Archive for the ‘Black Racism’ Category

Racism in the United States – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Racism and ethnic discrimination in the United States has been a major issue since the colonial era and the slave era. Legally or socially sanctioned privileges and rights were given to White Americans that were not granted to Native Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanic and Latino Americans. European Americans (particularly White Anglo-Saxon Protestants) were granted exclusive privileges in matters of education, immigration, voting rights, citizenship, land acquisition, and criminal procedure over periods of time extending from the 17th century to the 1960s. However, non-Protestant immigrants from Europe; particularly Irish people, Poles, and Italians, suffered xenophobic exclusion and other forms of ethnicity-based discrimination in American society, and were not considered fully white. In addition, Middle Eastern American groups like Jews and Arabs have faced continuous discrimination in the United States, and as a result, some people belonging to these groups do not identify as white. East and South Asians have similarly faced racism in America.

Major racially and ethnically structured institutions included slavery, segregation, the American Indian Wars, Native American reservations, Native American boarding schools, immigration and naturalization law and internment camps.[1] Formal racial discrimination was largely banned in the mid-20th century, and came to be perceived as socially unacceptable and/or morally repugnant as well. Racial politics remains a major phenomenon, and racism continues to be reflected in socioeconomic inequality.[2][3]Racial stratification continues to occur in employment, housing, education, lending, and government.

In the view of the U.S. Human Rights Network, a network of scores of U.S. civil rights and human rights organizations, “Discrimination in the United States permeates all aspects of life and extends to all communities of color”.[4] While the nature of the views held by average Americans have changed much over the past several decades, surveys by organizations such as ABC News have found that, even recently, large sections of Americans self-admit to holding discriminatory viewpoints; for example, a 2007 article by the organization stated that about one in ten admitted to holding prejudices against Hispanic and Latino Americans and about one in four did so regarding Arab-Americans.[5]

While the existence of slavery is arguably the root of subsequent conceptualizations of African-Americans, the origins of African enslavement have a large economic foundation. Among the European elite who structured national policy throughout the age of the Atlantic system of trade, there existed a popular ideology called mercantilism, or the belief that policy pursuits were centralized around military power and economic wealth. Colonies were sources of mineral wealth and crops, to be used to the home country’s advantage.[6] Using Native Americans for manpower was impractical; they were decimated by disease and violence.[citation needed] Using Europeans for labor proved unsustainably expensive, as well as harmful to the supply of labor in the home countries. However, African slaves were “available in large numbers at prices that made plantation agriculture in the Americas profitable”.[7]

It is also argued that, along with the economic motives underlying slavery in the Americas, European world schemas played a large role in the enslavement of Africans. According to this view, the European in-group for humane behavior included the sub-continent, while African and American Indian cultures had a more localized definition of “an insider”. While neither schema has inherent superiority, the technological advantage of Europeans became a resource to disseminate the conviction that underscored their schemas, that non-Europeans could be enslaved. With the capability to spread their schematic representation of the world, Europeans could impose a social contract, morally permitting three centuries of African slavery. While the disintegration of this social contract by the eighteenth century led to abolitionism, it is argued that the removal of barriers to “insider status” is a very slow process, uncompleted even today (2015).[8]

As a result of the above, the Atlantic slave trade prospered. According to estimates in the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database, between 1626 and 1860 more than 470,000 slaves were forcibly transported from Africa to what is now the United States.[9][10] Furthermore, approximately one Southern family in four held slaves prior to the Civil War. According to the 1860 U.S. census, there were about 385,000 slaveowners out of a white population in the slave states of approximately 7 million.[11][12]

In the early part of the 19th century, a variety of organizations were established advocating the movement of black people from the United States to locations where they would enjoy greater freedom; some endorsed colonization, while others advocated emigration. During the 1820s and 1830s the American Colonization Society (A.C.S.) was the primary vehicle for proposals to return black Americans to greater freedom and equality in Africa,[13] and in 1821 the A.C.S. established the colony of Liberia, assisting thousands of former African-American slaves and free black people (with legislated limits) to move there from the United States. The colonization effort resulted from a mixture of motives with its founder Henry Clay stating; “unconquerable prejudice resulting from their color, they never could amalgamate with the free whites of this country. It was desirable, therefore, as it respected them, and the residue of the population of the country, to drain them off”.[14]

Although in 1820 the slave trade was equated with piracy, punishable by death,[15] the practice of chattel slavery existed for the next half century. All slaves in only the areas of the Confederate States of America that were not under direct control of the United States government were declared free by the Emancipation Proclamation, which was issued on January 1, 1863, by President Abraham Lincoln.[16] While personally opposed to slavery, Lincoln believed that the Constitution did not give Congress the power to end slavery, stating in his first Inaugural Address that he “had no objection to [this] being made express and irrevocable” via the Corwin Amendment.[17] On social and political rights for blacks, Lincoln stated, “I am not, nor ever have been in favor of making voters or jurors of negroes, nor of qualifying them to hold office, nor to intermarry with white people, I as much as any man am in favor of the superior position assigned to the white race.”[18] The Emancipation Proclamation did not apply to areas loyal to, or controlled by, the Union. Slavery was not actually abolished in the United States until the passage of the 13th Amendment which was declared ratified on December 6, 1865.[19]

About 4 million black slaves were freed in 1865. Ninety-five percent of blacks lived in the South, comprising one third of the population there as opposed to one percent of the population of the North. Consequently, fears of eventual emancipation were much greater in the South than in the North.[20] Based on 1860 census figures, 8% of males aged 13 to 43 died in the civil war, including 6% in the North and 18% in the South.[21]

After the Civil War, the 13th amendment in 1865, formally abolishing slavery, was ratified. Furthermore, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which broadened a range of civil rights to all persons born in the United States. Despite this, the emergence of “Black Codes”, sanctioned acts of subjugation against blacks, continued to bar African-Americans from due civil rights. The Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U.S. citizenship to whites only, and in 1868 the effort toward civil rights was underscored with the 14th amendment which granted citizenship to blacks.[22] The Civil Rights Act of 1875 followed, which was eliminated in a decision that undermined federal power to thwart private racial discrimination.[23] Nonetheless, the last of the Reconstruction Era amendments, the 15th amendment promised voting rights to African-American men, and these cumulative federal efforts, African-Americans began taking advantage of enfranchisement. African-Americans began voting, seeking office positions, utilizing public education. Yet by the end of Reconstruction in the mid 1870s, violent white supremacists came to power via paramilitary groups such as the Red Shirts and the White League and imposed Jim Crow laws that deprived African-Americans of voting rights and instituted systemic discriminatory policies through policies of unequal racial segregation.[24]

The new century saw a hardening of institutionalized racism and legal discrimination against citizens of African descent in the United States. Throughout this post Civil War period, racial stratification was informally and systemically enforced, in order to solidify the pre-existing social order. Although technically able to vote, poll taxes, pervasive acts of terror such as lynching in the United States (often perpetrated by groups such as the reborn Ku Klux Klan, founded in the Reconstruction South), and discriminatory laws such as grandfather clauses kept black Americans disenfranchised particularly in the South. Furthermore, discrimination extended to state legislation that “allocated vastly unequal financial support” for black and white schools. In addition to this, county officials sometimes redistributed resources earmarked for blacks to white schools, further undermining educational opportunities.[25] In response to de jure racism, protest and lobbyist groups emerged, most notably, the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) in 1909.

This time period is sometimes referred to as the nadir of American race relations because racism, segregation, racial discrimination, and expressions of white supremacy all increased. So did anti-black violence, including race riots such as the Atlanta Race Riot of 1906 and the Tulsa race riot of 1921.

In addition, racism which had been viewed primarily as a problem in the Southern states, burst onto the national consciousness following the Great Migration, the relocation of millions of African Americans from their roots in the Southern states to the industrial centers of the North after World War I, particularly in cities such as Boston, Chicago, and New York (Harlem). Within Chicago, for example, between 1910 and 1970, the percentage of African-Americans leapt from 2.0 percent to 32.7 percent.[26] The demographic patterns of black migrants and external economic conditions are largely studied stimulants regarding the Great Migration.[27] For example, migrating blacks (between 1910 and 1920) were more likely to be literate than blacks that remained in the South. Known economic push factors played a role in migration, such as the emergence of a split labor market and agricultural distress from the boll weevil destruction of the cotton economy.[28]

Southern migrants were often treated in accordance with pre-existing racial stratification. The rapid influx of blacks disturbed the racial balance within cities, exacerbating hostility between both black and white Northerners. Stereotypic schemas of Southern blacks were used to attribute issues in urban areas, such as crime and disease, to the presence of African-Americans. Overall, African-Americans in Northern cities experienced systemic discrimination in a plethora of aspects of life. Within employment, economic opportunities for blacks were routed to the lowest-status and restrictive in potential mobility . Within the housing market, stronger discriminatory measures were used in correlation to the influx, resulting in a mix of “targeted violence, restrictive covenants, redlining and racial steering”[29]

Throughout this period, racial tensions exploded, most violently in Chicago, and lynchingsmob-directed hangings, usually racially motivatedincreased dramatically in the 1920s.

The Jim Crow Laws were state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965. They mandated “separate but equal” status for black Americans. In reality, this led to treatment and accommodations that were almost always inferior to those provided to white Americans. The most important laws required that public schools, public places and public transportation, like trains and buses, have separate facilities for whites and blacks. State-sponsored school segregation was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of the United States in 1954 in Brown v. Board of Education. One of the first federal court cases to challenge segregation in schools was Mendez v. Westminster in 1946.

In response to heightening discrimination and violence, non-violent acts of protest began to occur. For example, in February 1960, in Greensboro, North Carolina, four young African-American college students entered a Woolworth store and sat down at the counter but were refused service. The men had learned about non-violent protest in college, and continued to sit peacefully as whites tormented them at the counter, pouring ketchup on their heads and burning them with cigarettes. After this, many sit-ins took place in order to non-violently protest against racism and inequality. Sit-ins continued throughout the South and spread to other areas. Eventually, after many sit-ins and other non-violent protests, including marches and boycotts, places began to agree to desegregate.[30][full citation needed]

The 16th Street Baptist Church bombing marked a turning point during the Civil Rights Era, by attracting national attention. On Sunday, September 15, 1963 with a stack of dynamite hidden on an outside staircase, Ku Klux Klansmen destroyed one side of the Birmingham church. The bomb exploded in proximity to twenty-six children who were preparing for choir practice in the basement assembly room. The explosion killed four black girls, Carole Robertson (14), Cynthia Wesley (14), Denise McNair (11) and Addie Mae Collins (14).[31][32]

With the bombing occurring only a couple of weeks after Martin Luther King Jr.’s March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, it became an integral aspect of transformed perceptions of conditions for blacks in America. It influenced the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965 which overruled remaining Jim Crow laws. Nonetheless, neither had been implemented by the end of the 1960s as civil rights leaders continued to strive for political and social freedom. Many U.S. states banned interracial marriage. In 1967, Mildred Loving, a black woman, and Richard Loving, a white man, were sentenced to a year in prison in Virginia for marrying each other.[33] Their marriage violated the state’s anti-miscegenation statute, the Racial Integrity Act of 1924, which prohibited marriage between people classified as white and people classified as “colored” (persons of African or Native American ancestry).[34] In the Loving v. Virginia case in 1967, the Supreme Court invalidated laws prohibiting interracial marriage in the U.S.[35]

Segregation continued even after the demise of the Jim Crow laws. Data on house prices and attitudes toward integration from suggest that in the mid-20th century, segregation was a product of collective actions taken by whites to exclude blacks from their neighborhoods.[36] Segregation also took the form of redlining, the practice of denying or increasing the cost of services, such as banking, insurance, access to jobs,[37] access to health care,[38] or even supermarkets[39] to residents in certain, often racially determined,[40] areas. Although in the United States informal discrimination and segregation have always existed, redlining began with the National Housing Act of 1934, which established the Federal Housing Administration (FHA). The practice was fought first through passage of the Fair Housing Act of 1968 (which prevents redlining when the criteria for redlining are based on race, religion, gender, familial status, disability, or ethnic origin), and later through the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977, which requires banks to apply the same lending criteria in all communities.[41] Although redlining is illegal some argue that it continues to exist in other forms.

While substantial gains were made in the succeeding decades through middle class advancement and public employment, black poverty and lack of education[42] deepened in the context of de-industrialization.[43] Prejudice, discrimination, and institutional racism (see below) continue to affect African Americans. Despite gains made after the 16th Street Baptist Church bombing, violence against black churches has also continued fires set to churches around the South in the 1990s,[44] for example, and the Charleston church shooting of 2015, when nine people were shot and killed.[45]

From 1981 to 1997, the United States Department of Agriculture discriminated against tens of thousands of black American farmers, denying loans that were provided to white farmers in similar circumstances. The discrimination was the subject of the Pigford v. Glickman lawsuit brought by members of the National Black Farmers Association, which resulted in two settlement agreements of $1.25 billion in 1999 and of $1.15 billion in 2009.[46]

It is argued[by whom?] that there exists a color blindness or an “understanding that cultural differences rooted in racial identities are irrelevant for peoples’ prospects and their overall well-being”.[47] Yet, one counter-example to this claim is that employer interviews reveal reluctance from both black and white employers to employ “urban young males who exhibit lower-class behavioral styles”, highlighting the existence of embedded socio-economic preconceptions.[48]

Furthermore, many cite the United States presidential election, 2008 as a step forward in race relations: White Americans played a role in electing Barack Obama, the country’s first black president.[49] In fact, Obama received a greater percentage of the white vote (43%),[50] than did the previous Democratic candidate, John Kerry (41%).[51] Racial divisions persisted throughout the election; wide margins of Black voters gave Obama an edge during the presidential primary, where 8 out of 10 African-Americans voted for him in the primaries, and an MSNBC poll found that race was a key factor in whether a candidate was perceived as being ready for office. In South Carolina, for instance,”Whites were far likelier to name Clinton than Obama as being most qualified to be commander in chief, likeliest to unite the country and most apt to capture the White House in November. Blacks named Obama over Clinton by even stronger margins two- and three-to one in all three areas.”[52]

Sociologist Russ Long stated in 2013 that there is now a more subtle racism that associates a specific race with a specific characteristic.[53] In a 1993 study conducted by Katz and Braly, it was presented that “blacks and whites hold a variety of stereotypes towards each other, often negative.”[54] The Katz and Braley study also found that African-Americans and Whites view the traits that they identify each other with as threatening, interracial communication between the two is likely to be “hesitant, reserved, and concealing.”[54] Interracial communication is guided by stereotypes; stereotypes are transferred into personality and character traits which lead to have an effect on communication. Multiple factors go into how stereotypes are established, such as age and the setting in which they are being applied.[54] For example, in a study done by the Entman-Rojecki Index of Race and Media in 2014, 89% of black women in movies are shown swearing and acting in offensive behavior while only 17% of white women are portrayed in this manner.[55]

The Naturalization Act of 1790 made Asians ineligible for citizenship, with citizenship limited to whites only.[56]

Asian Americans, including those of East Asian, Southeast Asian, and South Asian descent, have experienced racism since the first major groups of Chinese immigrants arrived in America. First-generation immigrants, children of immigrants, and Asians adopted by non-Asian families have all been impacted.[57]

In the 19th century, America was undergoing rapid industrialization, leading to labor shortages in the mining and rail industries. Chinese immigrant labor was often used to fill this gap, most notably with the construction of the First Transcontinental Railroad, leading to large-scale Chinese immigration.[57] These Chinese immigrants were despised because they took the jobs of whites for cheaper pay, and the phrase Yellow Peril, which predicted the demise of Western “civilization” as a result of Chinese immigrants, gained popularity.[58] This discrimination apexed with the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act, which banned Chinese immigration to the United States. This was the first time that a law was passed to exclude a major group from the nation that was based on ethnicity and class.[57]

Local discriminatory laws were also enacted to stifle Chinese business and job opportunities; for example, in the 1886 Supreme Court case of Yick Wo v. Hopkins, a San Francisco city ordinance requiring permits for laundries (which were mostly Chinese-owned) was struck down, as it was clear the law solely targeted Chinese Americans. When the law was in effect, the city issued permits to virtually all non-Chinese permit applicants, while only granting one permit out of two hundred applications from Chinese laundry owners. When the Chinese laundries continued to operate, the city tried to fine the owners. In 1913, California, home to many Chinese immigrants, enacted an Alien Land Law, which significantly restricted land ownership by Asian immigrants, and extended it in 1920, ultimately banning virtually all land ownership by Asians.[59]

In 1907, Japanese immigrants, which were unaffected by the Exclusion Act, began to enter the United States, filling labor shortages that were once filled by Chinese workers. This influx also led to discrimination and was stymied when President Theodore Roosevelt restricted Japanese immigration. Later, Japanese immigration was closed when Japan entered into the Gentlemen’s Agreement of 1907 to stop issuing passports to Japanese workers intending to move to the U.S.[60]

During World War II, the Republic of China was an ally of the United States, and the federal government praised the resistance of the Chinese against Japan in the Second Sino-Japanese War, attempting to reduce anti-Chinese sentiment. In 1943, the Magnuson Act was passed by Congress, repealing the Chinese Exclusion Act and reopening Chinese immigration. However, at the time, the United States was actively fighting the Empire of Japan, which was a member of the Axis powers. Anti-Japanese racism, which spiked after the attack on Pearl Harbor, was tacitly encouraged by the government, which used slurs such as “Jap” in propaganda posters and even interned Japanese Americans, citing possible security threats. This prejudice continued for some time after the war had concluded.

Prior to 1965, Indian immigration to the U.S. was small and isolated, with fewer than fifty thousand Indian immigrants in the country. The Bellingham riots in Bellingham, Washington on September 5, 1907 epitomized the low tolerance in the U.S. for Indians and Hindus. In the 1923 case, United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind, the Supreme Court ruled that high caste Hindus were not “white persons” and were therefore racially ineligible for naturalized citizenship.[61] The Court argued that the racial difference between Indians and whites was so great that the “great body of our people” would reject assimilation with Indians.[61] It was after the LuceCeller Act of 1946 that a quota of 100 Indians per year could immigrate to the U.S. and become citizens.[62]

The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 dramatically opened entry to the U.S. to immigrants other than traditional Northern European and Germanic groups, and as a result would significantly alter the demographic mix in the U.S.[63] On the U.S. immigration laws prior to 1965, sociologist Stephen Klineberg states: “The law was just unbelievable in its clarity of racism. It declared that Northern Europeans are a superior subspecies of the white race.”[63] In 1990, Asian immigration was encouraged when nonimmigrant temporary working visas were given to help with the shortage of skilled labor within the United States.[57]

In modern times, Asians have been perceived as a “model minority”. They are seen as more educated and successful, and are stereotyped as intelligent and hard-working, but socially inept.[64] Asians may experience expectations of natural intelligence and excellence from whites as well as other minorities.[59][65] This has led to discrimination in the workplace, as Asian Americans may face unreasonable expectations because of the “model minority” stereotype. In 2000, out of 1,218 adult Asian Americans, 92 percent of those who experienced personal discrimination believed that the unfair treatment was due to their ethnicity.[64]

Asian American stereotypes can also obstruct career paths; because Asians are seen as better skilled in engineering, computing, and mathematics, they are often encouraged to pursue technical careers. They are also discouraged from pursuing non-technical occupations or executive occupations requiring more social interaction, since Asians are expected to have poor social skills. In the 2000 study, forty percent of those surveyed who experienced discrimination believed that they had lost hiring or promotion opportunities. In 2007, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission reported that Asians make up 10 percent of professional jobs, while 3.7 percent of them held executive, senior level, or manager positions.[64]

Other forms of discrimination include racial profiling and hate crimes. Research shows that discrimination has led to more use of informal mental health services by Asian Americans.[66] Asian Americans who feel discriminated against also tend to smoke more.[67]

Various European American immigrant groups have been subject to discrimination either on the basis of their immigrant status (known as “Nativism”) or on the basis of their ethnicities (country of origin).

In the 19th century, this was particularly true of anti-Irish prejudice, which was partly anti-Catholic sentiment, partly anti-Irish as an ethnicity. This was especially true for Irish Catholics who immigrated to the U.S. in the mid-19th century; the large number of Irish (both Catholic and Protestant) who settled in America in the 18th century had largely (but not entirely) escaped such discrimination and eventually blended into the American white population. During the 1830s in the U.S., riots for control of job sites broke out in rural areas among rival labour teams from different parts of Ireland, and between Irish and local American work teams competing for construction jobs.[68]

The Native American Party, commonly called the Know Nothing movement was a political party, whose membership was limited to Protestant men, that operated on a national basis during the mid-1850s and sought to limit the influence of Irish Catholics and other immigrants, thus reflecting nativism and anti-Catholic sentiment. There was widespread anti-Irish job discrimination in the United States and “No Irish need apply” signs were common.[69][70][71]

The second era Ku Klux Klan was a very large nationwide organization in the 1920s, consisting of between four to six million members (15% of the nation’s eligible population) that especially opposed Catholics.[72] Anti-Catholic sentiment, which commenced in North America with the first Pilgrim and Puritan settlers in New England in the early 17th century, remained evident in the U.S. up to the presidential campaign of John F. Kennedy, who went on to become the first Catholic (and first non-Protestant) U.S. president in 1961.[73]

The 20th century saw discrimination against immigrants from southern and eastern Europe (notably Italian Americans and Polish Americans), partly from anti-Catholic sentiment (as well as discrimination against Irish-Americans), and partly from Nordicism, which considered all non-Germanic, non-Scandinavian, or non-British immigrants as racially inferior.[citation needed]

Nordicism led to the reduction in Southern European, along with Slavic Eastern European and Russian immigrants in the National Origins Formula of the Emergency Quota Act of 1921 and the Immigration Act of 1924, whose goal was to maintain the status quo distribution of ethnicity by limiting immigration in proportion to existing populations. This reduced the inflow from the average prior to 1921 of 176,983 from northern, central and western Europe, and 685,531 for other countries, principally Southern and Russia, to a 1924 level of 140,999 for northern, central and western Europe, and 21,847 for other countries, principally Southern and Russia (from a 1:3.9 ratio to a 6.4:1 ratio).[citation needed]

There was also discrimination against German Americans and Italian Americans due to Germany and Italy being enemy countries during World War I (Germany) and World War II (Germany and Italy). This resulted in a sharp decrease in German-American ethnic identity and a sharp decrease in the use of German in the United States following WWI, which had hitherto been significant, and to German American internment and Italian American internment during WWII; see also World War I anti-German sentiment.

Beginning in World War I, German Americans were sometimes accused of having political allegiances to Germany, and thus not to the United States.[75] The Justice Department attempted to prepare a list of all German aliens, counting approximately 480,000 of them, more than 4,000 of whom were imprisoned in 191718. The allegations included spying for Germany, or endorsing the German war effort.[76] Thousands were forced to buy war bonds to show their loyalty.[77] The Red Cross barred individuals with German last names from joining in fear of sabotage. One person was killed by a mob; in Collinsville, Illinois, German-born Robert Prager was dragged from jail as a suspected spy and lynched.[78] Questions of German American loyalty increased due to events like the German bombing of Black Tom island[79] and the U.S. entering World War I, many German Americans were arrested for refusing allegiance to the U.S.[80] War hysteria led to the removal of German names in public, names of things such as streets,[81] and businesses.[82] Schools also began to eliminate or discourage the teaching of the German language.[83] Years later during the Second World War, German Americans were once again the victims of war hysteria discrimination. Following its entry into the Second World War, the US Government interned at least 11,000 American citizens of German ancestry. The last to be released, a German-American, remained imprisoned until 1948 at Ellis Island,[84] three and a half years after the cessation of hostilities against Germany.

Specific European-American ethnicities significantly diminished as a political issue in the 1930s, being replaced by a bi-racialism of black/white, as described and predicted by Lothrop Stoddard, due to numerous causes. The National Origins Formula significantly reduced inflows of non-Nordic ethnicities; the Great Migration (of African-Americans out of the South) displaced anti-white immigrant racism with anti-black racism; and the Great Depression brought economic concerns to the fore.[citation needed]

Americans of Latin American ancestry (often categorized as “Hispanic”) come from a wide variety of racial and ethnic backgrounds. Latinos are not all distinguishable as a racial minority.

After the MexicanAmerican War (18461848), the U.S. annexed much of the current Southwestern region from Mexico. Mexicans residing in that territory found themselves subject to discrimination. It is estimated that at least 597 Mexicans were lynched between 1848 and 1928 (this is a conservative estimate due to lack of records in many reported lynchings). Mexicans were lynched at a rate of 27.4 per 100,000 of population between 1880 and 1930. This statistic is second only to that of the African American community during the same period, which suffered an average of 37.1 per 100,000 of population.[85] Between 1848 and 1879, Mexicans were lynched at an unprecedented rate of 473 per 100,000 of population.[86]

During The Great Depression, the U.S. government sponsored a Mexican Repatriation program which was intended to encourage Mexican immigrants to voluntarily return to Mexico, however, many were forcibly removed against their will. In total, up to one million persons of Mexican ancestry were deported, approximately 60 percent of those individuals were actually U.S. citizens.

The Zoot Suit Riots were vivid incidents of racial violence against Latinos (e.g., Mexican-Americans) in Los Angeles in 1943. Naval servicemen stationed in a Latino neighborhood conflicted with youth in the dense neighborhood. Frequent confrontations between small groups and individuals had intensified into several days of non-stop rioting. Large mobs of servicemen would enter civilian quarters looking to attack Mexican American youths, some of whom were wearing zoot suits, a distinctive exaggerated fashion popular among that group.[87] The disturbances continued unchecked, and even assisted, by the local police for several days before base commanders declared downtown Los Angeles and Mexican American neighborhoods off-limits to servicemen.[88]

Many public institutions, businesses, and homeowners associations had official policies to exclude Mexican Americans. School children of Mexican American descent were subject to racial segregation in the public school system. In many counties, Mexican Americans were excluded from serving as jurors in court cases, especially in those that involved a Mexican American defendant. In many areas across the Southwest, they lived in separate residential areas, due to laws and real estate company policies.[89][90][91][92]

During the 1960s, Mexican American youth formed the Chicano Civil Rights Movement.

People of Middle Eastern and South Asian descent historically occupied an ambiguous racial status in the United States. Middle Eastern and South Asian immigrants were among those who sued in the late 19th and early 20th century to determine whether they were “white” immigrants as required by naturalization law. By 1923, courts had vindicated a “common-knowledge” standard, concluding that “scientific evidence”, including the notion of a “Caucasian race” including Middle Easterners and many South Asians, was incoherent. Legal scholar John Tehranian argues that in reality this was a “performance-based” standard, relating to religious practices, education, intermarriage and a community’s role in the United States.[94]

Racism against Arab Americans[95] and racialized Islamophobia against Muslims has risen concomitantly with tensions between the American government and the Islamic world.[96] Following the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States, discrimination and racialized violence has markedly increased against Arab Americans and many other religious and cultural groups.[97] Scholars, including Sunaina Maira and Evelyn Alsultany, argue that in the post-September 11 climate, Muslim Americans have been racialized within American society, although the markers of this racialization are cultural, political, and religious rather than phenotypic.[98][99]

Arab Americans in particular were most demonized which led to hatred towards Middle Easterners living in the United States and elsewhere in the Western world.[100][101] There have been attacks against Arabs not only on the basis of their religion (Islam), but also on the basis of their ethnicity; numerous Christian Arabs have been attacked based on their appearances.[102] In addition, other Middle Eastern peoples (Iranians, Assyrians, Armenians, Jews, Turks, Yezidis, Kurds, etc.) who are mistaken for Arabs because of perceived similarities in appearance have been collateral victims of anti-Arabism.

Non-Arab and non-Muslim Middle Eastern people, as well as South Asians of different ethnic/religious backgrounds (Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs) have been stereotyped as “Arabs”. The case of Balbir Singh Sodhi, a Sikh who was murdered at a Phoenix gas station by a white supremacist for “looking like an Arab terrorist” (because of the turban that is a requirement of Sikhism), as well as that of Hindus being attacked for “being Muslims” have achieved prominence and criticism following the September 11 attacks.[103][104]

Those of Middle Eastern descent who are in the United States military sometimes face racism from fellow soldiers. Army Spc Zachari Klawonn endured numerous instances of racism during his enlistment at Fort Hood, Texas. During his basic training he was made to put cloth around his head and play the role of terrorist. His fellow soldiers had to take him down to the ground and draw guns on him. He was also called things such as “raghead”, “sand monkey”, and “Zachari bin Laden”.[105][106]

According to a 2004 study, although official parameters encompass Arabs as part of the White American racial category, many Arab Americans from places other than the Levant feel they are not white and are not perceived as white by American society.[107]

The November 1979 Iranian hostage crisis of the U.S. embassy in Tehran precipitated a wave of anti-Iranian sentiment in the United States, directed both against the new Islamic regime and Iranian nationals and immigrants. Even though such sentiments gradually declined after the release of the hostages at the start of 1981, they sometimes flare up. In response, some Iranian immigrants to the U.S. have distanced themselves from their nationality and instead identify primarily on the basis of their ethnic or religious affiliations.[108]

Since the 1980s and especially since the 1990s, it has been argued, Hollywood’s depiction of Iranians has gradually shown signs of vilifying Iranians.[109] Hollywood network productions such as 24,[110]John Doe, On Wings of Eagles (1986),[111]Escape from Iran: The Canadian Caper (1981),[112] and JAG almost regularly host Persian speaking villains in their storyline.

Antisemitism has also played a role in the United States. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, hundreds of thousands of ethnic Jews were escaping the pogroms in Europe. They boarded boats from ports on the Baltic Sea and in Northern Germany, and largely arrived at Ellis Island, New York.[113]

It is suggested by Leo Rosten, in his book The Joys of Yiddish, that as soon as they left the boat, they were subject to racism from the port immigration authorities. The derogatory term kike was adopted when referring to Jews (because they often could not write so they may have signed their immigration papers with circles or kikel in Yiddish).[114] Efforts were also made by the Asiatic Exclusion League to bar Jewish immigrants (along with other Middle Eastern ethnic groups, like Arabs, Assyrians, and Armenians) from naturalization, but they (along with Assyrians and Armenians) were nevertheless granted US citizenship, despite being classified as Asian.[115]

From the 1910s, the Southern Jewish communities were attacked by the Ku Klux Klan, who objected to Jewish immigration, and often used “The Jewish Banker” in their propaganda. In 1915, Leo Frank was lynched in Georgia after being convicted of rape and sentenced to death (his punishment was commuted to life imprisonment).[116] This event was a catalyst in the re-formation of the new Ku Klux Klan.[117]

The events in Nazi Germany also attracted attention from the United States. Jewish lobbying for intervention in Europe drew opposition from the isolationists, amongst whom was Father Charles Coughlin, a well known radio priest, who was known to be critical of Jews, believing that they were leading the United States into the war.[118] He preached in weekly, overtly anti-Semitic sermons and, from 1936, began publication of a newspaper, Social Justice, in which he printed anti-Semitic accusations such as The Protocols of the Elders of Zion.[119]

A number of Jewish organizations, Christian organizations, Muslim organizations, and academics consider the Nation of Islam to be anti-Semitic. Specifically, they claim that the Nation of Islam has engaged in revisionist and antisemitic interpretations of the Holocaust and exaggerates the role of Jews in the African slave trade.[120] The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) alleged that the NOI’s Health Minister, Dr. Abdul Alim Muhammad, accused Jewish doctors of injecting blacks with the AIDS virus,[121] an allegation that Muhammad and The Washington Post have refuted.[122]

Although Jews are often perceived as white in the American mainstream, the relationship of Jews to whiteness remains complex, with some preferring not to identify as white.[123][124][125][126] Prominent activist and rabbi Michael Lerner argues, in a 1993 Village Voice article, that “in America, to be ‘white’ means to be the beneficiary of the past 500 years of European exploration and exploitation of the rest of the world” and that “Jews can only be deemed white if there is massive amnesia on the part of non-Jews about the monumental history of anti-Semitism”.[127]African-American activist Cornel West, in an interview with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, has explained:

Even if some Jews do believe that they’re white, I think that they’ve been duped. I think that antisemitism has proven itself to be a powerful force in nearly every post of Western civilization where Christianity has a presence. And so even as a Christian, I say continually to my Jewish brothers and sisters: don’t believe the hype about your full scale assimilation and integration into the mainstream. It only takes an event or two for a certain kind of anti-Jewish, antisemitic sensibility to surface in places that you would be surprised. But I’m just thoroughly convinced that America is not the promised land for Jewish brothers and sisters. A lot of Jewish brothers say, “No, that’s not true. We finally…” Yeahthey said that in Alexandria. You said that in Weimar Germany.[128]

In recent years some scholars have advanced the concept of New antisemitism, coming simultaneously from the Far Left, the far right, and radical Islam, which tends to focus on opposition to the creation of a Jewish homeland in the State of Israel, and argue that the language of Anti-Zionism and criticism of Israel are used to attack Jews more broadly. In this view, the proponents of the new concept believe that criticisms of Israel and Zionism are often disproportionate in degree and unique in kind, and attribute this to antisemitism.[129]

Yehuda Bauer, Professor of Holocaust Studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, has argued that the concept of a “new antisemitism” is essentially false since it is in fact an alternative form of the old antisemitism of previous decades, which he believes remains latent at times but recurs whenever it is triggered. In his view, the current trigger is the Israeli situation; if a compromise making ground in the Arab-Israeli peace process were achieved, he believes that antisemitism would decline but not disappear.

Noted critics of Israel, such as Noam Chomsky and Norman Finkelstein, question the extent of new antisemitism in the United States. Chomsky has written in his work Necessary Illusions that the Anti-Defamation League casts any question of pro-Israeli policy as antisemitism, conflating and muddling issues as even Zionists receive the allegation.[130] Finkelstein has stated that supposed “new antisemitism” is a preposterous concept advanced by the ADL to combat critics of Israeli policy.[131]

The Roma population in America has blended more-or-less seamlessly into the rest of society.[citation needed] In the U.S., the term “Gypsy” has come to be associated with a trade, profession, or lifestyle more than with the Romani ethnic/racial group.[citation needed] Some Americans, especially those self-employed in the fortune-telling and psychic reading business,[132] use the term “Gypsy” to describe themselves or their enterprise, despite having no ties to the Roma people. This can be chalked up to misperception and ignorance regarding the term rather than any bigotry or even anti-ziganism.[133][dubious discuss]

Native Americans, who have lived on the North American continent for at least 10,000 years,[134] had an enormously complex impact on American history and racial relations. During the colonial and independent periods, a long series of conflicts were waged, often with the objective of obtaining resources of Native Americans. Through wars, forced displacement (such as in the Trail of Tears), and the imposition of treaties, land was taken. The loss of land often resulted in hardships for Native Americans. In the early 18th century, the English had enslaved nearly 800 Choctaws.[135] After the creation of the United States, the idea of Indian removal gained momentum. However, some Native Americans chose or were allowed to remain and avoided removal whereafter they were subjected to official racism. The Choctaws in Mississippi described their situation in 1849, “we have had our habitations torn down and burned, our fences destroyed, cattle turned into our fields and we ourselves have been scourged, manacled, fettered and otherwise personally abused, until by such treatment some of our best men have died.”[136] Joseph B. Cobb, who moved to Mississippi from Georgia, described Choctaws as having “no nobility or virtue at all,” and in some respect he found blacks, especially native Africans, more interesting and admirable, the red man’s superior in every way. The Choctaw and Chickasaw, the tribes he knew best, were beneath contempt, that is, even worse than black slaves.[137] Ideological expansionist justification (Manifest Destiny) included stereotyped perceptions of all Native Americans as “merciless Indian savages” (as described in the United States Declaration of Independence) despite successful American efforts at civilization as proven with the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Creek, and Choctaw. In 1861, residents of Mankato, Minnesota, formed the Knights of the Forest, with a goal of ‘eliminating all Indians from Minnesota.’ An egregious attempt occurred with the California gold rush, the first two years of which saw the deaths of thousands of Native Americans. Under Mexican rule in California, Indians were subjected to de facto enslavement under a system of peonage by the white elite. While in 1850, California formally entered the Union as a free state, with respect to the issue of slavery, the practice of Indian indentured servitude was not outlawed by the California Legislature until 1863.[138]

During the period surrounding the 1890 Wounded Knee Massacre, author L. Frank Baum wrote two editorials about Native Americans. Five days after the killing of the Lakota Sioux holy man, Sitting Bull, Baum wrote, “The proud spirit of the original owners of these vast prairies inherited through centuries of fierce and bloody wars for their possession, lingered last in the bosom of Sitting Bull. With his fall the nobility of the Redskin is extinguished, and what few are left are a pack of whining curs who lick the hand that smites them. The Whites, by law of conquest, by justice of civilization, are masters of the American continent, and the best safety of the frontier settlements will be secured by the total annihilation of the few remaining Indians. Why not annihilation? Their glory has fled, their spirit broken, their manhood effaced; better that they die than live the miserable wretches that they are.”[139] Following the December 29, 1890, massacre, Baum wrote, “The Pioneer has before declared that our only safety depends upon the total extirmination [sic] of the Indians. Having wronged them for centuries we had better, in order to protect our civilization, follow it up by one more wrong and wipe these untamed and untamable creatures from the face of the earth. In this lies safety for our settlers and the soldiers who are under incompetent commands. Otherwise, we may expect future years to be as full of trouble with the redskins as those have been in the past.”[139][140]

Military and civil resistance by Native Americans has been a constant feature of American history. So too have a variety of debates around issues of sovereignty, the upholding of treaty provisions, and the civil rights of Native Americans under U.S. law.

Once their territories were incorporated into the United States, surviving Native Americans were denied equality before the law and often treated as wards of the state.[141]

Many Native Americans were moved to reservationsconstituting 4% of U.S. territory. In a number of cases treaties signed with Native Americans were violated. Tens of thousands of American Indians and Alaska Natives were forced to attend a residential school system which sought to reeducate them in white settler American values, culture and economy.[142][143]

Further dispossession of various kinds continues into the present, although these current dispossessions, especially in terms of land, rarely make major news headlines in the country (e.g., the Lenape people’s recent fiscal troubles and subsequent land grab by the State of New Jersey), and sometimes even fail to make it to headlines in the localities in which they occur. Through concessions for industries such as oil, mining and timber and through division of land from the Allotment Act forward, these concessions have raised problems of consent, exploitation of low royalty rates, environmental injustice, and gross mismanagement of funds held in trust, resulting in the loss of $1040 billion.[144]

The Worldwatch Institute notes that 317 reservations are threatened by environmental hazards, while Western Shoshone land has been subjected to more than 1,000 nuclear explosions.[145]

The government appointed agents, like Benjamin Hawkins, to live among the Native Americans and to teach them, through example and instruction, how to live like whites.[146] America’s first president, George Washington, formulated a policy to encourage the “civilizing” process.[147] Washington had a six-point plan for civilization which included:

1. impartial justice toward Native Americans 2. regulated buying of Native American lands 3. promotion of commerce 4. promotion of experiments to civilize or improve Native American society 5. presidential authority to give presents 6. punishing those who violated Native American rights.[148]

The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U.S. citizenship to all Native Americans. Prior to the passage of the act, nearly two-thirds of Native Americans were already U.S. citizens.[149] The earliest recorded date of Native Americans becoming U.S. citizens was in 1831 when the Mississippi Choctaw became citizens after the United States Legislature ratified the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek. Under article XIV of that treaty, any Choctaw who elected not to move to Native American Territory could become an American citizen when he registered and if he stayed on designated lands for five years after treaty ratification. Citizenship could also be obtained by:

1. Treaty Provision (as with the Mississippi Choctaw) 2. Allotment under the Act of February 8, 1887 3. Issuance of Patent in Fee Simple 4. Adopting Habits of Civilized Life 5. Minor Children 6. Citizenship by Birth 7. Becoming Soldiers and Sailors in the U.S. Armed Forces 8. Marriage 9. Special Act of Congress.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That all noncitizen Native Americans born within the territorial limits of the United States be, and they are hereby, declared to be citizens of the United States: Provided, That the granting of such citizenship shall not in any manner impair or otherwise affect the right of any Native American to tribal or other property.

Indian Citizenship Act of 1924

While formal equality has been legally recognized, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders remain among the most economically disadvantaged groups in the country, and according to National mental health studies, American Indians as a group tend to suffer from high levels of alcoholism, depression and suicide.[150]

Using The Schedule of Racist Events (SRE), an 18-item self-report inventory that assesses the frequency of racist discrimination, Hope Landrine and Elizabeth A. Klonoff found that racist discrimination is rampant in the lives of African Americans and is strongly related to psychiatric symptoms.[151] A study on racist events in the lives of African American women found that lifetime experiences of racism were positively related to lifetime history of both physical disease and frequency of recent common colds. These relationships were largely unaccounted for by other variables. Demographic variables such as income and education were not related to experiences of racism. The results suggest that racism can be detrimental to African American’s well being.[152] The physiological stress caused by racism has been documented in studies by Claude Steele, Joshua Aronson, and Steven Spencer on what they term “stereotype threat.”[153] Quite similarly, another example of the psychosocial consequences of discrimination have been observed in a study sampling Mexican-origin participants in Fresno, California. It was found that perceived discrimination is correlated with depressive symptoms, especially for those less acculturated in the United States, like Mexican immigrants and migrants.[154]

Along the vein of somatic responses to discrimination, Kennedy et al. found that both measures of collective disrespect were strongly correlated with black mortality (r = 0.53 to 0.56), as well as with white mortality (r = 0.48 to 0.54). These data suggest that racism, measured as an ecologic characteristic, is associated with higher mortality in both blacks and whites.[155] Some researchers also suggest that racial segregation may lead to disparities in health and mortality. Thomas LaVeist (1989; 1993) tested the hypothesis that segregation would aid in explaining race differences in infant mortality rates across cities. Analyzing 176 large and midsized cities, LaVeist found support for the hypothesis. Since LaVeist’s studies, segregation has received increased attention as a determinant of race disparities in mortality.[156] Studies have shown that mortality rates for male and female African Americans are lower in areas with lower levels of residential segregation. Mortality for male and female Whites was not associated in either direction with residential segregation.[157]

Researchers Sharon A. Jackson, Roger T. Anderson, Norman J. Johnson and Paul D. Sorlie found that, after adjustment for family income, mortality risk increased with increasing minority residential segregation among Blacks aged 25 to 44 years and non-Blacks aged 45 to 64 years. In most age/race/gender groups, the highest and lowest mortality risks occurred in the highest and lowest categories of residential segregation, respectively. These results suggest that minority residential segregation may influence mortality risk and underscore the traditional emphasis on the social underpinnings of disease and death.[158] Rates of heart disease among African Americans are associated with the segregation patterns in the neighborhoods where they live (Fang et al. 1998). Stephanie A. Bond Huie writes that neighborhoods affect health and mortality outcomes primarily in an indirect fashion through environmental factors such as smoking, diet, exercise, stress, and access to health insurance and medical providers.[159] Moreover, segregation strongly influences premature mortality in the US.[160]

As early as 1866, the Civil Rights Act provided a remedy for intentional race discrimination in employment by private employers and state and local public employers. The Civil Rights Act of 1871 applies to public employment or employment involving state action prohibiting deprivation of rights secured by the federal constitution or federal laws through action under color of law. Title VII is the principal federal statute with regard to employment discrimination prohibiting unlawful employment discrimination by public and private employers, labor organizations, training programs and employment agencies based on race or color, religion, gender, and national origin. Title VII also prohibits retaliation against any person for opposing any practice forbidden by statute, or for making a charge, testifying, assisting, or participating in a proceeding under the statute. The Civil Rights Act of 1991 expanded the damages available in Title VII cases and granted Title VII plaintiffs the right to a jury trial. Title VII also provides that race and color discrimination against every race and color is prohibited.

Media

Popular culture (songs, theater) for European American audiences in the 19th century created and perpetuated negative stereotypes of African Americans. One key symbol of racism against African Americans was the use of blackface. Directly related to this was the institution of minstrelsy. Other stereotypes of African Americans included the fat, dark-skinned “mammy” and the irrational, hypersexual male “buck”.

In recent years increasing numbers of African-American activists have asserted that rap music videos commonly utilize scantily clothed African-American performers posing as thugs or pimps. The NAACP and the National Congress of Black Women also have called for the reform of images on videos and on television. Julian Bond said that in a segregated society, people get their impressions of other groups from what they see in videos and what they hear in music.[161][162][163][164]

In a similar vein, activists protested against the BET show, Hot Ghetto Mess, which satirizes the culture of working-class African-Americans. The protests resulted in the change of the television show name to We Got to Do Better.[161]

It is understood that representations of minorities in the media have the ability to reinforce or change stereotypes. For example, in one study, a collection of white subjects were primed by a comedy skit either showing a stereotypical or neutral portrayal of African-American characters. Participants were then required to read a vignette describing an incident of sexual violence, with the alleged offender either white or black, and assign a rating for perceived guilt. For those shown the stereotypical African-American character, there was a significantly higher guilt rating for black alleged offender in the subsequent vignette, in comparison to the other conditions.[165]

While schemas have an overt societal consequence, the strong development of them have lasting effect on recipients. Overall, it is found that strong in-group attitudes are correlated with academic and economic success. In a study analyzing the interaction of assimilation and racial-ethnic schemas for Hispanic youth found that strong schematic identities for Hispanic youth undermined academic achievement.[166]

Additional stereotypes attributed to minorities continue to influence societal interactions. For example, a 1993 Harvard Law Review article states that Asian-Americans are commonly viewed as submissive, as a combination of relative physical stature and Western comparisons of cultural attitudes. Furthermore, Asian-Americans are depicted as the model minority, unfair competitors, foreigners, and indistinguishable. These stereotypes can serve to dehumanize Asian-Americans and catalyze hostility and violence.[167]

Formal discrimination against minorities has been present throughout American history. Leland T. Saito, Associate Professor of Sociology and American Studies & Ethnicity at the University of Southern California, writes, “Political rights have been circumscribed by race, class and gender since the founding of the United States, when the right to vote was restricted to white men of property. Throughout the history of the United States race has been used by whites a category that has also shifted through time for legitimizing and creating difference and social, economic and political exclusion.”[168]

Within education, a survey of black students in sixteen majority white universities found that four of five African-Americans reported some form of racial discrimination. For example, in February 1988, the University of Michigan enforced a new anti discrimination code following the distribution of fliers saying blacks “don’t belong in classrooms, they belong hanging from trees”. Other forms of reported discrimination were refusal to sit next to black in lecture, ignored input in class settings, and informal segregation. While the penalties are imposed, the psychological consequences of formal discrimination can still manifest. Black students, for example, reported feelings of heightened isolation and suspicion. Furthermore, studies have shown that academic performance is stunted for black students with these feelings as a result of their campus race interactions.[169]

Minority racism is sometimes considered controversial because of theories of power in society. Some theories of racism insist that racism can only exist in the context of social power to impose it upon others.[170] Yet discrimination and racism between racially marginalized groups has been noted. For example, there has been ongoing violence between African American and Mexican American gangs, particularly in Southern California.[171][172][173][174] There have been reports of racially motivated attacks against Mexican Americans who have moved into neighborhoods occupied mostly by African Americans, and vice versa.[175][176] According to gang experts and law enforcement agents, a longstanding race war between the Mexican Mafia and the Black Guerilla Family, a rival African American prison gang, has generated such intense racial hatred among Mexican Mafia leaders, or shot callers, that they have issued a “green light” on all blacks. This amounts to a standing authorization for Latino gang members to prove their mettle by terrorizing or even murdering any blacks sighted in a neighborhood claimed by a gang loyal to the Mexican Mafia.[dead link][177] There have been several significant riots in California prisons where Mexican American inmates and African Americans have targeted each other particularly, based on racial reasons.[178][179]

There has also been noted conflict between recent immigrant groups and their established ethnic counterparts within the United States. Rapid growth in African and Caribbean immigrants has come into conflict with American blacks. Interaction and cooperation between black immigrants and American blacks are, ironically, debatable. One can argue that racial discrimination and cooperation is not ordinarily based on color of skin but more on shared common, cultural experiences, and beliefs.[180][181] Furthermore, conflict between Chinese immigrants and Japanese Americans are known to have occurred in the San Gabriel Valley of the Los Angeles area in the 1980s.[citation needed]

In a manner that defines interpersonal discrimination in the United States, Darryl Brown of the Virginia Law Review states that while “our society has established a consensus against blatant, intentional racism and in decades since Brown v Board of Education has developed a sizeable set of legal remedies to address it”, our legal system “ignores the possibility that ‘race’ is structural or interstitial, that it can be the root of injury even when not traceable to a specific intention or action”[182]

More here:

Racism in the United States – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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August 28, 2016   Posted in: Black Racism  Comments Closed

Black Racism – Discover the Networks

Racism, in its many varieties, has been part and parcel of the human condition since the dawn of time. One of those varieties is black racism, which, as it currently exists in the United States, is rooted in the notion that African Americans are justified in hating (or even harming) white people as a form of reprisal for the latter’s historical, and continuing, transgressions against blacks. By the left’s reckoning,however, this hatreddoes notmerit classification as racism;rather, even blacks who express the most vicious racial hatred imaginable whether in word or deed are viewed not as racists but as agents ofretributive justice against their white tormenters.

Among the notable leftists who share theperspective that blacks cannot be racists are the Reverend Joseph Lowery, film director Spike Lee, author Joel Kovel, lecturer/activist Paula Rothenberg, rap singer Sister Souljah, the anti-racist essayist Tim Wise, and scholar Coramae Richey Mann. Mann, for her part, contends that because blacks lack institutional power, it is definitionally impossible for [them] to be identified as racist.

Sociologist and economist Thomas Sowell addresses this notion that racism is an exclusively white trait:

A more tendentious definition of racism …emerged in the late twentieth centuryto exempt racial minorities themselves from the charge. Racism was now said to require power, which minorities do not have, so that even the most anti-white, anti-Jewish, or anti-Asian sentiments … were automatically exempt from the charge of racism. No such priviso thatpower was required for racism ever existed before. That this new and self-serving escape hatch remained largely unchallenged has been one index of the level of moral intimidation surrounding racial issues…. In the ordinary sense of the word, minorities of all colors have shown themselves capable of as vicious racism is anybody else, whether in or out of power. The hostility, boycotts, or violence of African ancestry people against people from India has been common from Kenya to South Africa, as well as in Jamaica and Guiana. Such behavior differs in no essential way from the behavior labeled ‘racism’ when it is the African-ancestry population being abused by people of European ancestry.

If one were to acceptthe notion that racism cannot exist without power to oppress, onewould also need tobelieve that a virtually impotent organization like the Ku Klux Klan is not racist clearly an untenable position. Held in contempt by most white Americans, the Klan today is virtually defunct. Close to bankruptcy, this group which once boasted millions of members and wielded significant political power, now has no established alliances with mainstream white leaders or organizations, and has no more than 4,000 members nationwide.No Klansmen can be found among newspaper editors, legislators, district judges, or the directors of major corporations. And contemporary Klan leaders are capable of attracting only a handful of white racists to their meetings.

A prominent exponent of black racism in recent decades has been Nation of Islam leaderLouis Farrakhan,who has a long, well-documented history of referring to whites and Jews as “devils,” “bloodsuckers,” vicious beasts, and the skunks of the planet.

Farrakhan protege Malik Zulu Shabazz, leader of the New Black Panther Party, commonly refers to blacks as “God’s chosen people” and shouts Black power! during his speeches. Even as he denounces what he perceives to be the scourge of white supremacy, Shabazz embraces his own philosophy of racial superiority– essentiallya mirror image of the worldview he ascribes to the legions of racist whites purportedlydotting the American landscape. Said Shabazz on one occasion: Mendel, the German scientist teaches us thatdarkgenes are dominant and light genes are recessive. Black Power!” At an April 2002 protest in Washington, DC, Shabazz thundered: “Kill every goddamn Zionist in Israel! Goddamn little babies, goddamn old ladies! Blow up Zionist supermarkets!”

Another high-profile black racist iscivil-rights activist Al Sharpton, who, in the late 1980s,knowingly abetted a 15-year-old black girl infalsely charging that a mysterious gang of white racists had abducted and gang-raped her. A few years after that, Sharpton helped foment some of the ugliest anti-Semitic riots in living memorywhen he falsely depicted a Brooklyn, New York car accident (in whicha 7-year-old black child had been killed) as a racially tinged homicide perpetrated by a Hasidic Jew. In 1995Sharpton orchestrated a grotesque (and ultimately deadly) boycott against a Jewish-owned clothing shopin Harlem, New York, where a throng of black picketers under the watchful, approving eye of Sharpton shriekedthat a cabal of greedy Jew bastards and white crackers had been mistreating them. And Sharpton once lavished an audience of students and professors at New Jersey’s Kean College withreferences to white “crackers” and “Greek homos”who, from a historical perspective, were still in the caves [of Europe] while we [black Africans] was building empires and developing philosophy and astrology and mathematics.

Charles Barron is a black nationalist andDemocraticcouncilman from Brooklyn, New York. A onetime member of the Black Panther Party, he makes no secret of his contempt for white people. In August 2002, while speaking before a crowd at the Millions for Reparations March in Washington, DC, Barron made the case for a Democrat-sponsored billmandating reparations for black slavery in the following terms: “I want to go up to the closest white person and say: ‘You can’t understand this, it’s a black thing’ and then slap him, just for my mental health.

The late black poet and professor Amiri Baraka asserted that blacks are justified in robbing or even killing whites, because the latter “already stole” everything from the former. “[The white man] owes you anything you want,” wrote Baraka, “even his life. All the stores will open if you say the magic words. The magic words are: Up against the wall mother f—er this is a stick up! Let’s get together and kill him my man.” In another poem, Baraka wrote: “Rape the white girls. Rape their fathers. Cut the mothers’ throats.” Claiming that blacks and whites could not possibly coexist in peace, Baraka once said, “We [blacks] must eliminate the white man before we can draw a free breath on this planet.” When a white woman asked Baraka what whites could do to help the black cause, he replied, “You can help by dying. You are a cancer. You can help the world’s people with your death.”

In addition to its contempt for white people, another facet of black racism is its intoleranceof opposing viewpoints. Black leftists routinely excoriate black conservativesas race traitors, house slaves, Oreos, Uncle Toms, and worse.

A case can also be made for the suggestion that black racism is manifest in the high black-on-white crime rates that currently exist in the United States.Each year, nearly 770,000 violent interracial crimes involving blacks and whites occur nationwide. In at least 85 percent of those cases, according to U.S. Justice Department figures, the perpetrators are black and the victims are white. Statistically, the average black is 39 times more likely to commit a violent crime against a white than vice versa, and 136 times more likely to rob a white person than vice versa. In his book The End of Racism, Dinesh DSouza writes that in one particular year approximately 100 black women were raped by white men in the United States; the corresponding number of white women raped by black men was over 20,000.

Black racism remains a dynamic phenomenon in the United States because African Americans have been told, ad nauseam by leftists in the civil-rights establishment, in the media, in the churches, in academia, and in the political world to reflexively blame white society for their every problem; toview themselves as the oppressed and powerless victims ofwhite society. Having listened for so long to these incessant depictions of the United States as a land of racial inequity, many black Americans have become angry, embittered racists themselves. As black columnist Michael Meyers once put it, they have zealously transform[ed] themselves into the apostles of their own delusions.

RESOURCES:

It’s Time to Call out Black Racism By Daniel Greenfield August 5, 2015

Black Racism: The Hate That Dare Not SpeakIts Name By Ying Ma November 1, 1998 America’s New Racists By Walter Williams June 22, 2011

Racism Is at the Root of Baltimores Riots By Daniel Greenfield May 4, 2015

Black Racism and The Jena Six By John Perazzo September 27, 2007

Hiding Black Interracial Crimes By Walter Williams December 26, 2007

What About Hate Crimes by Blacks? By Walter Williams August 22, 1999

The Racial Violence that Dare Not Speak Its Name By John T. Bennett August 30, 2011

No Whites Allowed By Eileen F. Toplansky October 12, 2015

Trayvon Martin Was Barack Obamas Son, and Kiki Gray Was Jumaane Williams Son, but Why Will No Politician Adopt Bailey ONeill? By Nicholax Stix March 19, 2013

Dead Souls of a Cultural Revolution By Patrick J. Buchanan August 22, 2013

Faces of Evil in a Violent Underclass By Bryce Buchanan August 26, 2013

The New York Times Knockout Game Denial By Colin Flaherty November 26, 2013

Black Mob Violence: New Denials… and New Violence By Colin Flaherty November 26, 2013

Aftermath of the Duke Lacrosse Rape Case By Roger Kimball November 24, 2013

SEE ALSO:

* Black Racists and the Jihad in America

* Black Anti-Semitism

Continued here:

Black Racism – Discover the Networks

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July 21, 2016   Posted in: Black Racism  Comments Closed

Black Racism | Fellowship of the Minds

150 years ago, Americans fought a bloody Civil War (1861-1865) over slavery, which ended in the abolition of slavery with the 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.

Nearly 50 years ago, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, a landmark piece of legislation that outlawed major forms of discrimination against racial, ethnic, national and religious minorities, and women, as well as ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools, the workplace, and public facilities.

In 2008, Barack Obama was voted as the first (half) black President of the United States of America, after being hailed by the media as the first post-racial President who would heal the racial divisions and wounds that have plagued this country.

In 2012, he was reelected to a second term despite having done nothing to improve the life circumstances of black Americans, other than consigningeven more of them to a life of dependency byaddingmillions more to food stamps rolls. Nor did he heal Americas racial wounds or mend racial divisions. On the contrary, with provocative remarks such as If I had a son, he would look like Trayvon, Obama actually worsened racial tensions, setting back Americas race relations by decades.

On August 28, 1963, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his famous speech, I Havea Dream, in which he said: I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character.

Sadly, half a century later, Dr. Kings dream remains an aspiration to be fulfilled. Too many black Americans and their allies on the Left are still relying on the color of their skin, scapegoating anyone who judges the content of their character with the noxious label of racist.

Many white and even some black Americans are sick of the Lefts reflexive, default-mode accusations of racism. According to a 2013 Rasmussen survey, more Americans view blacks instead of whites or Hispanics as racist. Even liberals (21%) see most black Americans as racist. Even Democrats (29%) see most black Americans as racist. Even black Americans (1 out of every 3!) think most blacks are racist. In fact more blacks (31%) think most blacks are racist than blacks (24%) who think most whites are racist.

This page contains links to the posts FOTM has published on the subject of race and racism.

~Eowyn

Obese black woman trashes store after her EBT card wasdenied, June 8, 2016.

U.S. white pre-school kids think they can grow up to beblacks, May 20, 2016.

Leftwing Lunacy: Trees & national parks areracist, May 20, 2016.

Towson University hosts presentation: white people are aplague, May 16, 2016.

Arab Spring in America: NAACP joins Soros-funded coalition for massive protests inD.C., April 6, 2016.

Black activist threatens riots if Trumpwins, April 3, 2016.

Black U. of West Georgia students advocate white genocide at Harvarddebate, March 16, 2016.

U.S. has 4 of worlds 50 most dangerouscities, Feb. 9, 2016.

Jada Pinkett Smith debates boycotting the Oscars, Jan. 17, 2016.

At a gas station somewhere in the Congo . .., Jan. 8, 2016.

78% increase in homicides in Baltimore since Freddie Grayriots, Jan. 3, 2015.

Aide of Chicago Mayor Rahm Emanuel attacked at shooting vigil, Dec. 31, 2015.

Will Smith Talks Racism I Live with Constant Prejudice But as Actors, We Have the Ultimate Power, Dec. 3, 2015.

Rev Jesse Jackson says Amazon, Costco needs more minorities, Dec. 3, 2015.

Obamas DOJ considers racist and anti-government Americans to be domesticterrorists, Oct. 18, 2015.

Mayor Emanuel says police officers are becoming fetal, Oct. 14, 2015.

Im not about to hire you if your name is Watermelondrea, Oct. 10, 2015.

#BlackLivesMatter is a War on Police leading to complete breakdown of socialorder, Sept. 8, 2015.

Inventor of Kwanzaa, now chair of African studies at Calif. university, is a convicted felon who torturedwomen, Sept. 5, 2015.

Elephants help another after it collapsed, while hundreds of U.S. college students watch woman getraped, Sept. 4, 2015.

Obamas America: Uniformed cop refused service at fast foodArbys, Sept. 4, 2015.

Former Marine asks why Blacks are given the power to rule and dominateU.S., Sept. 3, 2015.

Washington Post op/ed: Black votes should count 167% more thanyours, Sept. 2, 2015.

#BlackLivesMatter is not aboutracism, Sept. 1, 2015.

Northeastern University allegedly tells RAs that white men cant beoppressed, Aug. 15, 2015.

Taxpayers paid black comedian to deliver racist anti-white hate at federalagency, Aug. 14, 2015.

Insane Academe: Professor blames white people for herPMS, Aug. 7, 2016.

Obama to NAACP: America is still racist because ofslavery, July 27, 2015.

Was Michelle Obama texting during pledge ofallegiance?, (blackWashington Post reporter was the texter), July 14, 2015.

Black mob in Chicago attacks woman and children in car for beingwhite, July 13, 2015.

Rihanna and a video that should turn all mothers stomachs: The song that glorifies murder, torture, drug-taking, guns and racialstereotyping, July 8, 2015.

Black man arrested for posting racist flyers outside blackchurch, July 6, 2015.

Taxpayer-Funded Professor: Whiteness Is Terror, Confederate Flag RepresentsCapitalism, July 1, 2015.

Walmart says no to Confederate cake, but bakes an ISIS-flagcake, June 29, 2015.

Charleston police officer fired for posting pic of himself on Facebook wearing Confederate flag boxershorts, June 27, 2015.

War against the Confederacy: Did Obama sign an executive order outlawing confederate flag?, June 25, 2015.

Four students face charges of raping mentally disabled girl at North Miami SeniorHigh, June 27, 2015.

Race imposter Rachel Dolezal continues to insist shes black, June 24, 2015.

Language Apartheid: Only blacks can say nigger,June 23, 2015.

Professor says I wanted to be a special, different White person, June 23, 2015.

After Charleston church shooting, Republican strategist Karl Rove joins chorus calling for gun control, June 22, 2015.

Charleston church killer Dylann Roofs racist manifesto, June 20, 2015.

Rutgers professor: There are no good white people only less bad whitepeople, June 19, 2015.

NYPD seeking suicidal artist who admitted he bashed 4 Asian women in thenose, June 19, 2015.

Busted! President of Washington NAACP is white, June 13, 2015.

Students demand conservative-libertarian columnist be fired for racist, unsafe views, June 10, 2015.

NATIONWIDE crime spike after Ferguson-Baltimore riots, May 31, 2015.

State of anarchy in post-riot Baltimore: Homicides spike; police presence scarce; residentsfearful, May 28, 2015.

The newest liberal idiocy: Segregating 3rdgraders, May 26, 2015.

List of persons/groups paid by Soros to protest in Ferguson &Selma, May 20, 2015.

50 Baltimore Black teens beat 61 y.o. white man almost todeath, May 13, 2015.

Paging the #BlackLivesMatter crowd: 5 killed, 22 wounded in Chicago weekendshootings, May 4, 2015.

Freddie Grays death ruled a homicide. 6 Baltimore cops incustody, May 1, 2015.

Who is FreddieGray?, April 30, 2015.

Defenders of Baltimore RaceRiots, April 30, 2015.

Wayne Allyn Root on BlackAmerica, April 29, 2015.

Allen West: Baltimore is not an American failure. Baltimore is a DEMOCRATfailure, April 29, 2015.

A movie becomes real: Baltimore race riots understood mayors words as permission toPurge, April 28, 2015.

First American slave-owner was a Blackman, April 28, 2015.

Sup? Sapnin?, (on Baltimore race riots), April 28, 2015.

The Conversation We Need To Be Having About Race: I want to see a cop shoot a white unarmed teenager in theback, April 24, 2015.

Air Force veteran arrested for interfering with Black protesters defiling Americanflag, April 19, 2015.

Armed Black Panthers call for murder ofcops, March 19, 2015.

Ferguson in Chaos: 2 officersshot, March 12, 2015.

Planned Parenthood accepts donations earmarked for aborting blackbabies, March 4, 2015.

Billionaire George Soros spent $33MILLION bankrolling Ferguson demonstrators to create echo chamber and drive nationalprotests, March 4, 2015.

Black neurosurgeon Ben Carson enters 2016 presidential race, but is he the rightman?, March 3, 2015.

Facebook locks page of 12-year-old black boy who says Obama hates America, March 1, 2015.

Public university omits race from crime alerts to protect minority students feelings, Feb. 27, 2015.

Project Veritas Stings AlSharpton, Feb. 24, 2015.

Black teens storm into theater to steal 50 Shades ofGrey, Feb. 18, 2015.

Texas man spits on womans car, hurls racial insults during terrifying road rageincident, Feb. 18, 2015.

Are the Makers of the Selma MovieSatanists???, Feb. 11, 2015.

Southern Poverty Law Center Puts Dr. Ben Carson on Extremist List, Feb. 11, 2015.

Paging Al Sharpton: Three teenage boys pistol-whipped girl, 14, and then shot her dead inattack, Jan. 28, 2015.

Ferguson cop vindicated: DOJ wont filecharges, Jan. 23, 2015.

Chicago Blacks respond to Obamas 2015 State of theUnion, Jan. 22, 2015.

Now liberals want white business owners to be PC: A Hip-Hop Brunch Menu isProblematic, Jan. 20, 2015.

The Oscars AreRacist!!!, Jan. 15, 2015.

Companies that finance Al Sharptons race-baiting, Dec 31, 2014.

Black Sheriff David Clarke: Second Amendment is aboutfreedom, Dec. 30, 2014.

Message to all racebaiters, Dec. 24,2 014.

Race-baiting: Barack & Michelle still victims of racism, mistaken for sales clerk &valet, Dec. 17, 2014.

Black sheriff to Obama: You built Americas racialdivide, Dec. 16, 2014.

Graphic video of Michael Brown (?) assaulting an oldman, Dec. 13, 2014.

White president of California State University: All light-skinned people areracist, Dec. 13, 2014.

Obama says cops kill blacks because they look different, Dec. 11, 2014.

#TBT 2012: An Obama Win Will Improve Race Relations, Dec. 11, 2014.

#BlackLivesMatter? What about blacks in Chicago? And blackbabies?, Dec. 10, 2014.

Chris Rock: Studios Are Too Worried About White People Getting MyJokes, Dec. 9, 2014.

U.C. Berkeley student protest against Ferguson police violence turnsviolent, Dec. 7, 2014.

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Korea’s Black Racism Epidemic – Groove Magazine

Story by: Dave Hazzan, Photos by:Michael Roy

On a subway in Seoul, Beauty Epps is approached by a middle-aged Korean woman. Africa! the Korean says. No, Epps, a young African-American woman, calmly replies. American. Migukin.

No, the Korean woman replies. Africa. Then, after a pause, the Korean woman says, We domesticated you.

In Gunpo, Gyeonggi Province, Ashanti Lee, a young African-American man, is hired to substitute at a kindergarten. He speaks to the manager on the phone, and everything seems fine. But when he shows up, the owner opens the door, stutters and then says, Oh, no, no. Why not? asks Lee. Black ugly, the manager replies. White okay.

Many foreigners would agree that, even if their experiences here are generally positive, Korean racism and xenophobia are impossible to ignore. There is still a clear disconnect between the 98 percent ethnic Koreans and the 2 percent foreigners of all sorts mixed-race children, foreign brides, native English teachers, migrant factory workers and the tiny number of permanent immigrants and refugees who are now Korean citizens.

In a survey last year, the Washington Post found South Korea to be one of the least racially tolerant countries in the world. It found that more than 1 in 3 South Koreans said they do not want a neighbor of a different race. In 2009, The New York Times reported that 42 percent of (Korean) respondents in a 2008 survey said they had never once spoken with a foreigner.

In one way or another, racism affects almost every foreigner in Korea. But being black here is different. Whether African-American, African or not even black but mistaken for it, experiences in Korea are tainted by the perception that blacks are lower than other races: Blacks are violent, unintelligent and poor. Black Americans are not really American, and are inappropriate teachers for Korean children. Africans live in a backward, single African country, consisting of little more than jungle. These views are not universal, but they are commonly heard in Korea.

Everyone has a different experience. While some black residents say they have never felt a touch of racism here, others say they must deal with it every day. Some, like Epps, just walk away. Lee convinced the academy owner that he was a perfectly good teacher, and was asked to stay. The infamous see these rocks guy of YouTube fame (explained in detail later in this article) snapped and unloaded on an old man on a bus.

Koreas anti-black sentiment stems from a range of influences, from the traditional Korean preference for the color white, to the burning of LAs Koreatown in 1992, to the Confucian philosophy of hierarchy, to the idea that blood type defines personality. Much of it is directly imported from the U.S. Racism happens in the workplace, on the street and at the first meeting with a girlfriends family. The local media continues to be flooded with racist sentiments, advertisements and perceptions. Its painful and its widespread.

American Maria Hernandez, 30, says she experiences racism every day.

Ive never had to come to terms with (racism) like I have here.

Racism in the classroom

For many black teachers in Korea, the problem begins before they even arrive finding a job. The Korean practice of including a picture with the resume leaves nothing up to assumption, including skin color.

Deja Motley, 34, has a masters degree, TOEFL certification and years of teaching experience, including time in Japan and university work in Haiti. I would send my resume out without a picture and would get ambushed with replies from recruiters. Every recruiter, every school, says Motley, from Chicago. And then I would send my picture, and it was crickets. I would be lucky if I got one reply back. And usually it was a reply back from China, or some school far out in the country.

Stories from other teachers include hagwon bosses asking, How dark are you, exactly? or bluntly asking mixed-race candidates if they identified as black. Whites only ads, while not as commonly found as they were in the late 2000s, can still be spotted on job posting sites. Some recruiters will tell black teachers flat out, Your options are limited because youre black.

Although academies that Groove Korea interviewed for this story did not acknowledge discrimination against black teachers, recruiters said hagwon owners explicitly discriminate when searching for teachers.

One Korean recruiter, who asked not to be named, says over 80 percent of academies that he works with especially in Gangnam and central Seoul and at well-known franchises prefer white applicants over black.

I am still getting many resumes from African-American teachers, but its hard to find positions for them. I feel sorry for them. I found only two positions for them (in 2013), he says, adding that the teachers two of the more than 30 black applicants he worked with last year were placed in rural Gyeonggi Province, not Seoul.

Last year (2012) was six, I think. Its getting worse.

While some academies shy away from black teachers because of hearsay and personal prejudices, he says, others also face pressure from the parents. And with the hagwon industry tightening and more and more academies fighting uphill against closure, they are even more reluctant to take any potential risks, the recruiter says.

They (the directors) say that if they hire them (black candidates), they would be worried about losing kids. It does not look good to parents and may (give the academy) a bad reputation and lose in competition against other hagwons with white teachers, he says.

Some hagwons have gotten a lot of complaints from parents and actually lost kids. Gossip grows quickly and sometimes its unstoppable, like (with criticism from employing) black teachers.

An American recruiter, who also asked to remain anonymous, says schools will usually request white teachers only. Nine out of 10 schools who dont request this up front will not choose to interview any teachers other than Caucasians, he says. Weve worked with about 100 schools in Korea, and only five to 10 of them have even considered our non-Caucasian teachers, even though they had equal qualifications.

Parents seem to prefer their kids to be taught by Caucasian teachers than black teachers, says a manager at WILS Language Institution in Mok-dong, Seoul, who declined to be named. He says the school does not consider race, but rather career, nationality (for visa eligibility), passion and English-related studies. However, he says the school has not reviewed any black candidates for employment, claiming it has only seen the resume of one half-black, half-Hispanic teacher so far.

Tony Choi, who owns a small hagwon in Gangnam, says its the parents prejudices that cause hagwon owners to favor hiring white teachers. Parents are influenced by images from the media such as those showing that white people are naturally good at speaking English while nonwhites arent, or that black people are criminals, less trustworthy and uneducated which he says leads even overseas-born Koreans like himself to have a hard time finding a job. So, its not fair to put the blame on hagwon owners for not hiring blacks or kyopos (overseas Koreans), because hagwons are a business, and a lot of parents want their kids learning from someone that they perceive as an English teacher,’ he says.

While general openness to foreigners seems to be improving, Choi says he thinks that hiring discrimination will get worse from a business standpoint. As a hagwon owner of a small hagwon, it would be in my best interest to hire someone who will generate more business, as opposed to someone who will serve as an obstacle to get students. This isnt specific for black people, but I would have to hire someone who parents would feel comfortable sending their children to.

Even once a job is found, problems can continue. Black teachers often face harassment, negative comments from parents and coteachers and even campaigns to have them replaced.

Hernandez, from New Jersey, says she constantly has trouble with the management at her hagwon in Gangnam. She says shes faced a constant barrage of criticism from her bosses over my hair, about my skin, my weight. Its constant here.

Parents are a driving force. Hernandez says parents ganged up on her and were forever trying to get her to leave her job, or get the bosses to fire her, even though she insists the kids loved her classes. These problems didnt seem to affect the white teachers at the school.

The teacher that I replaced, all he did was play games, Hernandez says, adding that the teacher had been there for two years. Me, just getting there, (the parents) wanted me fired after three months.

Brendan Spencer, 28 and from St. Louis, feels he gets a lack of regard or respect from his coteachers like Im lesser, he says. When he was asked to make morning broadcasts at his school outside of his contract obligations he did it at first, but then said he was too busy planning his classes to continue.

They were pretty upset about it, Spencer says. Whereas when the previous (white) teacher was asked, he just flat (out) said no. And that got a pass.

Spencer adds that when he disagrees with the other teachers or asserts his rights, Koreans often get much more emotional with him than with others. I just feel that if I were a Korean person or a non-black person, that kind of vitriol or emotion wouldnt be there, he says.

Scott Meech, a white, Korean-speaking Canadian who worked in 2009 as a head teacher and human resources manager for a company that sent foreign teachers to different hagwon every week, has witnessed discrimination against black teachers on the ground level. In one instance, he started receiving complaints about a black teacher, and went to observe that teachers classes. He says he saw nothing at all wrong with his teaching.

He was a good teacher with nice classroom manners and a connection with the students, Meech says. I had a meeting with the various directors, asking exactly what was wrong, and was told that many of the students were afraid of black people. They were afraid of losing students.

Meech tried to defend the teacher as great, but was told to fire him anyway. He refused and stepped down from his position. He warned the teacher, and a month later, the black teacher was fired.

Many Korean parents have complained that their kids are afraid of black teachers. Elliott Ashby thinks the truth is different: Korean kids are not afraid of black teachers their parents are.

When I did parent-teacher conferences, some of the parents would ask, Are my children afraid of you?’ says Ashby, 30, from Phoenix. Id say, No, but you might be.’

Ashby says kids dont know racism on their own. Some of his students would notice his dark skin, or the difference in skin tones on the palm and back of his hand. Sometimes kids would ask, Why are you black? and hed answer, Just ate a lot of chocolate! But this is not hate its curiosity, and black teachers should understand that, he says.

They say every bigot was once a child without prejudice, Ashby said. Kids, they dont know the difference.

But sometimes miseducation comes before a black teacher does. Some teachers report students who couldnt believe a black person could be from America and not Africa.

Epps describes how at her school, the students were used to black American teachers. But then came a new first grader who looked at her strangely and wouldnt speak to her. One day, the girl told her, Youre Africa.

I didnt even have to say anything, Epps says. The other students responded and said, Babo (dummy), no, shes American.’ Epps set out to educate her, showing her pictures of her white South African friends on Facebook, and showing her Chicago on a map of the United States.

Hernandez says she does her best to educate the children, but she feels its a Sisyphean battle. She believes that educating children about race is important, and says, Ive tried that with my own students. I tell them, Curly hair is okay; Youre not dirty just because your hair is like this; People are different. Then they go home and their parents talk to them, and then their parents say, No, theyre different. Thats not normal. They reeducate them. Its a cycle Hernandez feels she can never escape.

Outside of the workplace

Outside of work, black people report difficulty getting taxis, even when Koreans and whites get them on the same street. Some say cab drivers go so far as to make illegal U-turns into traffic to avoid picking up black passengers. Some Koreans will refuse to get into elevators with black people, and will often change subway cars to avoid being near black passengers.

Ashby tells of one night out with a group of foreign and Korean friends. There was this one Korean girl, she was in her early twenties, he says. Wed only been talking for maybe two minutes and she says, The way you speak is very intelligent. And youre very nice.’ Then she said, Not like most black guys. I said, What do you mean? And she said, You know. Not like black-black guys.’

One black woman told Ashby that a Korean had said she was so beautiful that she couldnt possibly be fully African-American because most (black) girls only have a monkey face, she said.

John (not his real name), 26, from Ghana, feels that people from Africa get it even harder than black Americans, and is upset that Africans are often viewed as stupid and primitive.

A lot of (Koreans) are really ignorant about what we have in Africa, says John, a graduate student in the Advanced Information Sciences and Information Technology Program at Pukyong National University. They find it weird that we actually speak English, and they wonder how we even got here. When they get to know that Im on a scholarship, theyre like, Wow!’ He says he often comes across Koreans who dont realize there are even computers in Africa, much less centers to train computer specialists like himself.

John says he and his friends are sometimes barred from public places like bars and clubs. He says he has learned that no foreigners allowed can often mean no black foreigners are allowed, while white people can enter just fine. Lining up at one nightclub, two of his white friends walked into the club, paid their 10,000 won and got wristbands. He was outside taking a phone call, but when he showed up, the bouncer said foreigners were not allowed. So Im thinking, How can you sell (tickets) to the first two people, the guy from Finland and the guy from Spain, but the moment I show up, say No foreigners allowed? So, is this because of me being black, or because there are no foreigners allowed? And it was not an isolated incident for him.

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Black Racism Rampant In America – rense.com

Nor did they seem at all cognizant of the fact that there are mountains of evidence which entirely contradict their contention that black youngsters routinely get a raw deal from the juvenile justice system. To cite just one example: A mere five weeks before the Jena incident, a gang of perhaps 30 black teenagers brutally assaulted three white women — 21-year-old Laura Schneider, 19-year-old Michelle Smith, and 19-year-old Loren Hyman — in the Bixby Knolls section of Long Beach, California. Hyman suffered 13 facial fractures that required extensive facial reconstruction surgery. Schneider suffered a concussion after one of the attackers yelled a racial slur at her, smashed a skateboard against her head, and continued beating her after she was already unconscious. In February 2007 the four main perpetrators, all of whom were aged 16 to 17 at the time of the attack, were each sentenced to serve a mere 60 days of house arrest — which they were permitted to break in order to attend school and church — and 250 hours of community service. The judge also ordered the lead attacker to attend an eight-week racial tolerance program at the Simon Wiesenthal Center. Not much of a penalty for crimes that could easily have resulted in a death or two. And of course the ACLU, NAACP, Sharpton, and Jackson were nowhere to be seen or heard.

Black Racism – Disturbingly Widespread In America

There is a larger issue at play, however, apart from whatever penalties the juvenile justice system metes out. That is the issue of black racism, a disturbingly widespread phenomenon in contemporary America. This phenomenon explains why tens of thousands of protesters willingly traveled long distances to stage a show of support for a pack of thugs who had indisputably perpetrated a brutally violent attack against a white person. It explains why they focused exclusively on defending the “rights” of those attackers, rather than on condemning the wrong they had done. And it explains why they chose to portray a group of raging predators as the ‘innocent, misunderstood victims’ of modern America’s allegedly boundless bigotry.

Black racism also accounts for the fact that the vast majority of interracial violent crimes are of the black-on-white variety (90% of race crime victims are WHITE -ed), and that statistically the “average” black is many times more likely (50 times -ed) to attack a white, than vice versa. While not all interracial crimes are motivated by racial animosities, many of them — like this recently videotaped gang assault in Viriginia — certainly are.

But why should black racism be prevalent in America at this comparatively late stage in our nation’s evolution — long after the rise of equal-opportunity mandates, affirmative action policies, civil rights advances, and the stigmatization of racism to the point where “racist” is by far the epithet most feared by whites, be they political figures, business leaders, clergy, academics, or social commentators?

It’s actually quite simple. Black racism remains a dynamic phenomenon because African Americans have been told, ad nauseum, by “civil rights leaders” and by leftist whites in influential organizations like the ACLU, to look outside of themselves for the roots of every ill that plagues their community; to reflexively blame white society for their problems rather than to take responsibility for their own lives; and to view themselves as the oppressed and powerless victims of a white “power structure,” a status they are led to believe renders them somehow incapable of being genuine racists themselves — no matter how much they may detest the white people they perceive to be their tormenters. Moreover, they have been taught to angrily reject astute observations like those of Bill Cosby, who has publicly lamented how illegitimacy, parental neglect, lack of educational effort, and bad behavior have decimated black life.

Only the victim mentality fostered by the “civil rights” champions of our day could have prompted tens of thousands of people to think that rallying on behalf of the Jena Six was a worthwhile use of their time. Having listened for so long to the “civil rights” establishment’s incessant depictions of the United States as a land of racial inequity, many black Americans have become angry, embittered racists themselves. They are among the legions who, in the words of black columnist Michael Meyers, zealously “transform themselves into the apostles of their own delusions.”

__________

John Perazzo is the author of The Myths That Divide Us: How Lies Have Poisoned American Race Relations. For more information on his book, click http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0965 126811/centerforthest01A/104-3704288-7751118 here.

E-mail him at wsbooks25@hotmail.com

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Black Racism Rampant In America – rense.com

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This is why the news airs White on Black racism – Video



This is why the news airs White on Black racism

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China Ratchet Daily 24 Chinese Behaving Badly in Kenya – Video



China Ratchet Daily 24 Chinese Behaving Badly in Kenya
Please Like and Subscribe: Hit me on the Twit: https://twitter.com/chamaflauge2278 My Blogger: http://loserlaowai.blogspot.jp/ THE STRANGE CAREER OF WRITING ABOUT ANTI-BLACK RACISM IN …

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BLACK RACISM! – Video



BLACK RACISM!
racism!

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BLACK RACISM! – Video

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Black Racism vs White Supremacy. – Video



Black Racism vs White Supremacy.
The White Supremacy Industrial Complex in action and explained.

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Racism in the United States – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Racism and ethnic discrimination in the United States has been a major issue since the colonial era and the slave era. Legally or socially sanctioned privileges and rights were given to White Americans that were not granted to Native Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanic and Latino Americans. European Americans (particularly White Anglo-Saxon Protestants) were granted exclusive privileges in matters of education, immigration, voting rights, citizenship, land acquisition, and criminal procedure over periods of time extending from the 17th century to the 1960s. However, non-Protestant immigrants from Europe; particularly Irish people, Poles, and Italians, suffered xenophobic exclusion and other forms of ethnicity-based discrimination in American society, and were not considered fully white. In addition, Middle Eastern American groups like Jews and Arabs have faced continuous discrimination in the United States, and as a result, some people belonging to these groups do not identify as white. East and South Asians have similarly faced racism in America. Major racially and ethnically structured institutions included slavery, segregation, the American Indian Wars, Native American reservations, Native American boarding schools, immigration and naturalization law and internment camps.[1] Formal racial discrimination was largely banned in the mid-20th century, and came to be perceived as socially unacceptable and/or morally repugnant as well. Racial politics remains a major phenomenon, and racism continues to be reflected in socioeconomic inequality.[2][3]Racial stratification continues to occur in employment, housing, education, lending, and government. In the view of the U.S. Human Rights Network, a network of scores of U.S. civil rights and human rights organizations, “Discrimination in the United States permeates all aspects of life and extends to all communities of color”.[4] While the nature of the views held by average Americans have changed much over the past several decades, surveys by organizations such as ABC News have found that, even recently, large sections of Americans self-admit to holding discriminatory viewpoints; for example, a 2007 article by the organization stated that about one in ten admitted to holding prejudices against Hispanic and Latino Americans and about one in four did so regarding Arab-Americans.[5] While the existence of slavery is arguably the root of subsequent conceptualizations of African-Americans, the origins of African enslavement have a large economic foundation. Among the European elite who structured national policy throughout the age of the Atlantic system of trade, there existed a popular ideology called mercantilism, or the belief that policy pursuits were centralized around military power and economic wealth. Colonies were sources of mineral wealth and crops, to be used to the home country’s advantage.[6] Using Native Americans for manpower was impractical; they were decimated by disease and violence.[citation needed] Using Europeans for labor proved unsustainably expensive, as well as harmful to the supply of labor in the home countries. However, African slaves were “available in large numbers at prices that made plantation agriculture in the Americas profitable”.[7] It is also argued that, along with the economic motives underlying slavery in the Americas, European world schemas played a large role in the enslavement of Africans. According to this view, the European in-group for humane behavior included the sub-continent, while African and American Indian cultures had a more localized definition of “an insider”. While neither schema has inherent superiority, the technological advantage of Europeans became a resource to disseminate the conviction that underscored their schemas, that non-Europeans could be enslaved. With the capability to spread their schematic representation of the world, Europeans could impose a social contract, morally permitting three centuries of African slavery. While the disintegration of this social contract by the eighteenth century led to abolitionism, it is argued that the removal of barriers to “insider status” is a very slow process, uncompleted even today (2015).[8] As a result of the above, the Atlantic slave trade prospered. According to estimates in the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database, between 1626 and 1860 more than 470,000 slaves were forcibly transported from Africa to what is now the United States.[9][10] Furthermore, approximately one Southern family in four held slaves prior to the Civil War. According to the 1860 U.S. census, there were about 385,000 slaveowners out of a white population in the slave states of approximately 7 million.[11][12] In the early part of the 19th century, a variety of organizations were established advocating the movement of black people from the United States to locations where they would enjoy greater freedom; some endorsed colonization, while others advocated emigration. During the 1820s and 1830s the American Colonization Society (A.C.S.) was the primary vehicle for proposals to return black Americans to greater freedom and equality in Africa,[13] and in 1821 the A.C.S. established the colony of Liberia, assisting thousands of former African-American slaves and free black people (with legislated limits) to move there from the United States. The colonization effort resulted from a mixture of motives with its founder Henry Clay stating; “unconquerable prejudice resulting from their color, they never could amalgamate with the free whites of this country. It was desirable, therefore, as it respected them, and the residue of the population of the country, to drain them off”.[14] Although in 1820 the slave trade was equated with piracy, punishable by death,[15] the practice of chattel slavery existed for the next half century. All slaves in only the areas of the Confederate States of America that were not under direct control of the United States government were declared free by the Emancipation Proclamation, which was issued on January 1, 1863, by President Abraham Lincoln.[16] While personally opposed to slavery, Lincoln believed that the Constitution did not give Congress the power to end slavery, stating in his first Inaugural Address that he “had no objection to [this] being made express and irrevocable” via the Corwin Amendment.[17] On social and political rights for blacks, Lincoln stated, “I am not, nor ever have been in favor of making voters or jurors of negroes, nor of qualifying them to hold office, nor to intermarry with white people, I as much as any man am in favor of the superior position assigned to the white race.”[18] The Emancipation Proclamation did not apply to areas loyal to, or controlled by, the Union. Slavery was not actually abolished in the United States until the passage of the 13th Amendment which was declared ratified on December 6, 1865.[19] About 4 million black slaves were freed in 1865. Ninety-five percent of blacks lived in the South, comprising one third of the population there as opposed to one percent of the population of the North. Consequently, fears of eventual emancipation were much greater in the South than in the North.[20] Based on 1860 census figures, 8% of males aged 13 to 43 died in the civil war, including 6% in the North and 18% in the South.[21] After the Civil War, the 13th amendment in 1865, formally abolishing slavery, was ratified. Furthermore, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which broadened a range of civil rights to all persons born in the United States. Despite this, the emergence of “Black Codes”, sanctioned acts of subjugation against blacks, continued to bar African-Americans from due civil rights. The Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U.S. citizenship to whites only, and in 1868 the effort toward civil rights was underscored with the 14th amendment which granted citizenship to blacks.[22] The Civil Rights Act of 1875 followed, which was eliminated in a decision that undermined federal power to thwart private racial discrimination.[23] Nonetheless, the last of the Reconstruction Era amendments, the 15th amendment promised voting rights to African-American men, and these cumulative federal efforts, African-Americans began taking advantage of enfranchisement. African-Americans began voting, seeking office positions, utilizing public education. Yet by the end of Reconstruction in the mid 1870s, violent white supremacists came to power via paramilitary groups such as the Red Shirts and the White League and imposed Jim Crow laws that deprived African-Americans of voting rights and instituted systemic discriminatory policies through policies of unequal racial segregation.[24] The new century saw a hardening of institutionalized racism and legal discrimination against citizens of African descent in the United States. Throughout this post Civil War period, racial stratification was informally and systemically enforced, in order to solidify the pre-existing social order. Although technically able to vote, poll taxes, pervasive acts of terror such as lynching in the United States (often perpetrated by groups such as the reborn Ku Klux Klan, founded in the Reconstruction South), and discriminatory laws such as grandfather clauses kept black Americans disenfranchised particularly in the South. Furthermore, discrimination extended to state legislation that “allocated vastly unequal financial support” for black and white schools. In addition to this, county officials sometimes redistributed resources earmarked for blacks to white schools, further undermining educational opportunities.[25] In response to de jure racism, protest and lobbyist groups emerged, most notably, the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) in 1909. This time period is sometimes referred to as the nadir of American race relations because racism, segregation, racial discrimination, and expressions of white supremacy all increased. So did anti-black violence, including race riots such as the Atlanta Race Riot of 1906 and the Tulsa race riot of 1921. In addition, racism which had been viewed primarily as a problem in the Southern states, burst onto the national consciousness following the Great Migration, the relocation of millions of African Americans from their roots in the Southern states to the industrial centers of the North after World War I, particularly in cities such as Boston, Chicago, and New York (Harlem). Within Chicago, for example, between 1910 and 1970, the percentage of African-Americans leapt from 2.0 percent to 32.7 percent.[26] The demographic patterns of black migrants and external economic conditions are largely studied stimulants regarding the Great Migration.[27] For example, migrating blacks (between 1910 and 1920) were more likely to be literate than blacks that remained in the South. Known economic push factors played a role in migration, such as the emergence of a split labor market and agricultural distress from the boll weevil destruction of the cotton economy.[28] Southern migrants were often treated in accordance with pre-existing racial stratification. The rapid influx of blacks disturbed the racial balance within cities, exacerbating hostility between both black and white Northerners. Stereotypic schemas of Southern blacks were used to attribute issues in urban areas, such as crime and disease, to the presence of African-Americans. Overall, African-Americans in Northern cities experienced systemic discrimination in a plethora of aspects of life. Within employment, economic opportunities for blacks were routed to the lowest-status and restrictive in potential mobility . Within the housing market, stronger discriminatory measures were used in correlation to the influx, resulting in a mix of “targeted violence, restrictive covenants, redlining and racial steering”[29] Throughout this period, racial tensions exploded, most violently in Chicago, and lynchingsmob-directed hangings, usually racially motivatedincreased dramatically in the 1920s. The Jim Crow Laws were state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965. They mandated “separate but equal” status for black Americans. In reality, this led to treatment and accommodations that were almost always inferior to those provided to white Americans. The most important laws required that public schools, public places and public transportation, like trains and buses, have separate facilities for whites and blacks. State-sponsored school segregation was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of the United States in 1954 in Brown v. Board of Education. One of the first federal court cases to challenge segregation in schools was Mendez v. Westminster in 1946. In response to heightening discrimination and violence, non-violent acts of protest began to occur. For example, in February 1960, in Greensboro, North Carolina, four young African-American college students entered a Woolworth store and sat down at the counter but were refused service. The men had learned about non-violent protest in college, and continued to sit peacefully as whites tormented them at the counter, pouring ketchup on their heads and burning them with cigarettes. After this, many sit-ins took place in order to non-violently protest against racism and inequality. Sit-ins continued throughout the South and spread to other areas. Eventually, after many sit-ins and other non-violent protests, including marches and boycotts, places began to agree to desegregate.[30][full citation needed] The 16th Street Baptist Church bombing marked a turning point during the Civil Rights Era, by attracting national attention. On Sunday, September 15, 1963 with a stack of dynamite hidden on an outside staircase, Ku Klux Klansmen destroyed one side of the Birmingham church. The bomb exploded in proximity to twenty-six children who were preparing for choir practice in the basement assembly room. The explosion killed four black girls, Carole Robertson (14), Cynthia Wesley (14), Denise McNair (11) and Addie Mae Collins (14).[31][32] With the bombing occurring only a couple of weeks after Martin Luther King Jr.’s March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, it became an integral aspect of transformed perceptions of conditions for blacks in America. It influenced the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965 which overruled remaining Jim Crow laws. Nonetheless, neither had been implemented by the end of the 1960s as civil rights leaders continued to strive for political and social freedom. Many U.S. states banned interracial marriage. In 1967, Mildred Loving, a black woman, and Richard Loving, a white man, were sentenced to a year in prison in Virginia for marrying each other.[33] Their marriage violated the state’s anti-miscegenation statute, the Racial Integrity Act of 1924, which prohibited marriage between people classified as white and people classified as “colored” (persons of African or Native American ancestry).[34] In the Loving v. Virginia case in 1967, the Supreme Court invalidated laws prohibiting interracial marriage in the U.S.[35] Segregation continued even after the demise of the Jim Crow laws. Data on house prices and attitudes toward integration from suggest that in the mid-20th century, segregation was a product of collective actions taken by whites to exclude blacks from their neighborhoods.[36] Segregation also took the form of redlining, the practice of denying or increasing the cost of services, such as banking, insurance, access to jobs,[37] access to health care,[38] or even supermarkets[39] to residents in certain, often racially determined,[40] areas. Although in the United States informal discrimination and segregation have always existed, redlining began with the National Housing Act of 1934, which established the Federal Housing Administration (FHA). The practice was fought first through passage of the Fair Housing Act of 1968 (which prevents redlining when the criteria for redlining are based on race, religion, gender, familial status, disability, or ethnic origin), and later through the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977, which requires banks to apply the same lending criteria in all communities.[41] Although redlining is illegal some argue that it continues to exist in other forms. While substantial gains were made in the succeeding decades through middle class advancement and public employment, black poverty and lack of education[42] deepened in the context of de-industrialization.[43] Prejudice, discrimination, and institutional racism (see below) continue to affect African Americans. Despite gains made after the 16th Street Baptist Church bombing, violence against black churches has also continued fires set to churches around the South in the 1990s,[44] for example, and the Charleston church shooting of 2015, when nine people were shot and killed.[45] From 1981 to 1997, the United States Department of Agriculture discriminated against tens of thousands of black American farmers, denying loans that were provided to white farmers in similar circumstances. The discrimination was the subject of the Pigford v. Glickman lawsuit brought by members of the National Black Farmers Association, which resulted in two settlement agreements of $1.25 billion in 1999 and of $1.15 billion in 2009.[46] It is argued[by whom?] that there exists a color blindness or an “understanding that cultural differences rooted in racial identities are irrelevant for peoples’ prospects and their overall well-being”.[47] Yet, one counter-example to this claim is that employer interviews reveal reluctance from both black and white employers to employ “urban young males who exhibit lower-class behavioral styles”, highlighting the existence of embedded socio-economic preconceptions.[48] Furthermore, many cite the United States presidential election, 2008 as a step forward in race relations: White Americans played a role in electing Barack Obama, the country’s first black president.[49] In fact, Obama received a greater percentage of the white vote (43%),[50] than did the previous Democratic candidate, John Kerry (41%).[51] Racial divisions persisted throughout the election; wide margins of Black voters gave Obama an edge during the presidential primary, where 8 out of 10 African-Americans voted for him in the primaries, and an MSNBC poll found that race was a key factor in whether a candidate was perceived as being ready for office. In South Carolina, for instance,”Whites were far likelier to name Clinton than Obama as being most qualified to be commander in chief, likeliest to unite the country and most apt to capture the White House in November. Blacks named Obama over Clinton by even stronger margins two- and three-to one in all three areas.”[52] Sociologist Russ Long stated in 2013 that there is now a more subtle racism that associates a specific race with a specific characteristic.[53] In a 1993 study conducted by Katz and Braly, it was presented that “blacks and whites hold a variety of stereotypes towards each other, often negative.”[54] The Katz and Braley study also found that African-Americans and Whites view the traits that they identify each other with as threatening, interracial communication between the two is likely to be “hesitant, reserved, and concealing.”[54] Interracial communication is guided by stereotypes; stereotypes are transferred into personality and character traits which lead to have an effect on communication. Multiple factors go into how stereotypes are established, such as age and the setting in which they are being applied.[54] For example, in a study done by the Entman-Rojecki Index of Race and Media in 2014, 89% of black women in movies are shown swearing and acting in offensive behavior while only 17% of white women are portrayed in this manner.[55] The Naturalization Act of 1790 made Asians ineligible for citizenship, with citizenship limited to whites only.[56] Asian Americans, including those of East Asian, Southeast Asian, and South Asian descent, have experienced racism since the first major groups of Chinese immigrants arrived in America. First-generation immigrants, children of immigrants, and Asians adopted by non-Asian families have all been impacted.[57] In the 19th century, America was undergoing rapid industrialization, leading to labor shortages in the mining and rail industries. Chinese immigrant labor was often used to fill this gap, most notably with the construction of the First Transcontinental Railroad, leading to large-scale Chinese immigration.[57] These Chinese immigrants were despised because they took the jobs of whites for cheaper pay, and the phrase Yellow Peril, which predicted the demise of Western “civilization” as a result of Chinese immigrants, gained popularity.[58] This discrimination apexed with the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act, which banned Chinese immigration to the United States. This was the first time that a law was passed to exclude a major group from the nation that was based on ethnicity and class.[57] Local discriminatory laws were also enacted to stifle Chinese business and job opportunities; for example, in the 1886 Supreme Court case of Yick Wo v. Hopkins, a San Francisco city ordinance requiring permits for laundries (which were mostly Chinese-owned) was struck down, as it was clear the law solely targeted Chinese Americans. When the law was in effect, the city issued permits to virtually all non-Chinese permit applicants, while only granting one permit out of two hundred applications from Chinese laundry owners. When the Chinese laundries continued to operate, the city tried to fine the owners. In 1913, California, home to many Chinese immigrants, enacted an Alien Land Law, which significantly restricted land ownership by Asian immigrants, and extended it in 1920, ultimately banning virtually all land ownership by Asians.[59] In 1907, Japanese immigrants, which were unaffected by the Exclusion Act, began to enter the United States, filling labor shortages that were once filled by Chinese workers. This influx also led to discrimination and was stymied when President Theodore Roosevelt restricted Japanese immigration. Later, Japanese immigration was closed when Japan entered into the Gentlemen’s Agreement of 1907 to stop issuing passports to Japanese workers intending to move to the U.S.[60] During World War II, the Republic of China was an ally of the United States, and the federal government praised the resistance of the Chinese against Japan in the Second Sino-Japanese War, attempting to reduce anti-Chinese sentiment. In 1943, the Magnuson Act was passed by Congress, repealing the Chinese Exclusion Act and reopening Chinese immigration. However, at the time, the United States was actively fighting the Empire of Japan, which was a member of the Axis powers. Anti-Japanese racism, which spiked after the attack on Pearl Harbor, was tacitly encouraged by the government, which used slurs such as “Jap” in propaganda posters and even interned Japanese Americans, citing possible security threats. This prejudice continued for some time after the war had concluded. Prior to 1965, Indian immigration to the U.S. was small and isolated, with fewer than fifty thousand Indian immigrants in the country. The Bellingham riots in Bellingham, Washington on September 5, 1907 epitomized the low tolerance in the U.S. for Indians and Hindus. In the 1923 case, United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind, the Supreme Court ruled that high caste Hindus were not “white persons” and were therefore racially ineligible for naturalized citizenship.[61] The Court argued that the racial difference between Indians and whites was so great that the “great body of our people” would reject assimilation with Indians.[61] It was after the LuceCeller Act of 1946 that a quota of 100 Indians per year could immigrate to the U.S. and become citizens.[62] The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 dramatically opened entry to the U.S. to immigrants other than traditional Northern European and Germanic groups, and as a result would significantly alter the demographic mix in the U.S.[63] On the U.S. immigration laws prior to 1965, sociologist Stephen Klineberg states: “The law was just unbelievable in its clarity of racism. It declared that Northern Europeans are a superior subspecies of the white race.”[63] In 1990, Asian immigration was encouraged when nonimmigrant temporary working visas were given to help with the shortage of skilled labor within the United States.[57] In modern times, Asians have been perceived as a “model minority”. They are seen as more educated and successful, and are stereotyped as intelligent and hard-working, but socially inept.[64] Asians may experience expectations of natural intelligence and excellence from whites as well as other minorities.[59][65] This has led to discrimination in the workplace, as Asian Americans may face unreasonable expectations because of the “model minority” stereotype. In 2000, out of 1,218 adult Asian Americans, 92 percent of those who experienced personal discrimination believed that the unfair treatment was due to their ethnicity.[64] Asian American stereotypes can also obstruct career paths; because Asians are seen as better skilled in engineering, computing, and mathematics, they are often encouraged to pursue technical careers. They are also discouraged from pursuing non-technical occupations or executive occupations requiring more social interaction, since Asians are expected to have poor social skills. In the 2000 study, forty percent of those surveyed who experienced discrimination believed that they had lost hiring or promotion opportunities. In 2007, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission reported that Asians make up 10 percent of professional jobs, while 3.7 percent of them held executive, senior level, or manager positions.[64] Other forms of discrimination include racial profiling and hate crimes. Research shows that discrimination has led to more use of informal mental health services by Asian Americans.[66] Asian Americans who feel discriminated against also tend to smoke more.[67] Various European American immigrant groups have been subject to discrimination either on the basis of their immigrant status (known as “Nativism”) or on the basis of their ethnicities (country of origin). In the 19th century, this was particularly true of anti-Irish prejudice, which was partly anti-Catholic sentiment, partly anti-Irish as an ethnicity. This was especially true for Irish Catholics who immigrated to the U.S. in the mid-19th century; the large number of Irish (both Catholic and Protestant) who settled in America in the 18th century had largely (but not entirely) escaped such discrimination and eventually blended into the American white population. During the 1830s in the U.S., riots for control of job sites broke out in rural areas among rival labour teams from different parts of Ireland, and between Irish and local American work teams competing for construction jobs.[68] The Native American Party, commonly called the Know Nothing movement was a political party, whose membership was limited to Protestant men, that operated on a national basis during the mid-1850s and sought to limit the influence of Irish Catholics and other immigrants, thus reflecting nativism and anti-Catholic sentiment. There was widespread anti-Irish job discrimination in the United States and “No Irish need apply” signs were common.[69][70][71] The second era Ku Klux Klan was a very large nationwide organization in the 1920s, consisting of between four to six million members (15% of the nation’s eligible population) that especially opposed Catholics.[72] Anti-Catholic sentiment, which commenced in North America with the first Pilgrim and Puritan settlers in New England in the early 17th century, remained evident in the U.S. up to the presidential campaign of John F. Kennedy, who went on to become the first Catholic (and first non-Protestant) U.S. president in 1961.[73] The 20th century saw discrimination against immigrants from southern and eastern Europe (notably Italian Americans and Polish Americans), partly from anti-Catholic sentiment (as well as discrimination against Irish-Americans), and partly from Nordicism, which considered all non-Germanic, non-Scandinavian, or non-British immigrants as racially inferior.[citation needed] Nordicism led to the reduction in Southern European, along with Slavic Eastern European and Russian immigrants in the National Origins Formula of the Emergency Quota Act of 1921 and the Immigration Act of 1924, whose goal was to maintain the status quo distribution of ethnicity by limiting immigration in proportion to existing populations. This reduced the inflow from the average prior to 1921 of 176,983 from northern, central and western Europe, and 685,531 for other countries, principally Southern and Russia, to a 1924 level of 140,999 for northern, central and western Europe, and 21,847 for other countries, principally Southern and Russia (from a 1:3.9 ratio to a 6.4:1 ratio).[citation needed] There was also discrimination against German Americans and Italian Americans due to Germany and Italy being enemy countries during World War I (Germany) and World War II (Germany and Italy). This resulted in a sharp decrease in German-American ethnic identity and a sharp decrease in the use of German in the United States following WWI, which had hitherto been significant, and to German American internment and Italian American internment during WWII; see also World War I anti-German sentiment. Beginning in World War I, German Americans were sometimes accused of having political allegiances to Germany, and thus not to the United States.[75] The Justice Department attempted to prepare a list of all German aliens, counting approximately 480,000 of them, more than 4,000 of whom were imprisoned in 191718. The allegations included spying for Germany, or endorsing the German war effort.[76] Thousands were forced to buy war bonds to show their loyalty.[77] The Red Cross barred individuals with German last names from joining in fear of sabotage. One person was killed by a mob; in Collinsville, Illinois, German-born Robert Prager was dragged from jail as a suspected spy and lynched.[78] Questions of German American loyalty increased due to events like the German bombing of Black Tom island[79] and the U.S. entering World War I, many German Americans were arrested for refusing allegiance to the U.S.[80] War hysteria led to the removal of German names in public, names of things such as streets,[81] and businesses.[82] Schools also began to eliminate or discourage the teaching of the German language.[83] Years later during the Second World War, German Americans were once again the victims of war hysteria discrimination. Following its entry into the Second World War, the US Government interned at least 11,000 American citizens of German ancestry. The last to be released, a German-American, remained imprisoned until 1948 at Ellis Island,[84] three and a half years after the cessation of hostilities against Germany. Specific European-American ethnicities significantly diminished as a political issue in the 1930s, being replaced by a bi-racialism of black/white, as described and predicted by Lothrop Stoddard, due to numerous causes. The National Origins Formula significantly reduced inflows of non-Nordic ethnicities; the Great Migration (of African-Americans out of the South) displaced anti-white immigrant racism with anti-black racism; and the Great Depression brought economic concerns to the fore.[citation needed] Americans of Latin American ancestry (often categorized as “Hispanic”) come from a wide variety of racial and ethnic backgrounds. Latinos are not all distinguishable as a racial minority. After the MexicanAmerican War (18461848), the U.S. annexed much of the current Southwestern region from Mexico. Mexicans residing in that territory found themselves subject to discrimination. It is estimated that at least 597 Mexicans were lynched between 1848 and 1928 (this is a conservative estimate due to lack of records in many reported lynchings). Mexicans were lynched at a rate of 27.4 per 100,000 of population between 1880 and 1930. This statistic is second only to that of the African American community during the same period, which suffered an average of 37.1 per 100,000 of population.[85] Between 1848 and 1879, Mexicans were lynched at an unprecedented rate of 473 per 100,000 of population.[86] During The Great Depression, the U.S. government sponsored a Mexican Repatriation program which was intended to encourage Mexican immigrants to voluntarily return to Mexico, however, many were forcibly removed against their will. In total, up to one million persons of Mexican ancestry were deported, approximately 60 percent of those individuals were actually U.S. citizens. The Zoot Suit Riots were vivid incidents of racial violence against Latinos (e.g., Mexican-Americans) in Los Angeles in 1943. Naval servicemen stationed in a Latino neighborhood conflicted with youth in the dense neighborhood. Frequent confrontations between small groups and individuals had intensified into several days of non-stop rioting. Large mobs of servicemen would enter civilian quarters looking to attack Mexican American youths, some of whom were wearing zoot suits, a distinctive exaggerated fashion popular among that group.[87] The disturbances continued unchecked, and even assisted, by the local police for several days before base commanders declared downtown Los Angeles and Mexican American neighborhoods off-limits to servicemen.[88] Many public institutions, businesses, and homeowners associations had official policies to exclude Mexican Americans. School children of Mexican American descent were subject to racial segregation in the public school system. In many counties, Mexican Americans were excluded from serving as jurors in court cases, especially in those that involved a Mexican American defendant. In many areas across the Southwest, they lived in separate residential areas, due to laws and real estate company policies.[89][90][91][92] During the 1960s, Mexican American youth formed the Chicano Civil Rights Movement. People of Middle Eastern and South Asian descent historically occupied an ambiguous racial status in the United States. Middle Eastern and South Asian immigrants were among those who sued in the late 19th and early 20th century to determine whether they were “white” immigrants as required by naturalization law. By 1923, courts had vindicated a “common-knowledge” standard, concluding that “scientific evidence”, including the notion of a “Caucasian race” including Middle Easterners and many South Asians, was incoherent. Legal scholar John Tehranian argues that in reality this was a “performance-based” standard, relating to religious practices, education, intermarriage and a community’s role in the United States.[94] Racism against Arab Americans[95] and racialized Islamophobia against Muslims has risen concomitantly with tensions between the American government and the Islamic world.[96] Following the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States, discrimination and racialized violence has markedly increased against Arab Americans and many other religious and cultural groups.[97] Scholars, including Sunaina Maira and Evelyn Alsultany, argue that in the post-September 11 climate, Muslim Americans have been racialized within American society, although the markers of this racialization are cultural, political, and religious rather than phenotypic.[98][99] Arab Americans in particular were most demonized which led to hatred towards Middle Easterners living in the United States and elsewhere in the Western world.[100][101] There have been attacks against Arabs not only on the basis of their religion (Islam), but also on the basis of their ethnicity; numerous Christian Arabs have been attacked based on their appearances.[102] In addition, other Middle Eastern peoples (Iranians, Assyrians, Armenians, Jews, Turks, Yezidis, Kurds, etc.) who are mistaken for Arabs because of perceived similarities in appearance have been collateral victims of anti-Arabism. Non-Arab and non-Muslim Middle Eastern people, as well as South Asians of different ethnic/religious backgrounds (Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs) have been stereotyped as “Arabs”. The case of Balbir Singh Sodhi, a Sikh who was murdered at a Phoenix gas station by a white supremacist for “looking like an Arab terrorist” (because of the turban that is a requirement of Sikhism), as well as that of Hindus being attacked for “being Muslims” have achieved prominence and criticism following the September 11 attacks.[103][104] Those of Middle Eastern descent who are in the United States military sometimes face racism from fellow soldiers. Army Spc Zachari Klawonn endured numerous instances of racism during his enlistment at Fort Hood, Texas. During his basic training he was made to put cloth around his head and play the role of terrorist. His fellow soldiers had to take him down to the ground and draw guns on him. He was also called things such as “raghead”, “sand monkey”, and “Zachari bin Laden”.[105][106] According to a 2004 study, although official parameters encompass Arabs as part of the White American racial category, many Arab Americans from places other than the Levant feel they are not white and are not perceived as white by American society.[107] The November 1979 Iranian hostage crisis of the U.S. embassy in Tehran precipitated a wave of anti-Iranian sentiment in the United States, directed both against the new Islamic regime and Iranian nationals and immigrants. Even though such sentiments gradually declined after the release of the hostages at the start of 1981, they sometimes flare up. In response, some Iranian immigrants to the U.S. have distanced themselves from their nationality and instead identify primarily on the basis of their ethnic or religious affiliations.[108] Since the 1980s and especially since the 1990s, it has been argued, Hollywood’s depiction of Iranians has gradually shown signs of vilifying Iranians.[109] Hollywood network productions such as 24,[110]John Doe, On Wings of Eagles (1986),[111]Escape from Iran: The Canadian Caper (1981),[112] and JAG almost regularly host Persian speaking villains in their storyline. Antisemitism has also played a role in the United States. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, hundreds of thousands of ethnic Jews were escaping the pogroms in Europe. They boarded boats from ports on the Baltic Sea and in Northern Germany, and largely arrived at Ellis Island, New York.[113] It is suggested by Leo Rosten, in his book The Joys of Yiddish, that as soon as they left the boat, they were subject to racism from the port immigration authorities. The derogatory term kike was adopted when referring to Jews (because they often could not write so they may have signed their immigration papers with circles or kikel in Yiddish).[114] Efforts were also made by the Asiatic Exclusion League to bar Jewish immigrants (along with other Middle Eastern ethnic groups, like Arabs, Assyrians, and Armenians) from naturalization, but they (along with Assyrians and Armenians) were nevertheless granted US citizenship, despite being classified as Asian.[115] From the 1910s, the Southern Jewish communities were attacked by the Ku Klux Klan, who objected to Jewish immigration, and often used “The Jewish Banker” in their propaganda. In 1915, Leo Frank was lynched in Georgia after being convicted of rape and sentenced to death (his punishment was commuted to life imprisonment).[116] This event was a catalyst in the re-formation of the new Ku Klux Klan.[117] The events in Nazi Germany also attracted attention from the United States. Jewish lobbying for intervention in Europe drew opposition from the isolationists, amongst whom was Father Charles Coughlin, a well known radio priest, who was known to be critical of Jews, believing that they were leading the United States into the war.[118] He preached in weekly, overtly anti-Semitic sermons and, from 1936, began publication of a newspaper, Social Justice, in which he printed anti-Semitic accusations such as The Protocols of the Elders of Zion.[119] A number of Jewish organizations, Christian organizations, Muslim organizations, and academics consider the Nation of Islam to be anti-Semitic. Specifically, they claim that the Nation of Islam has engaged in revisionist and antisemitic interpretations of the Holocaust and exaggerates the role of Jews in the African slave trade.[120] The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) alleged that the NOI’s Health Minister, Dr. Abdul Alim Muhammad, accused Jewish doctors of injecting blacks with the AIDS virus,[121] an allegation that Muhammad and The Washington Post have refuted.[122] Although Jews are often perceived as white in the American mainstream, the relationship of Jews to whiteness remains complex, with some preferring not to identify as white.[123][124][125][126] Prominent activist and rabbi Michael Lerner argues, in a 1993 Village Voice article, that “in America, to be ‘white’ means to be the beneficiary of the past 500 years of European exploration and exploitation of the rest of the world” and that “Jews can only be deemed white if there is massive amnesia on the part of non-Jews about the monumental history of anti-Semitism”.[127]African-American activist Cornel West, in an interview with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, has explained: Even if some Jews do believe that they’re white, I think that they’ve been duped. I think that antisemitism has proven itself to be a powerful force in nearly every post of Western civilization where Christianity has a presence. And so even as a Christian, I say continually to my Jewish brothers and sisters: don’t believe the hype about your full scale assimilation and integration into the mainstream. It only takes an event or two for a certain kind of anti-Jewish, antisemitic sensibility to surface in places that you would be surprised. But I’m just thoroughly convinced that America is not the promised land for Jewish brothers and sisters. A lot of Jewish brothers say, “No, that’s not true. We finally…” Yeahthey said that in Alexandria. You said that in Weimar Germany.[128] In recent years some scholars have advanced the concept of New antisemitism, coming simultaneously from the Far Left, the far right, and radical Islam, which tends to focus on opposition to the creation of a Jewish homeland in the State of Israel, and argue that the language of Anti-Zionism and criticism of Israel are used to attack Jews more broadly. In this view, the proponents of the new concept believe that criticisms of Israel and Zionism are often disproportionate in degree and unique in kind, and attribute this to antisemitism.[129] Yehuda Bauer, Professor of Holocaust Studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, has argued that the concept of a “new antisemitism” is essentially false since it is in fact an alternative form of the old antisemitism of previous decades, which he believes remains latent at times but recurs whenever it is triggered. In his view, the current trigger is the Israeli situation; if a compromise making ground in the Arab-Israeli peace process were achieved, he believes that antisemitism would decline but not disappear. Noted critics of Israel, such as Noam Chomsky and Norman Finkelstein, question the extent of new antisemitism in the United States. Chomsky has written in his work Necessary Illusions that the Anti-Defamation League casts any question of pro-Israeli policy as antisemitism, conflating and muddling issues as even Zionists receive the allegation.[130] Finkelstein has stated that supposed “new antisemitism” is a preposterous concept advanced by the ADL to combat critics of Israeli policy.[131] The Roma population in America has blended more-or-less seamlessly into the rest of society.[citation needed] In the U.S., the term “Gypsy” has come to be associated with a trade, profession, or lifestyle more than with the Romani ethnic/racial group.[citation needed] Some Americans, especially those self-employed in the fortune-telling and psychic reading business,[132] use the term “Gypsy” to describe themselves or their enterprise, despite having no ties to the Roma people. This can be chalked up to misperception and ignorance regarding the term rather than any bigotry or even anti-ziganism.[133][dubious discuss] Native Americans, who have lived on the North American continent for at least 10,000 years,[134] had an enormously complex impact on American history and racial relations. During the colonial and independent periods, a long series of conflicts were waged, often with the objective of obtaining resources of Native Americans. Through wars, forced displacement (such as in the Trail of Tears), and the imposition of treaties, land was taken. The loss of land often resulted in hardships for Native Americans. In the early 18th century, the English had enslaved nearly 800 Choctaws.[135] After the creation of the United States, the idea of Indian removal gained momentum. However, some Native Americans chose or were allowed to remain and avoided removal whereafter they were subjected to official racism. The Choctaws in Mississippi described their situation in 1849, “we have had our habitations torn down and burned, our fences destroyed, cattle turned into our fields and we ourselves have been scourged, manacled, fettered and otherwise personally abused, until by such treatment some of our best men have died.”[136] Joseph B. Cobb, who moved to Mississippi from Georgia, described Choctaws as having “no nobility or virtue at all,” and in some respect he found blacks, especially native Africans, more interesting and admirable, the red man’s superior in every way. The Choctaw and Chickasaw, the tribes he knew best, were beneath contempt, that is, even worse than black slaves.[137] Ideological expansionist justification (Manifest Destiny) included stereotyped perceptions of all Native Americans as “merciless Indian savages” (as described in the United States Declaration of Independence) despite successful American efforts at civilization as proven with the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Creek, and Choctaw. In 1861, residents of Mankato, Minnesota, formed the Knights of the Forest, with a goal of ‘eliminating all Indians from Minnesota.’ An egregious attempt occurred with the California gold rush, the first two years of which saw the deaths of thousands of Native Americans. Under Mexican rule in California, Indians were subjected to de facto enslavement under a system of peonage by the white elite. While in 1850, California formally entered the Union as a free state, with respect to the issue of slavery, the practice of Indian indentured servitude was not outlawed by the California Legislature until 1863.[138] During the period surrounding the 1890 Wounded Knee Massacre, author L. Frank Baum wrote two editorials about Native Americans. Five days after the killing of the Lakota Sioux holy man, Sitting Bull, Baum wrote, “The proud spirit of the original owners of these vast prairies inherited through centuries of fierce and bloody wars for their possession, lingered last in the bosom of Sitting Bull. With his fall the nobility of the Redskin is extinguished, and what few are left are a pack of whining curs who lick the hand that smites them. The Whites, by law of conquest, by justice of civilization, are masters of the American continent, and the best safety of the frontier settlements will be secured by the total annihilation of the few remaining Indians. Why not annihilation? Their glory has fled, their spirit broken, their manhood effaced; better that they die than live the miserable wretches that they are.”[139] Following the December 29, 1890, massacre, Baum wrote, “The Pioneer has before declared that our only safety depends upon the total extirmination [sic] of the Indians. Having wronged them for centuries we had better, in order to protect our civilization, follow it up by one more wrong and wipe these untamed and untamable creatures from the face of the earth. In this lies safety for our settlers and the soldiers who are under incompetent commands. Otherwise, we may expect future years to be as full of trouble with the redskins as those have been in the past.”[139][140] Military and civil resistance by Native Americans has been a constant feature of American history. So too have a variety of debates around issues of sovereignty, the upholding of treaty provisions, and the civil rights of Native Americans under U.S. law. Once their territories were incorporated into the United States, surviving Native Americans were denied equality before the law and often treated as wards of the state.[141] Many Native Americans were moved to reservationsconstituting 4% of U.S. territory. In a number of cases treaties signed with Native Americans were violated. Tens of thousands of American Indians and Alaska Natives were forced to attend a residential school system which sought to reeducate them in white settler American values, culture and economy.[142][143] Further dispossession of various kinds continues into the present, although these current dispossessions, especially in terms of land, rarely make major news headlines in the country (e.g., the Lenape people’s recent fiscal troubles and subsequent land grab by the State of New Jersey), and sometimes even fail to make it to headlines in the localities in which they occur. Through concessions for industries such as oil, mining and timber and through division of land from the Allotment Act forward, these concessions have raised problems of consent, exploitation of low royalty rates, environmental injustice, and gross mismanagement of funds held in trust, resulting in the loss of $1040 billion.[144] The Worldwatch Institute notes that 317 reservations are threatened by environmental hazards, while Western Shoshone land has been subjected to more than 1,000 nuclear explosions.[145] The government appointed agents, like Benjamin Hawkins, to live among the Native Americans and to teach them, through example and instruction, how to live like whites.[146] America’s first president, George Washington, formulated a policy to encourage the “civilizing” process.[147] Washington had a six-point plan for civilization which included: 1. impartial justice toward Native Americans 2. regulated buying of Native American lands 3. promotion of commerce 4. promotion of experiments to civilize or improve Native American society 5. presidential authority to give presents 6. punishing those who violated Native American rights.[148] The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U.S. citizenship to all Native Americans. Prior to the passage of the act, nearly two-thirds of Native Americans were already U.S. citizens.[149] The earliest recorded date of Native Americans becoming U.S. citizens was in 1831 when the Mississippi Choctaw became citizens after the United States Legislature ratified the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek. Under article XIV of that treaty, any Choctaw who elected not to move to Native American Territory could become an American citizen when he registered and if he stayed on designated lands for five years after treaty ratification. Citizenship could also be obtained by: 1. Treaty Provision (as with the Mississippi Choctaw) 2. Allotment under the Act of February 8, 1887 3. Issuance of Patent in Fee Simple 4. Adopting Habits of Civilized Life 5. Minor Children 6. Citizenship by Birth 7. Becoming Soldiers and Sailors in the U.S. Armed Forces 8. Marriage 9. Special Act of Congress. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That all noncitizen Native Americans born within the territorial limits of the United States be, and they are hereby, declared to be citizens of the United States: Provided, That the granting of such citizenship shall not in any manner impair or otherwise affect the right of any Native American to tribal or other property. Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 While formal equality has been legally recognized, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders remain among the most economically disadvantaged groups in the country, and according to National mental health studies, American Indians as a group tend to suffer from high levels of alcoholism, depression and suicide.[150] Using The Schedule of Racist Events (SRE), an 18-item self-report inventory that assesses the frequency of racist discrimination, Hope Landrine and Elizabeth A. Klonoff found that racist discrimination is rampant in the lives of African Americans and is strongly related to psychiatric symptoms.[151] A study on racist events in the lives of African American women found that lifetime experiences of racism were positively related to lifetime history of both physical disease and frequency of recent common colds. These relationships were largely unaccounted for by other variables. Demographic variables such as income and education were not related to experiences of racism. The results suggest that racism can be detrimental to African American’s well being.[152] The physiological stress caused by racism has been documented in studies by Claude Steele, Joshua Aronson, and Steven Spencer on what they term “stereotype threat.”[153] Quite similarly, another example of the psychosocial consequences of discrimination have been observed in a study sampling Mexican-origin participants in Fresno, California. It was found that perceived discrimination is correlated with depressive symptoms, especially for those less acculturated in the United States, like Mexican immigrants and migrants.[154] Along the vein of somatic responses to discrimination, Kennedy et al. found that both measures of collective disrespect were strongly correlated with black mortality (r = 0.53 to 0.56), as well as with white mortality (r = 0.48 to 0.54). These data suggest that racism, measured as an ecologic characteristic, is associated with higher mortality in both blacks and whites.[155] Some researchers also suggest that racial segregation may lead to disparities in health and mortality. Thomas LaVeist (1989; 1993) tested the hypothesis that segregation would aid in explaining race differences in infant mortality rates across cities. Analyzing 176 large and midsized cities, LaVeist found support for the hypothesis. Since LaVeist’s studies, segregation has received increased attention as a determinant of race disparities in mortality.[156] Studies have shown that mortality rates for male and female African Americans are lower in areas with lower levels of residential segregation. Mortality for male and female Whites was not associated in either direction with residential segregation.[157] Researchers Sharon A. Jackson, Roger T. Anderson, Norman J. Johnson and Paul D. Sorlie found that, after adjustment for family income, mortality risk increased with increasing minority residential segregation among Blacks aged 25 to 44 years and non-Blacks aged 45 to 64 years. In most age/race/gender groups, the highest and lowest mortality risks occurred in the highest and lowest categories of residential segregation, respectively. These results suggest that minority residential segregation may influence mortality risk and underscore the traditional emphasis on the social underpinnings of disease and death.[158] Rates of heart disease among African Americans are associated with the segregation patterns in the neighborhoods where they live (Fang et al. 1998). Stephanie A. Bond Huie writes that neighborhoods affect health and mortality outcomes primarily in an indirect fashion through environmental factors such as smoking, diet, exercise, stress, and access to health insurance and medical providers.[159] Moreover, segregation strongly influences premature mortality in the US.[160] As early as 1866, the Civil Rights Act provided a remedy for intentional race discrimination in employment by private employers and state and local public employers. The Civil Rights Act of 1871 applies to public employment or employment involving state action prohibiting deprivation of rights secured by the federal constitution or federal laws through action under color of law. Title VII is the principal federal statute with regard to employment discrimination prohibiting unlawful employment discrimination by public and private employers, labor organizations, training programs and employment agencies based on race or color, religion, gender, and national origin. Title VII also prohibits retaliation against any person for opposing any practice forbidden by statute, or for making a charge, testifying, assisting, or participating in a proceeding under the statute. The Civil Rights Act of 1991 expanded the damages available in Title VII cases and granted Title VII plaintiffs the right to a jury trial. Title VII also provides that race and color discrimination against every race and color is prohibited. Media Popular culture (songs, theater) for European American audiences in the 19th century created and perpetuated negative stereotypes of African Americans. One key symbol of racism against African Americans was the use of blackface. Directly related to this was the institution of minstrelsy. Other stereotypes of African Americans included the fat, dark-skinned “mammy” and the irrational, hypersexual male “buck”. In recent years increasing numbers of African-American activists have asserted that rap music videos commonly utilize scantily clothed African-American performers posing as thugs or pimps. The NAACP and the National Congress of Black Women also have called for the reform of images on videos and on television. Julian Bond said that in a segregated society, people get their impressions of other groups from what they see in videos and what they hear in music.[161][162][163][164] In a similar vein, activists protested against the BET show, Hot Ghetto Mess, which satirizes the culture of working-class African-Americans. The protests resulted in the change of the television show name to We Got to Do Better.[161] It is understood that representations of minorities in the media have the ability to reinforce or change stereotypes. For example, in one study, a collection of white subjects were primed by a comedy skit either showing a stereotypical or neutral portrayal of African-American characters. Participants were then required to read a vignette describing an incident of sexual violence, with the alleged offender either white or black, and assign a rating for perceived guilt. For those shown the stereotypical African-American character, there was a significantly higher guilt rating for black alleged offender in the subsequent vignette, in comparison to the other conditions.[165] While schemas have an overt societal consequence, the strong development of them have lasting effect on recipients. Overall, it is found that strong in-group attitudes are correlated with academic and economic success. In a study analyzing the interaction of assimilation and racial-ethnic schemas for Hispanic youth found that strong schematic identities for Hispanic youth undermined academic achievement.[166] Additional stereotypes attributed to minorities continue to influence societal interactions. For example, a 1993 Harvard Law Review article states that Asian-Americans are commonly viewed as submissive, as a combination of relative physical stature and Western comparisons of cultural attitudes. Furthermore, Asian-Americans are depicted as the model minority, unfair competitors, foreigners, and indistinguishable. These stereotypes can serve to dehumanize Asian-Americans and catalyze hostility and violence.[167] Formal discrimination against minorities has been present throughout American history. Leland T. Saito, Associate Professor of Sociology and American Studies & Ethnicity at the University of Southern California, writes, “Political rights have been circumscribed by race, class and gender since the founding of the United States, when the right to vote was restricted to white men of property. Throughout the history of the United States race has been used by whites a category that has also shifted through time for legitimizing and creating difference and social, economic and political exclusion.”[168] Within education, a survey of black students in sixteen majority white universities found that four of five African-Americans reported some form of racial discrimination. For example, in February 1988, the University of Michigan enforced a new anti discrimination code following the distribution of fliers saying blacks “don’t belong in classrooms, they belong hanging from trees”. Other forms of reported discrimination were refusal to sit next to black in lecture, ignored input in class settings, and informal segregation. While the penalties are imposed, the psychological consequences of formal discrimination can still manifest. Black students, for example, reported feelings of heightened isolation and suspicion. Furthermore, studies have shown that academic performance is stunted for black students with these feelings as a result of their campus race interactions.[169] Minority racism is sometimes considered controversial because of theories of power in society. Some theories of racism insist that racism can only exist in the context of social power to impose it upon others.[170] Yet discrimination and racism between racially marginalized groups has been noted. For example, there has been ongoing violence between African American and Mexican American gangs, particularly in Southern California.[171][172][173][174] There have been reports of racially motivated attacks against Mexican Americans who have moved into neighborhoods occupied mostly by African Americans, and vice versa.[175][176] According to gang experts and law enforcement agents, a longstanding race war between the Mexican Mafia and the Black Guerilla Family, a rival African American prison gang, has generated such intense racial hatred among Mexican Mafia leaders, or shot callers, that they have issued a “green light” on all blacks. This amounts to a standing authorization for Latino gang members to prove their mettle by terrorizing or even murdering any blacks sighted in a neighborhood claimed by a gang loyal to the Mexican Mafia.[dead link][177] There have been several significant riots in California prisons where Mexican American inmates and African Americans have targeted each other particularly, based on racial reasons.[178][179] There has also been noted conflict between recent immigrant groups and their established ethnic counterparts within the United States. Rapid growth in African and Caribbean immigrants has come into conflict with American blacks. Interaction and cooperation between black immigrants and American blacks are, ironically, debatable. One can argue that racial discrimination and cooperation is not ordinarily based on color of skin but more on shared common, cultural experiences, and beliefs.[180][181] Furthermore, conflict between Chinese immigrants and Japanese Americans are known to have occurred in the San Gabriel Valley of the Los Angeles area in the 1980s.[citation needed] In a manner that defines interpersonal discrimination in the United States, Darryl Brown of the Virginia Law Review states that while “our society has established a consensus against blatant, intentional racism and in decades since Brown v Board of Education has developed a sizeable set of legal remedies to address it”, our legal system “ignores the possibility that ‘race’ is structural or interstitial, that it can be the root of injury even when not traceable to a specific intention or action”[182]

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August 28, 2016   Posted in: Black Racism  Comments Closed

Black Racism – Discover the Networks

Racism, in its many varieties, has been part and parcel of the human condition since the dawn of time. One of those varieties is black racism, which, as it currently exists in the United States, is rooted in the notion that African Americans are justified in hating (or even harming) white people as a form of reprisal for the latter’s historical, and continuing, transgressions against blacks. By the left’s reckoning,however, this hatreddoes notmerit classification as racism;rather, even blacks who express the most vicious racial hatred imaginable whether in word or deed are viewed not as racists but as agents ofretributive justice against their white tormenters. Among the notable leftists who share theperspective that blacks cannot be racists are the Reverend Joseph Lowery, film director Spike Lee, author Joel Kovel, lecturer/activist Paula Rothenberg, rap singer Sister Souljah, the anti-racist essayist Tim Wise, and scholar Coramae Richey Mann. Mann, for her part, contends that because blacks lack institutional power, it is definitionally impossible for [them] to be identified as racist. Sociologist and economist Thomas Sowell addresses this notion that racism is an exclusively white trait: A more tendentious definition of racism …emerged in the late twentieth centuryto exempt racial minorities themselves from the charge. Racism was now said to require power, which minorities do not have, so that even the most anti-white, anti-Jewish, or anti-Asian sentiments … were automatically exempt from the charge of racism. No such priviso thatpower was required for racism ever existed before. That this new and self-serving escape hatch remained largely unchallenged has been one index of the level of moral intimidation surrounding racial issues…. In the ordinary sense of the word, minorities of all colors have shown themselves capable of as vicious racism is anybody else, whether in or out of power. The hostility, boycotts, or violence of African ancestry people against people from India has been common from Kenya to South Africa, as well as in Jamaica and Guiana. Such behavior differs in no essential way from the behavior labeled ‘racism’ when it is the African-ancestry population being abused by people of European ancestry. If one were to acceptthe notion that racism cannot exist without power to oppress, onewould also need tobelieve that a virtually impotent organization like the Ku Klux Klan is not racist clearly an untenable position. Held in contempt by most white Americans, the Klan today is virtually defunct. Close to bankruptcy, this group which once boasted millions of members and wielded significant political power, now has no established alliances with mainstream white leaders or organizations, and has no more than 4,000 members nationwide.No Klansmen can be found among newspaper editors, legislators, district judges, or the directors of major corporations. And contemporary Klan leaders are capable of attracting only a handful of white racists to their meetings. A prominent exponent of black racism in recent decades has been Nation of Islam leaderLouis Farrakhan,who has a long, well-documented history of referring to whites and Jews as “devils,” “bloodsuckers,” vicious beasts, and the skunks of the planet. Farrakhan protege Malik Zulu Shabazz, leader of the New Black Panther Party, commonly refers to blacks as “God’s chosen people” and shouts Black power! during his speeches. Even as he denounces what he perceives to be the scourge of white supremacy, Shabazz embraces his own philosophy of racial superiority– essentiallya mirror image of the worldview he ascribes to the legions of racist whites purportedlydotting the American landscape. Said Shabazz on one occasion: Mendel, the German scientist teaches us thatdarkgenes are dominant and light genes are recessive. Black Power!” At an April 2002 protest in Washington, DC, Shabazz thundered: “Kill every goddamn Zionist in Israel! Goddamn little babies, goddamn old ladies! Blow up Zionist supermarkets!” Another high-profile black racist iscivil-rights activist Al Sharpton, who, in the late 1980s,knowingly abetted a 15-year-old black girl infalsely charging that a mysterious gang of white racists had abducted and gang-raped her. A few years after that, Sharpton helped foment some of the ugliest anti-Semitic riots in living memorywhen he falsely depicted a Brooklyn, New York car accident (in whicha 7-year-old black child had been killed) as a racially tinged homicide perpetrated by a Hasidic Jew. In 1995Sharpton orchestrated a grotesque (and ultimately deadly) boycott against a Jewish-owned clothing shopin Harlem, New York, where a throng of black picketers under the watchful, approving eye of Sharpton shriekedthat a cabal of greedy Jew bastards and white crackers had been mistreating them. And Sharpton once lavished an audience of students and professors at New Jersey’s Kean College withreferences to white “crackers” and “Greek homos”who, from a historical perspective, were still in the caves [of Europe] while we [black Africans] was building empires and developing philosophy and astrology and mathematics. Charles Barron is a black nationalist andDemocraticcouncilman from Brooklyn, New York. A onetime member of the Black Panther Party, he makes no secret of his contempt for white people. In August 2002, while speaking before a crowd at the Millions for Reparations March in Washington, DC, Barron made the case for a Democrat-sponsored billmandating reparations for black slavery in the following terms: “I want to go up to the closest white person and say: ‘You can’t understand this, it’s a black thing’ and then slap him, just for my mental health. The late black poet and professor Amiri Baraka asserted that blacks are justified in robbing or even killing whites, because the latter “already stole” everything from the former. “[The white man] owes you anything you want,” wrote Baraka, “even his life. All the stores will open if you say the magic words. The magic words are: Up against the wall mother f—er this is a stick up! Let’s get together and kill him my man.” In another poem, Baraka wrote: “Rape the white girls. Rape their fathers. Cut the mothers’ throats.” Claiming that blacks and whites could not possibly coexist in peace, Baraka once said, “We [blacks] must eliminate the white man before we can draw a free breath on this planet.” When a white woman asked Baraka what whites could do to help the black cause, he replied, “You can help by dying. You are a cancer. You can help the world’s people with your death.” In addition to its contempt for white people, another facet of black racism is its intoleranceof opposing viewpoints. Black leftists routinely excoriate black conservativesas race traitors, house slaves, Oreos, Uncle Toms, and worse. A case can also be made for the suggestion that black racism is manifest in the high black-on-white crime rates that currently exist in the United States.Each year, nearly 770,000 violent interracial crimes involving blacks and whites occur nationwide. In at least 85 percent of those cases, according to U.S. Justice Department figures, the perpetrators are black and the victims are white. Statistically, the average black is 39 times more likely to commit a violent crime against a white than vice versa, and 136 times more likely to rob a white person than vice versa. In his book The End of Racism, Dinesh DSouza writes that in one particular year approximately 100 black women were raped by white men in the United States; the corresponding number of white women raped by black men was over 20,000. Black racism remains a dynamic phenomenon in the United States because African Americans have been told, ad nauseam by leftists in the civil-rights establishment, in the media, in the churches, in academia, and in the political world to reflexively blame white society for their every problem; toview themselves as the oppressed and powerless victims ofwhite society. Having listened for so long to these incessant depictions of the United States as a land of racial inequity, many black Americans have become angry, embittered racists themselves. As black columnist Michael Meyers once put it, they have zealously transform[ed] themselves into the apostles of their own delusions. RESOURCES: It’s Time to Call out Black Racism By Daniel Greenfield August 5, 2015 Black Racism: The Hate That Dare Not SpeakIts Name By Ying Ma November 1, 1998 America’s New Racists By Walter Williams June 22, 2011 Racism Is at the Root of Baltimores Riots By Daniel Greenfield May 4, 2015 Black Racism and The Jena Six By John Perazzo September 27, 2007 Hiding Black Interracial Crimes By Walter Williams December 26, 2007 What About Hate Crimes by Blacks? By Walter Williams August 22, 1999 The Racial Violence that Dare Not Speak Its Name By John T. Bennett August 30, 2011 No Whites Allowed By Eileen F. Toplansky October 12, 2015 Trayvon Martin Was Barack Obamas Son, and Kiki Gray Was Jumaane Williams Son, but Why Will No Politician Adopt Bailey ONeill? By Nicholax Stix March 19, 2013 Dead Souls of a Cultural Revolution By Patrick J. Buchanan August 22, 2013 Faces of Evil in a Violent Underclass By Bryce Buchanan August 26, 2013 The New York Times Knockout Game Denial By Colin Flaherty November 26, 2013 Black Mob Violence: New Denials… and New Violence By Colin Flaherty November 26, 2013 Aftermath of the Duke Lacrosse Rape Case By Roger Kimball November 24, 2013 SEE ALSO: * Black Racists and the Jihad in America * Black Anti-Semitism

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July 21, 2016   Posted in: Black Racism  Comments Closed

Black Racism | Fellowship of the Minds

150 years ago, Americans fought a bloody Civil War (1861-1865) over slavery, which ended in the abolition of slavery with the 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Nearly 50 years ago, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, a landmark piece of legislation that outlawed major forms of discrimination against racial, ethnic, national and religious minorities, and women, as well as ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools, the workplace, and public facilities. In 2008, Barack Obama was voted as the first (half) black President of the United States of America, after being hailed by the media as the first post-racial President who would heal the racial divisions and wounds that have plagued this country. In 2012, he was reelected to a second term despite having done nothing to improve the life circumstances of black Americans, other than consigningeven more of them to a life of dependency byaddingmillions more to food stamps rolls. Nor did he heal Americas racial wounds or mend racial divisions. On the contrary, with provocative remarks such as If I had a son, he would look like Trayvon, Obama actually worsened racial tensions, setting back Americas race relations by decades. On August 28, 1963, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his famous speech, I Havea Dream, in which he said: I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character. Sadly, half a century later, Dr. Kings dream remains an aspiration to be fulfilled. Too many black Americans and their allies on the Left are still relying on the color of their skin, scapegoating anyone who judges the content of their character with the noxious label of racist. Many white and even some black Americans are sick of the Lefts reflexive, default-mode accusations of racism. According to a 2013 Rasmussen survey, more Americans view blacks instead of whites or Hispanics as racist. Even liberals (21%) see most black Americans as racist. Even Democrats (29%) see most black Americans as racist. Even black Americans (1 out of every 3!) think most blacks are racist. In fact more blacks (31%) think most blacks are racist than blacks (24%) who think most whites are racist. This page contains links to the posts FOTM has published on the subject of race and racism. ~Eowyn Obese black woman trashes store after her EBT card wasdenied, June 8, 2016. U.S. white pre-school kids think they can grow up to beblacks, May 20, 2016. Leftwing Lunacy: Trees & national parks areracist, May 20, 2016. Towson University hosts presentation: white people are aplague, May 16, 2016. Arab Spring in America: NAACP joins Soros-funded coalition for massive protests inD.C., April 6, 2016. Black activist threatens riots if Trumpwins, April 3, 2016. Black U. of West Georgia students advocate white genocide at Harvarddebate, March 16, 2016. U.S. has 4 of worlds 50 most dangerouscities, Feb. 9, 2016. Jada Pinkett Smith debates boycotting the Oscars, Jan. 17, 2016. At a gas station somewhere in the Congo . .., Jan. 8, 2016. 78% increase in homicides in Baltimore since Freddie Grayriots, Jan. 3, 2015. Aide of Chicago Mayor Rahm Emanuel attacked at shooting vigil, Dec. 31, 2015. Will Smith Talks Racism I Live with Constant Prejudice But as Actors, We Have the Ultimate Power, Dec. 3, 2015. Rev Jesse Jackson says Amazon, Costco needs more minorities, Dec. 3, 2015. Obamas DOJ considers racist and anti-government Americans to be domesticterrorists, Oct. 18, 2015. Mayor Emanuel says police officers are becoming fetal, Oct. 14, 2015. Im not about to hire you if your name is Watermelondrea, Oct. 10, 2015. #BlackLivesMatter is a War on Police leading to complete breakdown of socialorder, Sept. 8, 2015. Inventor of Kwanzaa, now chair of African studies at Calif. university, is a convicted felon who torturedwomen, Sept. 5, 2015. Elephants help another after it collapsed, while hundreds of U.S. college students watch woman getraped, Sept. 4, 2015. Obamas America: Uniformed cop refused service at fast foodArbys, Sept. 4, 2015. Former Marine asks why Blacks are given the power to rule and dominateU.S., Sept. 3, 2015. Washington Post op/ed: Black votes should count 167% more thanyours, Sept. 2, 2015. #BlackLivesMatter is not aboutracism, Sept. 1, 2015. Northeastern University allegedly tells RAs that white men cant beoppressed, Aug. 15, 2015. Taxpayers paid black comedian to deliver racist anti-white hate at federalagency, Aug. 14, 2015. Insane Academe: Professor blames white people for herPMS, Aug. 7, 2016. Obama to NAACP: America is still racist because ofslavery, July 27, 2015. Was Michelle Obama texting during pledge ofallegiance?, (blackWashington Post reporter was the texter), July 14, 2015. Black mob in Chicago attacks woman and children in car for beingwhite, July 13, 2015. Rihanna and a video that should turn all mothers stomachs: The song that glorifies murder, torture, drug-taking, guns and racialstereotyping, July 8, 2015. Black man arrested for posting racist flyers outside blackchurch, July 6, 2015. Taxpayer-Funded Professor: Whiteness Is Terror, Confederate Flag RepresentsCapitalism, July 1, 2015. Walmart says no to Confederate cake, but bakes an ISIS-flagcake, June 29, 2015. Charleston police officer fired for posting pic of himself on Facebook wearing Confederate flag boxershorts, June 27, 2015. War against the Confederacy: Did Obama sign an executive order outlawing confederate flag?, June 25, 2015. Four students face charges of raping mentally disabled girl at North Miami SeniorHigh, June 27, 2015. Race imposter Rachel Dolezal continues to insist shes black, June 24, 2015. Language Apartheid: Only blacks can say nigger,June 23, 2015. Professor says I wanted to be a special, different White person, June 23, 2015. After Charleston church shooting, Republican strategist Karl Rove joins chorus calling for gun control, June 22, 2015. Charleston church killer Dylann Roofs racist manifesto, June 20, 2015. Rutgers professor: There are no good white people only less bad whitepeople, June 19, 2015. NYPD seeking suicidal artist who admitted he bashed 4 Asian women in thenose, June 19, 2015. Busted! President of Washington NAACP is white, June 13, 2015. Students demand conservative-libertarian columnist be fired for racist, unsafe views, June 10, 2015. NATIONWIDE crime spike after Ferguson-Baltimore riots, May 31, 2015. State of anarchy in post-riot Baltimore: Homicides spike; police presence scarce; residentsfearful, May 28, 2015. The newest liberal idiocy: Segregating 3rdgraders, May 26, 2015. List of persons/groups paid by Soros to protest in Ferguson &Selma, May 20, 2015. 50 Baltimore Black teens beat 61 y.o. white man almost todeath, May 13, 2015. Paging the #BlackLivesMatter crowd: 5 killed, 22 wounded in Chicago weekendshootings, May 4, 2015. Freddie Grays death ruled a homicide. 6 Baltimore cops incustody, May 1, 2015. Who is FreddieGray?, April 30, 2015. Defenders of Baltimore RaceRiots, April 30, 2015. Wayne Allyn Root on BlackAmerica, April 29, 2015. Allen West: Baltimore is not an American failure. Baltimore is a DEMOCRATfailure, April 29, 2015. A movie becomes real: Baltimore race riots understood mayors words as permission toPurge, April 28, 2015. First American slave-owner was a Blackman, April 28, 2015. Sup? Sapnin?, (on Baltimore race riots), April 28, 2015. The Conversation We Need To Be Having About Race: I want to see a cop shoot a white unarmed teenager in theback, April 24, 2015. Air Force veteran arrested for interfering with Black protesters defiling Americanflag, April 19, 2015. Armed Black Panthers call for murder ofcops, March 19, 2015. Ferguson in Chaos: 2 officersshot, March 12, 2015. Planned Parenthood accepts donations earmarked for aborting blackbabies, March 4, 2015. Billionaire George Soros spent $33MILLION bankrolling Ferguson demonstrators to create echo chamber and drive nationalprotests, March 4, 2015. Black neurosurgeon Ben Carson enters 2016 presidential race, but is he the rightman?, March 3, 2015. Facebook locks page of 12-year-old black boy who says Obama hates America, March 1, 2015. Public university omits race from crime alerts to protect minority students feelings, Feb. 27, 2015. Project Veritas Stings AlSharpton, Feb. 24, 2015. Black teens storm into theater to steal 50 Shades ofGrey, Feb. 18, 2015. Texas man spits on womans car, hurls racial insults during terrifying road rageincident, Feb. 18, 2015. Are the Makers of the Selma MovieSatanists???, Feb. 11, 2015. Southern Poverty Law Center Puts Dr. Ben Carson on Extremist List, Feb. 11, 2015. Paging Al Sharpton: Three teenage boys pistol-whipped girl, 14, and then shot her dead inattack, Jan. 28, 2015. Ferguson cop vindicated: DOJ wont filecharges, Jan. 23, 2015. Chicago Blacks respond to Obamas 2015 State of theUnion, Jan. 22, 2015. Now liberals want white business owners to be PC: A Hip-Hop Brunch Menu isProblematic, Jan. 20, 2015. The Oscars AreRacist!!!, Jan. 15, 2015. Companies that finance Al Sharptons race-baiting, Dec 31, 2014. Black Sheriff David Clarke: Second Amendment is aboutfreedom, Dec. 30, 2014. Message to all racebaiters, Dec. 24,2 014. Race-baiting: Barack & Michelle still victims of racism, mistaken for sales clerk &valet, Dec. 17, 2014. Black sheriff to Obama: You built Americas racialdivide, Dec. 16, 2014. Graphic video of Michael Brown (?) assaulting an oldman, Dec. 13, 2014. White president of California State University: All light-skinned people areracist, Dec. 13, 2014. Obama says cops kill blacks because they look different, Dec. 11, 2014. #TBT 2012: An Obama Win Will Improve Race Relations, Dec. 11, 2014. #BlackLivesMatter? What about blacks in Chicago? And blackbabies?, Dec. 10, 2014. Chris Rock: Studios Are Too Worried About White People Getting MyJokes, Dec. 9, 2014. U.C. Berkeley student protest against Ferguson police violence turnsviolent, Dec. 7, 2014.

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June 12, 2016   Posted in: Black Racism  Comments Closed

Korea’s Black Racism Epidemic – Groove Magazine

Story by: Dave Hazzan, Photos by:Michael Roy On a subway in Seoul, Beauty Epps is approached by a middle-aged Korean woman. Africa! the Korean says. No, Epps, a young African-American woman, calmly replies. American. Migukin. No, the Korean woman replies. Africa. Then, after a pause, the Korean woman says, We domesticated you. In Gunpo, Gyeonggi Province, Ashanti Lee, a young African-American man, is hired to substitute at a kindergarten. He speaks to the manager on the phone, and everything seems fine. But when he shows up, the owner opens the door, stutters and then says, Oh, no, no. Why not? asks Lee. Black ugly, the manager replies. White okay. Many foreigners would agree that, even if their experiences here are generally positive, Korean racism and xenophobia are impossible to ignore. There is still a clear disconnect between the 98 percent ethnic Koreans and the 2 percent foreigners of all sorts mixed-race children, foreign brides, native English teachers, migrant factory workers and the tiny number of permanent immigrants and refugees who are now Korean citizens. In a survey last year, the Washington Post found South Korea to be one of the least racially tolerant countries in the world. It found that more than 1 in 3 South Koreans said they do not want a neighbor of a different race. In 2009, The New York Times reported that 42 percent of (Korean) respondents in a 2008 survey said they had never once spoken with a foreigner. In one way or another, racism affects almost every foreigner in Korea. But being black here is different. Whether African-American, African or not even black but mistaken for it, experiences in Korea are tainted by the perception that blacks are lower than other races: Blacks are violent, unintelligent and poor. Black Americans are not really American, and are inappropriate teachers for Korean children. Africans live in a backward, single African country, consisting of little more than jungle. These views are not universal, but they are commonly heard in Korea. Everyone has a different experience. While some black residents say they have never felt a touch of racism here, others say they must deal with it every day. Some, like Epps, just walk away. Lee convinced the academy owner that he was a perfectly good teacher, and was asked to stay. The infamous see these rocks guy of YouTube fame (explained in detail later in this article) snapped and unloaded on an old man on a bus. Koreas anti-black sentiment stems from a range of influences, from the traditional Korean preference for the color white, to the burning of LAs Koreatown in 1992, to the Confucian philosophy of hierarchy, to the idea that blood type defines personality. Much of it is directly imported from the U.S. Racism happens in the workplace, on the street and at the first meeting with a girlfriends family. The local media continues to be flooded with racist sentiments, advertisements and perceptions. Its painful and its widespread. American Maria Hernandez, 30, says she experiences racism every day. Ive never had to come to terms with (racism) like I have here. Racism in the classroom For many black teachers in Korea, the problem begins before they even arrive finding a job. The Korean practice of including a picture with the resume leaves nothing up to assumption, including skin color. Deja Motley, 34, has a masters degree, TOEFL certification and years of teaching experience, including time in Japan and university work in Haiti. I would send my resume out without a picture and would get ambushed with replies from recruiters. Every recruiter, every school, says Motley, from Chicago. And then I would send my picture, and it was crickets. I would be lucky if I got one reply back. And usually it was a reply back from China, or some school far out in the country. Stories from other teachers include hagwon bosses asking, How dark are you, exactly? or bluntly asking mixed-race candidates if they identified as black. Whites only ads, while not as commonly found as they were in the late 2000s, can still be spotted on job posting sites. Some recruiters will tell black teachers flat out, Your options are limited because youre black. Although academies that Groove Korea interviewed for this story did not acknowledge discrimination against black teachers, recruiters said hagwon owners explicitly discriminate when searching for teachers. One Korean recruiter, who asked not to be named, says over 80 percent of academies that he works with especially in Gangnam and central Seoul and at well-known franchises prefer white applicants over black. I am still getting many resumes from African-American teachers, but its hard to find positions for them. I feel sorry for them. I found only two positions for them (in 2013), he says, adding that the teachers two of the more than 30 black applicants he worked with last year were placed in rural Gyeonggi Province, not Seoul. Last year (2012) was six, I think. Its getting worse. While some academies shy away from black teachers because of hearsay and personal prejudices, he says, others also face pressure from the parents. And with the hagwon industry tightening and more and more academies fighting uphill against closure, they are even more reluctant to take any potential risks, the recruiter says. They (the directors) say that if they hire them (black candidates), they would be worried about losing kids. It does not look good to parents and may (give the academy) a bad reputation and lose in competition against other hagwons with white teachers, he says. Some hagwons have gotten a lot of complaints from parents and actually lost kids. Gossip grows quickly and sometimes its unstoppable, like (with criticism from employing) black teachers. An American recruiter, who also asked to remain anonymous, says schools will usually request white teachers only. Nine out of 10 schools who dont request this up front will not choose to interview any teachers other than Caucasians, he says. Weve worked with about 100 schools in Korea, and only five to 10 of them have even considered our non-Caucasian teachers, even though they had equal qualifications. Parents seem to prefer their kids to be taught by Caucasian teachers than black teachers, says a manager at WILS Language Institution in Mok-dong, Seoul, who declined to be named. He says the school does not consider race, but rather career, nationality (for visa eligibility), passion and English-related studies. However, he says the school has not reviewed any black candidates for employment, claiming it has only seen the resume of one half-black, half-Hispanic teacher so far. Tony Choi, who owns a small hagwon in Gangnam, says its the parents prejudices that cause hagwon owners to favor hiring white teachers. Parents are influenced by images from the media such as those showing that white people are naturally good at speaking English while nonwhites arent, or that black people are criminals, less trustworthy and uneducated which he says leads even overseas-born Koreans like himself to have a hard time finding a job. So, its not fair to put the blame on hagwon owners for not hiring blacks or kyopos (overseas Koreans), because hagwons are a business, and a lot of parents want their kids learning from someone that they perceive as an English teacher,’ he says. While general openness to foreigners seems to be improving, Choi says he thinks that hiring discrimination will get worse from a business standpoint. As a hagwon owner of a small hagwon, it would be in my best interest to hire someone who will generate more business, as opposed to someone who will serve as an obstacle to get students. This isnt specific for black people, but I would have to hire someone who parents would feel comfortable sending their children to. Even once a job is found, problems can continue. Black teachers often face harassment, negative comments from parents and coteachers and even campaigns to have them replaced. Hernandez, from New Jersey, says she constantly has trouble with the management at her hagwon in Gangnam. She says shes faced a constant barrage of criticism from her bosses over my hair, about my skin, my weight. Its constant here. Parents are a driving force. Hernandez says parents ganged up on her and were forever trying to get her to leave her job, or get the bosses to fire her, even though she insists the kids loved her classes. These problems didnt seem to affect the white teachers at the school. The teacher that I replaced, all he did was play games, Hernandez says, adding that the teacher had been there for two years. Me, just getting there, (the parents) wanted me fired after three months. Brendan Spencer, 28 and from St. Louis, feels he gets a lack of regard or respect from his coteachers like Im lesser, he says. When he was asked to make morning broadcasts at his school outside of his contract obligations he did it at first, but then said he was too busy planning his classes to continue. They were pretty upset about it, Spencer says. Whereas when the previous (white) teacher was asked, he just flat (out) said no. And that got a pass. Spencer adds that when he disagrees with the other teachers or asserts his rights, Koreans often get much more emotional with him than with others. I just feel that if I were a Korean person or a non-black person, that kind of vitriol or emotion wouldnt be there, he says. Scott Meech, a white, Korean-speaking Canadian who worked in 2009 as a head teacher and human resources manager for a company that sent foreign teachers to different hagwon every week, has witnessed discrimination against black teachers on the ground level. In one instance, he started receiving complaints about a black teacher, and went to observe that teachers classes. He says he saw nothing at all wrong with his teaching. He was a good teacher with nice classroom manners and a connection with the students, Meech says. I had a meeting with the various directors, asking exactly what was wrong, and was told that many of the students were afraid of black people. They were afraid of losing students. Meech tried to defend the teacher as great, but was told to fire him anyway. He refused and stepped down from his position. He warned the teacher, and a month later, the black teacher was fired. Many Korean parents have complained that their kids are afraid of black teachers. Elliott Ashby thinks the truth is different: Korean kids are not afraid of black teachers their parents are. When I did parent-teacher conferences, some of the parents would ask, Are my children afraid of you?’ says Ashby, 30, from Phoenix. Id say, No, but you might be.’ Ashby says kids dont know racism on their own. Some of his students would notice his dark skin, or the difference in skin tones on the palm and back of his hand. Sometimes kids would ask, Why are you black? and hed answer, Just ate a lot of chocolate! But this is not hate its curiosity, and black teachers should understand that, he says. They say every bigot was once a child without prejudice, Ashby said. Kids, they dont know the difference. But sometimes miseducation comes before a black teacher does. Some teachers report students who couldnt believe a black person could be from America and not Africa. Epps describes how at her school, the students were used to black American teachers. But then came a new first grader who looked at her strangely and wouldnt speak to her. One day, the girl told her, Youre Africa. I didnt even have to say anything, Epps says. The other students responded and said, Babo (dummy), no, shes American.’ Epps set out to educate her, showing her pictures of her white South African friends on Facebook, and showing her Chicago on a map of the United States. Hernandez says she does her best to educate the children, but she feels its a Sisyphean battle. She believes that educating children about race is important, and says, Ive tried that with my own students. I tell them, Curly hair is okay; Youre not dirty just because your hair is like this; People are different. Then they go home and their parents talk to them, and then their parents say, No, theyre different. Thats not normal. They reeducate them. Its a cycle Hernandez feels she can never escape. Outside of the workplace Outside of work, black people report difficulty getting taxis, even when Koreans and whites get them on the same street. Some say cab drivers go so far as to make illegal U-turns into traffic to avoid picking up black passengers. Some Koreans will refuse to get into elevators with black people, and will often change subway cars to avoid being near black passengers. Ashby tells of one night out with a group of foreign and Korean friends. There was this one Korean girl, she was in her early twenties, he says. Wed only been talking for maybe two minutes and she says, The way you speak is very intelligent. And youre very nice.’ Then she said, Not like most black guys. I said, What do you mean? And she said, You know. Not like black-black guys.’ One black woman told Ashby that a Korean had said she was so beautiful that she couldnt possibly be fully African-American because most (black) girls only have a monkey face, she said. John (not his real name), 26, from Ghana, feels that people from Africa get it even harder than black Americans, and is upset that Africans are often viewed as stupid and primitive. A lot of (Koreans) are really ignorant about what we have in Africa, says John, a graduate student in the Advanced Information Sciences and Information Technology Program at Pukyong National University. They find it weird that we actually speak English, and they wonder how we even got here. When they get to know that Im on a scholarship, theyre like, Wow!’ He says he often comes across Koreans who dont realize there are even computers in Africa, much less centers to train computer specialists like himself. John says he and his friends are sometimes barred from public places like bars and clubs. He says he has learned that no foreigners allowed can often mean no black foreigners are allowed, while white people can enter just fine. Lining up at one nightclub, two of his white friends walked into the club, paid their 10,000 won and got wristbands. He was outside taking a phone call, but when he showed up, the bouncer said foreigners were not allowed. So Im thinking, How can you sell (tickets) to the first two people, the guy from Finland and the guy from Spain, but the moment I show up, say No foreigners allowed? So, is this because of me being black, or because there are no foreigners allowed? And it was not an isolated incident for him.

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June 10, 2016   Posted in: Black Racism  Comments Closed

Black Racism Rampant In America – rense.com

Nor did they seem at all cognizant of the fact that there are mountains of evidence which entirely contradict their contention that black youngsters routinely get a raw deal from the juvenile justice system. To cite just one example: A mere five weeks before the Jena incident, a gang of perhaps 30 black teenagers brutally assaulted three white women — 21-year-old Laura Schneider, 19-year-old Michelle Smith, and 19-year-old Loren Hyman — in the Bixby Knolls section of Long Beach, California. Hyman suffered 13 facial fractures that required extensive facial reconstruction surgery. Schneider suffered a concussion after one of the attackers yelled a racial slur at her, smashed a skateboard against her head, and continued beating her after she was already unconscious. In February 2007 the four main perpetrators, all of whom were aged 16 to 17 at the time of the attack, were each sentenced to serve a mere 60 days of house arrest — which they were permitted to break in order to attend school and church — and 250 hours of community service. The judge also ordered the lead attacker to attend an eight-week racial tolerance program at the Simon Wiesenthal Center. Not much of a penalty for crimes that could easily have resulted in a death or two. And of course the ACLU, NAACP, Sharpton, and Jackson were nowhere to be seen or heard. Black Racism – Disturbingly Widespread In America There is a larger issue at play, however, apart from whatever penalties the juvenile justice system metes out. That is the issue of black racism, a disturbingly widespread phenomenon in contemporary America. This phenomenon explains why tens of thousands of protesters willingly traveled long distances to stage a show of support for a pack of thugs who had indisputably perpetrated a brutally violent attack against a white person. It explains why they focused exclusively on defending the “rights” of those attackers, rather than on condemning the wrong they had done. And it explains why they chose to portray a group of raging predators as the ‘innocent, misunderstood victims’ of modern America’s allegedly boundless bigotry. Black racism also accounts for the fact that the vast majority of interracial violent crimes are of the black-on-white variety (90% of race crime victims are WHITE -ed), and that statistically the “average” black is many times more likely (50 times -ed) to attack a white, than vice versa. While not all interracial crimes are motivated by racial animosities, many of them — like this recently videotaped gang assault in Viriginia — certainly are. But why should black racism be prevalent in America at this comparatively late stage in our nation’s evolution — long after the rise of equal-opportunity mandates, affirmative action policies, civil rights advances, and the stigmatization of racism to the point where “racist” is by far the epithet most feared by whites, be they political figures, business leaders, clergy, academics, or social commentators? It’s actually quite simple. Black racism remains a dynamic phenomenon because African Americans have been told, ad nauseum, by “civil rights leaders” and by leftist whites in influential organizations like the ACLU, to look outside of themselves for the roots of every ill that plagues their community; to reflexively blame white society for their problems rather than to take responsibility for their own lives; and to view themselves as the oppressed and powerless victims of a white “power structure,” a status they are led to believe renders them somehow incapable of being genuine racists themselves — no matter how much they may detest the white people they perceive to be their tormenters. Moreover, they have been taught to angrily reject astute observations like those of Bill Cosby, who has publicly lamented how illegitimacy, parental neglect, lack of educational effort, and bad behavior have decimated black life. Only the victim mentality fostered by the “civil rights” champions of our day could have prompted tens of thousands of people to think that rallying on behalf of the Jena Six was a worthwhile use of their time. Having listened for so long to the “civil rights” establishment’s incessant depictions of the United States as a land of racial inequity, many black Americans have become angry, embittered racists themselves. They are among the legions who, in the words of black columnist Michael Meyers, zealously “transform themselves into the apostles of their own delusions.” __________ John Perazzo is the author of The Myths That Divide Us: How Lies Have Poisoned American Race Relations. For more information on his book, click http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0965 126811/centerforthest01A/104-3704288-7751118 here. E-mail him at wsbooks25@hotmail.com

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May 15, 2015   Posted in: Black Racism  Comments Closed

This is why the news airs White on Black racism – Video




This is why the news airs White on Black racism By: Pepsi mantis

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April 11, 2015   Posted in: Black Racism  Comments Closed

China Ratchet Daily 24 Chinese Behaving Badly in Kenya – Video




China Ratchet Daily 24 Chinese Behaving Badly in Kenya Please Like and Subscribe: Hit me on the Twit: https://twitter.com/chamaflauge2278 My Blogger: http://loserlaowai.blogspot.jp/ THE STRANGE CAREER OF WRITING ABOUT ANTI-BLACK RACISM IN … By: Loser Laowai in China

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April 6, 2015   Posted in: Black Racism  Comments Closed

BLACK RACISM! – Video




BLACK RACISM! racism! By: MarleyRobins

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April 1, 2015   Posted in: Black Racism  Comments Closed

Black Racism vs White Supremacy. – Video




Black Racism vs White Supremacy. The White Supremacy Industrial Complex in action and explained. By: vpdrinks

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March 29, 2015   Posted in: Black Racism  Comments Closed


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