Archive for the ‘Ethiopian Jews’ Category

Government to Approve Aliyah of 1,000 Ethiopian Jews …

Photo Credit: Courtesy the Knesset

Earlier this year, the Population and Immigration Authority sent the Prime Ministers Office an official letter stating that an additional 1,000 Ethiopian Jews meet Israels criteria for making Aliyah. This was revealed on Monday at a meeting of the Knesset State Control Committee, chaired by MK Shelly Yachimovich (Zionist Camp), which was convened to debate the fate of 8,000 Jews who remain stranded in Ethiopia, unable to make Aliyah.

The positive result of todays meeting is that we received a very clear commitment to bring those 1,000 Jews to Israel, MK Yachimovich said. We heard from the Population and Immigration Authority and the Prime Ministers Office that the matter will be approved during a Government meeting within a month, and I believe it will be approved. If we see that there are delays, we will call an urgent meeting to expedite matters.

Nevertheless, according to Yachimovich, despite this good news, it is unacceptable, from a moral and Zionist standpoint, that thousands of Jews remain in transit camps, in poor conditions, while their qualification as Jews is being examined with much more thoroughness than in cases of Jews from other countries.

Yachimovich insisted that all the remaining Ethiopian Jews must be brought to Israel at once. We are a strong and stable country, we constantly hear that our situation could not be better and how many budget surpluses are in the States treasury, she said, therefore we have the ability and the means to end this saga, which is creating a deep fissure in the Ethiopian Israeli community.

Prof. Shlomo Mor-Yosef, director general of Population and Immigration Authority, told the committee that there is a question [] regarding the Jewishness of those in Ethiopia, and because of this the State has decided that those who are still in Ethiopia will not make Aliyah under the Law of Return. Since then, we have been dealing with Aliyah quotas. I wish to stress that the employees of the Interior Ministry are not racists; we are operating in accordance with the Governments decision and we do not set the policy.

MK Avraham Neguise (Likud) said that in Addis Ababa and Gondar, in Ethiopia, there are at least 1,000 people who meet the criteria set by the Government. A proper examination will find that even more people are eligible, he said. At the Interior Ministry there are some 5,000 requests which have yet to be processed.

A representative of the Struggle for the Aliyah of Ethiopian Jewry organization, a former soldier in the IDF special force Duvdevan unit, told the committee that most of his family made Aliyah together, but two of his sisters remained in Ethiopia.

They were told they could not make Aliyah with us, and we have been waiting for them since 2007, he said. One of my sisters has since been widowed, and my other sister recently married. These are significant events in their lives, but we could not share them because they are not permitted to make Aliyah. Thousands of Jews are waiting there in poor conditions for the Government to bring them to Israel.

MK Omer Barlev (Zionist Camp) said, How can the term quotas be used when we are dealing with human beings? The country is strong, and it cannot be that a few thousand people cant be brought to Israel all at once.

MK Meir Cohen (Yesh Atid) said, There is a population which is waiting in difficult conditions to make Aliyah. Why are they not being brought to Israel under the Law of Return?

In 1973 the Israeli Ministry of Absorption prepared a comprehensive report on the Jewish-Ethiopian community, which stated that they were foreign in all aspects to the Jewish nation. The report concluded that there was no need to take action in order to help the ethnic group make Aliyah to Israel. This was going to be the end of the Falasha hopes to return to Zion. But shortly after the Ministrys report had been published, Rabbi Ovadia Yosef, the Sephardi chief rabbi, decreed that the Ethiopian Jews are a descendant tribe of Israel.

The chief rabbi also said that giving them a proper Jewish education and the right to immigrate to Israel was a Mitzvah.

This contradicted the position of Rabbi Shlomo Goren, the Ashkenazi chief rabbi, who expressed grave doubts as to the validity of their Jewish lineage.

Rabbi Yosefs ruling resulted in the Law of Return being applied to the Ethiopian community, never mind the Ministry of Absorptions report and never mind Chief Rabbi Goren. Starting in the mid-1970s, a massive Aliyah effort brought close to 100,000 Ethiopian Jews to Israel.

Those who have been refused entry belong largely to the Falash Mura community, which converted to Christianity in the 19th and 20th century, but which maintained familial ties with the Jewish Beta Israel community.

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Government approves immigration of 1,000 Ethiopian Jews …

At least 1,000 Ethiopian Jews still living in Ethiopia will be able to immigrate to Israel in the coming year, after the Prime Ministers Office and the Interior Ministry said on Monday they had worked out an initial list of potential immigrants and expected to approve them within four weeks.

There are approximately8,000 Jews in Ethiopiawith close relatives in Israel who are waiting to emigrate.

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The last flight of Ethiopian immigrants arrived in Israel on December 28, 2017, bringing part of the 1,300 immigrants which arrived in 2017. But the cabinet did not approve the approximately NIS 200 million needed to absorb the 1,300 immigrants planned to arrive 2018, putting a hold on the flights.

I am serving the state and fighting the state at the same time, Belaynich Indishu, who was a soldier in the Duvduvan combat unit and now works in security for the government, told the Knesset meeting on Monday. Indishu moved to Israel in 2007 and has two sisters still in Ethiopia. For what? So that I cant be with my sisters?

MK Shelly Yachimovich (Labor), chairwoman of the State Control Committee which held the meeting, praised the announcement as an achievement.

A member of the Falash Mura Jewish Ethiopian community lights the Sabbath candles before the Sabbath and Passover prayer service in the synagogue in Gondar, Ethiopia, April 22, 2016. (Miriam Alster/FLASH90)

The suffering of 6,000 people in Gondar and Addis Ababa goes on for no apparent reason, she said. Were not talking about budget issues but ethical issues. There are forces in the government that are not interested in bringing them to Israel because they do not consider them Jewish, and the motivation here, unfortunately, is racism.

Shlomo Mor-Yosef, the director general of the Population Immigration and Borders Authority, the branch of the Interior Ministry dealing with this issue, said that the Interior Ministrys employees were not racists but were simply implementing the governments decisions.

He said the group expected to immigrate to Israel in 2018 will consist of approximately 1,000 parents and children, focusing on parents who already have some children in Israel.

The process for immigration approval has beenplagued by accusations of racism and inefficiencyagainst the Interior Ministry, and there was asix-month delayin the flights in 2017.

In November 2015, the government announced it would bring to Israel the remaining Ethiopian Jews awaiting immigration. The Finance Ministry allocated money for 1,300 Ethiopians to immigrate in 2017, the first step of a five-year program to bring new immigrants at a rate of approximately 100 per month.

Young boys of the Falash Mura Jewish Ethiopian community wait for prayer service in the synagogue in Gondar, Ethiopia, April 22, 2016 (Miriam Alster/FLASH90)

The Jews left behind in Ethiopia are classified as Falashmura, a term for Ethiopian Jews whose ancestors converted to Christianity, often under duress, generations ago.

Because the Interior Ministry does not consider the Falashmura to be Jewish, they cannot immigrate under the Law of Return and therefore must get special permission from the government to move to Israel. Critics fear that tens of thousands of Ethiopians could claim eligibility under this process.

The community counters that theprocess to determine their Jewishness was poorly executed and inaccurate, dividing families. At least 80 percent of the Jews in Ethiopia have first-degree relatives living in Israel, they say.

Family members greet new arrivals from Ethiopia at Ben Gurion Airport on June 6, 2017. (Miriam Alster/Flash90)

In August 2013, the government announced the end of Ethiopian immigration, claiming that all Ethiopian Jews were now in Israel. Since that time, the Jewish Agency withdrew its funding from the community synagogue in Gondar, canceling a nutrition program for children and at one point even removing the towns Torah scroll.

Although the government unanimouslyapproved the immigration of all the remaining Jewsfrom Ethiopia in November 2015, the decisionfaltered three months laterwhen the Prime Ministers Office refused to implement the program because the NIS 1 billion ($284 million) it said was needed to fund the absorption process was not in the state budget.

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Ethiopian Food Mesob Across America | A COMPANION SITE …

WELCOME TO THE PREMIER Ethiopian food website on the internet.

In this ARCHIVE, Ive arranged the many entries below by category. Be sure as well to check out the permanent pages listed above and on the right. The NEWS page reports items about whats new in Ethiopian food and drink.

For information on a particular topic, use the search function of this site (above right). You can also write to me to ask questions or make suggestions.

My website All About Tej is the internets most comprehensive site about the legendary Ethiopian honey wine, and it includes instructions on how to make tej at home.

And dont miss my Ethiopian food Instagram page, with lots of pictures, including many images of the food that I cook myself.

If youre looking for an Ethiopian restaurant, you can visit my guide to restaurants in the U.S. and even take video visits to some of them. The restaurant business is a risky one, and places open and close all the time, so its hard to keep the list up to date. I welcome additions and corrections.

Im a writer and a teacher at the University of Pittsburgh, and you can read much more about all of this in my book Mesob Across America: Ethiopian Food in the U.S.A., which you can buy at Amazon.com and other places on the internet. During the summer of 2014, I gave a talk on the history of Ethiopian cuisine at the Library of Congress (see poster, above left).

Here, now, are all the things you can read in this website about Ethiopian food.

Gursha: Hands Across the Table. At an Ethiopian meal, you dont just eat from the same plate you might find yourself eating from someone elses hand. With video.

FEATURED PAGE: Exploring Doro Wot. Learn about the national dish of Ethiopia, including how to make it and what it means to the culture. With video.

Getting a Rise Out of Ethiopian Bread. Injera isnt the only bread that finds its way to the table at an Ethiopian meal: There are a wide variety of traditional leavened breads baked across the culture. With video.

Berbere and Mitmita: Liking It Hot. Two red pepper powders give Ethiopian food its spice, and theyre essential to the cuisine, as are the peppers that produce them. With video.

In Ethiopian Cooking, Onions Rule. You cant cook Ethiopian food without onions lots of them but you may not even realize youre eating them. With video.

Ribs & Tibs: The Story of Ethiopian Beef. Traditional Ethiopian butchers partition a cow into 14 different cuts of beef each with its own name and some are especially good for eating raw. With video.

A Short Qurs on Ethiopian Breakfast. The morning meal in Ethiopia has some familiar elements, but also some dishes that you usually dont eat any other time of day. With video.

The Ethiopian Spice Rack. Lots of effervescent spices go into making Ethiopian food, and two red pepper blends give the food its heat. With video.

Whats For (Ethiopian) Dessert? What do restaurants serve for dessert when their culture doesnt have any? With video.

FEATURED PAGE: The Cuisine of the Ethiopian Jews. The Beta Israel the Jews of Ethiopia now live mostly in Israel, and their cuisine has a few unique touches along with many familiar Ethiopian elements. With video.

Qocho

Teff Talk. Without the unique and nutritious grain teff, which Ethiopians use to make injera, there would be no Ethiopian cuisine as we know it. With video.

FEATURED PAGE: Sure As Shiro: Heres everything youll ever want or need to know about one of the Ethiopian tables most popular dishes. With video.

Dishes with a Difference. Some Ethiopian restaurants offer unusual or unique variations on traditional dishes. With video.

FEATURED PAGE: Raw Meat: An Ethiopian Delight. Whether ground or in big thick chunks, raw meat has been an Ethiopian delicacy for centuries. With video.

FEATURED PAGE: Catching Up with Qocho. Not many Ethiopian restaurants in the U.S. serve qocho, but when they do, it comes straight from Ethiopia, making it the most authentic dish youll find here in America. With video.

Harari Heat in Toronto: Two Moslem-owned Ethiopian restaurants in Toronto serve the hard-to-find dish hulbat marahk.

FEATURED PAGE: Tej in the Raw. Learn how to make Ethiopian honey wine with step-by-step instructions and photos. With video.

Ethiopias Potent Potables. From tej and talla to homemade alcohol to Ethiopian commercial wines and beers, a lot of things in Ethiopia can give you a buzz. With video.

Tej in Toronto Is Hard To Find. After a long and inexplicable dry spell, tej has finally begun to appear in Torontos Ethiopian restaurants.

Begena Tedj: A Tale of Two Continents. Born and raised in Ethiopia, Wilhelmine Stordiau returned to her ancestral Europe as a young woman and now makes Ethiopian potent potables for sale all over Europe.

The Buzz on Ethiopian Beer & Wine. At Ethiopian restaurants in the U.S., you can usually find a selection of potent potables imported from back home. With two videos.

Coffee, Kaldi & Confessions. Ethiopia introduced coffee to the world in the eighth century. Unfortunately, its the one Ethiopian food that Ive never tasted because I dont drink coffee. With video.

Talla Tell-All. Ethiopians enjoy a raw hopsy homemade beer called talla. Ive tried making it at home once successfully, once not so much. With video.

Tej: The Ethiopian Honey Wine. This 2,000-year-old delight is sometimes called the national drink of Ethiopia, and you can make it at home in your kitchen. With video.

FEATURED PAGE: Ethiopian Cuisine with a European Flare. Wilma Stordiau of Frankfurt, Germany, makes and sells tej, but she also uses some ingredients of Ethiopian cooking to create unique fusion meals and desserts.

FEATURED PAGE: Cooking with a Shakla Dist. In Ethiopia, the most traditional cooking is done in a shakla dist an earthenware pot. Learn all about them how theyre made, how you cook in them and watch some videos of meals simmering in clay. With video.

FEATURED PAGE: Cooking Ethiopian Food. Youll find many good Ethiopian recipe books for sale out there, but here are recipes for some of my favorite dishes, complete with my own cooking tips.

Dining with Ato Daniel. Take a closer look at one of the biggest and most well-known English-language Ethiopian cookbooks, written by Daniel Mesfin.

Setting the Ethiopian Table. Ethiopians may not use cutlery to enjoy a meal, but the cuisine has plenty of other utensils related to cooking and eating.

Tales of Injera. With the help of a detailed and colorful little book, you can make this temperamental Ethiopian bread at home.

FEATURED PAGE: Eating Ethiopian Around the World. To complement my big guide to Ethiopian restaurants in the U.S.A., Ive rounded up some restaurants outside of the U.S. on the five continents that have them (there are none in Antarctica or South America). With video.

FEATURED PAGE: The Beyaynetu Factor. A simple mathematical calculation can tell you how many choices you have on the combination platter, or beyaynetu, at Ethiopian restaurants. One restaurant in California gives you 792 of them!

Singing for Your Supper: The Music of the Meal. Ethiopian musicians love their cultures cuisine, and some have composed songs about its biggest hit dishes, like injera, shiro and doro wot. With video.

Your Ethiopian Restaurant Experience: A Checklist. Dont let them know youre a ferenj when you order Ethiopian food: Heres a list of thing to do and not to do. With video.

The Funny Side of Ethiopian Food. Why did the doro cross the road? So he could check out this page of Ethiopian food jokes and puns and also to save himself from being turned into doro wot.

In Your Gebeyas Freezer. A Virginia company now markets a line of frozen Ethiopian food that you can have shipped to you by mail.

Ethiopian Food on Wheels. Some enterprising folks in Washington, D.C., serve their Ethiopian food from a truck that lands at a different location in the city every day.

Ethiopian Chefs Show You How. Move over, top chef: Some internet cooks want to show you how its done in the Ethiopian kitchen. With video.

The Melting Pot. What we know as Ethiopian cuisine is largely Amhari cuisine, but Ethiopias many other cultures have contributed some popular dishes to the menu.

Ethiopias Other Vegetarian Cuisine. For many Ethiopians who cant afford better, almost anything that grows becomes a meal. With video.

Tasting Ethiopia in a Market Near You. A young entrepreneur has launched a new line of freshly packaged Ethiopian foods available in New York City. With video.

Naming Right. Ethiopians often name their restaurants after historic figures or places from back home, but some restaurant names are more personal.

FEATURED PAGE: Ethiopian Restaurants Debut Across America. Heres a list of the first Ethiopian or Eritrean restaurants in American and Canadian cities. I welcome additions or corrections to the list for this ongoing project.

FEATURED PAGE: The First Supper. Beyene Guililat opened the first Ethiopian restaurant in America in Long Beach, Calif., in 1966. His brother, Tesfaye, reminisces about this historic achievement. With rare video of Beyene flying an airplane in 1963.

FEATURED PAGE: The Worlds Oldest Ethiopian Restaurant. Two restaurants, both in Ethiopia, lay claim to the title. Decide for yourself whos right.

FEATURED PAGE: Breaking the News About Ethiopian Food, Part 1: 1868-1966. Long before America had Ethiopian restaurants, newspaper accounts taught the nation about the cuisine. With video.

FEATURED PAGE: Breaking the News About Ethiopian Food, Part 2. Even after the nations first Ethiopian restaurant opened in 1966, many cities didnt get one for decades, so they counted on newspapers to teach them about what they were missing.

Feasting with the Ancients. Find out how the emperors of ancient Ethiopia enjoyed their meals in grand imperial style.

The Art of the Meal. Ethiopian artists sometimes memorialize their cultures food and mealtime traditions in paintings on parchment made of tanned animal hides.

FEATURED PAGE: Desta Bairu Restaurant Pioneer. Read the story of the woman who cooked the food at the eponymous restaurant that launched the spread of Ethiopian cuisine in America in 1978.

Culinary Milestones: An Appetizing History. What would Ethiopia be without Ethiopian cuisine? Heres how this delicious way of eating emerged.

The New World. Take a look at some advertisements for food and drink published in Ethiopian books and magazines of the 1960s.

First Foodsteps in Ethiopia. Europeans who explored Ethiopia in the 15th through 19th centuries didnt always like what their hosts presented them at the dinner table. This post includes photographs of what some of them saw.

FEATURED PAGE: Novel Cuisine: Food, Ferenj & Fiction: Novelists who write stories set in Ethiopia always find a way to describe a meal and the culture that surrounds it.

Making Injera the New-Fashioned Way. Most people still make injera one piece at a time, but technology now allows it to be made by automation. With video.

Making Cooking Easier in Ethiopia. Several enterprises, two at Stanford, have developed products that will make traditional cooking easier for poor Ethiopian women. With video.

FEATURED PAGE: The Scholarship of Ethiopian Cuisine: Many scholars have written many papers and books about Ethiopian food, and a lot of their work is available online.

Planning Your Ethiopian Menu. A 1963 Ethiopian book about nutrition, written in Amharic, has a week-long, day-by-day menu planner for all three of the daily meals, and in this translation, you can follow the authors meal plan.

Macro Megeb: The New Ethiopian? If you enjoy a macrobiotic diet, why not try the Ethiopian version, courtesy of one nutritionists week-long menu planner.

Healthy Eating the Ethiopian Way. A nutritionist has published a book that offers a 22-day menu planner for eating well in an Ethiopian context. With video.

Dining Out in Ethiopia. Where do Ethiopians eat if they dont want to cook a meal at home? Restaurant options become less abundant the farther you travel from Addis Ababa, the countrys capital city. With video.

A Visit to Wot-lanta. With its well-developed Ethiopian community, Atlanta is a great place to go for a meal or to shop for Ethiopian foods and spices.

Summer of 15: North & South. While traveling around this summer, I visited restaurants and markets in Indianapolis, Charlotte, Asheville, N.C., Greensboro, N.C., and Grand Rapids, Mich.

Montreal & Ottawa: A Road Trip. Two of Canadas largest eastern cities only have a few Ethiopian restaurants each, but they still offer residents and visitors good home cooking. Visit Rochester, N.Y., and Lancaster, Pa., in this post as well.

O Canada! Great Ethiopian! With its dozens of restaurants and markets, Toronto is the place to be if you want the greatest variety of Ethiopian food choices in Canada, although many other Canadian cities have anywhere from one to a few restaurants.

Hot & Cold. Honolulu, Hawaii, now has an Ethiopian restaurant, although only for one night a week. And for three months in 2007, Fairbanks, Alaska, had one as well.

Grand Ole Ethiopian: A Road Trip to Nashville. I spent a few days in Nashville last summer visiting Ethiopian restaurants and markets, and along the way, I stopped at places in Louisville and Cincinnati. With video.

Ethiohio Discovering Columbus. Its not the biggest city in Ohio, but Columbus has the biggest Ethiopian restaurant and market community by far.

Road Trip: Ann Arbor & Windsor. We lost a lovely little Ethiopian restaurant in eastern Michigan. I also visited three restaurants across the border in Windsor, Ontario.

The Deep Dish on Chicago Ethiopian. The Windy City has many fine Ethiopian restaurant options and even an Ethiopian market, something you wont find in New York.

Chicago 2011: An Update. Theres a new Ethiopian restaurant in Chicago, two new markets, and now a place to buy Ethiopian beer by the case.

Harry KlomanUniversity of Pittsburgh

Heres a little preview of my book.

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Ethiopian Food Mesob Across America | A COMPANION SITE …

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February 10, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Ethiopian Jews  Comments Closed

Timeline of Ethiopian Jewish History – Jewish Virtual Library

4th Century CE Christianity is introduced into the Axum dynasty in Ethiopia.

7th Century With the spread of Islam, Ethiopia is isolated from most of the Christian world. The Beta Israel enjoy a period of independence before the power struggles of the middle ages.

9th Century The earliest apparent reference to the Beta Israel appears in the diary of Eldad Hadani, a merchant and traveler claiming to have been a citizen of an autonomous Jewish state in eastern Africa inhabited by the tribes of Dan, Naftali, Gad, and Asher.

13th Century The Solominic dynasty (which claims decent from Solomon and Sheba) assumes control. During the next 300 years (1320-1620), intermittent wars are fought between the Christian kings of Ethiopia and those of the Beta Israel, which finally result in the Beta Israel’s loss of independence.

16th Century Rabbi David B. Zimra, known as the Radbaz, issues a legal response in Cairo declaring that “those who come from the land Cush (Ethiopia) are without a doubt the Tribe of Dan…” He confirms that Ethiopian Jews are fully Jewish.

1622 Christians conquer the Ethiopian Jewish Kingdom following 300 years of warfare. The vanquished Jews are sold as slaves, forced to baptize, and denied the right to own land.

1769 Scottish explorer James Bruce awakens the western world to the existence of the Ethiopian Jews in his travels to discover the source of the Nile. He estimates the Jewish population at 100,000.

1855 Daniel Ben Hamdya, an Ethiopian Jew, independently travels to Jerusalem to meet with rabbis.

1864 Rabbi Azriel Hildesheimer, the Rabbi of Eisenstadt, Germany, publishes a manifesto in the Jewish press calling for the spiritual rescue of Ethiopian Jewry.

1867 Professor Joseph Halevy is the first European Jew to visit the Beta Israel, subsequently becoming an advocate for the community.

1904 Jacques Faitlovitch, a student of Professor Joseph Halevy, makes his first trip to Ethiopia to visit the Beta Israel. He commits his life on their behalf and actively tries to reconnect the community with the rest of world Jewry. He establishes the first “pro-Falasha” committees in the United States, Britain, and Palestine (under the control of the Ottoman Empire) and takes the first Ethiopian Jewish students to Europe and to Israel to increase their Jewish education.

1908 Rabbis of 44 countries proclaim Ethiopian Jews to be authentic Jews.

1935-1941 The Italian fascist army conquers Ethiopia and meets fierce resistance from the Ethiopian partisans, including the Jews.

1947 Ethiopia abstains in the United Nations vote for the partition of the British Mandate of Palestine.

1955 Israel’s Jewish Agency builds numerous schools and a teachers seminary for the Jews of Ethiopia. Two groups of Ethiopian Jewish students are sent to the Israeli youth village of Kfar Batya to learn Hebrew and other Jewish subjects.

1956 Israel and Ethiopia establish consular relations.

1958 Israel sends two public health teams to Ambober in the Gondar Province where most Jews are located.

1961 Ethiopia and Israel begin full diplomatic relations.

1969 The American Association for Ethiopian Jews is founded by Dr. Graenum Berger.

1970’s ORT (Organization for the Rehabilitation and Training) sets up schools, clinics, and vocational training centers in Ethiopia.

1973 Rabbi Ovadia Yosef, Israel’s Chief Sephardic Rabbi, rules, following the Radbaz, that the Beta Israel are from the tribe of Dan and confirms the Jewish identity of the community.

1974 Emperor Haile Selassie, ruler of Ethiopia since 1930, is overthrown in a coup. A Marxist regime is established and headed by Colonel Mengistu Haile Mariam. This begins a wave of violent acts throughout the country, some severely affecting the Jews.

1975 Agrarian Reform, meant to benefit tenant farmers, including Jews, creates a violent backlash by traditional landowners and much suffering for all of Ethiopia’s citizens. Israel, in an attempt to improve relations with Ethiopia and secure freedom for the Beta Israel, renews military assistance to Ethiopia after Somalia besieges it on the southeastern border. Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi Shlomo Goren agrees with the 1973 opinion of Rabbi Yosef. Interior Minister Shlomo Hillel signs an ordinance to accept all Ethiopian Jews officially under the Israeli Law of Return. Ethiopian Jews are granted full citizenship and receive the full rights given to new immigrants.

1976 Approximately 250 Ethiopians Jews are living in Israel.

1977 Prime Minister Menachem Begin comes to power in Israel. He requests that Colonel Mariam allow Israel to transport approximately 200 Jews to Israel in an empty Israel military jet returning to Israel from Ethiopia.

1977-1984 Approximately 8,000 Ethiopian Jews are brought to Israel by covert action.

1980 Canadian Association for Ethiopian Jews is founded in Toronto, Canada.

1982 North American Conference on Ethiopian Jewry is founded by Barbara Ribakov Gordon, in New York.

1984 The massive airlift known as Operation Moses begins on November 18th and ends on January 5th, 1985. During those six weeks, some 6,500 Ethiopian Jews are flown from Sudan to Israel. Attempts are made to keep the rescue effort secret, but public disclosure forces an abrupt end. In the end, an estimated 2,000 Jews die en route to Sudan or in Sudanese refugee camps.

1985 Secret CIA-sonsored airlift brings 494 Jews from Sudan to Israel.

1984-1988 With the abrupt halting of Operation Joshua in 1985, the Ethiopian Jewish community is split in half, with some 15,000 souls in Israel, and more than 15,000 still stranded in Ethiopia. For the next five years, only very small numbers of Jews reach Israel.

1986 The United States Congressional Caucus for Ethiopian Jewry is established with over 140 representatives currently listed.

1987 The Ethiopian leaders in Israel organize an assembly at Binyanei Ha’uma in Jerusalem, where the Israeli public comes together in solidarity for reunification of Ethiopian Jewry. Prime Minister Shamir, Absorption Minister Yacov Tsur, Knesset Speaker Shlomo Hillel, International Human Rights Lawyer Erwin Cotler, and Natan Scharansky participate in the conference.

1988 The World Union of Jewish Students holds a conference on Ethiopian Jewry in Ashkelon with a closing ceremony at President Herzog’s home. Israel’s Ambassador to the United Nations, Pinchas Eliav, makes a formal statement at the United Nations Human Rights Commission for the reunification of Ethiopian Jews in Israel.

1989 Ethiopia and Israel renew diplomatic relations. This creates high hopes among Jewry for the reunification of Ethiopian Jews in Israel.

1990 Ethiopia’s ruler, Colonel Mengistu Haile Mariam, makes a public statement expressing desire to allow Ethiopian Jews to be reunited with family members in Israel.

1991 With Eritrean rebels advancing on the capital each day, Colonel Mengistu flees Ethiopia. Israel asks the United States to urge rebels to allow a rescue operation for Ethiopian Jews. Spanning the 24th-25th of May, Operation Solomon airlifts 14,324 Jews to Israel aboard thirty-four El Al jets in just over thirty-six hours. And, the story continues…

Sources: The Israel Association for Ethiopian Jews (IAEJ). Written by the staff of PRIMERPromoting Research in the Middle East Region. Sources Cited: From Addis to Jerusalem, Jewish Agency for Israel, Jerusalem, Israel, 1991. Reunify Ethiopian Jewry: Top Priority, World Union of Jewish Students, Jerusalem, Israel, 1989.

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Timeline of Ethiopian Jewish History – Jewish Virtual Library

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Latest aliya wave leaves thousands of Ethiopian Jews behind …

The last 119 Ethiopian Jews approved to make aliya were set to arrive on Wednesday and Thursday, completing the immigration of the 1,300 persons whom the government had promised to bring to Israel by the end of the year.

The families of the thousands still waiting to make aliya were left wondering when their family members would also be approved to make the move.

According to the two latest cabinet decisions on the issue, held in November 2015 and in August 2016, some 9,000 Falash Mura, Ethiopian Jews whose ancestors converted to Christianity, may be brought to Israel by the end of 2020, starting with the 1,300 in 2017.

Sabine Hadad, a spokeswoman for the Interior Ministrys Population and Immigration Authority, has stressed in the past that 9,000 is only the potential number, and that of those 9,000 people, the government will accept only those who meet the ministrys criteria.

Alisa Bodner, spokeswoman to foreign media of the advocacy group Struggle for Ethiopian Aliya, has accused the ministry of not having upheld all of its commitments, specifically referring to Clause 5 of cabinet decision 1911, passed in 2016.

The clause states that as long as the Population and Immigration Authority understands that the number of those eligible to enter the country according to this decision is significantly higher or lower than 1,300, it will be brought again before the cabinet for approval. Despite this requirement, This never happened, Bodner told The Jerusalem Post on Wednesday.

The budget [for immigration] is going to be decided on in the next few days, and if those names [of those awaiting aliya] are not at the Prime Ministers Office, then they wont be included in the budget, she said. So theres a lot of concern that immigration will not continue in the coming year.

She added that government representatives are being unresponsive to queries by activists.

In response to a query by the Post, the interior ministers spokesman Barak Serry said: The Population and Immigration Authority completed its activities in accordance with the cabinets decision to absorb 1,300 immigrants from Ethiopia according to the criteria that were set. The data were transferred to the Prime Ministers Office.

The decision regarding an additional quota should be made by the cabinet in a special resolution. To date, to the best of our knowledge, no proposal has been formulated for this matter and we have not been asked to address it.

The Post sought to verify Bodners assertions regarding the Population and Immigration Authority, but Hadad did not respond to a query as to whether the authority had stated that there were more Ethiopians eligible for aliya.

Ethiopian-Israeli MK Avraham Neguise, who has spearheaded efforts to bring Ethiopians eligible for aliya to Israel, told the Post on Wednesday that there is a positive approach toward the need to continue the aliya in 2018, but there is no final decision.

We know that the Interior Ministry has identified that there are more people eligible under the cabinet decision and current criteria…, but the aliya cannot continue unless the cabinet has approved another budget for 2018, Neguise added.

The MK expressed hope that a new resolution would be approved on the issue, noting that nobody has said no, but they say it is in the process of receiving the necessary approval.

The interior minister has not brought it to the cabinet, he added, saying the responsibility lies with Interior Minister Arye Deri, in order to bring about a new cabinet decision and for the Finance Ministry to subsequently allocate the necessary funds for the aliya. But if the interior minister does not demand it, they wont do it voluntarily, Neguise asserted.

The International Christian Embassy Jerusalem said on Wednesday that once additional olim from Ethiopia are approved by the cabinet, it stands ready to raise the money needed to sponsor this second year of renewed Ethiopian aliya.

The ICEJ invested $1.2 million in Ethiopian aliya this past year, including additional monies to assist with the critical absorption phase, as these Jewish communities adjust to the new language and culture of Israel. Christians from all over the world have been contributing to this humanitarian cause, including generous donations from African Christians, the organization noted.

The great ingathering of the Jewish people to Eretz Israel is still continuing, and it is a real privilege and joy for our organization to play such a central role in this historic return to Zion, said Dr. Jrgen Bhler, president of the ICEJ.

We know that these latest arrivals from the Ethiopia community will never be the same as they rejoin their families and become fully part of the modern miracle of Israel. Some of these families have been separated now for over two decades, and so it is a special honor for us to help bring them back together here in the Jewish homeland.

Falash Mura is the name given to those of the Beta Israel community in Ethiopia and Eritrea who under compulsion and pressure from missionaries converted to Christianity during the 19th and 20th centuries.

Since their ancestors converted to another religion, the Falash Mura are not covered by the Law of Return, which grants the right to immigrate and gain citizenship to anyone with a Jewish grandparent.

The Falash Mura are brought to Israel under the Law of Entry and are required to convert to Judaism once in Israel. They receive the same absorption benefits granted to immigrants who come under the Law of Return.

Abere Endeshaw, a leader of the Jewish community in Ethiopia, is waiting in Addis Ababa for his own chance to make aliya.

This week is the last aliya of the year, he said. Today I witnessed some of the community members leaving Ethiopia and heading toward the Promised Land. Today I saw two sisters one heading home to Israel and one back to the community. I saw two brothers one heading home to Israel and one going back to the community, and many more. I wonder when the separation will stop. I wonder when the cries of a mother and father, sister and brother, aunt and uncle will stop and be united with happiness.

I wish a very successful journey for the Jews all over the world who made aliya during this year, and I wish strength and hope for the remaining Jews who are waiting to go back home, Endeshaw said.

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Ethiopian Jews in Israel – ONE FOR ISRAEL Ministry

You must tell them the truth, the reality of the situation, said my Ethiopian friend, when I asked her what she wanted the world to know about Ethiopian Jews in Israel. And its a tough reality, but not one without hope.

God is at work in every part of Israeli society, and the gospel is reaching Ethiopian Jews in all sorts of ways especially the younger generation.

There have been communities of Jewish Ethiopians following the the Torah for centuries. Even back in Acts 8 we see an Ethiopian Eunuch, the treasurer to Queen Candace of Ethiopia, no less, trying to understand Isaiah 53, when God suddenly brings Philip along to explain it to him, as he traveled back home from Jerusalem by chariot. Other Ethiopians include the wife of Moses, Zipporah, and the Ethiopian who rescued Jeremiah from the pit he had been thrown into, and of course, the Queen of Sheba.

There are several theories about the origins of the Ethiopian Jewish community; most Ethiopian Jews themselves believe that when the Queen of Sheba came to visit Solomon, they conceived a son named Menelik, and his descendants were raised in the ways of the God of Israel. Another theory holds that they are the descendants of Jews who fled when the Babylonians conquered Judah in 586 BCE, traveling through Egypt, down the Nile, settling in Ethiopia. Another is that some of the Jewish diaspora traveled from the Arabian peninsula (near Yemen) to the Horn of Africa established new Jewish communities, perhaps intermarrying with local tribes.

Approximately 140,000 Ethiopian Jewish people live in Israel today, about a third of whom were born in Israel. The majority came in the massive airlifting operations of 1985 and 1991 Operation Moses and Operation Solomon helping them to Make Aliyah (return to Israel) collectively in the thousands. However, the culture shock and transition has proved extremely challenging, exacerbated by the racism they have been subjected to when they finally made to Israel. There have been some significant problems such as poverty and unemployment among many Ethiopian families and communities as a result.The truth is that the blight of racism is an inescapable fact for the Africans who make it to Israel, whether they are Jewish or not. It affects Jews and non-Jews, asylum seekers and Israeli citizens, Messianics and atheists alike.

On arrival to Israel many have found the rabbinic Judaism that most follow in Israel today rather alien to their practices. Not only is the expression of Judaism different, but the whole way of life in Israel is different, the culture is different, the language is different, and the values of the society are different. The landing can be rough, and many have come with nothing at all, some even making the journey by foot. Yet it should be a source of pride that against all the odds, and despite multiple hurdles, barriers and obstacles, Ethiopian Jews are now finding places of significance in Israeli society lawyers, teachers, police officers, doctors and recently a pilot. Those who experience racism know that these achievements are hard fought for, and worthy of celebration.

Throughout the generations, Ethiopian Jews have longed to return to Jerusalem. Each year, fifty days after Yom Kippur, the Jewish community in Ethiopia celebrates the festival of Sigd, which means worship. They climb a mountain and celebrate the giving of the Torah to Moses at Sinai, and also the rediscovery of the Torah in the times of Ezra and the revival after the Babylonian exile. In Ezras time, the people were called as a nation to celebrate Passover in response to hearing Gods law again, even though it wasnt Passover time, and in reference to that event, the community also then celebrates a Passover together. There is traditional food and dancing, and heartfelt love and longing for Jerusalem and the Promised Land.

For those who have now returned to Israel, Sigd is a time of great rejoicing that the dream of return has been realized. I attended such a celebration in an absorption center for new immigrants, and enjoyed the fabulous Ethiopian food, the unique dancing, and the contagious joy of a dream fulfilled. This particular feast is not emphasized so much in the Messianic community, who have found the One toward whom the entire Torah points Yeshua the Messiah.

More and more Ethiopian young people are coming to faith in Yeshua.

There are many Ethiopian Jews who believe in Yeshua here in Israel. We have Messianic Ethiopian staff and students here at Israel College of the Bible, and there are MessianicEthiopianministries and congregations operating in the Amharic language, running somegreat outreach programs and initiatives designed to meet the specific needs of the community.

Additionally, younger Ethiopian Israelis who do not know about Yeshua are hearing the gospel from Messianic believers around them in society especially in the army. Many younger believers in Israel are emboldened now to share their faith without shame, wherever they may be in the army, at work, school, or wherever. And people are responding, including some in the Ethiopian community. Like the journey from Ethiopia to Israel, the journey to integrate into Israeli society has been long and hard. However, the younger generation are seeming to navigate their way more successfully than the older generations who came such a distance both physically and culturally. A great emphasis is being placed on education for the younger generation, as a key to succeed and find their place in Israel. We are glad to be contributing towards that important goal as the Ethiopian students at Israel College of the Bible become proficient in their study of the Bible, and equipped to lead and teach others.

We are an Israeli ministry composed of Jewish & Arab followers of Yeshua (Jesus) who are all about blessing Israel through sharing the gospel online, educating the new generation of born-again believers through our one and only Hebrew-speaking Bible College in Israel, and helping holocaust survivors by supplying humanitarian aid.

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Boston-Haifa Connection: Ethiopian Jews | Combined Jewish …

Ethiopian Jews

Since 1948 more than 90,000 Ethiopian Jews have immigrated to Israel in search of religious freedom. Language, cultural and educational barriers are just some of the challenges they face. To prevent a permanent underclass from forming, we worked with the Jewish Community Relations Council (JCRC) to create Shiluvim (integration) an innovative, multi-year program that is changing the fate of Ethiopian Israelis in Haifa.

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Boston-Haifa Connection: Ethiopian Jews | Combined Jewish …

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Saving The Forgotten Jews – BBC News – YouTube

30 years ago 2 remarkable mass movements transported this community to the modern State of Israel and now the festival has once again become recognised, much like the Ethiopian Jews themselves, as an authentic part of the wider Jewish tradition. This year as Sigd approaches we explore how this community came to arrive in the state of Israel. It is an incredible story of espionage, heroism and unyielding faith that led to tens of thousands of people leaving their homes and risking their lives. We join both those who were instrumental in the operations themselves and members of the Ethiopian Jewish community to explore how these so-called miraculous events happened and what they mean today.

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Like bits of colored glass, we’re all unique and beautiful – ISRAEL21c

The colorful bits in a kaleidoscope whirl into ever-changing patterns, each one distinct as it complements the others.

Schoolchildren participating in the Kaleidoscope program in Israeli classrooms are encouraged to consider how the pieces they see in the kaleidoscope reflect internal and interpersonal diversities in identities, emotions and cultures.

Sometimes they live in harmony and create beautiful shapes and sometimes they dont, says Kaleidoscope founding director Chana Reifman Zweiter.

The classroom-based program teaches problem-solving, collaboration, self-awareness and other social and emotional skills proven by research to form the foundation of respect between people of different backgrounds, Zweiter tells ISRAEL21c.

We work in city-wide initiatives, implementing the approach in early childhood and continuing through junior high school just like other subject areas, Zweiter says.

While most other organizations focus on relationships between specific cultures, Kaleidoscope is adapted to address acceptance between Ethiopian and native Israelis, Arabs and Jews, religious and secular, students of the special and general education tracks, Christians and Jews, she explains.

Since 1991, Kaleidoscope has touched approximately 40,000 students, educators and parents throughout Israel. This year, about 1,200 students from early childhood through junior high school participated, and 45 educators in Jerusalem, Lod, Ramla and Acre (Akko) were trained to facilitate Kaleidoscope in their classrooms.

Kaleidoscope in action

The phased program starts with that first look into a kaleidoscope to foster an appreciation of the beauty of differences. The children have four or five workshops in their own schools to develop the self-awareness, empathy, and reflection critical to accepting others.

They then meet children from other schools and cultures about five times over the course of the year, where they apply these social skills in interactive programming that helps them feel comfortable with one another.

At one meeting of seventh-graders from Arab and Jewish schools in Acre, participants were paired and assigned a task to complete while tied together with rope in order to experience interdependency. During another paired activity, they got a piece of paper to draw on separately. By the second or third time, their pictures are no longer separate but cooperative.

One pair drew a picture of Akko with writing in Hebrew and Arabic saying This is our city, Zweiter relates.

Wafeed Mansur, principal of the 640-student Hilmi Shaafi junior high school in Acre, believes Kaleidoscope is responsible for halting afterschool hostilities that used to arise between his mostly Muslim Arab pupils and Jewish kids in the mixed northern city.

Weve been doing Kaleidoscope almost 10 years. We started with small meetings between teachers and principals and eventually added two or three classes, Mansur tells ISRAEL21c.

To tell you the truth, it was a little tough at the beginning because many [participants] couldnt manage to see a Jew or an Arab as someone they could talk to. We kept insisting the meetings should go on and they started to express their ideas and their fears, too. Since they discovered the qualities of the other side, the humanity of the other side, and personalities that could hear and deal with their opinions, it has been very beneficial, says Mansur. I havent heard of any problems in the last six or seven years.

Children learn to appreciate the beauty of differences by looking in kaleidoscopes. Photo courtesy of Kaleidoscope

Zweiter says that outside evaluations have shown Kaleidoscope participants to be more open to meeting individuals of cultures they dont know than are their peers who do not participate.

Kaleidoscopes documented success in changing attitudes has won it support from private and public agencies including USAID and the Israeli ministries of education and absorption.

Zweiter shares Kaleidoscope curricula in workshops and lectures internationally, and received the Bonei Zion Award at the Knesset in 2015 for her contribution to diversity education in Israel.

Social inclusion

Before moving to Israel from New York in 1991, Zweiter founded and directed the Yachad program, integrating Jewish youth with special needs into the greater Jewish community.

My dream was to apply my experience in social inclusion into the community here in Israel, she says.

In February 1992 she founded an organization that established afterschool art, music and sports clubs for special-needs and mainstream kids in Ramla, Lod and Jerusalem. The following year, one school asked if the program could address the influx of Ethiopian immigrants who were feeling socially isolated.

I did not take for granted that the program would work with the inclusion of a different population, so I really studied the Ethiopian culture before establishing in-class social activities to foster togetherness of different populations, says Zweiter.

From there, her approach was adapted to help integrate Jews and Arabs, and religious and secular Jewish children in different parts of Israel, during the regular school day.

Around 1998 we adopted the idea of the kaleidoscope because it was symbolic of the different cultures and the positive aspects, she says.

Kaleidoscope rents an office at the Ministry of Educations Center for Professional Development in Lod. About a dozen facilitators train educators from participating schools.

We learned that teachers need a lot of professional development. One of the main findings in our yearly evaluations is that the teachers increased their willingness to participate and to continue with the programming in subsequent years, says Zweiter.

This year we had early-childhood teachers from east and west Jerusalem who said Kaleidoscope helped break stigmas and stereotypes. At first they didnt think it would work but gradually they established relationships.

Mansur, the principal in Acre, says attitudes and beliefs often are far apart. Unless we can bridge these differences we will never be as equal as we can be. Kaleidoscope provides the tools and the leadership to do this.

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Government to Approve Aliyah of 1,000 Ethiopian Jews …

Photo Credit: Courtesy the Knesset Earlier this year, the Population and Immigration Authority sent the Prime Ministers Office an official letter stating that an additional 1,000 Ethiopian Jews meet Israels criteria for making Aliyah. This was revealed on Monday at a meeting of the Knesset State Control Committee, chaired by MK Shelly Yachimovich (Zionist Camp), which was convened to debate the fate of 8,000 Jews who remain stranded in Ethiopia, unable to make Aliyah. The positive result of todays meeting is that we received a very clear commitment to bring those 1,000 Jews to Israel, MK Yachimovich said. We heard from the Population and Immigration Authority and the Prime Ministers Office that the matter will be approved during a Government meeting within a month, and I believe it will be approved. If we see that there are delays, we will call an urgent meeting to expedite matters. Nevertheless, according to Yachimovich, despite this good news, it is unacceptable, from a moral and Zionist standpoint, that thousands of Jews remain in transit camps, in poor conditions, while their qualification as Jews is being examined with much more thoroughness than in cases of Jews from other countries. Yachimovich insisted that all the remaining Ethiopian Jews must be brought to Israel at once. We are a strong and stable country, we constantly hear that our situation could not be better and how many budget surpluses are in the States treasury, she said, therefore we have the ability and the means to end this saga, which is creating a deep fissure in the Ethiopian Israeli community. Prof. Shlomo Mor-Yosef, director general of Population and Immigration Authority, told the committee that there is a question [] regarding the Jewishness of those in Ethiopia, and because of this the State has decided that those who are still in Ethiopia will not make Aliyah under the Law of Return. Since then, we have been dealing with Aliyah quotas. I wish to stress that the employees of the Interior Ministry are not racists; we are operating in accordance with the Governments decision and we do not set the policy. MK Avraham Neguise (Likud) said that in Addis Ababa and Gondar, in Ethiopia, there are at least 1,000 people who meet the criteria set by the Government. A proper examination will find that even more people are eligible, he said. At the Interior Ministry there are some 5,000 requests which have yet to be processed. A representative of the Struggle for the Aliyah of Ethiopian Jewry organization, a former soldier in the IDF special force Duvdevan unit, told the committee that most of his family made Aliyah together, but two of his sisters remained in Ethiopia. They were told they could not make Aliyah with us, and we have been waiting for them since 2007, he said. One of my sisters has since been widowed, and my other sister recently married. These are significant events in their lives, but we could not share them because they are not permitted to make Aliyah. Thousands of Jews are waiting there in poor conditions for the Government to bring them to Israel. MK Omer Barlev (Zionist Camp) said, How can the term quotas be used when we are dealing with human beings? The country is strong, and it cannot be that a few thousand people cant be brought to Israel all at once. MK Meir Cohen (Yesh Atid) said, There is a population which is waiting in difficult conditions to make Aliyah. Why are they not being brought to Israel under the Law of Return? In 1973 the Israeli Ministry of Absorption prepared a comprehensive report on the Jewish-Ethiopian community, which stated that they were foreign in all aspects to the Jewish nation. The report concluded that there was no need to take action in order to help the ethnic group make Aliyah to Israel. This was going to be the end of the Falasha hopes to return to Zion. But shortly after the Ministrys report had been published, Rabbi Ovadia Yosef, the Sephardi chief rabbi, decreed that the Ethiopian Jews are a descendant tribe of Israel. The chief rabbi also said that giving them a proper Jewish education and the right to immigrate to Israel was a Mitzvah. This contradicted the position of Rabbi Shlomo Goren, the Ashkenazi chief rabbi, who expressed grave doubts as to the validity of their Jewish lineage. Rabbi Yosefs ruling resulted in the Law of Return being applied to the Ethiopian community, never mind the Ministry of Absorptions report and never mind Chief Rabbi Goren. Starting in the mid-1970s, a massive Aliyah effort brought close to 100,000 Ethiopian Jews to Israel. Those who have been refused entry belong largely to the Falash Mura community, which converted to Christianity in the 19th and 20th century, but which maintained familial ties with the Jewish Beta Israel community.

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Government approves immigration of 1,000 Ethiopian Jews …

At least 1,000 Ethiopian Jews still living in Ethiopia will be able to immigrate to Israel in the coming year, after the Prime Ministers Office and the Interior Ministry said on Monday they had worked out an initial list of potential immigrants and expected to approve them within four weeks. There are approximately8,000 Jews in Ethiopiawith close relatives in Israel who are waiting to emigrate. Get The Times of Israel’s Daily Edition by email and never miss our top storiesFree Sign Up The last flight of Ethiopian immigrants arrived in Israel on December 28, 2017, bringing part of the 1,300 immigrants which arrived in 2017. But the cabinet did not approve the approximately NIS 200 million needed to absorb the 1,300 immigrants planned to arrive 2018, putting a hold on the flights. I am serving the state and fighting the state at the same time, Belaynich Indishu, who was a soldier in the Duvduvan combat unit and now works in security for the government, told the Knesset meeting on Monday. Indishu moved to Israel in 2007 and has two sisters still in Ethiopia. For what? So that I cant be with my sisters? MK Shelly Yachimovich (Labor), chairwoman of the State Control Committee which held the meeting, praised the announcement as an achievement. A member of the Falash Mura Jewish Ethiopian community lights the Sabbath candles before the Sabbath and Passover prayer service in the synagogue in Gondar, Ethiopia, April 22, 2016. (Miriam Alster/FLASH90) The suffering of 6,000 people in Gondar and Addis Ababa goes on for no apparent reason, she said. Were not talking about budget issues but ethical issues. There are forces in the government that are not interested in bringing them to Israel because they do not consider them Jewish, and the motivation here, unfortunately, is racism. Shlomo Mor-Yosef, the director general of the Population Immigration and Borders Authority, the branch of the Interior Ministry dealing with this issue, said that the Interior Ministrys employees were not racists but were simply implementing the governments decisions. He said the group expected to immigrate to Israel in 2018 will consist of approximately 1,000 parents and children, focusing on parents who already have some children in Israel. The process for immigration approval has beenplagued by accusations of racism and inefficiencyagainst the Interior Ministry, and there was asix-month delayin the flights in 2017. In November 2015, the government announced it would bring to Israel the remaining Ethiopian Jews awaiting immigration. The Finance Ministry allocated money for 1,300 Ethiopians to immigrate in 2017, the first step of a five-year program to bring new immigrants at a rate of approximately 100 per month. Young boys of the Falash Mura Jewish Ethiopian community wait for prayer service in the synagogue in Gondar, Ethiopia, April 22, 2016 (Miriam Alster/FLASH90) The Jews left behind in Ethiopia are classified as Falashmura, a term for Ethiopian Jews whose ancestors converted to Christianity, often under duress, generations ago. Because the Interior Ministry does not consider the Falashmura to be Jewish, they cannot immigrate under the Law of Return and therefore must get special permission from the government to move to Israel. Critics fear that tens of thousands of Ethiopians could claim eligibility under this process. The community counters that theprocess to determine their Jewishness was poorly executed and inaccurate, dividing families. At least 80 percent of the Jews in Ethiopia have first-degree relatives living in Israel, they say. Family members greet new arrivals from Ethiopia at Ben Gurion Airport on June 6, 2017. (Miriam Alster/Flash90) In August 2013, the government announced the end of Ethiopian immigration, claiming that all Ethiopian Jews were now in Israel. Since that time, the Jewish Agency withdrew its funding from the community synagogue in Gondar, canceling a nutrition program for children and at one point even removing the towns Torah scroll. Although the government unanimouslyapproved the immigration of all the remaining Jewsfrom Ethiopia in November 2015, the decisionfaltered three months laterwhen the Prime Ministers Office refused to implement the program because the NIS 1 billion ($284 million) it said was needed to fund the absorption process was not in the state budget.

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Ethiopian Food Mesob Across America | A COMPANION SITE …

WELCOME TO THE PREMIER Ethiopian food website on the internet. In this ARCHIVE, Ive arranged the many entries below by category. Be sure as well to check out the permanent pages listed above and on the right. The NEWS page reports items about whats new in Ethiopian food and drink. For information on a particular topic, use the search function of this site (above right). You can also write to me to ask questions or make suggestions. My website All About Tej is the internets most comprehensive site about the legendary Ethiopian honey wine, and it includes instructions on how to make tej at home. And dont miss my Ethiopian food Instagram page, with lots of pictures, including many images of the food that I cook myself. If youre looking for an Ethiopian restaurant, you can visit my guide to restaurants in the U.S. and even take video visits to some of them. The restaurant business is a risky one, and places open and close all the time, so its hard to keep the list up to date. I welcome additions and corrections. Im a writer and a teacher at the University of Pittsburgh, and you can read much more about all of this in my book Mesob Across America: Ethiopian Food in the U.S.A., which you can buy at Amazon.com and other places on the internet. During the summer of 2014, I gave a talk on the history of Ethiopian cuisine at the Library of Congress (see poster, above left). Here, now, are all the things you can read in this website about Ethiopian food. Gursha: Hands Across the Table. At an Ethiopian meal, you dont just eat from the same plate you might find yourself eating from someone elses hand. With video. FEATURED PAGE: Exploring Doro Wot. Learn about the national dish of Ethiopia, including how to make it and what it means to the culture. With video. Getting a Rise Out of Ethiopian Bread. Injera isnt the only bread that finds its way to the table at an Ethiopian meal: There are a wide variety of traditional leavened breads baked across the culture. With video. Berbere and Mitmita: Liking It Hot. Two red pepper powders give Ethiopian food its spice, and theyre essential to the cuisine, as are the peppers that produce them. With video. In Ethiopian Cooking, Onions Rule. You cant cook Ethiopian food without onions lots of them but you may not even realize youre eating them. With video. Ribs & Tibs: The Story of Ethiopian Beef. Traditional Ethiopian butchers partition a cow into 14 different cuts of beef each with its own name and some are especially good for eating raw. With video. A Short Qurs on Ethiopian Breakfast. The morning meal in Ethiopia has some familiar elements, but also some dishes that you usually dont eat any other time of day. With video. The Ethiopian Spice Rack. Lots of effervescent spices go into making Ethiopian food, and two red pepper blends give the food its heat. With video. Whats For (Ethiopian) Dessert? What do restaurants serve for dessert when their culture doesnt have any? With video. FEATURED PAGE: The Cuisine of the Ethiopian Jews. The Beta Israel the Jews of Ethiopia now live mostly in Israel, and their cuisine has a few unique touches along with many familiar Ethiopian elements. With video. Qocho Teff Talk. Without the unique and nutritious grain teff, which Ethiopians use to make injera, there would be no Ethiopian cuisine as we know it. With video. FEATURED PAGE: Sure As Shiro: Heres everything youll ever want or need to know about one of the Ethiopian tables most popular dishes. With video. Dishes with a Difference. Some Ethiopian restaurants offer unusual or unique variations on traditional dishes. With video. FEATURED PAGE: Raw Meat: An Ethiopian Delight. Whether ground or in big thick chunks, raw meat has been an Ethiopian delicacy for centuries. With video. FEATURED PAGE: Catching Up with Qocho. Not many Ethiopian restaurants in the U.S. serve qocho, but when they do, it comes straight from Ethiopia, making it the most authentic dish youll find here in America. With video. Harari Heat in Toronto: Two Moslem-owned Ethiopian restaurants in Toronto serve the hard-to-find dish hulbat marahk. FEATURED PAGE: Tej in the Raw. Learn how to make Ethiopian honey wine with step-by-step instructions and photos. With video. Ethiopias Potent Potables. From tej and talla to homemade alcohol to Ethiopian commercial wines and beers, a lot of things in Ethiopia can give you a buzz. With video. Tej in Toronto Is Hard To Find. After a long and inexplicable dry spell, tej has finally begun to appear in Torontos Ethiopian restaurants. Begena Tedj: A Tale of Two Continents. Born and raised in Ethiopia, Wilhelmine Stordiau returned to her ancestral Europe as a young woman and now makes Ethiopian potent potables for sale all over Europe. The Buzz on Ethiopian Beer & Wine. At Ethiopian restaurants in the U.S., you can usually find a selection of potent potables imported from back home. With two videos. Coffee, Kaldi & Confessions. Ethiopia introduced coffee to the world in the eighth century. Unfortunately, its the one Ethiopian food that Ive never tasted because I dont drink coffee. With video. Talla Tell-All. Ethiopians enjoy a raw hopsy homemade beer called talla. Ive tried making it at home once successfully, once not so much. With video. Tej: The Ethiopian Honey Wine. This 2,000-year-old delight is sometimes called the national drink of Ethiopia, and you can make it at home in your kitchen. With video. FEATURED PAGE: Ethiopian Cuisine with a European Flare. Wilma Stordiau of Frankfurt, Germany, makes and sells tej, but she also uses some ingredients of Ethiopian cooking to create unique fusion meals and desserts. FEATURED PAGE: Cooking with a Shakla Dist. In Ethiopia, the most traditional cooking is done in a shakla dist an earthenware pot. Learn all about them how theyre made, how you cook in them and watch some videos of meals simmering in clay. With video. FEATURED PAGE: Cooking Ethiopian Food. Youll find many good Ethiopian recipe books for sale out there, but here are recipes for some of my favorite dishes, complete with my own cooking tips. Dining with Ato Daniel. Take a closer look at one of the biggest and most well-known English-language Ethiopian cookbooks, written by Daniel Mesfin. Setting the Ethiopian Table. Ethiopians may not use cutlery to enjoy a meal, but the cuisine has plenty of other utensils related to cooking and eating. Tales of Injera. With the help of a detailed and colorful little book, you can make this temperamental Ethiopian bread at home. FEATURED PAGE: Eating Ethiopian Around the World. To complement my big guide to Ethiopian restaurants in the U.S.A., Ive rounded up some restaurants outside of the U.S. on the five continents that have them (there are none in Antarctica or South America). With video. FEATURED PAGE: The Beyaynetu Factor. A simple mathematical calculation can tell you how many choices you have on the combination platter, or beyaynetu, at Ethiopian restaurants. One restaurant in California gives you 792 of them! Singing for Your Supper: The Music of the Meal. Ethiopian musicians love their cultures cuisine, and some have composed songs about its biggest hit dishes, like injera, shiro and doro wot. With video. Your Ethiopian Restaurant Experience: A Checklist. Dont let them know youre a ferenj when you order Ethiopian food: Heres a list of thing to do and not to do. With video. The Funny Side of Ethiopian Food. Why did the doro cross the road? So he could check out this page of Ethiopian food jokes and puns and also to save himself from being turned into doro wot. In Your Gebeyas Freezer. A Virginia company now markets a line of frozen Ethiopian food that you can have shipped to you by mail. Ethiopian Food on Wheels. Some enterprising folks in Washington, D.C., serve their Ethiopian food from a truck that lands at a different location in the city every day. Ethiopian Chefs Show You How. Move over, top chef: Some internet cooks want to show you how its done in the Ethiopian kitchen. With video. The Melting Pot. What we know as Ethiopian cuisine is largely Amhari cuisine, but Ethiopias many other cultures have contributed some popular dishes to the menu. Ethiopias Other Vegetarian Cuisine. For many Ethiopians who cant afford better, almost anything that grows becomes a meal. With video. Tasting Ethiopia in a Market Near You. A young entrepreneur has launched a new line of freshly packaged Ethiopian foods available in New York City. With video. Naming Right. Ethiopians often name their restaurants after historic figures or places from back home, but some restaurant names are more personal. FEATURED PAGE: Ethiopian Restaurants Debut Across America. Heres a list of the first Ethiopian or Eritrean restaurants in American and Canadian cities. I welcome additions or corrections to the list for this ongoing project. FEATURED PAGE: The First Supper. Beyene Guililat opened the first Ethiopian restaurant in America in Long Beach, Calif., in 1966. His brother, Tesfaye, reminisces about this historic achievement. With rare video of Beyene flying an airplane in 1963. FEATURED PAGE: The Worlds Oldest Ethiopian Restaurant. Two restaurants, both in Ethiopia, lay claim to the title. Decide for yourself whos right. FEATURED PAGE: Breaking the News About Ethiopian Food, Part 1: 1868-1966. Long before America had Ethiopian restaurants, newspaper accounts taught the nation about the cuisine. With video. FEATURED PAGE: Breaking the News About Ethiopian Food, Part 2. Even after the nations first Ethiopian restaurant opened in 1966, many cities didnt get one for decades, so they counted on newspapers to teach them about what they were missing. Feasting with the Ancients. Find out how the emperors of ancient Ethiopia enjoyed their meals in grand imperial style. The Art of the Meal. Ethiopian artists sometimes memorialize their cultures food and mealtime traditions in paintings on parchment made of tanned animal hides. FEATURED PAGE: Desta Bairu Restaurant Pioneer. Read the story of the woman who cooked the food at the eponymous restaurant that launched the spread of Ethiopian cuisine in America in 1978. Culinary Milestones: An Appetizing History. What would Ethiopia be without Ethiopian cuisine? Heres how this delicious way of eating emerged. The New World. Take a look at some advertisements for food and drink published in Ethiopian books and magazines of the 1960s. First Foodsteps in Ethiopia. Europeans who explored Ethiopia in the 15th through 19th centuries didnt always like what their hosts presented them at the dinner table. This post includes photographs of what some of them saw. FEATURED PAGE: Novel Cuisine: Food, Ferenj & Fiction: Novelists who write stories set in Ethiopia always find a way to describe a meal and the culture that surrounds it. Making Injera the New-Fashioned Way. Most people still make injera one piece at a time, but technology now allows it to be made by automation. With video. Making Cooking Easier in Ethiopia. Several enterprises, two at Stanford, have developed products that will make traditional cooking easier for poor Ethiopian women. With video. FEATURED PAGE: The Scholarship of Ethiopian Cuisine: Many scholars have written many papers and books about Ethiopian food, and a lot of their work is available online. Planning Your Ethiopian Menu. A 1963 Ethiopian book about nutrition, written in Amharic, has a week-long, day-by-day menu planner for all three of the daily meals, and in this translation, you can follow the authors meal plan. Macro Megeb: The New Ethiopian? If you enjoy a macrobiotic diet, why not try the Ethiopian version, courtesy of one nutritionists week-long menu planner. Healthy Eating the Ethiopian Way. A nutritionist has published a book that offers a 22-day menu planner for eating well in an Ethiopian context. With video. Dining Out in Ethiopia. Where do Ethiopians eat if they dont want to cook a meal at home? Restaurant options become less abundant the farther you travel from Addis Ababa, the countrys capital city. With video. A Visit to Wot-lanta. With its well-developed Ethiopian community, Atlanta is a great place to go for a meal or to shop for Ethiopian foods and spices. Summer of 15: North & South. While traveling around this summer, I visited restaurants and markets in Indianapolis, Charlotte, Asheville, N.C., Greensboro, N.C., and Grand Rapids, Mich. Montreal & Ottawa: A Road Trip. Two of Canadas largest eastern cities only have a few Ethiopian restaurants each, but they still offer residents and visitors good home cooking. Visit Rochester, N.Y., and Lancaster, Pa., in this post as well. O Canada! Great Ethiopian! With its dozens of restaurants and markets, Toronto is the place to be if you want the greatest variety of Ethiopian food choices in Canada, although many other Canadian cities have anywhere from one to a few restaurants. Hot & Cold. Honolulu, Hawaii, now has an Ethiopian restaurant, although only for one night a week. And for three months in 2007, Fairbanks, Alaska, had one as well. Grand Ole Ethiopian: A Road Trip to Nashville. I spent a few days in Nashville last summer visiting Ethiopian restaurants and markets, and along the way, I stopped at places in Louisville and Cincinnati. With video. Ethiohio Discovering Columbus. Its not the biggest city in Ohio, but Columbus has the biggest Ethiopian restaurant and market community by far. Road Trip: Ann Arbor & Windsor. We lost a lovely little Ethiopian restaurant in eastern Michigan. I also visited three restaurants across the border in Windsor, Ontario. The Deep Dish on Chicago Ethiopian. The Windy City has many fine Ethiopian restaurant options and even an Ethiopian market, something you wont find in New York. Chicago 2011: An Update. Theres a new Ethiopian restaurant in Chicago, two new markets, and now a place to buy Ethiopian beer by the case. Harry KlomanUniversity of Pittsburgh Heres a little preview of my book.

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February 10, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Ethiopian Jews  Comments Closed

Timeline of Ethiopian Jewish History – Jewish Virtual Library

4th Century CE Christianity is introduced into the Axum dynasty in Ethiopia. 7th Century With the spread of Islam, Ethiopia is isolated from most of the Christian world. The Beta Israel enjoy a period of independence before the power struggles of the middle ages. 9th Century The earliest apparent reference to the Beta Israel appears in the diary of Eldad Hadani, a merchant and traveler claiming to have been a citizen of an autonomous Jewish state in eastern Africa inhabited by the tribes of Dan, Naftali, Gad, and Asher. 13th Century The Solominic dynasty (which claims decent from Solomon and Sheba) assumes control. During the next 300 years (1320-1620), intermittent wars are fought between the Christian kings of Ethiopia and those of the Beta Israel, which finally result in the Beta Israel’s loss of independence. 16th Century Rabbi David B. Zimra, known as the Radbaz, issues a legal response in Cairo declaring that “those who come from the land Cush (Ethiopia) are without a doubt the Tribe of Dan…” He confirms that Ethiopian Jews are fully Jewish. 1622 Christians conquer the Ethiopian Jewish Kingdom following 300 years of warfare. The vanquished Jews are sold as slaves, forced to baptize, and denied the right to own land. 1769 Scottish explorer James Bruce awakens the western world to the existence of the Ethiopian Jews in his travels to discover the source of the Nile. He estimates the Jewish population at 100,000. 1855 Daniel Ben Hamdya, an Ethiopian Jew, independently travels to Jerusalem to meet with rabbis. 1864 Rabbi Azriel Hildesheimer, the Rabbi of Eisenstadt, Germany, publishes a manifesto in the Jewish press calling for the spiritual rescue of Ethiopian Jewry. 1867 Professor Joseph Halevy is the first European Jew to visit the Beta Israel, subsequently becoming an advocate for the community. 1904 Jacques Faitlovitch, a student of Professor Joseph Halevy, makes his first trip to Ethiopia to visit the Beta Israel. He commits his life on their behalf and actively tries to reconnect the community with the rest of world Jewry. He establishes the first “pro-Falasha” committees in the United States, Britain, and Palestine (under the control of the Ottoman Empire) and takes the first Ethiopian Jewish students to Europe and to Israel to increase their Jewish education. 1908 Rabbis of 44 countries proclaim Ethiopian Jews to be authentic Jews. 1935-1941 The Italian fascist army conquers Ethiopia and meets fierce resistance from the Ethiopian partisans, including the Jews. 1947 Ethiopia abstains in the United Nations vote for the partition of the British Mandate of Palestine. 1955 Israel’s Jewish Agency builds numerous schools and a teachers seminary for the Jews of Ethiopia. Two groups of Ethiopian Jewish students are sent to the Israeli youth village of Kfar Batya to learn Hebrew and other Jewish subjects. 1956 Israel and Ethiopia establish consular relations. 1958 Israel sends two public health teams to Ambober in the Gondar Province where most Jews are located. 1961 Ethiopia and Israel begin full diplomatic relations. 1969 The American Association for Ethiopian Jews is founded by Dr. Graenum Berger. 1970’s ORT (Organization for the Rehabilitation and Training) sets up schools, clinics, and vocational training centers in Ethiopia. 1973 Rabbi Ovadia Yosef, Israel’s Chief Sephardic Rabbi, rules, following the Radbaz, that the Beta Israel are from the tribe of Dan and confirms the Jewish identity of the community. 1974 Emperor Haile Selassie, ruler of Ethiopia since 1930, is overthrown in a coup. A Marxist regime is established and headed by Colonel Mengistu Haile Mariam. This begins a wave of violent acts throughout the country, some severely affecting the Jews. 1975 Agrarian Reform, meant to benefit tenant farmers, including Jews, creates a violent backlash by traditional landowners and much suffering for all of Ethiopia’s citizens. Israel, in an attempt to improve relations with Ethiopia and secure freedom for the Beta Israel, renews military assistance to Ethiopia after Somalia besieges it on the southeastern border. Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi Shlomo Goren agrees with the 1973 opinion of Rabbi Yosef. Interior Minister Shlomo Hillel signs an ordinance to accept all Ethiopian Jews officially under the Israeli Law of Return. Ethiopian Jews are granted full citizenship and receive the full rights given to new immigrants. 1976 Approximately 250 Ethiopians Jews are living in Israel. 1977 Prime Minister Menachem Begin comes to power in Israel. He requests that Colonel Mariam allow Israel to transport approximately 200 Jews to Israel in an empty Israel military jet returning to Israel from Ethiopia. 1977-1984 Approximately 8,000 Ethiopian Jews are brought to Israel by covert action. 1980 Canadian Association for Ethiopian Jews is founded in Toronto, Canada. 1982 North American Conference on Ethiopian Jewry is founded by Barbara Ribakov Gordon, in New York. 1984 The massive airlift known as Operation Moses begins on November 18th and ends on January 5th, 1985. During those six weeks, some 6,500 Ethiopian Jews are flown from Sudan to Israel. Attempts are made to keep the rescue effort secret, but public disclosure forces an abrupt end. In the end, an estimated 2,000 Jews die en route to Sudan or in Sudanese refugee camps. 1985 Secret CIA-sonsored airlift brings 494 Jews from Sudan to Israel. 1984-1988 With the abrupt halting of Operation Joshua in 1985, the Ethiopian Jewish community is split in half, with some 15,000 souls in Israel, and more than 15,000 still stranded in Ethiopia. For the next five years, only very small numbers of Jews reach Israel. 1986 The United States Congressional Caucus for Ethiopian Jewry is established with over 140 representatives currently listed. 1987 The Ethiopian leaders in Israel organize an assembly at Binyanei Ha’uma in Jerusalem, where the Israeli public comes together in solidarity for reunification of Ethiopian Jewry. Prime Minister Shamir, Absorption Minister Yacov Tsur, Knesset Speaker Shlomo Hillel, International Human Rights Lawyer Erwin Cotler, and Natan Scharansky participate in the conference. 1988 The World Union of Jewish Students holds a conference on Ethiopian Jewry in Ashkelon with a closing ceremony at President Herzog’s home. Israel’s Ambassador to the United Nations, Pinchas Eliav, makes a formal statement at the United Nations Human Rights Commission for the reunification of Ethiopian Jews in Israel. 1989 Ethiopia and Israel renew diplomatic relations. This creates high hopes among Jewry for the reunification of Ethiopian Jews in Israel. 1990 Ethiopia’s ruler, Colonel Mengistu Haile Mariam, makes a public statement expressing desire to allow Ethiopian Jews to be reunited with family members in Israel. 1991 With Eritrean rebels advancing on the capital each day, Colonel Mengistu flees Ethiopia. Israel asks the United States to urge rebels to allow a rescue operation for Ethiopian Jews. Spanning the 24th-25th of May, Operation Solomon airlifts 14,324 Jews to Israel aboard thirty-four El Al jets in just over thirty-six hours. And, the story continues… Sources: The Israel Association for Ethiopian Jews (IAEJ). Written by the staff of PRIMERPromoting Research in the Middle East Region. Sources Cited: From Addis to Jerusalem, Jewish Agency for Israel, Jerusalem, Israel, 1991. Reunify Ethiopian Jewry: Top Priority, World Union of Jewish Students, Jerusalem, Israel, 1989.

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January 23, 2018   Posted in: Ethiopian Jews  Comments Closed

Latest aliya wave leaves thousands of Ethiopian Jews behind …

The last 119 Ethiopian Jews approved to make aliya were set to arrive on Wednesday and Thursday, completing the immigration of the 1,300 persons whom the government had promised to bring to Israel by the end of the year. The families of the thousands still waiting to make aliya were left wondering when their family members would also be approved to make the move. According to the two latest cabinet decisions on the issue, held in November 2015 and in August 2016, some 9,000 Falash Mura, Ethiopian Jews whose ancestors converted to Christianity, may be brought to Israel by the end of 2020, starting with the 1,300 in 2017. Sabine Hadad, a spokeswoman for the Interior Ministrys Population and Immigration Authority, has stressed in the past that 9,000 is only the potential number, and that of those 9,000 people, the government will accept only those who meet the ministrys criteria. Alisa Bodner, spokeswoman to foreign media of the advocacy group Struggle for Ethiopian Aliya, has accused the ministry of not having upheld all of its commitments, specifically referring to Clause 5 of cabinet decision 1911, passed in 2016. The clause states that as long as the Population and Immigration Authority understands that the number of those eligible to enter the country according to this decision is significantly higher or lower than 1,300, it will be brought again before the cabinet for approval. Despite this requirement, This never happened, Bodner told The Jerusalem Post on Wednesday. The budget [for immigration] is going to be decided on in the next few days, and if those names [of those awaiting aliya] are not at the Prime Ministers Office, then they wont be included in the budget, she said. So theres a lot of concern that immigration will not continue in the coming year. She added that government representatives are being unresponsive to queries by activists. In response to a query by the Post, the interior ministers spokesman Barak Serry said: The Population and Immigration Authority completed its activities in accordance with the cabinets decision to absorb 1,300 immigrants from Ethiopia according to the criteria that were set. The data were transferred to the Prime Ministers Office. The decision regarding an additional quota should be made by the cabinet in a special resolution. To date, to the best of our knowledge, no proposal has been formulated for this matter and we have not been asked to address it. The Post sought to verify Bodners assertions regarding the Population and Immigration Authority, but Hadad did not respond to a query as to whether the authority had stated that there were more Ethiopians eligible for aliya. Ethiopian-Israeli MK Avraham Neguise, who has spearheaded efforts to bring Ethiopians eligible for aliya to Israel, told the Post on Wednesday that there is a positive approach toward the need to continue the aliya in 2018, but there is no final decision. We know that the Interior Ministry has identified that there are more people eligible under the cabinet decision and current criteria…, but the aliya cannot continue unless the cabinet has approved another budget for 2018, Neguise added. The MK expressed hope that a new resolution would be approved on the issue, noting that nobody has said no, but they say it is in the process of receiving the necessary approval. The interior minister has not brought it to the cabinet, he added, saying the responsibility lies with Interior Minister Arye Deri, in order to bring about a new cabinet decision and for the Finance Ministry to subsequently allocate the necessary funds for the aliya. But if the interior minister does not demand it, they wont do it voluntarily, Neguise asserted. The International Christian Embassy Jerusalem said on Wednesday that once additional olim from Ethiopia are approved by the cabinet, it stands ready to raise the money needed to sponsor this second year of renewed Ethiopian aliya. The ICEJ invested $1.2 million in Ethiopian aliya this past year, including additional monies to assist with the critical absorption phase, as these Jewish communities adjust to the new language and culture of Israel. Christians from all over the world have been contributing to this humanitarian cause, including generous donations from African Christians, the organization noted. The great ingathering of the Jewish people to Eretz Israel is still continuing, and it is a real privilege and joy for our organization to play such a central role in this historic return to Zion, said Dr. Jrgen Bhler, president of the ICEJ. We know that these latest arrivals from the Ethiopia community will never be the same as they rejoin their families and become fully part of the modern miracle of Israel. Some of these families have been separated now for over two decades, and so it is a special honor for us to help bring them back together here in the Jewish homeland. Falash Mura is the name given to those of the Beta Israel community in Ethiopia and Eritrea who under compulsion and pressure from missionaries converted to Christianity during the 19th and 20th centuries. Since their ancestors converted to another religion, the Falash Mura are not covered by the Law of Return, which grants the right to immigrate and gain citizenship to anyone with a Jewish grandparent. The Falash Mura are brought to Israel under the Law of Entry and are required to convert to Judaism once in Israel. They receive the same absorption benefits granted to immigrants who come under the Law of Return. Abere Endeshaw, a leader of the Jewish community in Ethiopia, is waiting in Addis Ababa for his own chance to make aliya. This week is the last aliya of the year, he said. Today I witnessed some of the community members leaving Ethiopia and heading toward the Promised Land. Today I saw two sisters one heading home to Israel and one back to the community. I saw two brothers one heading home to Israel and one going back to the community, and many more. I wonder when the separation will stop. I wonder when the cries of a mother and father, sister and brother, aunt and uncle will stop and be united with happiness. I wish a very successful journey for the Jews all over the world who made aliya during this year, and I wish strength and hope for the remaining Jews who are waiting to go back home, Endeshaw said. Share on facebook

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January 23, 2018   Posted in: Ethiopian Jews  Comments Closed

Ethiopian Jews in Israel – ONE FOR ISRAEL Ministry

You must tell them the truth, the reality of the situation, said my Ethiopian friend, when I asked her what she wanted the world to know about Ethiopian Jews in Israel. And its a tough reality, but not one without hope. God is at work in every part of Israeli society, and the gospel is reaching Ethiopian Jews in all sorts of ways especially the younger generation. There have been communities of Jewish Ethiopians following the the Torah for centuries. Even back in Acts 8 we see an Ethiopian Eunuch, the treasurer to Queen Candace of Ethiopia, no less, trying to understand Isaiah 53, when God suddenly brings Philip along to explain it to him, as he traveled back home from Jerusalem by chariot. Other Ethiopians include the wife of Moses, Zipporah, and the Ethiopian who rescued Jeremiah from the pit he had been thrown into, and of course, the Queen of Sheba. There are several theories about the origins of the Ethiopian Jewish community; most Ethiopian Jews themselves believe that when the Queen of Sheba came to visit Solomon, they conceived a son named Menelik, and his descendants were raised in the ways of the God of Israel. Another theory holds that they are the descendants of Jews who fled when the Babylonians conquered Judah in 586 BCE, traveling through Egypt, down the Nile, settling in Ethiopia. Another is that some of the Jewish diaspora traveled from the Arabian peninsula (near Yemen) to the Horn of Africa established new Jewish communities, perhaps intermarrying with local tribes. Approximately 140,000 Ethiopian Jewish people live in Israel today, about a third of whom were born in Israel. The majority came in the massive airlifting operations of 1985 and 1991 Operation Moses and Operation Solomon helping them to Make Aliyah (return to Israel) collectively in the thousands. However, the culture shock and transition has proved extremely challenging, exacerbated by the racism they have been subjected to when they finally made to Israel. There have been some significant problems such as poverty and unemployment among many Ethiopian families and communities as a result.The truth is that the blight of racism is an inescapable fact for the Africans who make it to Israel, whether they are Jewish or not. It affects Jews and non-Jews, asylum seekers and Israeli citizens, Messianics and atheists alike. On arrival to Israel many have found the rabbinic Judaism that most follow in Israel today rather alien to their practices. Not only is the expression of Judaism different, but the whole way of life in Israel is different, the culture is different, the language is different, and the values of the society are different. The landing can be rough, and many have come with nothing at all, some even making the journey by foot. Yet it should be a source of pride that against all the odds, and despite multiple hurdles, barriers and obstacles, Ethiopian Jews are now finding places of significance in Israeli society lawyers, teachers, police officers, doctors and recently a pilot. Those who experience racism know that these achievements are hard fought for, and worthy of celebration. Throughout the generations, Ethiopian Jews have longed to return to Jerusalem. Each year, fifty days after Yom Kippur, the Jewish community in Ethiopia celebrates the festival of Sigd, which means worship. They climb a mountain and celebrate the giving of the Torah to Moses at Sinai, and also the rediscovery of the Torah in the times of Ezra and the revival after the Babylonian exile. In Ezras time, the people were called as a nation to celebrate Passover in response to hearing Gods law again, even though it wasnt Passover time, and in reference to that event, the community also then celebrates a Passover together. There is traditional food and dancing, and heartfelt love and longing for Jerusalem and the Promised Land. For those who have now returned to Israel, Sigd is a time of great rejoicing that the dream of return has been realized. I attended such a celebration in an absorption center for new immigrants, and enjoyed the fabulous Ethiopian food, the unique dancing, and the contagious joy of a dream fulfilled. This particular feast is not emphasized so much in the Messianic community, who have found the One toward whom the entire Torah points Yeshua the Messiah. More and more Ethiopian young people are coming to faith in Yeshua. There are many Ethiopian Jews who believe in Yeshua here in Israel. We have Messianic Ethiopian staff and students here at Israel College of the Bible, and there are MessianicEthiopianministries and congregations operating in the Amharic language, running somegreat outreach programs and initiatives designed to meet the specific needs of the community. Additionally, younger Ethiopian Israelis who do not know about Yeshua are hearing the gospel from Messianic believers around them in society especially in the army. Many younger believers in Israel are emboldened now to share their faith without shame, wherever they may be in the army, at work, school, or wherever. And people are responding, including some in the Ethiopian community. Like the journey from Ethiopia to Israel, the journey to integrate into Israeli society has been long and hard. However, the younger generation are seeming to navigate their way more successfully than the older generations who came such a distance both physically and culturally. A great emphasis is being placed on education for the younger generation, as a key to succeed and find their place in Israel. We are glad to be contributing towards that important goal as the Ethiopian students at Israel College of the Bible become proficient in their study of the Bible, and equipped to lead and teach others. We are an Israeli ministry composed of Jewish & Arab followers of Yeshua (Jesus) who are all about blessing Israel through sharing the gospel online, educating the new generation of born-again believers through our one and only Hebrew-speaking Bible College in Israel, and helping holocaust survivors by supplying humanitarian aid.

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January 23, 2018   Posted in: Ethiopian Jews  Comments Closed

Boston-Haifa Connection: Ethiopian Jews | Combined Jewish …

Ethiopian Jews Since 1948 more than 90,000 Ethiopian Jews have immigrated to Israel in search of religious freedom. Language, cultural and educational barriers are just some of the challenges they face. To prevent a permanent underclass from forming, we worked with the Jewish Community Relations Council (JCRC) to create Shiluvim (integration) an innovative, multi-year program that is changing the fate of Ethiopian Israelis in Haifa.

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January 23, 2018   Posted in: Ethiopian Jews  Comments Closed

Saving The Forgotten Jews – BBC News – YouTube

30 years ago 2 remarkable mass movements transported this community to the modern State of Israel and now the festival has once again become recognised, much like the Ethiopian Jews themselves, as an authentic part of the wider Jewish tradition. This year as Sigd approaches we explore how this community came to arrive in the state of Israel. It is an incredible story of espionage, heroism and unyielding faith that led to tens of thousands of people leaving their homes and risking their lives. We join both those who were instrumental in the operations themselves and members of the Ethiopian Jewish community to explore how these so-called miraculous events happened and what they mean today. Subscribe to BBC News HERE http://bit.ly/1rbfUogCheck out our website: http://www.bbc.com/news Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/bbcworldnews Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/bbcworldInstagram: http://instagram.com/bbcnews

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December 7, 2017   Posted in: Ethiopian Jews  Comments Closed

Like bits of colored glass, we’re all unique and beautiful – ISRAEL21c

The colorful bits in a kaleidoscope whirl into ever-changing patterns, each one distinct as it complements the others. Schoolchildren participating in the Kaleidoscope program in Israeli classrooms are encouraged to consider how the pieces they see in the kaleidoscope reflect internal and interpersonal diversities in identities, emotions and cultures. Sometimes they live in harmony and create beautiful shapes and sometimes they dont, says Kaleidoscope founding director Chana Reifman Zweiter. The classroom-based program teaches problem-solving, collaboration, self-awareness and other social and emotional skills proven by research to form the foundation of respect between people of different backgrounds, Zweiter tells ISRAEL21c. We work in city-wide initiatives, implementing the approach in early childhood and continuing through junior high school just like other subject areas, Zweiter says. While most other organizations focus on relationships between specific cultures, Kaleidoscope is adapted to address acceptance between Ethiopian and native Israelis, Arabs and Jews, religious and secular, students of the special and general education tracks, Christians and Jews, she explains. Since 1991, Kaleidoscope has touched approximately 40,000 students, educators and parents throughout Israel. This year, about 1,200 students from early childhood through junior high school participated, and 45 educators in Jerusalem, Lod, Ramla and Acre (Akko) were trained to facilitate Kaleidoscope in their classrooms. Kaleidoscope in action The phased program starts with that first look into a kaleidoscope to foster an appreciation of the beauty of differences. The children have four or five workshops in their own schools to develop the self-awareness, empathy, and reflection critical to accepting others. They then meet children from other schools and cultures about five times over the course of the year, where they apply these social skills in interactive programming that helps them feel comfortable with one another. At one meeting of seventh-graders from Arab and Jewish schools in Acre, participants were paired and assigned a task to complete while tied together with rope in order to experience interdependency. During another paired activity, they got a piece of paper to draw on separately. By the second or third time, their pictures are no longer separate but cooperative. One pair drew a picture of Akko with writing in Hebrew and Arabic saying This is our city, Zweiter relates. Wafeed Mansur, principal of the 640-student Hilmi Shaafi junior high school in Acre, believes Kaleidoscope is responsible for halting afterschool hostilities that used to arise between his mostly Muslim Arab pupils and Jewish kids in the mixed northern city. Weve been doing Kaleidoscope almost 10 years. We started with small meetings between teachers and principals and eventually added two or three classes, Mansur tells ISRAEL21c. To tell you the truth, it was a little tough at the beginning because many [participants] couldnt manage to see a Jew or an Arab as someone they could talk to. We kept insisting the meetings should go on and they started to express their ideas and their fears, too. Since they discovered the qualities of the other side, the humanity of the other side, and personalities that could hear and deal with their opinions, it has been very beneficial, says Mansur. I havent heard of any problems in the last six or seven years. Children learn to appreciate the beauty of differences by looking in kaleidoscopes. Photo courtesy of Kaleidoscope Zweiter says that outside evaluations have shown Kaleidoscope participants to be more open to meeting individuals of cultures they dont know than are their peers who do not participate. Kaleidoscopes documented success in changing attitudes has won it support from private and public agencies including USAID and the Israeli ministries of education and absorption. Zweiter shares Kaleidoscope curricula in workshops and lectures internationally, and received the Bonei Zion Award at the Knesset in 2015 for her contribution to diversity education in Israel. Social inclusion Before moving to Israel from New York in 1991, Zweiter founded and directed the Yachad program, integrating Jewish youth with special needs into the greater Jewish community. My dream was to apply my experience in social inclusion into the community here in Israel, she says. In February 1992 she founded an organization that established afterschool art, music and sports clubs for special-needs and mainstream kids in Ramla, Lod and Jerusalem. The following year, one school asked if the program could address the influx of Ethiopian immigrants who were feeling socially isolated. I did not take for granted that the program would work with the inclusion of a different population, so I really studied the Ethiopian culture before establishing in-class social activities to foster togetherness of different populations, says Zweiter. From there, her approach was adapted to help integrate Jews and Arabs, and religious and secular Jewish children in different parts of Israel, during the regular school day. Around 1998 we adopted the idea of the kaleidoscope because it was symbolic of the different cultures and the positive aspects, she says. Kaleidoscope rents an office at the Ministry of Educations Center for Professional Development in Lod. About a dozen facilitators train educators from participating schools. We learned that teachers need a lot of professional development. One of the main findings in our yearly evaluations is that the teachers increased their willingness to participate and to continue with the programming in subsequent years, says Zweiter. This year we had early-childhood teachers from east and west Jerusalem who said Kaleidoscope helped break stigmas and stereotypes. At first they didnt think it would work but gradually they established relationships. Mansur, the principal in Acre, says attitudes and beliefs often are far apart. Unless we can bridge these differences we will never be as equal as we can be. Kaleidoscope provides the tools and the leadership to do this. For more information, click here.

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July 4, 2017   Posted in: Ethiopian Jews  Comments Closed


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