the National Housing Act of 1934, which established the Federal Housing Administration (FHA). The practice was fought first through passage of the Fair Housing Act of 1968 (which prevents redlining when the criteria for redlining are based on race, religion, gender, familial status, disability, or ethnic origin), and later through the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977, which requires banks to apply the same lending criteria in all communities.[41] Although redlining is illegal some argue that it continues to exist in other forms. While substantial gains were made in the succeeding decades through middle class advancement and public employment, black poverty and lack of education[42] deepened in the context of de-industrialization.[43] Prejudice, discrimination, and institutional racism (see below) continue to affect African Americans. Despite gains made after the 16th Street Baptist Church bombing, violence against black churches has also continued fires set to churches around the South in the 1990s,[44] for example, and the Charleston church shooting of 2015, when nine people were shot and killed.[45] From 1981 to 1997, the United States Department of Agriculture discriminated against tens of thousands of black American farmers, denying loans that were provided to white farmers in similar circumstances. The discrimination was the subject of the Pigford v. Glickman lawsuit brought by members of the National Black Farmers Association, which resulted in two settlement agreements of $1.25 billion in 1999 and of $1.15 billion in 2009.[46] It is argued[by whom?] that there exists a color blindness or an “understanding that cultural differences rooted in racial identities are irrelevant for peoples’ prospects and their overall well-being”.[47] Yet, one counter-example to this claim is that employer interviews reveal reluctance from both black and white employers to employ “urban young males who exhibit lower-class behavioral styles”, highlighting the existence of embedded socio-economic preconceptions.[48] Furthermore, many cite the United States presidential election, 2008 as a step forward in race relations: White Americans played a role in electing Barack Obama, the country’s first black president.[49] In fact, Obama received a greater percentage of the white vote (43%),[50] than did the previous Democratic candidate, John Kerry (41%).[51] Racial divisions persisted throughout the election; wide margins of Black voters gave Obama an edge during the presidential primary, where 8 out of 10 African-Americans voted for him in the primaries, and an MSNBC poll found that race was a key factor in whether a candidate was perceived as being ready for office. In South Carolina, for instance,”Whites were far likelier to name Clinton than Obama as being most qualified to be commander in chief, likeliest to unite the country and most apt to capture the White House in November. Blacks named Obama over Clinton by even stronger margins two- and three-to one in all three areas.”[52] Sociologist Russ Long stated in 2013 that there is now a more subtle racism that associates a specific race with a specific characteristic.[53] In a 1993 study conducted by Katz and Braly, it was presented that “blacks and whites hold a variety of stereotypes towards each other, often negative.”[54] The Katz and Braley study also found that African-Americans and Whites view the traits that they identify each other with as threatening, interracial communication between the two is likely to be “hesitant, reserved, and concealing.”[54] Interracial communication is guided by stereotypes; stereotypes are transferred into personality and character traits which lead to have an effect on communication. Multiple factors go into how stereotypes are established, such as age and the setting in which they are being applied.[54] For example, in a study done by the Entman-Rojecki Index of Race and Media in 2014, 89% of black women in movies are shown swearing and acting in offensive behavior while only 17% of white women are portrayed in this manner.[55] The Naturalization Act of 1790 made Asians ineligible for citizenship, with citizenship limited to whites only.[56] Asian Americans, including those of East Asian, Southeast Asian, and South Asian descent, have experienced racism since the first major groups of Chinese immigrants arrived in America. First-generation immigrants, children of immigrants, and Asians adopted by non-Asian families have all been impacted.[57] In the 19th century, America was undergoing rapid industrialization, leading to labor shortages in the mining and rail industries. Chinese immigrant labor was often used to fill this gap, most notably with the construction of the First Transcontinental Railroad, leading to large-scale Chinese immigration.[57] These Chinese immigrants were despised because they took the jobs of whites for cheaper pay, and the phrase Yellow Peril, which predicted the demise of Western “civilization” as a result of Chinese immigrants, gained popularity.[58] This discrimination apexed with the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act, which banned Chinese immigration to the United States. This was the first time that a law was passed to exclude a major group from the nation that was based on ethnicity and class.[57] Local discriminatory laws were also enacted to stifle Chinese business and job opportunities; for example, in the 1886 Supreme Court case of Yick Wo v. Hopkins, a San Francisco city ordinance requiring permits for laundries (which were mostly Chinese-owned) was struck down, as it was clear the law solely targeted Chinese Americans. When the law was in effect, the city issued permits to virtually all non-Chinese permit applicants, while only granting one permit out of two hundred applications from Chinese laundry owners. When the Chinese laundries continued to operate, the city tried to fine the owners. In 1913, California, home to many Chinese immigrants, enacted an Alien Land Law, which significantly restricted land ownership by Asian immigrants, and extended it in 1920, ultimately banning virtually all land ownership by Asians.[59] In 1907, Japanese immigrants, which were unaffected by the Exclusion Act, began to enter the United States, filling labor shortages that were once filled by Chinese workers. This influx also led to discrimination and was stymied when President Theodore Roosevelt restricted Japanese immigration. Later, Japanese immigration was closed when Japan entered into the Gentlemen’s Agreement of 1907 to stop issuing passports to Japanese workers intending to move to the U.S.[60] During World War II, the Republic of China was an ally of the United States, and the federal government praised the resistance of the Chinese against Japan in the Second Sino-Japanese War, attempting to reduce anti-Chinese sentiment. In 1943, the Magnuson Act was passed by Congress, repealing the Chinese Exclusion Act and reopening Chinese immigration. However, at the time, the United States was actively fighting the Empire of Japan, which was a member of the Axis powers. Anti-Japanese racism, which spiked after the attack on Pearl Harbor, was tacitly encouraged by the government, which used slurs such as “Jap” in propaganda posters and even interned Japanese Americans, citing possible security threats. This prejudice continued for some time after the war had concluded. Prior to 1965, Indian immigration to the U.S. was small and isolated, with fewer than fifty thousand Indian immigrants in the country. The Bellingham riots in Bellingham, Washington on September 5, 1907 epitomized the low tolerance in the U.S. for Indians and Hindus. In the 1923 case, United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind, the Supreme Court ruled that high caste Hindus were not “white persons” and were therefore racially ineligible for naturalized citizenship.[61] The Court argued that the racial difference between Indians and whites was so great that the “great body of our people” would reject assimilation with Indians.[61] It was after the LuceCeller Act of 1946 that a quota of 100 Indians per year could immigrate to the U.S. and become citizens.[62] The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 dramatically opened entry to the U.S. to immigrants other than traditional Northern European and Germanic groups, and as a result would significantly alter the demographic mix in the U.S.[63] On the U.S. immigration laws prior to 1965, sociologist Stephen Klineberg states: “The law was just unbelievable in its clarity of racism. It declared that Northern Europeans are a superior subspecies of the white race.”[63] In 1990, Asian immigration was encouraged when nonimmigrant temporary working visas were given to help with the shortage of skilled labor within the United States.[57] In modern times, Asians have been perceived as a “model minority”. They are seen as more educated and successful, and are stereotyped as intelligent and hard-working, but socially inept.[64] Asians may experience expectations of natural intelligence and excellence from whites as well as other minorities.[59][65] This has led to discrimination in the workplace, as Asian Americans may face unreasonable expectations because of the “model minority” stereotype. In 2000, out of 1,218 adult Asian Americans, 92 percent of those who experienced personal discrimination believed that the unfair treatment was due to their ethnicity.[64] Asian American stereotypes can also obstruct career paths; because Asians are seen as better skilled in engineering, computing, and mathematics, they are often encouraged to pursue technical careers. They are also discouraged from pursuing non-technical occupations or executive occupations requiring more social interaction, since Asians are expected to have poor social skills. In the 2000 study, forty percent of those surveyed who experienced discrimination believed that they had lost hiring or promotion opportunities. In 2007, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission reported that Asians make up 10 percent of professional jobs, while 3.7 percent of them held executive, senior level, or manager positions.[64] Other forms of discrimination include racial profiling and hate crimes. Research shows that discrimination has led to more use of informal mental health services by Asian Americans.[66] Asian Americans who feel discriminated against also tend to smoke more.[67] Various European American immigrant groups have been subject to discrimination either on the basis of their immigrant status (known as “Nativism”) or on the basis of their ethnicities (country of origin). In the 19th century, this was particularly true of anti-Irish prejudice, which was partly anti-Catholic sentiment, partly anti-Irish as an ethnicity. This was especially true for Irish Catholics who immigrated to the U.S. in the mid-19th century; the large number of Irish (both Catholic and Protestant) who settled in America in the 18th century had largely (but not entirely) escaped such discrimination and eventually blended into the American white population. During the 1830s in the U.S., riots for control of job sites broke out in rural areas among rival labour teams from different parts of Ireland, and between Irish and local American work teams competing for construction jobs.[68] The Native American Party, commonly called the Know Nothing movement was a political party, whose membership was limited to Protestant men, that operated on a national basis during the mid-1850s and sought to limit the influence of Irish Catholics and other immigrants, thus reflecting nativism and anti-Catholic sentiment. There was widespread anti-Irish job discrimination in the United States and “No Irish need apply” signs were common.[69][70][71] The second era Ku Klux Klan was a very large nationwide organization in the 1920s, consisting of between four to six million members (15% of the nation’s eligible population) that especially opposed Catholics.[72] Anti-Catholic sentiment, which commenced in North America with the first Pilgrim and Puritan settlers in New England in the early 17th century, remained evident in the U.S. up to the presidential campaign of John F. Kennedy, who went on to become the first Catholic (and first non-Protestant) U.S. president in 1961.[73] The 20th century saw discrimination against immigrants from southern and eastern Europe (notably Italian Americans and Polish Americans), partly from anti-Catholic sentiment (as well as discrimination against Irish-Americans), and partly from Nordicism, which considered all non-Germanic, non-Scandinavian, or non-British immigrants as racially inferior.[citation needed] Nordicism led to the reduction in Southern European, along with Slavic Eastern European and Russian immigrants in the National Origins Formula of the Emergency Quota Act of 1921 and the Immigration Act of 1924, whose goal was to maintain the status quo distribution of ethnicity by limiting immigration in proportion to existing populations. This reduced the inflow from the average prior to 1921 of 176,983 from northern, central and western Europe, and 685,531 for other countries, principally Southern and Russia, to a 1924 level of 140,999 for northern, central and western Europe, and 21,847 for other countries, principally Southern and Russia (from a 1:3.9 ratio to a 6.4:1 ratio).[citation needed] There was also discrimination against German Americans and Italian Americans due to Germany and Italy being enemy countries during World War I (Germany) and World War II (Germany and Italy). This resulted in a sharp decrease in German-American ethnic identity and a sharp decrease in the use of German in the United States following WWI, which had hitherto been significant, and to German American internment and Italian American internment during WWII; see also World War I anti-German sentiment. Beginning in World War I, German Americans were sometimes accused of having political allegiances to Germany, and thus not to the United States.[75] The Justice Department attempted to prepare a list of all German aliens, counting approximately 480,000 of them, more than 4,000 of whom were imprisoned in 191718. The allegations included spying for Germany, or endorsing the German war effort.[76] Thousands were forced to buy war bonds to show their loyalty.[77] The Red Cross barred individuals with German last names from joining in fear of sabotage. One person was killed by a mob; in Collinsville, Illinois, German-born Robert Prager was dragged from jail as a suspected spy and lynched.[78] Questions of German American loyalty increased due to events like the German bombing of Black Tom island[79] and the U.S. entering World War I, many German Americans were arrested for refusing allegiance to the U.S.[80] War hysteria led to the removal of German names in public, names of things such as streets,[81] and businesses.[82] Schools also began to eliminate or discourage the teaching of the German language.[83] Years later during the Second World War, German Americans were once again the victims of war hysteria discrimination. Following its entry into the Second World War, the US Government interned at least 11,000 American citizens of German ancestry. The last to be released, a German-American, remained imprisoned until 1948 at Ellis Island,[84] three and a half years after the cessation of hostilities against Germany. Specific European-American ethnicities significantly diminished as a political issue in the 1930s, being replaced by a bi-racialism of black/white, as described and predicted by Lothrop Stoddard, due to numerous causes. The National Origins Formula significantly reduced inflows of non-Nordic ethnicities; the Great Migration (of African-Americans out of the South) displaced anti-white immigrant racism with anti-black racism; and the Great Depression brought economic concerns to the fore.[citation needed] Americans of Latin American ancestry (often categorized as “Hispanic”) come from a wide variety of racial and ethnic backgrounds. Latinos are not all distinguishable as a racial minority. After the MexicanAmerican War (18461848), the U.S. annexed much of the current Southwestern region from Mexico. Mexicans residing in that territory found themselves subject to discrimination. It is estimated that at least 597 Mexicans were lynched between 1848 and 1928 (this is a conservative estimate due to lack of records in many reported lynchings). Mexicans were lynched at a rate of 27.4 per 100,000 of population between 1880 and 1930. This statistic is second only to that of the African American community during the same period, which suffered an average of 37.1 per 100,000 of population.[85] Between 1848 and 1879, Mexicans were lynched at an unprecedented rate of 473 per 100,000 of population.[86] During The Great Depression, the U.S. government sponsored a Mexican Repatriation program which was intended to encourage Mexican immigrants to voluntarily return to Mexico, however, many were forcibly removed against their will. In total, up to one million persons of Mexican ancestry were deported, approximately 60 percent of those individuals were actually U.S. citizens. The Zoot Suit Riots were vivid incidents of racial violence against Latinos (e.g., Mexican-Americans) in Los Angeles in 1943. Naval servicemen stationed in a Latino neighborhood conflicted with youth in the dense neighborhood. Frequent confrontations between small groups and individuals had intensified into several days of non-stop rioting. Large mobs of servicemen would enter civilian quarters looking to attack Mexican American youths, some of whom were wearing zoot suits, a distinctive exaggerated fashion popular among that group.[87] The disturbances continued unchecked, and even assisted, by the local police for several days before base commanders declared downtown Los Angeles and Mexican American neighborhoods off-limits to servicemen.[88] Many public institutions, businesses, and homeowners associations had official policies to exclude Mexican Americans. School children of Mexican American descent were subject to racial segregation in the public school system. In many counties, Mexican Americans were excluded from serving as jurors in court cases, especially in those that involved a Mexican American defendant. In many areas across the Southwest, they lived in separate residential areas, due to laws and real estate company policies.[89][90][91][92] During the 1960s, Mexican American youth formed the Chicano Civil Rights Movement. People of Middle Eastern and South Asian descent historically occupied an ambiguous racial status in the United States. Middle Eastern and South Asian immigrants were among those who sued in the late 19th and early 20th century to determine whether they were “white” immigrants as required by naturalization law. By 1923, courts had vindicated a “common-knowledge” standard, concluding that “scientific evidence”, including the notion of a “Caucasian race” including Middle Easterners and many South Asians, was incoherent. Legal scholar John Tehranian argues that in reality this was a “performance-based” standard, relating to religious practices, education, intermarriage and a community’s role in the United States.[94] Racism against Arab Americans[95] and racialized Islamophobia against Muslims has risen concomitantly with tensions between the American government and the Islamic world.[96] Following the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States, discrimination and racialized violence has markedly increased against Arab Americans and many other religious and cultural groups.[97] Scholars, including Sunaina Maira and Evelyn Alsultany, argue that in the post-September 11 climate, Muslim Americans have been racialized within American society, although the markers of this racialization are cultural, political, and religious rather than phenotypic.[98][99] Arab Americans in particular were most demonized which led to hatred towards Middle Easterners living in the United States and elsewhere in the Western world.[100][101] There have been attacks against Arabs not only on the basis of their religion (Islam), but also on the basis of their ethnicity; numerous Christian Arabs have been attacked based on their appearances.[102] In addition, other Middle Eastern peoples (Iranians, Assyrians, Armenians, Jews, Turks, Yezidis, Kurds, etc.) who are mistaken for Arabs because of perceived similarities in appearance have been collateral victims of anti-Arabism. Non-Arab and non-Muslim Middle Eastern people, as well as South Asians of different ethnic/religious backgrounds (Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs) have been stereotyped as “Arabs”. The case of Balbir Singh Sodhi, a Sikh who was murdered at a Phoenix gas station by a white supremacist for “looking like an Arab terrorist” (because of the turban that is a requirement of Sikhism), as well as that of Hindus being attacked for “being Muslims” have achieved prominence and criticism following the September 11 attacks.[103][104] Those of Middle Eastern descent who are in the United States military sometimes face racism from fellow soldiers. Army Spc Zachari Klawonn endured numerous instances of racism during his enlistment at Fort Hood, Texas. During his basic training he was made to put cloth around his head and play the role of terrorist. His fellow soldiers had to take him down to the ground and draw guns on him. He was also called things such as “raghead”, “sand monkey”, and “Zachari bin Laden”.[105][106] According to a 2004 study, although official parameters encompass Arabs as part of the White American racial category, many Arab Americans from places other than the Levant feel they are not white and are not perceived as white by American society.[107] The November 1979 Iranian hostage crisis of the U.S. embassy in Tehran precipitated a wave of anti-Iranian sentiment in the United States, directed both against the new Islamic regime and Iranian nationals and immigrants. Even though such sentiments gradually declined after the release of the hostages at the start of 1981, they sometimes flare up. In response, some Iranian immigrants to the U.S. have distanced themselves from their nationality and instead identify primarily on the basis of their ethnic or religious affiliations.[108] Since the 1980s and especially since the 1990s, it has been argued, Hollywood’s depiction of Iranians has gradually shown signs of vilifying Iranians.[109] Hollywood network productions such as 24,[110]John Doe, On Wings of Eagles (1986),[111]Escape from Iran: The Canadian Caper (1981),[112] and JAG almost regularly host Persian speaking villains in their storyline. Antisemitism has also played a role in the United States. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, hundreds of thousands of ethnic Jews were escaping the pogroms in Europe. They boarded boats from ports on the Baltic Sea and in Northern Germany, and largely arrived at Ellis Island, New York.[113] It is suggested by Leo Rosten, in his book The Joys of Yiddish, that as soon as they left the boat, they were subject to racism from the port immigration authorities. The derogatory term kike was adopted when referring to Jews (because they often could not write so they may have signed their immigration papers with circles or kikel in Yiddish).[114] Efforts were also made by the Asiatic Exclusion League to bar Jewish immigrants (along with other Middle Eastern ethnic groups, like Arabs, Assyrians, and Armenians) from naturalization, but they (along with Assyrians and Armenians) were nevertheless granted US citizenship, despite being classified as Asian.[115] From the 1910s, the Southern Jewish communities were attacked by the Ku Klux Klan, who objected to Jewish immigration, and often used “The Jewish Banker” in their propaganda. In 1915, Leo Frank was lynched in Georgia after being convicted of rape and sentenced to death (his punishment was commuted to life imprisonment).[116] This event was a catalyst in the re-formation of the new Ku Klux Klan.[117] The events in Nazi Germany also attracted attention from the United States. Jewish lobbying for intervention in Europe drew opposition from the isolationists, amongst whom was Father Charles Coughlin, a well known radio priest, who was known to be critical of Jews, believing that they were leading the United States into the war.[118] He preached in weekly, overtly anti-Semitic sermons and, from 1936, began publication of a newspaper, Social Justice, in which he printed anti-Semitic accusations such as The Protocols of the Elders of Zion.[119] A number of Jewish organizations, Christian organizations, Muslim organizations, and academics consider the Nation of Islam to be anti-Semitic. Specifically, they claim that the Nation of Islam has engaged in revisionist and antisemitic interpretations of the Holocaust and exaggerates the role of Jews in the African slave trade.[120] The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) alleged that the NOI’s Health Minister, Dr. Abdul Alim Muhammad, accused Jewish doctors of injecting blacks with the AIDS virus,[121] an allegation that Muhammad and The Washington Post have refuted.[122] Although Jews are often perceived as white in the American mainstream, the relationship of Jews to whiteness remains complex, with some preferring not to identify as white.[123][124][125][126] Prominent activist and rabbi Michael Lerner argues, in a 1993 Village Voice article, that “in America, to be ‘white’ means to be the beneficiary of the past 500 years of European exploration and exploitation of the rest of the world” and that “Jews can only be deemed white if there is massive amnesia on the part of non-Jews about the monumental history of anti-Semitism”.[127]African-American activist Cornel West, in an interview with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, has explained: Even if some Jews do believe that they’re white, I think that they’ve been duped. I think that antisemitism has proven itself to be a powerful force in nearly every post of Western civilization where Christianity has a presence. And so even as a Christian, I say continually to my Jewish brothers and sisters: don’t believe the hype about your full scale assimilation and integration into the mainstream. It only takes an event or two for a certain kind of anti-Jewish, antisemitic sensibility to surface in places that you would be surprised. But I’m just thoroughly convinced that America is not the promised land for Jewish brothers and sisters. A lot of Jewish brothers say, “No, that’s not true. We finally…” Yeahthey said that in Alexandria. You said that in Weimar Germany.[128] In recent years some scholars have advanced the concept of New antisemitism, coming simultaneously from the Far Left, the far right, and radical Islam, which tends to focus on opposition to the creation of a Jewish homeland in the State of Israel, and argue that the language of Anti-Zionism and criticism of Israel are used to attack Jews more broadly. In this view, the proponents of the new concept believe that criticisms of Israel and Zionism are often disproportionate in degree and unique in kind, and attribute this to antisemitism.[129] Yehuda Bauer, Professor of Holocaust Studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, has argued that the concept of a “new antisemitism” is essentially false since it is in fact an alternative form of the old antisemitism of previous decades, which he believes remains latent at times but recurs whenever it is triggered. In his view, the current trigger is the Israeli situation; if a compromise making ground in the Arab-Israeli peace process were achieved, he believes that antisemitism would decline but not disappear. Noted critics of Israel, such as Noam Chomsky and Norman Finkelstein, question the extent of new antisemitism in the United States. Chomsky has written in his work Necessary Illusions that the Anti-Defamation League casts any question of pro-Israeli policy as antisemitism, conflating and muddling issues as even Zionists receive the allegation.[130] Finkelstein has stated that supposed “new antisemitism” is a preposterous concept advanced by the ADL to combat critics of Israeli policy.[131] The Roma population in America has blended more-or-less seamlessly into the rest of society.[citation needed] In the U.S., the term “Gypsy” has come to be associated with a trade, profession, or lifestyle more than with the Romani ethnic/racial group.[citation needed] Some Americans, especially those self-employed in the fortune-telling and psychic reading business,[132] use the term “Gypsy” to describe themselves or their enterprise, despite having no ties to the Roma people. This can be chalked up to misperception and ignorance regarding the term rather than any bigotry or even anti-ziganism.[133][dubious discuss] Native Americans, who have lived on the North American continent for at least 10,000 years,[134] had an enormously complex impact on American history and racial relations. During the colonial and independent periods, a long series of conflicts were waged, often with the objective of obtaining resources of Native Americans. Through wars, forced displacement (such as in the Trail of Tears), and the imposition of treaties, land was taken. The loss of land often resulted in hardships for Native Americans. In the early 18th century, the English had enslaved nearly 800 Choctaws.[135] After the creation of the United States, the idea of Indian removal gained momentum. However, some Native Americans chose or were allowed to remain and avoided removal whereafter they were subjected to official racism. The Choctaws in Mississippi described their situation in 1849, “we have had our habitations torn down and burned, our fences destroyed, cattle turned into our fields and we ourselves have been scourged, manacled, fettered and otherwise personally abused, until by such treatment some of our best men have died.”[136] Joseph B. Cobb, who moved to Mississippi from Georgia, described Choctaws as having “no nobility or virtue at all,” and in some respect he found blacks, especially native Africans, more interesting and admirable, the red man’s superior in every way. The Choctaw and Chickasaw, the tribes he knew best, were beneath contempt, that is, even worse than black slaves.[137] Ideological expansionist justification (Manifest Destiny) included stereotyped perceptions of all Native Americans as “merciless Indian savages” (as described in the United States Declaration of Independence) despite successful American efforts at civilization as proven with the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Creek, and Choctaw. In 1861, residents of Mankato, Minnesota, formed the Knights of the Forest, with a goal of ‘eliminating all Indians from Minnesota.’ An egregious attempt occurred with the California gold rush, the first two years of which saw the deaths of thousands of Native Americans. Under Mexican rule in California, Indians were subjected to de facto enslavement under a system of peonage by the white elite. While in 1850, California formally entered the Union as a free state, with respect to the issue of slavery, the practice of Indian indentured servitude was not outlawed by the California Legislature until 1863.[138] During the period surrounding the 1890 Wounded Knee Massacre, author L. Frank Baum wrote two editorials about Native Americans. Five days after the killing of the Lakota Sioux holy man, Sitting Bull, Baum wrote, “The proud spirit of the original owners of these vast prairies inherited through centuries of fierce and bloody wars for their possession, lingered last in the bosom of Sitting Bull. With his fall the nobility of the Redskin is extinguished, and what few are left are a pack of whining curs who lick the hand that smites them. The Whites, by law of conquest, by justice of civilization, are masters of the American continent, and the best safety of the frontier settlements will be secured by the total annihilation of the few remaining Indians. Why not annihilation? Their glory has fled, their spirit broken, their manhood effaced; better that they die than live the miserable wretches that they are.”[139] Following the December 29, 1890, massacre, Baum wrote, “The Pioneer has before declared that our only safety depends upon the total extirmination [sic] of the Indians. Having wronged them for centuries we had better, in order to protect our civilization, follow it up by one more wrong and wipe these untamed and untamable creatures from the face of the earth. In this lies safety for our settlers and the soldiers who are under incompetent commands. Otherwise, we may expect future years to be as full of trouble with the redskins as those have been in the past.”[139][140] Military and civil resistance by Native Americans has been a constant feature of American history. So too have a variety of debates around issues of sovereignty, the upholding of treaty provisions, and the civil rights of Native Americans under U.S. law. Once their territories were incorporated into the United States, surviving Native Americans were denied equality before the law and often treated as wards of the state.[141] Many Native Americans were moved to reservationsconstituting 4% of U.S. territory. In a number of cases treaties signed with Native Americans were violated. Tens of thousands of American Indians and Alaska Natives were forced to attend a residential school system which sought to reeducate them in white settler American values, culture and economy.[142][143] Further dispossession of various kinds continues into the present, although these current dispossessions, especially in terms of land, rarely make major news headlines in the country (e.g., the Lenape people’s recent fiscal troubles and subsequent land grab by the State of New Jersey), and sometimes even fail to make it to headlines in the localities in which they occur. Through concessions for industries such as oil, mining and timber and through division of land from the Allotment Act forward, these concessions have raised problems of consent, exploitation of low royalty rates, environmental injustice, and gross mismanagement of funds held in trust, resulting in the loss of $1040 billion.[144] The Worldwatch Institute notes that 317 reservations are threatened by environmental hazards, while Western Shoshone land has been subjected to more than 1,000 nuclear explosions.[145] The government appointed agents, like Benjamin Hawkins, to live among the Native Americans and to teach them, through example and instruction, how to live like whites.[146] America’s first president, George Washington, formulated a policy to encourage the “civilizing” process.[147] Washington had a six-point plan for civilization which included: 1. impartial justice toward Native Americans 2. regulated buying of Native American lands 3. promotion of commerce 4. promotion of experiments to civilize or improve Native American society 5. presidential authority to give presents 6. punishing those who violated Native American rights.[148] The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U.S. citizenship to all Native Americans. Prior to the passage of the act, nearly two-thirds of Native Americans were already U.S. citizens.[149] The earliest recorded date of Native Americans becoming U.S. citizens was in 1831 when the Mississippi Choctaw became citizens after the United States Legislature ratified the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek. Under article XIV of that treaty, any Choctaw who elected not to move to Native American Territory could become an American citizen when he registered and if he stayed on designated lands for five years after treaty ratification. Citizenship could also be obtained by: 1. Treaty Provision (as with the Mississippi Choctaw) 2. Allotment under the Act of February 8, 1887 3. Issuance of Patent in Fee Simple 4. Adopting Habits of Civilized Life 5. Minor Children 6. Citizenship by Birth 7. Becoming Soldiers and Sailors in the U.S. Armed Forces 8. Marriage 9. Special Act of Congress. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That all noncitizen Native Americans born within the territorial limits of the United States be, and they are hereby, declared to be citizens of the United States: Provided, That the granting of such citizenship shall not in any manner impair or otherwise affect the right of any Native American to tribal or other property. Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 While formal equality has been legally recognized, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders remain among the most economically disadvantaged groups in the country, and according to National mental health studies, American Indians as a group tend to suffer from high levels of alcoholism, depression and suicide.[150] Using The Schedule of Racist Events (SRE), an 18-item self-report inventory that assesses the frequency of racist discrimination, Hope Landrine and Elizabeth A. Klonoff found that racist discrimination is rampant in the lives of African Americans and is strongly related to psychiatric symptoms.[151] A study on racist events in the lives of African American women found that lifetime experiences of racism were positively related to lifetime history of both physical disease and frequency of recent common colds. These relationships were largely unaccounted for by other variables. Demographic variables such as income and education were not related to experiences of racism. The results suggest that racism can be detrimental to African American’s well being.[152] The physiological stress caused by racism has been documented in studies by Claude Steele, Joshua Aronson, and Steven Spencer on what they term “stereotype threat.”[153] Quite similarly, another example of the psychosocial consequences of discrimination have been observed in a study sampling Mexican-origin participants in Fresno, California. It was found that perceived discrimination is correlated with depressive symptoms, especially for those less acculturated in the United States, like Mexican immigrants and migrants.[154] Along the vein of somatic responses to discrimination, Kennedy et al. found that both measures of collective disrespect were strongly correlated with black mortality (r = 0.53 to 0.56), as well as with white mortality (r = 0.48 to 0.54). These data suggest that racism, measured as an ecologic characteristic, is associated with higher mortality in both blacks and whites.[155] Some researchers also suggest that racial segregation may lead to disparities in health and mortality. Thomas LaVeist (1989; 1993) tested the hypothesis that segregation would aid in explaining race differences in infant mortality rates across cities. Analyzing 176 large and midsized cities, LaVeist found support for the hypothesis. Since LaVeist’s studies, segregation has received increased attention as a determinant of race disparities in mortality.[156] Studies have shown that mortality rates for male and female African Americans are lower in areas with lower levels of residential segregation. Mortality for male and female Whites was not associated in either direction with residential segregation.[157] Researchers Sharon A. Jackson, Roger T. Anderson, Norman J. Johnson and Paul D. Sorlie found that, after adjustment for family income, mortality risk increased with increasing minority residential segregation among Blacks aged 25 to 44 years and non-Blacks aged 45 to 64 years. In most age/race/gender groups, the highest and lowest mortality risks occurred in the highest and lowest categories of residential segregation, respectively. These results suggest that minority residential segregation may influence mortality risk and underscore the traditional emphasis on the social underpinnings of disease and death.[158] Rates of heart disease among African Americans are associated with the segregation patterns in the neighborhoods where they live (Fang et al. 1998). Stephanie A. Bond Huie writes that neighborhoods affect health and mortality outcomes primarily in an indirect fashion through environmental factors such as smoking, diet, exercise, stress, and access to health insurance and medical providers.[159] Moreover, segregation strongly influences premature mortality in the US.[160] As early as 1866, the Civil Rights Act provided a remedy for intentional race discrimination in employment by private employers and state and local public employers. The Civil Rights Act of 1871 applies to public employment or employment involving state action prohibiting deprivation of rights secured by the federal constitution or federal laws through action under color of law. Title VII is the principal federal statute with regard to employment discrimination prohibiting unlawful employment discrimination by public and private employers, labor organizations, training programs and employment agencies based on race or color, religion, gender, and national origin. Title VII also prohibits retaliation against any person for opposing any practice forbidden by statute, or for making a charge, testifying, assisting, or participating in a proceeding under the statute. The Civil Rights Act of 1991 expanded the damages available in Title VII cases and granted Title VII plaintiffs the right to a jury trial. Title VII also provides that race and color discrimination against every race and color is prohibited. Media Popular culture (songs, theater) for European American audiences in the 19th century created and perpetuated negative stereotypes of African Americans. One key symbol of racism against African Americans was the use of blackface. Directly related to this was the institution of minstrelsy. Other stereotypes of African Americans included the fat, dark-skinned “mammy” and the irrational, hypersexual male “buck”. In recent years increasing numbers of African-American activists have asserted that rap music videos commonly utilize scantily clothed African-American performers posing as thugs or pimps. The NAACP and the National Congress of Black Women also have called for the reform of images on videos and on television. Julian Bond said that in a segregated society, people get their impressions of other groups from what they see in videos and what they hear in music.[161][162][163][164] In a similar vein, activists protested against the BET show, Hot Ghetto Mess, which satirizes the culture of working-class African-Americans. The protests resulted in the change of the television show name to We Got to Do Better.[161] It is understood that representations of minorities in the media have the ability to reinforce or change stereotypes. For example, in one study, a collection of white subjects were primed by a comedy skit either showing a stereotypical or neutral portrayal of African-American characters. Participants were then required to read a vignette describing an incident of sexual violence, with the alleged offender either white or black, and assign a rating for perceived guilt. For those shown the stereotypical African-American character, there was a significantly higher guilt rating for black alleged offender in the subsequent vignette, in comparison to the other conditions.[165] While schemas have an overt societal consequence, the strong development of them have lasting effect on recipients. Overall, it is found that strong in-group attitudes are correlated with academic and economic success. In a study analyzing the interaction of assimilation and racial-ethnic schemas for Hispanic youth found that strong schematic identities for Hispanic youth undermined academic achievement.[166] Additional stereotypes attributed to minorities continue to influence societal interactions. For example, a 1993 Harvard Law Review article states that Asian-Americans are commonly viewed as submissive, as a combination of relative physical stature and Western comparisons of cultural attitudes. Furthermore, Asian-Americans are depicted as the model minority, unfair competitors, foreigners, and indistinguishable. These stereotypes can serve to dehumanize Asian-Americans and catalyze hostility and violence.[167] Formal discrimination against minorities has been present throughout American history. Leland T. Saito, Associate Professor of Sociology and American Studies & Ethnicity at the University of Southern California, writes, “Political rights have been circumscribed by race, class and gender since the founding of the United States, when the right to vote was restricted to white men of property. Throughout the history of the United States race has been used by whites a category that has also shifted through time for legitimizing and creating difference and social, economic and political exclusion.”[168] Within education, a survey of black students in sixteen majority white universities found that four of five African-Americans reported some form of racial discrimination. For example, in February 1988, the University of Michigan enforced a new anti discrimination code following the distribution of fliers saying blacks “don’t belong in classrooms, they belong hanging from trees”. Other forms of reported discrimination were refusal to sit next to black in lecture, ignored input in class settings, and informal segregation. While the penalties are imposed, the psychological consequences of formal discrimination can still manifest. Black students, for example, reported feelings of heightened isolation and suspicion. Furthermore, studies have shown that academic performance is stunted for black students with these feelings as a result of their campus race interactions.[169] Minority racism is sometimes considered controversial because of theories of power in society. Some theories of racism insist that racism can only exist in the context of social power to impose it upon others.[170] Yet discrimination and racism between racially marginalized groups has been noted. For example, there has been ongoing violence between African American and Mexican American gangs, particularly in Southern California.[171][172][173][174] There have been reports of racially motivated attacks against Mexican Americans who have moved into neighborhoods occupied mostly by African Americans, and vice versa.[175][176] According to gang experts and law enforcement agents, a longstanding race war between the Mexican Mafia and the Black Guerilla Family, a rival African American prison gang, has generated such intense racial hatred among Mexican Mafia leaders, or shot callers, that they have issued a “green light” on all blacks. This amounts to a standing authorization for Latino gang members to prove their mettle by terrorizing or even murdering any blacks sighted in a neighborhood claimed by a gang loyal to the Mexican Mafia.[dead link][177] There have been several significant riots in California prisons where Mexican American inmates and African Americans have targeted each other particularly, based on racial reasons.[178][179] There has also been noted conflict between recent immigrant groups and their established ethnic counterparts within the United States. Rapid growth in African and Caribbean immigrants has come into conflict with American blacks. Interaction and cooperation between black immigrants and American blacks are, ironically, debatable. One can argue that racial discrimination and cooperation is not ordinarily based on color of skin but more on shared common, cultural experiences, and beliefs.[180][181] Furthermore, conflict between Chinese immigrants and Japanese Americans are known to have occurred in the San Gabriel Valley of the Los Angeles area in the 1980s.[citation needed] In a manner that defines interpersonal discrimination in the United States, Darryl Brown of the Virginia Law Review states that while “our society has established a consensus against blatant, intentional racism and in decades since Brown v Board of Education has developed a sizeable set of legal remedies to address it”, our legal system “ignores the possibility that ‘race’ is structural or interstitial, that it can be the root of injury even when not traceable to a specific intention or action”[182]

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