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Q&A: Larry King on asking simple questions and listening closely – Columbia Journalism Review

A great interview is one of the journalists most powerful tools. It can be informative, entertaining, thoughtful. For the next five weeks, the Columbia Journalism Review and MaximumFun.orgwill broadcast conversations with some of the worlds greatest interviewers. Hosted by NPRs Jesse Thorn, the podcast, called The Turnaround, will examine the science and art of journalism.

This episode features Larry King, longtime television and radio show host. An edited transcript is below.

Jesse Thorn: So my first question was, when was the first time that you realized you were an interviewer? I know you always wanted to be a broadcaster.

Larry King: Oh, since I was five years old I wanted to be on the radio. I just wanted to be an announcer. I wanted to be anything. I wanted to talk into a microphone. I dont know why, I must have had a good voice pre-puberty. Because people kept telling me, You gotta be on the radio. So I would imitate radio shows. I would listen to The Shadow, and then I would go into my bathroomwe were very poor in Brooklynand I would go, Who know what evil lurks in the heart of men? The Shadow knows. A tale well-calculated to keep you insuspense. I was driven by the sounds. Still am. And I knocked around a while, didnt go to college. My father had died when I was very young. I worked at a bunch of odd jobs, finally went down to Miami, broke in on a small station.

Jesse: So this is the part that I want to interject on. Because one of the things I am interested in is you mentioned you were really poor in Brooklyn.

Larry: Very.

Jesse: This couldnt be further from the entertainment industry, the radio industry, or whatever. So what gave you the idea, Oh, I could actually do this?

Larry: Just by listening, imitating. It stroked something in me, that I was comfortable with it. Had I not done it, I would have been a standup comic. I love making people laugh. I do a lot of speaking. But I just wanted to be on the radio, in any capacity.

I thought eventually it would be sports because Im a sports freak. And I love all sports, and I love going to sports events. Ive broadcast Dolphin games, and Ive done baseball. I thought Id be a sportscaster. Red Barber, the Dodger announcer, was one of my heroes, as was Arthur Godfrey, who I later worked with. But I went to Miami, got a job at a small station. I was a disc jockey for about a year and a half. Playing records, doing news in the afternoon, sports broadcastsfifty dollars a week I was making. And there was a restaurant in Miami Beach called Pumpernicks, a very popular restaurant. And their slow time of the day was 10 to 11 in the morning, because it wasnt breakfast, it wasnt lunch. And the owner of the restaurant used to listen to me in the morning, doing my morning show, usually very funny, a lot of humor. And he said, Would you like to do a radio show from my restaurant from 10 to 11 when I dont get crowds? We might build up some crowds. The station went for it because he paid the station. I got a little extra. So every day Id finish my shift, 6 to 9, drive up to Pumpernicks, and do 10 to 11. And I would interview waiters, and there was no producer on the show, you know people would just call people up from the audience. And then one day, out of nowhere, Bobby Darinthe great Bobby Darinwalked in. Mack the Knife was the number one [song]. And I interviewed him for an hour. Later we walked down the street down Collins Avenue, and he said to me, Youve interviewed before? I said, No, I just talk to regular people. And he said, I think you ought to take this up seriously because you really have a knack.

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Jesse: Well, thats what I was going to say. I mean I think one of the things about your interview style thats special is that youre a very modest interviewer. Like you are not afraid to ask a simple question, a what is this question.

Larry: Theyre the best. Because when you thinkI watch some of these press conferences, and the question takes longer than the answer. And the people show off. There was no showing off. [The] New Yorker did a piece on me, called it Street Questions. Im a guy in the street. Hey! What are you doin?

So, when the Gulf War was on, and we would have guests on every night associated with the war: writers, politicians, generals. And I always asked the same question: What happened today? I wasnt there. You were there. You were covering it. What happened? Thats the simplest question in the world. Whyd you do this? What happened? I dont know more law than a lawyer. I dont know more politics than a politician. I dont, I have opinions. But Ive never run for office. Ive never argued a case in front of a jury. I dont know more medicine than a doctor, Ive never operated. Ive never done science. I ask questions of scientists. Im a layman. Im a pure layman whos intensely curious. What I do have is a sense of pace. I know when somethings going well, I know how to draw people out. But I dont think I could teach a course in it. I dont know that I have a method. I just know that I go to the basics.

And from the basics, you learn a lot, and you can bring people. One of the best examples I can give is my first interview with Frank Sinatra, who didnt do a lot of interviews. Jackie Gleason got him for me. And his PR guy said to me, Frank doesnt do these things. Hes doing it as a favor to Jackie Gleason. But one thing: do not bring up the kidnapping of his son. He doesnt want to talk about it, he will not talk about it. I thought, thats fair, I dont have to bring it up, OK.

In the middle of the interview, were really in touch. And I asked him, The thing with you and the pressis it overdone, or have you been bum rapped? He says, Well, it might have been overdone. But Ive been bum rapped. Take my sons kidnapping. He brought it up. I just was asking good questions. And thats the framework of which I like to work. I dont have to know a great deal about [it]. In fact, my favorite guests are people I dont know at all. I like doing physicists; I know nothing about physics. I like doing astronomers, because I dont know about the heavens, but I wonder about them. What is an astronomer when he walks down the street and looks up? What does he think about?

Jesse: Are you always listening for that little something that stands out? That little interesting bit that you can pull on a little?

Larry: Yeah. Because the key of interviewing is listening. If you dont listen, youre not a good interviewer. I hate interviewers who come with a long list of prepared questions. Uh, because theyre going to depend on going from the fourth question to the fifth question without listening to the answer of the fourth question. Because theyre concentrating on what theyre going to ask for the fifth. And thats not the way it works for me. So I concentrate solely on the answer, and I trust my instincts to come up with questions. Even if the answerer fully answered the question, Im ready in my head to go somewhere with it. Theres no dead air.

Jesse: Do you get scared ever?

Larry: No. Only the first time I was on the air. I was playing records.They had just given me a new name, and I had my record ready to go, and all my life I had dreamed of this. And I turned down the mic, and I turned down the record, and nothing came out. And the general manager kicked open the door to the control room and said, This is a communications business, dammit. Communicate! And I put on the mic, and I said, My name is Larry King. Thats the first time I said that, because I had just been given that name, they thought my real name wasnt good enough, and Im very nervous, but all my life I had wanted to be in radio. I dreamed of this moment, and I had been scared. So for two minutes, youve been listening to a record go up and down and nothing coming out, so please, bear with me.

And I learned something that day, which later Arthur Godfrey would tell me, You learned the whole secret of this business. The secret of what were doing right now is theres no secret. Be yourself. Be yourself. Answer honestly, be honest, be upfront with the audience. You can never go wrong. So what I did that day even though I wasnt thinking that way. If you were listening that day, and I was reading a commercial and goofed, or miscued a recordits his first day! Its his first day. I told that story in Canada once, and the guy said to me, Well suppose you were walking down the hall at NBC. Someone grabbed you, sat you down, put some papers in front of you, and said, Tom Brokaw is sick, youre on.’ I would look at the camera and say, I was walking down the hall at NBC. Someone just grabbed me handed me these papers, tells me Tom Brokaws sick, and Im on. I would thentrust me, Ive never anchored news, Ill do the best I can. Hey, it aint brain surgery.

Larry: See, tape is a safety ground that I dont want. Because I was born of the moment. I didnt know Bobby Darin was coming in. I liked that. We used to do on my radio showI had the first national radio talk show. We used to do a night which was Who Is The Guest? They would not tell me who the guest is. And this guy would walk in, Ive got to do a two-hour interview, guy or woman, and all they have to do is tell me their name. And then Id find out who they were, and then Id ask them questions. I loved that. Because the less I know, the better. Now that sounds strange to people. Like if you wrote a book, I wouldnt read the book before I interviewed you, because I would then know too much about the book. And Im in the same boat as the audience, they havent read the book. So were all in this together. Theres no such thing as the perfect interview. Yes, you can miss something. No ones ever done the perfect interview.

Jesse: How does this work when youre interviewing somebody that you dont like?

Larry: Thats the hardest. You still have to do the best job you can. Sometimes you get confrontIve only got really confrontational with racists, racism. When I landed in MiamiI took a train down to Miami to, I lived with my uncle. I had 14 dollars in my pocket, and the first thing I saw was a colored water fountain. And I didnt understand that at all. There was a colored water fountain and a white water fountain. So I drank out of the colored water fountain. It was good. Then I got on a bus to go over to Miami Beach. And I sat in the back of the bus, and the bus driver stopped the bus, and he asked me to move forward. Of course, the back of the bus is for Negroes. I remember said to him, My fathers a Negro, so Im comfortable in the back of the bus. Which was not true. So I never understood racism. Why would the pigment of skin mean anything? Anything? So when I had George Wallace on early, or the head of the Ku Klux Klan, or George Lincoln Rockwell, the anti-Semitic racist. That blew my mind, and I would get confrontational and sometimes have arguments. Its not good to argue with the guest. Because its maybe interesting for the audience, but it puts you out of control. When you argue, youre not in control. And I like to beyoure in control, youre in control of this interview, Jesse, not me. You. This is your interview. Youre in control; you could stop it, you could end it, you could go anywhere you want.

Larry: If you have an agenda, youre not gonna learn, in my opinion. I dont learn anything when I watch shows in which the host and his guest are of one point of view, and thats the whole thing. You know, so whether its Bill OReilly with an arch-conservative or Rachel Maddow with an arch-liberal, I dont know anything. I know that Rachel Maddow stands for this and her guest stands for that, and they both agree. Thats a not a learning process to me. Its not a real Q&A. A real Q&A takes meIm interested in a heart of a person. How people react to things. Whats it like to be a president and send someone to war. Whats it like at night when you get the statistics132 killed today. How do you sleep?

Jesse: You know youre describing it as an exercise in curiosity, but is it partly an exercise in empathy, and just wondering what other peoples lives are like?

Larry: Yeah thats part of it, empathy, curiosity. Peter Ustinov, the great actor, told me he likes being interviewed because he gets to think about things he doesnt think about. I dont walk around thinking about the things youve just asked me. But it forces me to think about them. And therefore, I enjoy it. As much as I like asking questions, I like being asked, if theyre good questions and it causes me to be thoughtful. Im not a texter, I dont like texting. I like the sound of the human voice. Im into voice. I like, something about the inflections in voice, that you dont get in a transcript.

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Jesse: Do you think the fact that youre Larry King affects the way that people react to you when you ask them questions?

Larry: It well might. Walter Cronkite told me that when you get famous, it gets harder. You know he was at thein 1960, he went to the Texas caucuses at the convention. As soon as he walked in the room, they all stopped. Got autographs from him and stuff like that. Its not what its supposed to be. So I guess that its happened. People get a little intimidated at the thought of it; theyre thrilled to meet you. Especially when I interviewlike young rock stars, singers, young people who have listened to me as children. They come like a little in awe, I put them at ease right away, usually with humor. I use humor a lot. I kid around a lot, tell them the latest joke Ive heard. I love telling jokes, I love jokes. Jokes are genius to me. Who, cartoonsyou read The New Yorker cartoons?

Jesse: Mmhmm.

Larry: Theyre genius. Genius! They had a cartoon once of two guys up against the wall. Nothing but loin cloths on. Handcuffed around the neck, the hands, and the feet. Attached, in the middle of the wall, attached to it. With nothing on, handcuffs on every parts of their body, and one says to the other, Now, heres my plan. Thats funny.

Jesse: Is it different for you now that you are older than almost everyone you interview? Larry: I know Im 83. Eighty-goddamn-three! My father died in 46. Whenever I got to be 46, I used to think I would die. At 53, I had a heart attack. Six months later had quintuple bypass. Ive had type 2 diabetes. Ive had prostate cancer. I have good medicine, good doctors. I take care of myself. But I have wayIll tell youthis is really weird. I have one insurance policy where Ive already paid more than the face value of the policy. I out-bet the insurance company; they won. When you take out insurance, youre betting youre gonna die. Theyre betting youre gonna live, and they have the actuary. Theyve got the figures. Now how I got this policy after a heart attack and heart surgery, for two million dollars, it was. Ive had other policies before that. And I already paid it in 20 years. No, 30 years. Thirty years, I had the heart attack 30 years ago, Ive already paid the two million.

Jesse: The change in your life came around the time that you just describe, the time that you passed the age that your father died, and the time that you had a heart attack that nearly killed you.

Larry: Right. I joined CNN in 85, had the heart attack in 87. CNN is when I really blossomed, cause it was television, it was worldwide. I read the obits every day. And my biggest fear is death. I guess Im an atheist, agnostic, I dont believe in an afterlife. And since I cant believe in an afterlife, I dont want to die. Someone asked me the other day, What do you want your obit to read? I read obituaries every day. Today there was two 83s, an 81, an 87, and a 71. I see the ages right away. I wanted my obit to read, Oldest man who ever lived passed away today. He was shot in the head and died immediately by an angry husband as he was sleeping with the former Playmate of the Year. He was 136 years old. It took three days to wipe the smile off his face.

Jesse: Your wifes Mormon, right?

Larry: Yeah. So they believe theyre going somewhere. And so shes going to see me after I die. Now I cant believe that. And what bugs me about it is, shes going to handle the death pretty well. Because she knows shes going to see me again. I want people to grieve. I would love toif I die there is some spirit afterwardId love to see whats going on. Because what I am is curious, and so if I die, will Trump finish four years? Will the Dodgers finally win a World Series after, since 1988?

The Turnaround is available on MaximumFun.org. You can also subscribe on Apple Podcasts to get new episodes as they become available.

Photo credit: Amanda Edwards (Getty)

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Q&A: Larry King on asking simple questions and listening closely – Columbia Journalism Review

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July 9, 2017   Posted in: George Lincoln Rockwell  Comments Closed

Trump shared Twitter content created by neo-Nazis long before his CNN tweet – Raw Story

Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump speaks to supporters through a bullhorn during a campaign stop at the Canfield County Fair in Canfield, Ohio, U.S., September 5, 2016. REUTERS/Mike Segar

President Donald Trump shared an animated meme created by an apparent neo-Nazi depicting him body-slamming CNN and thats not even the first time hes circulated white nationalist themes.

The animation, which was taken from Trumps appearance at a WWE professional wrestling event, was apparently created by an obviously racist Reddit user called HanAssholeSolo.

The reporter who revealed the memes creator said he has been deluged with anti-Semitic death threats from Nazi sympathizers who support Trump.

As a presidential candidate, in February 2016, Trump retweeted and then deleted a message from the Twitter user WhiteGenocideTM complimenting the size of his rally crowds.

That users profile shows an image of George Lincoln Rockwell, founder of the American Nazi Party, and links to anti-Semitic, Holocaust denial and racist content.

Trump actually retweeted another post by WhiteGenocideTM a few weeks earlier, when he shared an image showing Jeb Bushs head superimposed on a panhandlers body, holding a sign that reads, Vote Trump.

He tweeted an image in July 2016 calling Hillary Clinton crooked, next to a six-pointed star that closely resembled the Star of David which emerged from a neo-Nazi forum on the 8chan website.

House Speaker Paul Ryan denounced the tweet as anti-Semitic, but Trumps social media director Dan Scavino claimed he randomly chose the star from a stock art collection on Microsoft Word, while Trump insisted the graphic was a sheriffs badge.

Fortune used social media analytics software developed by Little Bird and found that prominent members of the Trump campaign, including former campaign spokeswoman Katrina Pierson, followed the most influential members of the white nationalist #WhiteGenocide network.

Trump himself doesnt follow any of those Twitter accounts, but nearly 68 percent of the top #WhiteGenocide influencers follow him, while 24 percent follow Scavino.

He retweeted the user @NeilTurner_ whose Twitter bio claims white genocide is real five times during the campaign, despite following only 42 accounts at the time.

Fortunes analysis found Trump and his campaign have used social media to court support within the white supremacist community, whether intentionally or unintentionally. And it appears to have worked.

Kellyanne Conway, who served as Trumps campaign manager during the final stretch before the election and now serves as a senior White House adviser, tweeted love you back in February to an account called Lib Hypocrisy whose bio includes the hashtags #WhiteIdentity, #Nationalist, and #SteveBannon.

The presidents son, Donald Trump Jr., has also shared white nationalist themes and ideas on his Twitter account.

Trump Jr. retweeted a post in August 2016 by Kevin MacDonald, a retired psychology professor that the Southern Poverty Law Center has called the neo-Nazi movements favorite academic.

Hes also shared posts using the Pepe the Frog character identified with the neo-Nazi alt-right movement, and he cracked a gas chamber joke in September 2016.

Later that month, Trump Jr. drew widespread condemnation for comparing Syrian refugees to poisoned candy an analogy based on two separate white supremacist memes with roots in Nazi propaganda.

The analogy, which has been used on message boards and shared as social media memes, originally used M&Ms as the candy in question but that changed after George Zimmerman gunned down Trayvon Martin while the unarmed black teen was walking home from buying a drink and some Skittles.

But the poisoned candy analogy goes back even further, to an anti-Semitic childrens book published by Julius Streicher, the publisher of the Nazi newspaper Der Strmer who was executed in 1946 as a war criminal.

The book tells the tale of the poisonous mushroom, and was used to indoctrinate children in hate.

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Trump shared Twitter content created by neo-Nazis long before his CNN tweet – Raw Story

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July 4, 2017   Posted in: George Lincoln Rockwell  Comments Closed

McVeigh Worship: The New Extremist Trend – Southern Poverty Law Center

Yes, that Timothy McVeigh. The guy who used a Ryder truck to bomb the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995, killing 168 innocent children and adults and wounding more than 600 others.

His act 22 years ago, for those who may have forgotten, was the deadliest terrorist attack in the United States before the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001.

McVeigh was convicted of terrorism and executed just three months before those attacks.

His name and heinous crime are not forgotten, nor should they be, while there seems to be a growing admiration for McVeigh in some extremist circles. One militia honcho even likened McVeigh to Jesus Christ.

Check out these recent mentions of McVeigh:

In mid-May, police in Tampa, Florida, responded to the scene of a double-murder involving young, self-described neo-Nazis.

Brandon Russell, who shared the apartment with the murder suspect, was charged with possession of bomb-making materials and chemicals, including ammonium nitrate the same kind of material used by McVeigh.

In Russells bedroom at the apartment he shared with the murder suspect and the two slain neo-Nazis, police found a framed photograph of Timothy McVeigh. Russell, whos in custody, hasnt publicly explained that fascination.

In late May, police in Washington, D.C., arrested a man with an AR-15 assault rifle, a 40- caliber handgun and 90 rounds of ammunition at the Trump Hotel, not far from the Capitol and the White House.

Police saidBryan Moles, 43, of Edinboro, Pennsylvania, told a tipster that he wanted to get close to Trump and wanted to be like Timothy McVeigh.

Court document say Moles, who had worked as a physician, was armed with an assault rifle and a handgun and was in the nations capitol to see the president. He told an acquaintance, court documents say, that he had enough ammunition to make his car resemble Timothy McVeigh on a camping trip.

Before traveling to Washington, D.C., police learned Moles emptied his bank account, leaving behind a balance of $4.19 perhaps symbolic of the 4-19 date of McVeighs act of terrorism in 1995.

Homicidal Portland stabber Jeremy Christian praised McVeigh on the anniversary of the Oklahoma City bombing in an April Facebook post, writing, May all the Gods Bless Timothy McVeigh — a TRUE PATRIOT!!!

Then on May 26,Jeremy Christian, who held extremist views, went on a rampagein Portland, Oregon, slashing the throats and killing two men who attemptedto come to the aid of two women Christian was harassing.

Just a month earlier,on the anniversaryof McVeigh’s deadly act of terrorism, Christian praised theOklahoma City bomber in a Facebook post. May all the Gods Bless Timothy McVeigh — a TRUE PATRIOT!!! Christian wrote.

More recently, neo-NaziAndrew Weev Auernheimer, who writes for the racist web site Daily Stormer, said he was serious in proposing a crowd-funding account to raise money to build a permanent monument in a memorial grove honoring McVeigh.

Think of it, a gigantic bronze statue of Timothy McVeigh poised triumphantly atop a Ryder truck, arms raised as if to form an Algiz rune from his body, with a plaque that states the honest truth, Auernheimer wrote.Nothing would be a greater insult to these pizza-party guarding federal swine than a permanent monument honoring [McVeighs] journey to Valhalla or Flkvangr atop the piles of their corpses.

I am not joking, Auernheimer wrote. This should be done. Imagine how angry it would make people.

Last year, during the illegal occupation of a federal wildlife refuge in Oregon by antigovernment figurehead Ammon Bundy and his militia followers,Norm Olson, another long-time militia activist and leader, made ominous public comments about McVeigh.

The battle for the rights of the people rages on and it should be assumed that lone wolf patriots may be planning another response to the central government’s abuses, Olson wrote. He claimed federal agents murdered Bundy associate LaVoy Finicum, inciting Patriots, during the 2016 refuge occupation.

Once the fuse is lit, it will be hard to extinguish, Olson said. There’s a place that we all should think about: Oklahoma City.

Two days later, Olson, who has been active in militia groups in Michigan and Alaska, said he was ready to tell members of Congress that Timothy McVeigh DIED FOR YOUR SINS!!!!!!!!!

It’sworth remembering that Olson had a unique glimpse of McVeigh. He and Oklahoma bombing co-conspirator, Terry Nichols, attended a meeting of the Michigan Militia, which Olson founded in 1994, a year before the Oklahoma City bombing.

Anger and frustration create a personal vendetta, Olson wrote last year, claiming that the U.S. governments case against Tim McVeigh was based on hismotive.

His motive was VENDETTA, retaliation, retribution, eye-for-eye ..f. call it what you want, but there will be blood … maybe not right away, but soon, Olsons said in his ominous public warning.

Apparently referring to McVeigh, Olson said there are other Patriots out there who want to be remembered and are coming to the realization that THERE IS NO JUSTICE … IT IS JUST US!

Of course, McVeigh may never be as popular as other extremist and far-right heroes and memes – – the swastika, the burning cross, Adolf Hitler, Pepe the Frog, George Lincoln Rockwell, the numbers 88 and 14 words, the KKK blood-drop cross, William Pierce.

But the question remains, why would anyone romanticize a modern-day, extremist serial killer and terrorist?

Tom Pyszczynski, a professor of psychology at University of Colorado who has written about the psychological makeup of extremists, said he believes only a relatively small number of people are enthralled with McVeigh.

The psychological, social, economic and political forces that lead some Americans to idolize McVeigh are the same as those that lead disenfranchised or disillusioned young people in other parts of the world to idolize Osama bin Laden or ISIS, Pyszczynski told Hatewatch.

They see them [McVeigh, et al] as heroes who stand up for people like them, said Pyszczynski, who co-developed and tested a terror management theory, dealing with the role of death in life and the role that meaning and self-esteem play in managing the fear of death.

Of course, the specifics of the issues and lives of the people who follow ISIS and those who idolize McVeigh are different, but beneath the surface it usually boils down to a feeling that one’s people are disrespected and mistreated, that one’s way of life is under siege from powerful forces, and that the world as they know it has gotten out of control, the university psychologist said.

All people crave meaning in life and a sense of personal or group heroism to protect them from their deepest fears, he said, explaining that ultimately boils down to the facts of life, involving death and vulnerability.

But some people, he said, aren’t able to find this in their worlds. So they look elsewhere, to radical fringe groups, like ISIS for some, or white nationalist groups for others.

These groups typically have heroes who are idolized as standing up to powerful forces and if they die in that fight, they are considered martyrs, Pyszczynski said.

Clark McCauley, a research professor of psychology at Bryn Mawr College in Pennsylvania, offered similar brief views about those individuals enchanted with McVeigh.

McVeigh is … a symbol of resistance and a hero for those who hate and fear the U.S. Government, McCauley told Hatewatch. This includes a wide range of people, some who see themselves as neo-Nazis and some who do not.

McVeighs bombing plan generally followed a fictional account of a race war depicted in the Turner Diaries, a novel written by William Pierce, a one-time college professor who went on to lead the National Alliance, a neo-Nazi hate group.

McCauley said he doesnt personally believe McVeigh was a neo-Nazi, so he can therefore be a hero for many different anti-government groups.

Pyszczynski, who teaches at the Colorado Springs university, said people who feel their way of life is under siege identify with heroes like McVeigh.

So radical ideologies, whether they be Islamist or white nationalist, are appealing to people who struggle to find meaning and a sense of personal value in their own lives and view another group as the repository of evil against which they must fight to reclaim that meaning and value, he said.

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McVeigh Worship: The New Extremist Trend – Southern Poverty Law Center

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June 27, 2017   Posted in: George Lincoln Rockwell  Comments Closed

Six Nazi spies were executed in D.C. White supremacists gave them … – Washington Post

A team of power company workers was trudging through a seldom-visited thicket in Southwest Washington when they spotted something odd in a ditch.

Protruding from the grass was a rectangular slab of granite.

They looked closer, and an inscription on the surface came into focus. What they saw astonished them.

It was a memorial. In honor of Nazi spies. On U.S. government property.

In memory of agents of the German Abwehr, the engraving began, executed August 8, 1942.

Below that were six names, and below those was another cryptic line: Donated by the N.S.W.P.P.

News of the unsettling discovery soon reached Jim Rosenstock, who worked in resource management for the National Park Service and also happened to be a local history buff. He was curious, but also skeptical. How could someone have planted such an item there? And why? And above all who?

Rosenstock needed to see it for himself, so he, too, made the hike into Blue Plains, a woody area known best for a wastewater treatment plant and an abundance of mosquitoes. And thats when he saw the stone.

I kind of started doing a little bit of my own research, Rosenstock recalled of that day in 2006 when he began to help unravel an only-in-Washington mystery, complete with World War II espionage, nationwide panic, a mass electrocution, J. Edgar Hoover chicanery, white supremacists, classic federal bureaucracy and a U.S. Supreme Court case that played a significant role in Americas modern war on terror.

***

For decades, very few people in Washington, or elsewhere, knew of the stones existence. It wasnt a secret so much as something that just never got out remarkable in a town famous for its leaks.

Only when a former Park Police detective mentioned it in passing to a Washington Post reporter, then provided photographic evidence, did anyone ask the Park Service about it.

[Hitlers mother was the only person he genuinely loved. Cancer killed her decades before he became a monster.]

A spokeswoman referred the Post to the now-retired Rosenstock, because perhaps no one has thought more about the 31-by-26-by-8-inch object than he has.

At the start of World War II, Rosenstock discovered when he began his research, Adolf Hitler had been determined to show the world just how susceptible America was to a Nazi attack, so he ordered his military to devise a plan.

The high command, according to a 2002 Post story, recruited eight Germans for the mission. In teams of four, the men were loaded onto a pair of U-boats, one destined for Jacksonville, Fla., and the other for a beach near the tip of Long Island.

On June 13, 1942, the New York group reached shore and was almost immediately discovered by an unarmed Coast Guards member on foot patrol. The men escaped, but by morning, the Coast Guard had unearthed the Germans buried supplies: fuses, pre-made bombs and four crates of TNT.

That wouldnt have mattered to their leader, George John Dasch, who hadnt intended to wreak devastation on Hitlers behalf anyway. When the group reached New York City, he and a comrade decided to turn the others in, so Dasch phoned the FBI.

Four days later, he took the $82,000 hed been given for the operation more than $1 million in todays money and boarded a train for Washington. There, he met with FBI agents, whom he expected to welcome him as a hero.

They didnt.

J. Edgar Hoover, the infamous head of the bureau, recognized an opportunity. In late June, with all eight men caught, Hoover announced their capture in New York and claimed credit for his agency.

He made no mention of Dasch.

The country went wild, Francis Biddle, then attorney general, later wrote in a memoir.

Hundreds of German aliens were rounded up and others, suspected of spying, were arrested. The Justice Department banned German and Italian barbers, servers and busboys from Washingtons hotels and restaurants because three of the would-be saboteurs had worked as waiters in America.

Ignoring due process, President Franklin Roosevelt ordered that the men be tried in secret before a military commission a tactic, then backed by the U.S. Supreme Court, that President George W. Bush would replicate 59 years later in his directive that Guantanamo Bay detainees be judged in a similar fashion.

In mid-summer 1942, seven U.S. Army generals found all eight men guilty but left their punishment to the president. He sentenced six to death and two, including Dasch, to lengthy prison terms (both were deported after the war).

The electrocutions began at 12:01 p.m. on Aug. 8. By 1:04, all six were dead.

Three days later, they were secretly buried amid a seldom-visited thicket of Southwest Washington known as Blue Plains.

***

Rosenstock quickly learned the backstory of the six Nazi spies listed on the stone, but another question remained: Who had placed it there?

The line at the bottom referencing the N.S.W.P.P. offered a clue.

Until the mid-1960s, the National Socialist White Peoples Party had gone by a more familiar name: the American Nazi Party. According to the Southern Poverty Law Center, the groups founder, George Lincoln Rockwell, had given it the new title shortly before his assassination in 1967.

By the 1970s, though, the group had begun to split apart and had lost much of its relevance, leading Rosenstock to believe the Nazi memorial dates back to that time.

The party didnt entirely cease to exist until 1983, the law center said, so the stone may had been carved more recently though that still means it likely sat on Park Service land for more than two decades before the power companys discovery.

[Hitler refused to use sarin gas during World War II. The mystery is why.]

For Rosenstock and his colleagues, the memorial presented a conundrum. It was deplorable, and certainly not something that belonged on public property, but none of their handbooks suggested how to deal with a 200-plus pound monument to Nazis installed on public land by white supremacists.

Plus, the Park Service couldnt do anything until they were sure it hadnt been placed atop someones bones.

What if, they wondered, the Nazis were buried beneath it?

The Park Service scoured World War II-era records for details on their bodies, but researchers could find nothing that provided a definitive answer. Old maps showed conflicting spots, including one beneath a building.

The location is a little bit confusing, he said, and I think deliberately so.

Rosenstock suspected that whoever disposed of the spies bodies didnt want them found.

What he did learn, though, is that no one was buried beneath the stone because a creek had run through that area in the 1940s.

Still, the Park Service hadnt decided what should be done.

It was an illegal monument, Rosenstock said. And we certainly did not want to be hosting a site for midnight rituals on Hitlers birthday.

That was a legitimate concern. Rosenstock once found deer bones arranged atop the memorial. Others had found candles around it and noticed that it was regularly cleaned.

At least one fellow in the Park Service suggested breaking it up with sledge hammers and throwing it in the river, he recalled. Its not the argument that historic preservationists make.

The memorial remained intact.

In 2010, under the direction of a museum curator, a forklift exhumed the granite block and lowered it into a truck.

The stone, tagged OXCO-475, now spends its days beneath a protective blanket on a shelf at a storage facility in suburban Maryland. Park Service staff asked that The Post be no more specific than that because, though they didnt mind its long-unknown story being told, theyd prefer that its exact location remain a secret.

Read more Retropolis:

The secret deal the Associated Press made with the Nazis during WWII

The disturbing history of cat abuse: public hangings, pipe beatings and The Great Cat Massacre

Discovered: Never-before seen photos of Charles Lindberghs first Spirit of St. Louis flight

Great God, he is alive!The first man executed by electric chair died slower than Thomas Edison expected.

Blood in the water: Four dead, a coast terrified and the birth of modern shark mania

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Six Nazi spies were executed in D.C. White supremacists gave them … – Washington Post

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George Lincoln Rockwell – Military Wiki

George Lincoln Rockwell File:GeorgeLincolnRockwell.jpg Commander of the American Nazi Party In office March, 1958 August 25, 1967 (9 years) Preceded by Position established Succeeded by Matt Koehl Leader of the World Union of National Socialists In office 1962 August 25, 1967 (5 years) Preceded by Position established Succeeded by Matt Koehl Personal details Born George Lincoln Rockwell (1918-03-09)March 9, 1918 Bloomington, Illinois, United States Died August 25, 1967(1967-08-25) (aged49) Arlington County, Virginia, United States Political party American Nazi Party Spouse(s) Judy Aultman (1943-1953) ra Hallgrmsdttir (1953- 1961) Occupation Sailor, politician, activist Religion Agnostic Military service Allegiance United States Service/branch United States Navy Years of service 19411960 Rank Commander Battles/wars World War II Korean War Awards *American Defense Service Medal

George Lincoln Rockwell (March 9, 1918 August 25, 1967) was the founder of the American Nazi Party.[1] Rockwell was a major figure in the neo-Nazi movement in the United States, and his beliefs and writings have continued to be influential among white nationalists and neo-Nazis.

Rockwell was born in Bloomington, Illinois, the first of three children of George Lovejoy “Doc” Rockwell and Claire (Schade) Rockwell. His father was born in Providence, Rhode Island, and was of English and Scottish ancestry. His mother was the daughter of Augustus Schade, a German immigrant, and Corrine Boudreau, who was of Acadian French ancestry. Both parents were vaudeville comedians and actors, and his father’s acquaintances included Fred Allen, Benny Goodman, Walter Winchell, Jack Benny, and Groucho Marx.[2][3] His parents divorced when Rockwell was six years old, and he divided his youth with his mother in Atlantic City, New Jersey, and with his father in Boothbay Harbor, Maine.[2]

Rockwell attended Atlantic City High School in Atlantic City, and applied to Harvard University when he was 17 years old. However, he was denied admission. One year later, his father enrolled him at Hebron Academy in Hebron, Maine.[4] He became an avid reader of Western philosophy and socially significant novels, leading him to re-examine the topic of religion. He had initially perceived himself as a devout Protestant, but after reading the Bible numerous times, he perceived religion as a necessary pillar to civilization. He contemplated the possibility of a “total intelligence” existing in the universe, and identified himself as an agnostic. Despite this, he promoted the Christian Identity sect in the 1960s.[citation needed]

In August 1938, Rockwell enrolled at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island as a philosophy major.[2] In his sociology courses, he rejected equality and the idea that man was made by his environment and all human beings had the same potential in life. He debated with fellow students over topics such as social themes in popular novels.

Rockwell during his military service.

In his sophomore year, Rockwell dropped out of Brown University and accepted a commission in the United States Navy.[2] He appreciated the order and discipline of the Navy, and attended flight schools in Massachusetts and Florida in 1940.

On April 24, 1943, Rockwell married Judy Aultman, whom he had met while attending Brown University. Aultman was a student at Pembroke College, which was the female section of the university. The couple had three daughters: Bonnie, Nancy, and Phoebe Jean. At the time, Rockwell was studying at the Navy’s aerial photography school in South Florida. When he completed his training, he served in the Pacific Theatre of World War II.

Rockwell was recalled to duty as a lieutenant commander at the beginning of the Korean War. He moved to San Diego, California, with his wife and two children, where he trained Navy and United States Marine Corps pilots.[2]

In 1952, Rockwell was ordered to report to Norfolk, Virginia, where he was notified by a superior officer that he would be transferred to Iceland.[2] Since families were not permitted to be with American service personnel stationed there, his wife and children stayed with her mother in Barrington, Rhode Island. Due to the separation, his wife filed for divorce the following year. Several months after his return to Iceland, Rockwell attended a diplomatic party in the capital city of Reykjavk. He met ra Hallgrmsdttir there, and they were married on October 3, 1953 in the Icelandic National Cathedral by ra’s uncle, the Bishop of Iceland. They spent their honeymoon in Berchtesgaden, Germany, where Hitler once owned the Berghof mountain retreat in the Bavarian Alps.

Rockwell told ra about his political beliefs, and she replied that he would either be a “bum or a great man”.[5] She divorced him on October 15, 1961.[6]

When the Korean War ended, Rockwell decided to become a graphic designer. He was accepted into the art program at the prestigious Pratt Institute in Brooklyn, New York.[2] He and his wife[Who?]

In 1948, Rockwell won the $1,000 first prize for an advertisement he did for the American Cancer Society.[2][7] The contest was sponsored by the National Society of Illustrators in New York. He left Pratt before finishing his final year, and founded his own advertising agency in Maine.

Rockwell saw a business opportunity in publishing a magazine for United States servicemen’s wives. In September 1955, he launched the U.S. Lady. After presenting the idea to the generals and admirals who headed public relations departments of the military services, Rockwell began publishing in Washington, D.C. The new enterprise also incorporated Rockwell’s political causes: his opposition to both racial integration and communism. He financed the operation through stock sales and subscriptions. With a staff of thirty workers, Rockwell could only promise to pay his employees before the launch of the first issue. The publication continued to have financial problems, and he sold his interest in the magazine. However, he still aspired to pursue a career in publishing.

During his time in San Diego, Rockwell began moving towards the political far right. He was influenced by Senator Joseph McCarthy’s stance against communism. Rockwell supported General Douglas MacArthur’s candidacy for President of the United States. He adopted the corncob pipe, following MacArthur’s example. Rockwell attended a Gerald L. K. Smith rally in Los Angeles, and read Conde McGinley’s Common Sense, a political newspaper that introduced him to anti-semitism and Holocaust Denial. He then read the National Socialist manifesto Mein Kampf by Adolf Hitler and the Russian propaganda pamphlet Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Privately, he adopted their beliefs. He published an Animal Farm-type parody, The Fable of the Ducks and the Hens.[8] This was Rockwell’s interpretation of Jewish power in the United States in the 20th century. In 1952, Rockwell began working with anti-semitic and anti-communist groups. That year, he attended the American Nationalist Conference, which was organized by Conde McGinleys Christian Educational Association.

In July 1958, Rockwell demonstrated in front of the White House in an anti-war protest against President Dwight D. Eisenhower’s decision to send ‘ peace-keeping ‘ troops to the Middle East. One day he received a large package from a supporter; it contained an 18-foot-long Swastika flag. He placed the flag on the wall of his home and made a shrine with Hitler’s photo in the center, three lighted candles in front. In his autobiography, Rockwell claimed to have had a religious experience and swore allegiance to his leader, saluting “Heil Hitler!” Rockwell and a few supporters had uniforms. They armed themselves with rifles and revolvers, and paraded about his home in Arlington, Virginia. The window to his home was left open, so that others could see the huge Swastika flag. Drew Pearson wrote a news column about Rockwell, giving him his first publicity. In the presidential election of 1964, Rockwell ran as a write-in candidate, receiving 212 votes.[9] He ran unsuccessfully for governor of Virginia in 1965 as an independent, this time polling 5,730 votes, or 1.02 percent of the total, finishing last among the four candidates.[10]

In March 1959, Rockwell founded the World Union of Free Enterprise National Socialists (WUFENS), a name selected to denote opposition to state ownership of property. In December, the name was changed to the American Nazi Party, and the headquarters relocated to 928 North Randolph Street in Arlington, Virginia.

In order to attract media attention, Rockwell held a rally April 3, 1960, on the National Mall of Washington, D.C., where Rockwell addressed the crowd with a two-hour long speech. The second rally was to be held at Union Square in New York City. Mayor Robert Wagner refused to grant him a permit to speak, and he appealed that decision to the New York Supreme Court. Jewish war veterans and Holocaust survivors gathered to oppose his appeal and, during a court recess, when Rockwell emerged into the court Rotunda he was surrounded by a crowd of television reporters. One of the reporters, Reese Schonfeld, asked Rockwell how he would treat Jews if he came to power in the United States. Rockwell replied he would treat Jews just as he treated any other American citizens. If they were loyal Americans, everything would be fine; if they were traitors, they would be executed. When Schonfeld asked what percentage of Jews Rockwell perceived as traitors, Rockwell replied, “Ninety percent.”[11] The Jewish war veterans and Holocaust survivors rioted and began beating Rockwell and the reporter with their umbrellas, and Rockwell was escorted out of the Courthouse Rotunda in the midst of a police convoy. Rockwell, with the aid of the ACLU, eventually won his permit, but it was long after the date of the planned event.[12]

The third rally was set for July 4, 1960, again held on the Mall. Rockwell and his men were confronted by a mob and a riot ensued. The police arrested Rockwell and eight party members. Rockwell demanded a trial, however was instead committed to a psychiatric hospital for thirty days. In less than two weeks, he was released and found capable of standing trial. He published a pamphlet on this experience titled How to Get Out or Stay Out of the Insane Asylum.

In summer 1966, Rockwell led a counter-demonstration to Martin Luther King’s attempt to bring an end to de facto segregation in the white Chicago suburb of Cicero, Illinois. He believed King was a tool for Jewish Communists to integrate America.[13]

Rockwell led the American Nazi Party in assisting the Ku Klux Klan and similar groups during the Civil Rights Movement, in attempts to counter the Freedom Riders and the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. But he soon came to believe the Klan was stuck in the past and ineffective for helping him wage a modern race struggle. After hearing the slogan “Black Power” during a debate in 1966 with Black Panther Stokely Carmichael, Rockwell altered the phrase and started a call for “White Power”.[citation needed]White Power later became the name of the party’s newspaper and the title of a book authored by Rockwell.

Rockwell’s principal message was racial separation. He attempted to form friendly associations with the Nation of Islam. He praised Elijah Muhammad as the “Black people’s Hitler,” and for doing the best job in promoting integrity and pride among his people. Rockwell also admired Malcolm X, seeing him as the next true leader for Black America. In 1965 Malcolm X sent Rockwell a telegram while Rockwell was on his “Hate Bus” tour of the South, threatening Rockwell with “maximum physical retaliation from those of us who are not hand-cuffed by the disarming philosophy of nonviolence” should Martin Luther King, Jr. or “any other black Americans who are only attempting to enjoy their rights as free human beings” be harmed.[14]

Rockwell was a Holocaust denier.[2] In an April 1966 interview with Playboy journalist Alex Haley, Rockwell stated, “I don’t believe for one minute that any 6,000,000 Jews were exterminated by Hitler. It never happened.”[2]

Haley would later author the 1976 novel Roots: The Saga of an American Family, which would eventually be made into a TV serial. The interview was dramatized in the TV miniseries Roots: The Next Generations, with Marlon Brando portraying Rockwell in an Emmy Award-winning performance and James Earl Jones portraying Haley.

The two-story farm house Rockwell established as his “Stormtrooper Barracks” was located at 6150 Wilson Boulevard, in the Dominion Hills district of Arlington. It was there that the interview with Alex Haley occurred. Situated on the tallest hill in Arlington County, the house has long since been razed and the property incorporated into the Upton Hill Regional Park. A small picnic table pavilion marks the house’s former location. The site of the party headquarters, 928 North Randolph Street in the Ballston area of Arlington, is now a massive hotel and office building complex. Rockwell’s successor, Matt Koehl, relocated the headquarters after Rockwell’s death to 2507 North Franklin Road in the Clarendon area.[15] It would become the last physical address of the party before Koehl moved it to New Berlin, Wisconsin in the mid-1980s. The small red brick building, often misidentified today as Rockwell’s former headquarters, is now a coffee shop called “The Java Shack.”[16][17]

In August 1962 Rockwell travelled secretly to Britain through Ireland. In the Cotswolds, he co-founded the World Union of National Socialists with Colin Jordan’s British organization the National Socialist Movement, before being deported back to the States. In 1966, the international group published National Socialist World, edited by former physics professor William Luther Pierce.

From June 9 to 11, 1963, the party held its national conference in Arlington, aimed at reorganizing its leadership and “charting a new course of professionalism”.[citation needed] In July 1963, the party’s publication The Stormtrooper magazine was replaced with the newspaper White Power bearing the swastika in the center of the paper. Some within the NSWPP opposed this new ideological direction.[citation needed]

On January 1, 1967, Rockwell announced the party’s next stage of development. He officially changed the name of the American Nazi Party to the National Socialist White People’s Party (NSWPP). Its new slogan would be “White Power”, replacing the inflammatory “Sieg Heil”. The new strategy would be to capitalize on growing support in the wake of the Chicago rallies and to focus the organization’s commitment to a universal white nationalism. An internal party newsletter, the “National Socialist Bulletin”, was started to help direct these new efforts.[citation needed]

In the 1960s, Rockwell attempted to draw attention to his cause by starting a small record label, named Hatenanny Records (the name was based on the word “hootenanny”, a term given to folk music performances). The label released several 45 RPM singles, including recordings by a group credited as Odis Cochran and the Three Bigots [1][2][3], and were sold mostly through mail order and at party rallies. A truncated version of one of the band’s recordings, “Ship Those Niggers Back,” appears in the documentary The California Reich. When the Freedom Riders drove their campaign to desegregate bus stations in the Deep South, Rockwell secured a Volkswagen van and decorated it with swastikas and white supremacist slogans, dubbing it the “Hate Bus” and personally driving it to speaking engagements and party rallies.[3][18][19] According to an FBI report on the American Nazi Party, the van was repossessed after a loan default.[20]

On June 28, 1967, the first attempt was made on Rockwells life. Returning from shopping, he drove into the party barracks driveway on Wilson Boulevard and found it blocked by a felled tree and brush. Rockwell assumed that it was another prank by local teens. As a young boy cleared the obstruction, two shots were fired at Rockwell from behind one of the swastika-embossed brick driveway pillars. One of the shots ricocheted off the car, right next to his head. Leaping from the car, Rockwell pursued the would-be assassin. On June 30, Rockwell petitioned the Arlington County Circuit Court for a gun permit. No action was ever taken on his request.

On August 25, 1967, Rockwell was killed by gunshots while leaving the Econowash laundromat at the Dominion Hills Shopping Center in the 6000 block of Wilson Boulevard in Arlington, Virginia.[21] Two bullets, from what would later be found to be a model 1896 “Broomhandle” Mauser pistol,[22] passed through his 1958 Chevrolet’s windshield, and it slowly rolled backwards to a stop. Rockwell staggered out of the front passenger side door of the car, pointed towards the shopping center roof, and then collapsed face up on the pavement.

The gunman ran along the shopping center roof and jumped to the ground in the rear. A shop owner and a customer briefly gave chase, but were unable to get a clear look at the fleeing figure. Other customers called the Arlington County police and checked Rockwell for a pulse. He had none; the one bullet that struck him had ripped through several major arteries just above his heart. The internal bleeding was so heavy that Rockwell died in two minutes.[23]

A half hour later, at a bus stop about a half-mile (800 m) away,[24]John Patler, a former member of Rockwell’s group, was arrested as the suspected murderer by a passing patrolman familiar with the Arlington Nazis.[23] Later that day, after hearing of his sons death, Rockwell’s 78-year-old father was curt: “I am not surprised at all. I’ve expected it for quite some time.”[4]

Matt Koehl, the number two man in the NSWPP, moved to establish legal control over Rockwells body and all NSWPP assets. At the time of his death, the NSWPP had approximately 300 active members nationwide, and perhaps 3,000 financial supporters. Although Rockwells parents wanted a private burial in Maine, they did not feel up to a public fight with the Nazis for his body. On August 27, an NSWPP spokesman reported that Federal officials had given verbal approval to a planned military burial of Rockwell at Culpeper National Cemetery, as an honorably discharged veteran of the U.S. Armed Forces.[25]

On August 29, several dozen NSWPP troopers and about 100 party supporters formed a procession and drove the 65 miles (105km) from Arlington to Culpeper. At the cemetery gates they were met by General Carl C. Turner and 60 MPs who had been rushed in from Vint Hill to enforce the U.S. Armys burial protocol. They were backed by dozens of police from various jurisdictions. No mourners bearing Nazi insignia would be allowed into the cemetery. The NSWPP troopers refused to remove their uniforms, which led to a day-long standoff. They unsuccessfully tried to force their way into the cemetery three separate times. Several arrests resulted. With daylight fading, General Turner declared that Rockwell could not be buried until the NSWPP made a new request to the Pentagon and agreed to follow protocol.

The Nazis returned to Arlington with Rockwells body. Plans were made to bury Rockwell in Spotsylvania County, but they fell apart when local Jewish organizations protested. Fearing that Arlington County officials might seize the body, the ANP had Rockwell cremated the next morning, and a memorial service was held that afternoon at party headquarters. On February 8, 1968, the NSWPP filed suit to obtain a Nazi burial for Rockwells remains at any National Cemetery. On March 15, 1969, a Federal district judge upheld the Army Secretarys ruling that Rockwell was ineligible for a burial with full military honors in a national cemetery. Today Rockwell’s ashes reside next to those of Savitri Devi in the memorial room of New Order headquarters in New Berlin, Wisconsin.

Following psychiatric evaluation, John Patler was judged competent to stand trial. He pleaded not guilty at his preliminary hearing to the charge of first degree homicide. His trial began on November 27 amid tight security at the Arlington County Courthouse. On December 15, Patler was found guilty and released on bond to await sentencing. On February 23, 1968, Patler was sentenced to 20 years in prison, at that time the least amount possible for a first degree murder conviction. The Virginia Circuit Court postponed imprisonment[citation needed] pending his appeal.

On November 30, 1970, the Virginia Supreme Court upheld Patlers conviction and 20-year sentence for slaying Rockwell, and ordered him to begin serving his sentence. On May 16, 1972, the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously rejected Patlers appeal based on claims of witness contamination. In August 1975, Patler was paroled from the Pulaski correctional unit after serving less than four years of his sentence. Judge Charles S. Russell, who had presided over Patlers murder trial, wrote a lengthy letter to the parole board supporting Patlers release, the only time he did so in his career. The following year Patler violated the terms of his parole and was returned to prison for an additional six years. On December 30, 1977, Patler petitioned the Henry County Circuit Court to change his surname back to its original form, Patsalos. After serving out the remainder of his sentence, John Patsalos returned to the New York City area.

The exact reason for Rockwell’s murder is still a matter of debate. Patler’s nasty feud with Rockwell and a family history of violence weighed against him at the trial. Despite being convicted of the crime, Patler has always maintained his innocence. The case against him was largely circumstantial and key evidence against him (e.g., whether he possessed the murder weapon at the time of the killing) was disputed by defense witnesses.

The small strip mall where Rockwell was killed is still called the Dominion Hills Shopping Center, although it has since been refurbished and the laundromat replaced by a dry cleaners. After his death, admirers of Rockwell painted a white swastika on the blacktop surface of the parking lot, marking the exact spot where he died. Several attempts by the property owners were made to obliterate the emblem with a square patch of black paint, but the white swastika would always surreptitiously reappear, usually on or near the anniversary of Rockwell’s death. It remained visible, off and on, well into the 1980s, until the NSWPP renamed itself the New Order and moved their headquarters to Wisconsin. Since then the parking lot has been resurfaced and a handicapped parking space symbol painted on the same spot. The site can be located today by using a crime scene photograph that appears on page 323 of William H. Schmaltz’s biography of Rockwell. On August 27, 2007, the 40th anniversary of the assassination, a group of unidentified, non-uniformed Rockwell admirers appeared at the Dominion Hills Shopping Center to conduct a brief ceremony and lay a wreath. They carried a plain white banner with black and red lettering that bore the symbolic slogan: “Lincoln Rockwell Lives!”

Rockwell was a source of inspiration for White Nationalist politician David Duke. As a student in high school, when Duke learned of Rockwell’s assassination, he reportedly said “The greatest American who ever lived has been shot down and killed”.[26] In the mid-1960s, Rockwell had a strategy to develop his Nazi political philosophy within the Christian Identity religious movement. Previously, Christian Identity had antisemitic and racist views, but not a Third Reich orientation. The Christian Identity group Aryan Nations started to use various Nazi flags in its services, and its security personnel started wearing uniforms similar to those worn by Rockwell’s stormtroopers.[citation needed] Two of Rockwell’s associates, Matt Koehl and William Luther Pierce, formed their own organizations. Koehl, who was Rockwell’s successor, renamed the NSWPP to New Order in 1983 and relocated it to Wisconsin shortly thereafter. Pierce founded the National Alliance.

George Lincoln Rockwell was also mentioned in the lyrics to the Bob Dylan song “Talkin’ John Birch Paranoid Blues”. In the lyrics to the song, the narrator parodies Abraham Lincoln and Thomas Jefferson as being Communists, and claims that the only “true American” is George Lincoln Rockwell. Quoting the lyrics, “I know for a fact that he hates Commies, ’cause he picketed the movie Exodus.”[27]

In an episode of The Twilight Zone entitled “He’s Alive”, Dennis Hopper portrays the leader of a small Neo-Nazi group; a character apparently inspired by Rockwell[citation needed].

In the television miniseries Roots: The Next Generations, Marlon Brando portrayed Rockwell and won a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie for his performance.

Rockwell had a successful Naval career, both on active duty and in the Naval Reserve. A veteran of World War II, he was a naval aviator and served a follow-on tour during the Korean War. He would transfer to the naval reserve. In his nineteen years of service, he had obtained the rank of Commander and was commanding officer of several aviation reserve units. In 1960, as a result of his political and racist activities, the United States Navy discharged Rockwell one year short of retirement, since he was regarded as “not deployable” due to his political views. The proceedings to dismiss him were an extremely public affair, and Rockwell widely advertised the results, saying he “had basically been thrown out of the Navy”[28]

Service dates

Dates of rank

Awards

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Six Nazi spies were executed in DC White supremacists gave them a memorial on federal land. – The Mercury News

By John Woodrow Cox, (c) 2017, The Washington Post

WASHINGTON A team of power company workers were trudging through a seldom-visited thicket in southwest Washington when they spotted something odd in a ditch.

Protruding from the grass was a rectangular slab of granite.

They looked closer, and an inscription on the surface came into focus. What they saw astonished them.

It was a memorial. In honor of Nazi spies. On U.S. government property.

In memory of agents of the German Abwehr, the engraving began, executed August 8, 1942.

Below that were six names and below those was another cryptic line: Donated by the N.S.W.P.P.

News of the unsettling discovery soon reached Jim Rosenstock, who worked in resource management for the National Park Service and also happened to be a local history buff. He was curious, but also skeptical. How could someone have planted such an item there? And why? And above all who?

Rosenstock needed to see it for himself so he, too, made the hike into Blue Plains, a woody area known best for a wastewater treatment plant and an abundance of mosquitoes. And thats when he saw the stone.

I kind of started doing a little bit of my own research, Rosenstock recalled of that day in 2006 when he began to help unravel an only-in-Washington mystery, complete with World War II espionage, nationwide panic, a mass electrocution, J. Edgar Hoover chicanery, white supremacists, classic federal bureaucracy and a U.S. Supreme Court case that played a significant role in Americas modern war on terror.

For decades, very few people in Washington, or elsewhere, knew of the stones existence. It wasnt a secret so much as something that just never got out remarkable in a town famous for its leaks.

Only when a former Park Police detective mentioned it in passing to a Washington Post reporter, then provided photographic evidence, did anyone ask the Park Service about it.

A spokeswoman referred the Post to the now-retired Rosenstock, because perhaps no one has thought more about the 31-by-26-by-8-inch object than he has.

At the start of World War II, Rosenstock discovered when he began his research, Adolf Hitler had been determined to show the world just how susceptible America was to a Nazi attack, so he ordered his military to devise a plan.

The high command, according to a 2002 Post story, recruited eight Germans for the mission. In teams of four, the men were loaded onto a pair of U-boats, one destined for Jacksonville and the other for a beach near the tip of Long Island.

On June 13, 1942, the New York group reached shore and was almost immediately discovered by an unarmed Coast Guardsman on foot patrol. The men escaped, but by morning, the Coast Guard had unearthed the Germans buried supplies: fuses, pre-made bombs and four crates of TNT.

That wouldnt have mattered to their leader, George John Dasch, who hadnt intended to wreak devastation on Hitlers behalf anyway. When the group reached New York City, he and a comrade decided to turn the others in, so Dasch phoned the FBI.

Four days later, he took the $82,000 hed been given for the operation more than $1 million in todays money and boarded a train for Washington. There, he met with FBI agents, whom he expected to welcome him as a hero.

They didnt.

J. Edgar Hoover, the infamous head of the bureau, recognized an opportunity. In late June, with all eight men caught, Hoover announced their capture in New York and claimed credit for his agency.

He made no mention of Dasch.

The country went wild, Francis Biddle, then attorney general, later wrote in a memoir.

Hundreds of German aliens were rounded up and others, suspected of spying, were arrested. The Justice Department banned German and Italian barbers, servers and busboys from Washingtons hotels and restaurants because three of the would-be saboteurs had worked as waiters in America.

Ignoring due process, President Franklin Roosevelt ordered that the men be tried in secret before a military commission a tactic, then backed by the U.S. Supreme Court, that President George W. Bush would replicate 59 years later in his directive that Guantanamo Bay detainees be judged in a similar fashion.

In mid-summer 1942, seven U.S. Army generals found all eight men guilty but left their punishment to the president. He sentenced six to death and two, including Dasch, to lengthy prison terms, though both were deported after the war.

The electrocutions began at 12:01 p.m. on Aug. 8. By 1:04, all six were dead.

Three days later, they were secretly buried amid a seldom-visited thicket of southwest Washington known as Blue Plains.

Rosenstock quickly learned the backstory of the six Nazi spies listed on the stone, but another question remained: Who had placed it there?

The line at the bottom referencing the N.S.W.P.P. offered a clue.

Until the mid-1960s, the National Socialist White Peoples Party had gone by a more familiar name: the American Nazi Party. According to the Southern Poverty Law Center, the groups founder, George Lincoln Rockwell, had given it the new title shortly before his assassination in 1967.

By the 1970s, though, the group had begun to split apart and had lost much of its relevance, leading Rosenstock to believe the Nazi memorial dates back to that time.

The party didnt entirely cease to exist until 1983, the law center said, so the stone may had been carved more recently though that still means it likely sat on Park Service land for more than two decades before the power companys discovery.

For Rosenstock and his colleagues, the memorial presented a conundrum. It was deplorable, and certainly not something that belonged on public property, but none of their handbooks suggested how to deal with a 200-plus pound monument to Nazis installed on public land by white supremacists.

Plus, the Park Service couldnt do anything until they were sure it hadnt been placed atop someones bones.

What if, they wondered, the Nazis were buried beneath it?

The Park Service scoured World War II-era records for details on their bodies, but researchers could find nothing that provided a definitive answer. Old maps showed conflicting spots, including one beneath a building.

The location is a little bit confusing, he said, and I think deliberately so.

Rosenstock suspected that whoever disposed of the spies bodies didnt want them found.

What he did learn, though, is that no one was buried beneath the stone because a creek had run through that area in the 1940s.

Still, the Park Service hadnt decided what should be done.

It was an illegal monument, Rosenstock said. And we certainly did not want to be hosting a site for midnight rituals on Hitlers birthday.

That was a legitimate concern. Rosenstock once found deer bones arranged atop the memorial. Others had found candles around it and noticed that it was regularly cleaned.

At least one fellow in the Park Service suggested breaking it up with sledge hammers and throwing it in the river, he recalled. Its not the argument that historic preservationists make.

The memorial remained intact.

In 2010, under the direction of a museum curator, a fork lift exhumed the granite block and lowered it into a truck.

The stone, tagged OXCO-475, now spends its days beneath a protective blanket on a shelf at a storage facility in suburban Maryland. Park Service staff asked that the Post be no more specific than that because, though they didnt mind its long-unknown story being told, theyd prefer that its exact location remain a secret.

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Six Nazi spies were executed in DC White supremacists gave them a memorial on federal land. – The Mercury News

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June 25, 2017   Posted in: George Lincoln Rockwell  Comments Closed

White supremacists gave 6 Nazi spies a memorial on federal land – Stars and Stripes


Stars and Stripes
White supremacists gave 6 Nazi spies a memorial on federal land
Stars and Stripes
Until the mid-1960s, the National Socialist White People's Party had gone by a more familiar name: the American Nazi Party. According to the Southern Poverty Law Center, the group's founder, George Lincoln Rockwell, had given it the new title shortly

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White supremacists gave 6 Nazi spies a memorial on federal land – Stars and Stripes

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June 24, 2017   Posted in: George Lincoln Rockwell  Comments Closed

George Lincoln Rockwell for Beginners – Renegade Tribune

By James Harting (2014)

Rockwell is the father of both contemporary, post-1945 National-Socialism, as well as the modern White Nationalist movement. Movement veterans are familiar with the important, dynamic figure and his career, but to newcomers he is little more than a name.

Here is the authorized biographical sketch of Rockwell that was published by the American Nazi Party in the 1960s. My comments follow.

George Lincoln Rockwell was born in Bloomington, Illinois, the home of his maternal grandfather on March 9, 1918. His father was a very successful headline comedian from 1912 until about 1935. His ancestors were German, French, English and Scottish, numbering among them many Revolutionary War figures, back to Marie Antoinette, the French queen.

Rockwell was in Bloomington only until he was old enough to get out of the hospital, when he was taken on the vaudeville circuit by his parents. He then spent some time in New Jersey, New York and California, but most of the time in Boothay Harbor, Maine.

He attended Hebron Academy, a prep school near Lewiston, Maine, after which he entered Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island, majoring in philosophy. In college, Rockwell enjoyed and did well in science and other objective courses, but fought blindly and instinctively against the sociology and other similar departments which, unknown to him, were then preaching the Marxist environmentalism and egalitarianism, which have played such havoc with our human, biological sciences.

Leaving Brown in the middle of his junior year, when it became obvious that the US would get into World War II. Rockwell enlisted as a Seaman in the United States Navy in Boston, Massachusetts. By the entrance of the US into World War II on December 7, 1941, he had entered Naval Aviation, and became a cruiser and battleship scout pilot and a fighter pilot. He served aboard the USS Omaha in the South Atlantic and off North Africa during the invasion. He was then sent to the naval photographic school for pilots, and assigned to the USS Wasp and sent to the Pacific. He also became a commander of forward air control operations for Marine Corps assault troops. He was at Guadalcanal, Guam and other Pacific hot spots. At the end of World War II he was commanding officer of a squadron in Hawaii, and had earned nine decorations.

Released from active duty, Rockwell attended Pratt Institute Art school in New York, working part time in advertising and commercial art. In 1948, while still at Pratt, he won first prize of $1,000 in the National Society of Illustrators competition for a full page newspaper ad for the American Cancer Society.

While still in the ready reserves as commanding officer of a squadron in Washington, DC, he launched a new magazine, U.S. Lady, for the wives of US servicemen.

In 1949, Rockwell founded the first big national advertising agency in the state of Maine. Recalled to active duty for the Korean War in 1950, he trained Marine and Navy pilots in close support of troops, and then was transferred to Iceland, where he became the commanding officer of a squadron at Keflavik.

About this time he became deeply concerned about the way that all he had fought for in two wars was being turned over to communism.

He noticed that almost all of the convicted communist spies and traitors, such as Julius Rosenberg, Ethel Rosenberg, Nathan Silvermaster, Harry Dexter White (Weiss), Robert Soblen, Morton Sobell, David Greenglass, Harry Gold, Miriam Moskowitz, Fred Rosenberg, and Sam Cohen (chief of the communist spies caught in Canada), and most of the communist intellectual leaders, such as Herbert and Bettina Aptheker, were racial Jews. He was especially shocked to find that Whos Who in Jewry, published by the Jews themselves, listed many of these atheist communists very proudly as Jews, even though he had believed that the Jews were just a religion.

Observing that Hitler has said that communism was Jewish, and that the Jews were out to degenerate the White race by subversion and race-mixing, Rockwell bought a copy of Mein Kampf and read it, even though he thought he already knew what was in it from all hed heard. He was astonished to find that it was actually a brilliant analysis of the mess that Western Civilization has gotten into, and the only plan hed ever seen to save the White race and its culture.

For a number of years he tried to work with various rightwing organizations, all of whom believed, as he did for a while, that it was necessary to disguise ones admiration for Adolf Hitler and National Socialism.

Finally disgusted with the emptiness, the weakness, the hypocrisy and especially the cowardice of the so-called conservatives, Rockwell determined to attack at last, flying the Swastika banner which came so close to saving Western Civilization and the White race. Since our Cause is fundamentally the truth, he explained to horrified friends, I do not see how we can win by lying or misrepresenting what we are for fear of the Jews.

The only times in the hundred years of the rise of communism that this plague has actually ever been BEATEN, it was beaten not by conservatives, but by radicals and fighters whom the enemy calls Nazis and fascists, and whom they really fear. Only in Germany, Spain and Italy has communism ever been conquered. We are damned fools to be afraid to follow the only examples that have ever worked!

He hung up a Nazi banner in front of his home and dared the Jews to do something about it. Theyand their friends and dupescame in droves to do something about it, but Rockwell survived all the shootings, rocks and other Jewish arguments. The publicity gave him such a much needed platform from which to call the attention of his fellow Americans to the increasingly desperate situation of America and our great White family of people.

Speaking at colleges, at great city rallies and to private groups, Rockwell has won a larger and larger circle of responsible Americans who begin to realize that the old pray-talk-petition-and-stamp-licking societies will not save America and our White race.

Rockwell believes that it is now time for the White Man to take America back from the aliens, the minorities and the terrorists now in power under the demagoguery of cheap politicians. To do this we must win not the few in the rightwing, or the upper classes, but the millions and millions of our people. And to win these people we must offer something beside a lot of empty platitudes about freedom and the Constitution. Only National Socialism has a positive and progressive program for all the people, rather than just the upper class, and combines a concern for the purity and protection of the great White race with a fighting determination to stop all further mongrelization of our people.

In five short years, Rockwell has led the American Nazi Party from a tiny and scorned band of roughnecks willing to take to the streets to fight treason and race-mixing, until today the Party has headquarters in Washington, Chicago, Los Angeles and most major cities, and commands a grudging respect of the enemy, even though there is a powerful censorship of the American right-to-know of what Rockwell is doing, as shown by an article in the Spring, 1965, issue of the Columbia Journalism Review by Ben H. Bagdikian.

The Party publishes The Rockwell Report (monthly), The Stormtrooper Magazine (quarterly) and National Socialist World (quarterly), plus bulletins available to Party members only.

Rockwell is presently organizing the WHITE GUARDyoung, White fighting men to help protect society from the Black and Red revolution which has already overwhelmed police departments in Los Angeles, Chicago, Cleveland and other cities.

Comments by James Harting: For most of his career as commander of the ANP, Rockwell lived a shadowy existence on the fringes of the American political scene. He was misunderstood and rejected by the vast majority of his fellow White Americans, whom he dearly loved. He and his tiny band of roughnecks were alternately cursed, ridiculed and ignored by the mainstream media. They fought street battles without end with communist and Jewish thugs who sought to silence them by force, and spent many a night in jail, courtesy of hostile politicians and corrupt police officials.

But throughout it all, Lincoln Rockwells warrior spirit of courage, integrity and heroic defiance was never broken.

His persistence finally paid off in 1966, when thousands of White men, women and youth in Chicago followed his leadership in a spontaneous uprising against efforts to integrate all-White workingclass neighborhoods. The uprising culminated in the now-famous White Peoples March of Sept. 10, 1966, in which hundreds of ordinary Whites followed Rockwells leadership under the sign of the Swastika.

Tragically, within a year Rockwell was dead. On August 25, 1967, this authentic American hero fell beneath the bullets of a cowardly Marxist sneak-murderer.

Yet, although Rockwells body died on the black August afternoon, his spirit lives on in the hearts and minds of White men and women everywhere who continue to draw strength and inspiration from his heroic example.

In addition to countless, speeches, inteviews, articles and essays, Rockwell wrote two books:

In 1960, at the beginning of his career as an open National-Socialist, Rockwell wrote In Hoc Signo Vinces, a short manifesto in which he summarized his ideas and political strategy. You may read it here: In Hoc Signo Vinces | The New Order

On January 1, 1967, Rockwell re-named his party as the National Socialist White Peoples Party. In 1984, the NSWPP was reorganized by Rockwells successor, Matt Koehl, as the NEW ORDER. It continues to this day. See: Home | The New Order

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George Lincoln Rockwell for Beginners – Renegade Tribune

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June 22, 2017   Posted in: George Lincoln Rockwell  Comments Closed

Government responsiveness, political violence, and the ’60s – Vox

This post is part of Mischiefs of Faction, an independent political science blog featuring reflections on the party system.

Wednesdays shooting during a congressional baseball practice in Alexandria, Virginia, was a disturbing incidence of political violence. Julia Azari wrote an important post Thursday explaining the possible relationship between political violence and a lack of government responsiveness. I wanted to comment a bit on this and note that this relationship isnt necessarily a very clear one.

Drawing on work by Nathan Kalmoe and Lilliana Mason, Azari noted that individuals who lack faith in democratic systems are more likely to say they favor violence to solve political problems. The logical extension would be that if more Americans feel that their government isnt working for them and isnt responsive to their needs, more Americans will find violence an acceptable alternative to democracy. If this is whats going on, it is indeed a deeply disturbing trend.

But its important to think back to what was perhaps the most politically violent decade in modern American history the 1960s. This saw the assassinations of John Kennedy and Medgar Evers (1963), Malcolm X (1965), American Nazi Party leader George Lincoln Rockwell (1967), and Robert Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr. (1968). Its difficult for those who didnt live through that era to understand how much violence had become an ingrained part of the political system.

The most politically violent era was also the era in which people considered their government most responsive to them

But was this turbulent era also a time when Americans had lost faith in the political process? The American National Election Studies has been collecting an index of questions on democratic responsiveness since 1964. This index includes questions on whether people believe the government cares what they think and whether they have a say in governmental decisions. The chart below shows the average level of this index since 1964.

As the chart shows, the 1960s were actually a high point in peoples faith in their government. The most politically violent era was also the era in which people considered their government most responsive to them. There may, in fact, be little relationship between faith in government and incidences of political violence.

Now, there are obviously a lot of other factors to consider. The 1960s are considered violent in large part because there were many successful assassination attempts. There were assassination attempts on every president from Nixon to Obama; only Reagan was actually harmed. George Wallace was shot in 1972 but survived. Its hard to know how many assassinations have been thwarted through improvements in the way the Secret Service protects presidents and candidates.

Its also important to note, as Azari does, that responsiveness itself has changed form over the years. Individual Americans may have enjoyed more direct responsiveness from their elected officials back in the 60s, which was during a period of weak political parties. Today, in a very polarized era, responsiveness exists more through the parties themselves. That is, the average Democrat is better represented by the Democratic Party than she was a few decades ago in terms of policy, but thats of little satisfaction to her if that party is out of power. People today can be more confident theyll get what they want when their party is in power, but that leaves a narrow minority of voters intensely frustrated with the government at any given time.

We should also keep in mind that the actions of those violent individuals who actually attack government officials dont necessarily speak to larger societal trends or beliefs. There are obviously a great many people angry at national leaders right now, and theres a great deal of heated rhetoric fanning that anger. Its an incredibly small percentage of those people who actually become violent. Indeed, as Nancy Leong suggests at the Washington Post, a past history of violence, especially violence against women, is a far better predictor of future violent behavior than extreme political beliefs are.

Our nations history is rife with both heated rhetoric and political violence, and an attack on our elected officials, no less a ranking congressional leader, is an assault on representative democracy that must be taken very seriously. But its not obvious that this tragedy portends a rising number of such events.

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Government responsiveness, political violence, and the ’60s – Vox

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June 16, 2017   Posted in: George Lincoln Rockwell  Comments Closed

Q&A: Larry King on asking simple questions and listening closely – Columbia Journalism Review

A great interview is one of the journalists most powerful tools. It can be informative, entertaining, thoughtful. For the next five weeks, the Columbia Journalism Review and MaximumFun.orgwill broadcast conversations with some of the worlds greatest interviewers. Hosted by NPRs Jesse Thorn, the podcast, called The Turnaround, will examine the science and art of journalism. This episode features Larry King, longtime television and radio show host. An edited transcript is below. Jesse Thorn: So my first question was, when was the first time that you realized you were an interviewer? I know you always wanted to be a broadcaster. Larry King: Oh, since I was five years old I wanted to be on the radio. I just wanted to be an announcer. I wanted to be anything. I wanted to talk into a microphone. I dont know why, I must have had a good voice pre-puberty. Because people kept telling me, You gotta be on the radio. So I would imitate radio shows. I would listen to The Shadow, and then I would go into my bathroomwe were very poor in Brooklynand I would go, Who know what evil lurks in the heart of men? The Shadow knows. A tale well-calculated to keep you insuspense. I was driven by the sounds. Still am. And I knocked around a while, didnt go to college. My father had died when I was very young. I worked at a bunch of odd jobs, finally went down to Miami, broke in on a small station. Jesse: So this is the part that I want to interject on. Because one of the things I am interested in is you mentioned you were really poor in Brooklyn. Larry: Very. Jesse: This couldnt be further from the entertainment industry, the radio industry, or whatever. So what gave you the idea, Oh, I could actually do this? Larry: Just by listening, imitating. It stroked something in me, that I was comfortable with it. Had I not done it, I would have been a standup comic. I love making people laugh. I do a lot of speaking. But I just wanted to be on the radio, in any capacity. I thought eventually it would be sports because Im a sports freak. And I love all sports, and I love going to sports events. Ive broadcast Dolphin games, and Ive done baseball. I thought Id be a sportscaster. Red Barber, the Dodger announcer, was one of my heroes, as was Arthur Godfrey, who I later worked with. But I went to Miami, got a job at a small station. I was a disc jockey for about a year and a half. Playing records, doing news in the afternoon, sports broadcastsfifty dollars a week I was making. And there was a restaurant in Miami Beach called Pumpernicks, a very popular restaurant. And their slow time of the day was 10 to 11 in the morning, because it wasnt breakfast, it wasnt lunch. And the owner of the restaurant used to listen to me in the morning, doing my morning show, usually very funny, a lot of humor. And he said, Would you like to do a radio show from my restaurant from 10 to 11 when I dont get crowds? We might build up some crowds. The station went for it because he paid the station. I got a little extra. So every day Id finish my shift, 6 to 9, drive up to Pumpernicks, and do 10 to 11. And I would interview waiters, and there was no producer on the show, you know people would just call people up from the audience. And then one day, out of nowhere, Bobby Darinthe great Bobby Darinwalked in. Mack the Knife was the number one [song]. And I interviewed him for an hour. Later we walked down the street down Collins Avenue, and he said to me, Youve interviewed before? I said, No, I just talk to regular people. And he said, I think you ought to take this up seriously because you really have a knack. ICYMI:Eight simple rules for doing accurate journalism Jesse: Well, thats what I was going to say. I mean I think one of the things about your interview style thats special is that youre a very modest interviewer. Like you are not afraid to ask a simple question, a what is this question. Larry: Theyre the best. Because when you thinkI watch some of these press conferences, and the question takes longer than the answer. And the people show off. There was no showing off. [The] New Yorker did a piece on me, called it Street Questions. Im a guy in the street. Hey! What are you doin? So, when the Gulf War was on, and we would have guests on every night associated with the war: writers, politicians, generals. And I always asked the same question: What happened today? I wasnt there. You were there. You were covering it. What happened? Thats the simplest question in the world. Whyd you do this? What happened? I dont know more law than a lawyer. I dont know more politics than a politician. I dont, I have opinions. But Ive never run for office. Ive never argued a case in front of a jury. I dont know more medicine than a doctor, Ive never operated. Ive never done science. I ask questions of scientists. Im a layman. Im a pure layman whos intensely curious. What I do have is a sense of pace. I know when somethings going well, I know how to draw people out. But I dont think I could teach a course in it. I dont know that I have a method. I just know that I go to the basics. And from the basics, you learn a lot, and you can bring people. One of the best examples I can give is my first interview with Frank Sinatra, who didnt do a lot of interviews. Jackie Gleason got him for me. And his PR guy said to me, Frank doesnt do these things. Hes doing it as a favor to Jackie Gleason. But one thing: do not bring up the kidnapping of his son. He doesnt want to talk about it, he will not talk about it. I thought, thats fair, I dont have to bring it up, OK. In the middle of the interview, were really in touch. And I asked him, The thing with you and the pressis it overdone, or have you been bum rapped? He says, Well, it might have been overdone. But Ive been bum rapped. Take my sons kidnapping. He brought it up. I just was asking good questions. And thats the framework of which I like to work. I dont have to know a great deal about [it]. In fact, my favorite guests are people I dont know at all. I like doing physicists; I know nothing about physics. I like doing astronomers, because I dont know about the heavens, but I wonder about them. What is an astronomer when he walks down the street and looks up? What does he think about? Jesse: Are you always listening for that little something that stands out? That little interesting bit that you can pull on a little? Larry: Yeah. Because the key of interviewing is listening. If you dont listen, youre not a good interviewer. I hate interviewers who come with a long list of prepared questions. Uh, because theyre going to depend on going from the fourth question to the fifth question without listening to the answer of the fourth question. Because theyre concentrating on what theyre going to ask for the fifth. And thats not the way it works for me. So I concentrate solely on the answer, and I trust my instincts to come up with questions. Even if the answerer fully answered the question, Im ready in my head to go somewhere with it. Theres no dead air. Jesse: Do you get scared ever? Larry: No. Only the first time I was on the air. I was playing records.They had just given me a new name, and I had my record ready to go, and all my life I had dreamed of this. And I turned down the mic, and I turned down the record, and nothing came out. And the general manager kicked open the door to the control room and said, This is a communications business, dammit. Communicate! And I put on the mic, and I said, My name is Larry King. Thats the first time I said that, because I had just been given that name, they thought my real name wasnt good enough, and Im very nervous, but all my life I had wanted to be in radio. I dreamed of this moment, and I had been scared. So for two minutes, youve been listening to a record go up and down and nothing coming out, so please, bear with me. And I learned something that day, which later Arthur Godfrey would tell me, You learned the whole secret of this business. The secret of what were doing right now is theres no secret. Be yourself. Be yourself. Answer honestly, be honest, be upfront with the audience. You can never go wrong. So what I did that day even though I wasnt thinking that way. If you were listening that day, and I was reading a commercial and goofed, or miscued a recordits his first day! Its his first day. I told that story in Canada once, and the guy said to me, Well suppose you were walking down the hall at NBC. Someone grabbed you, sat you down, put some papers in front of you, and said, Tom Brokaw is sick, youre on.’ I would look at the camera and say, I was walking down the hall at NBC. Someone just grabbed me handed me these papers, tells me Tom Brokaws sick, and Im on. I would thentrust me, Ive never anchored news, Ill do the best I can. Hey, it aint brain surgery. Larry: See, tape is a safety ground that I dont want. Because I was born of the moment. I didnt know Bobby Darin was coming in. I liked that. We used to do on my radio showI had the first national radio talk show. We used to do a night which was Who Is The Guest? They would not tell me who the guest is. And this guy would walk in, Ive got to do a two-hour interview, guy or woman, and all they have to do is tell me their name. And then Id find out who they were, and then Id ask them questions. I loved that. Because the less I know, the better. Now that sounds strange to people. Like if you wrote a book, I wouldnt read the book before I interviewed you, because I would then know too much about the book. And Im in the same boat as the audience, they havent read the book. So were all in this together. Theres no such thing as the perfect interview. Yes, you can miss something. No ones ever done the perfect interview. Jesse: How does this work when youre interviewing somebody that you dont like? Larry: Thats the hardest. You still have to do the best job you can. Sometimes you get confrontIve only got really confrontational with racists, racism. When I landed in MiamiI took a train down to Miami to, I lived with my uncle. I had 14 dollars in my pocket, and the first thing I saw was a colored water fountain. And I didnt understand that at all. There was a colored water fountain and a white water fountain. So I drank out of the colored water fountain. It was good. Then I got on a bus to go over to Miami Beach. And I sat in the back of the bus, and the bus driver stopped the bus, and he asked me to move forward. Of course, the back of the bus is for Negroes. I remember said to him, My fathers a Negro, so Im comfortable in the back of the bus. Which was not true. So I never understood racism. Why would the pigment of skin mean anything? Anything? So when I had George Wallace on early, or the head of the Ku Klux Klan, or George Lincoln Rockwell, the anti-Semitic racist. That blew my mind, and I would get confrontational and sometimes have arguments. Its not good to argue with the guest. Because its maybe interesting for the audience, but it puts you out of control. When you argue, youre not in control. And I like to beyoure in control, youre in control of this interview, Jesse, not me. You. This is your interview. Youre in control; you could stop it, you could end it, you could go anywhere you want. Larry: If you have an agenda, youre not gonna learn, in my opinion. I dont learn anything when I watch shows in which the host and his guest are of one point of view, and thats the whole thing. You know, so whether its Bill OReilly with an arch-conservative or Rachel Maddow with an arch-liberal, I dont know anything. I know that Rachel Maddow stands for this and her guest stands for that, and they both agree. Thats a not a learning process to me. Its not a real Q&A. A real Q&A takes meIm interested in a heart of a person. How people react to things. Whats it like to be a president and send someone to war. Whats it like at night when you get the statistics132 killed today. How do you sleep? Jesse: You know youre describing it as an exercise in curiosity, but is it partly an exercise in empathy, and just wondering what other peoples lives are like? Larry: Yeah thats part of it, empathy, curiosity. Peter Ustinov, the great actor, told me he likes being interviewed because he gets to think about things he doesnt think about. I dont walk around thinking about the things youve just asked me. But it forces me to think about them. And therefore, I enjoy it. As much as I like asking questions, I like being asked, if theyre good questions and it causes me to be thoughtful. Im not a texter, I dont like texting. I like the sound of the human voice. Im into voice. I like, something about the inflections in voice, that you dont get in a transcript. ICYMI:Should journalists expose trolls? Jesse: Do you think the fact that youre Larry King affects the way that people react to you when you ask them questions? Larry: It well might. Walter Cronkite told me that when you get famous, it gets harder. You know he was at thein 1960, he went to the Texas caucuses at the convention. As soon as he walked in the room, they all stopped. Got autographs from him and stuff like that. Its not what its supposed to be. So I guess that its happened. People get a little intimidated at the thought of it; theyre thrilled to meet you. Especially when I interviewlike young rock stars, singers, young people who have listened to me as children. They come like a little in awe, I put them at ease right away, usually with humor. I use humor a lot. I kid around a lot, tell them the latest joke Ive heard. I love telling jokes, I love jokes. Jokes are genius to me. Who, cartoonsyou read The New Yorker cartoons? Jesse: Mmhmm. Larry: Theyre genius. Genius! They had a cartoon once of two guys up against the wall. Nothing but loin cloths on. Handcuffed around the neck, the hands, and the feet. Attached, in the middle of the wall, attached to it. With nothing on, handcuffs on every parts of their body, and one says to the other, Now, heres my plan. Thats funny. Jesse: Is it different for you now that you are older than almost everyone you interview? Larry: I know Im 83. Eighty-goddamn-three! My father died in 46. Whenever I got to be 46, I used to think I would die. At 53, I had a heart attack. Six months later had quintuple bypass. Ive had type 2 diabetes. Ive had prostate cancer. I have good medicine, good doctors. I take care of myself. But I have wayIll tell youthis is really weird. I have one insurance policy where Ive already paid more than the face value of the policy. I out-bet the insurance company; they won. When you take out insurance, youre betting youre gonna die. Theyre betting youre gonna live, and they have the actuary. Theyve got the figures. Now how I got this policy after a heart attack and heart surgery, for two million dollars, it was. Ive had other policies before that. And I already paid it in 20 years. No, 30 years. Thirty years, I had the heart attack 30 years ago, Ive already paid the two million. Jesse: The change in your life came around the time that you just describe, the time that you passed the age that your father died, and the time that you had a heart attack that nearly killed you. Larry: Right. I joined CNN in 85, had the heart attack in 87. CNN is when I really blossomed, cause it was television, it was worldwide. I read the obits every day. And my biggest fear is death. I guess Im an atheist, agnostic, I dont believe in an afterlife. And since I cant believe in an afterlife, I dont want to die. Someone asked me the other day, What do you want your obit to read? I read obituaries every day. Today there was two 83s, an 81, an 87, and a 71. I see the ages right away. I wanted my obit to read, Oldest man who ever lived passed away today. He was shot in the head and died immediately by an angry husband as he was sleeping with the former Playmate of the Year. He was 136 years old. It took three days to wipe the smile off his face. Jesse: Your wifes Mormon, right? Larry: Yeah. So they believe theyre going somewhere. And so shes going to see me after I die. Now I cant believe that. And what bugs me about it is, shes going to handle the death pretty well. Because she knows shes going to see me again. I want people to grieve. I would love toif I die there is some spirit afterwardId love to see whats going on. Because what I am is curious, and so if I die, will Trump finish four years? Will the Dodgers finally win a World Series after, since 1988? The Turnaround is available on MaximumFun.org. You can also subscribe on Apple Podcasts to get new episodes as they become available. Photo credit: Amanda Edwards (Getty) ICYMI:The most important recent development at theNYTimes

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July 9, 2017   Posted in: George Lincoln Rockwell  Comments Closed

Trump shared Twitter content created by neo-Nazis long before his CNN tweet – Raw Story

Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump speaks to supporters through a bullhorn during a campaign stop at the Canfield County Fair in Canfield, Ohio, U.S., September 5, 2016. REUTERS/Mike Segar President Donald Trump shared an animated meme created by an apparent neo-Nazi depicting him body-slamming CNN and thats not even the first time hes circulated white nationalist themes. The animation, which was taken from Trumps appearance at a WWE professional wrestling event, was apparently created by an obviously racist Reddit user called HanAssholeSolo. The reporter who revealed the memes creator said he has been deluged with anti-Semitic death threats from Nazi sympathizers who support Trump. As a presidential candidate, in February 2016, Trump retweeted and then deleted a message from the Twitter user WhiteGenocideTM complimenting the size of his rally crowds. That users profile shows an image of George Lincoln Rockwell, founder of the American Nazi Party, and links to anti-Semitic, Holocaust denial and racist content. Trump actually retweeted another post by WhiteGenocideTM a few weeks earlier, when he shared an image showing Jeb Bushs head superimposed on a panhandlers body, holding a sign that reads, Vote Trump. He tweeted an image in July 2016 calling Hillary Clinton crooked, next to a six-pointed star that closely resembled the Star of David which emerged from a neo-Nazi forum on the 8chan website. House Speaker Paul Ryan denounced the tweet as anti-Semitic, but Trumps social media director Dan Scavino claimed he randomly chose the star from a stock art collection on Microsoft Word, while Trump insisted the graphic was a sheriffs badge. Fortune used social media analytics software developed by Little Bird and found that prominent members of the Trump campaign, including former campaign spokeswoman Katrina Pierson, followed the most influential members of the white nationalist #WhiteGenocide network. Trump himself doesnt follow any of those Twitter accounts, but nearly 68 percent of the top #WhiteGenocide influencers follow him, while 24 percent follow Scavino. He retweeted the user @NeilTurner_ whose Twitter bio claims white genocide is real five times during the campaign, despite following only 42 accounts at the time. Fortunes analysis found Trump and his campaign have used social media to court support within the white supremacist community, whether intentionally or unintentionally. And it appears to have worked. Kellyanne Conway, who served as Trumps campaign manager during the final stretch before the election and now serves as a senior White House adviser, tweeted love you back in February to an account called Lib Hypocrisy whose bio includes the hashtags #WhiteIdentity, #Nationalist, and #SteveBannon. The presidents son, Donald Trump Jr., has also shared white nationalist themes and ideas on his Twitter account. Trump Jr. retweeted a post in August 2016 by Kevin MacDonald, a retired psychology professor that the Southern Poverty Law Center has called the neo-Nazi movements favorite academic. Hes also shared posts using the Pepe the Frog character identified with the neo-Nazi alt-right movement, and he cracked a gas chamber joke in September 2016. Later that month, Trump Jr. drew widespread condemnation for comparing Syrian refugees to poisoned candy an analogy based on two separate white supremacist memes with roots in Nazi propaganda. The analogy, which has been used on message boards and shared as social media memes, originally used M&Ms as the candy in question but that changed after George Zimmerman gunned down Trayvon Martin while the unarmed black teen was walking home from buying a drink and some Skittles. But the poisoned candy analogy goes back even further, to an anti-Semitic childrens book published by Julius Streicher, the publisher of the Nazi newspaper Der Strmer who was executed in 1946 as a war criminal. The book tells the tale of the poisonous mushroom, and was used to indoctrinate children in hate.

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July 4, 2017   Posted in: George Lincoln Rockwell  Comments Closed

McVeigh Worship: The New Extremist Trend – Southern Poverty Law Center

Yes, that Timothy McVeigh. The guy who used a Ryder truck to bomb the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995, killing 168 innocent children and adults and wounding more than 600 others. His act 22 years ago, for those who may have forgotten, was the deadliest terrorist attack in the United States before the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001. McVeigh was convicted of terrorism and executed just three months before those attacks. His name and heinous crime are not forgotten, nor should they be, while there seems to be a growing admiration for McVeigh in some extremist circles. One militia honcho even likened McVeigh to Jesus Christ. Check out these recent mentions of McVeigh: In mid-May, police in Tampa, Florida, responded to the scene of a double-murder involving young, self-described neo-Nazis. Brandon Russell, who shared the apartment with the murder suspect, was charged with possession of bomb-making materials and chemicals, including ammonium nitrate the same kind of material used by McVeigh. In Russells bedroom at the apartment he shared with the murder suspect and the two slain neo-Nazis, police found a framed photograph of Timothy McVeigh. Russell, whos in custody, hasnt publicly explained that fascination. In late May, police in Washington, D.C., arrested a man with an AR-15 assault rifle, a 40- caliber handgun and 90 rounds of ammunition at the Trump Hotel, not far from the Capitol and the White House. Police saidBryan Moles, 43, of Edinboro, Pennsylvania, told a tipster that he wanted to get close to Trump and wanted to be like Timothy McVeigh. Court document say Moles, who had worked as a physician, was armed with an assault rifle and a handgun and was in the nations capitol to see the president. He told an acquaintance, court documents say, that he had enough ammunition to make his car resemble Timothy McVeigh on a camping trip. Before traveling to Washington, D.C., police learned Moles emptied his bank account, leaving behind a balance of $4.19 perhaps symbolic of the 4-19 date of McVeighs act of terrorism in 1995. Homicidal Portland stabber Jeremy Christian praised McVeigh on the anniversary of the Oklahoma City bombing in an April Facebook post, writing, May all the Gods Bless Timothy McVeigh — a TRUE PATRIOT!!! Then on May 26,Jeremy Christian, who held extremist views, went on a rampagein Portland, Oregon, slashing the throats and killing two men who attemptedto come to the aid of two women Christian was harassing. Just a month earlier,on the anniversaryof McVeigh’s deadly act of terrorism, Christian praised theOklahoma City bomber in a Facebook post. May all the Gods Bless Timothy McVeigh — a TRUE PATRIOT!!! Christian wrote. More recently, neo-NaziAndrew Weev Auernheimer, who writes for the racist web site Daily Stormer, said he was serious in proposing a crowd-funding account to raise money to build a permanent monument in a memorial grove honoring McVeigh. Think of it, a gigantic bronze statue of Timothy McVeigh poised triumphantly atop a Ryder truck, arms raised as if to form an Algiz rune from his body, with a plaque that states the honest truth, Auernheimer wrote.Nothing would be a greater insult to these pizza-party guarding federal swine than a permanent monument honoring [McVeighs] journey to Valhalla or Flkvangr atop the piles of their corpses. I am not joking, Auernheimer wrote. This should be done. Imagine how angry it would make people. Last year, during the illegal occupation of a federal wildlife refuge in Oregon by antigovernment figurehead Ammon Bundy and his militia followers,Norm Olson, another long-time militia activist and leader, made ominous public comments about McVeigh. The battle for the rights of the people rages on and it should be assumed that lone wolf patriots may be planning another response to the central government’s abuses, Olson wrote. He claimed federal agents murdered Bundy associate LaVoy Finicum, inciting Patriots, during the 2016 refuge occupation. Once the fuse is lit, it will be hard to extinguish, Olson said. There’s a place that we all should think about: Oklahoma City. Two days later, Olson, who has been active in militia groups in Michigan and Alaska, said he was ready to tell members of Congress that Timothy McVeigh DIED FOR YOUR SINS!!!!!!!!! It’sworth remembering that Olson had a unique glimpse of McVeigh. He and Oklahoma bombing co-conspirator, Terry Nichols, attended a meeting of the Michigan Militia, which Olson founded in 1994, a year before the Oklahoma City bombing. Anger and frustration create a personal vendetta, Olson wrote last year, claiming that the U.S. governments case against Tim McVeigh was based on hismotive. His motive was VENDETTA, retaliation, retribution, eye-for-eye ..f. call it what you want, but there will be blood … maybe not right away, but soon, Olsons said in his ominous public warning. Apparently referring to McVeigh, Olson said there are other Patriots out there who want to be remembered and are coming to the realization that THERE IS NO JUSTICE … IT IS JUST US! Of course, McVeigh may never be as popular as other extremist and far-right heroes and memes – – the swastika, the burning cross, Adolf Hitler, Pepe the Frog, George Lincoln Rockwell, the numbers 88 and 14 words, the KKK blood-drop cross, William Pierce. But the question remains, why would anyone romanticize a modern-day, extremist serial killer and terrorist? Tom Pyszczynski, a professor of psychology at University of Colorado who has written about the psychological makeup of extremists, said he believes only a relatively small number of people are enthralled with McVeigh. The psychological, social, economic and political forces that lead some Americans to idolize McVeigh are the same as those that lead disenfranchised or disillusioned young people in other parts of the world to idolize Osama bin Laden or ISIS, Pyszczynski told Hatewatch. They see them [McVeigh, et al] as heroes who stand up for people like them, said Pyszczynski, who co-developed and tested a terror management theory, dealing with the role of death in life and the role that meaning and self-esteem play in managing the fear of death. Of course, the specifics of the issues and lives of the people who follow ISIS and those who idolize McVeigh are different, but beneath the surface it usually boils down to a feeling that one’s people are disrespected and mistreated, that one’s way of life is under siege from powerful forces, and that the world as they know it has gotten out of control, the university psychologist said. All people crave meaning in life and a sense of personal or group heroism to protect them from their deepest fears, he said, explaining that ultimately boils down to the facts of life, involving death and vulnerability. But some people, he said, aren’t able to find this in their worlds. So they look elsewhere, to radical fringe groups, like ISIS for some, or white nationalist groups for others. These groups typically have heroes who are idolized as standing up to powerful forces and if they die in that fight, they are considered martyrs, Pyszczynski said. Clark McCauley, a research professor of psychology at Bryn Mawr College in Pennsylvania, offered similar brief views about those individuals enchanted with McVeigh. McVeigh is … a symbol of resistance and a hero for those who hate and fear the U.S. Government, McCauley told Hatewatch. This includes a wide range of people, some who see themselves as neo-Nazis and some who do not. McVeighs bombing plan generally followed a fictional account of a race war depicted in the Turner Diaries, a novel written by William Pierce, a one-time college professor who went on to lead the National Alliance, a neo-Nazi hate group. McCauley said he doesnt personally believe McVeigh was a neo-Nazi, so he can therefore be a hero for many different anti-government groups. Pyszczynski, who teaches at the Colorado Springs university, said people who feel their way of life is under siege identify with heroes like McVeigh. So radical ideologies, whether they be Islamist or white nationalist, are appealing to people who struggle to find meaning and a sense of personal value in their own lives and view another group as the repository of evil against which they must fight to reclaim that meaning and value, he said.

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June 27, 2017   Posted in: George Lincoln Rockwell  Comments Closed

Six Nazi spies were executed in D.C. White supremacists gave them … – Washington Post

A team of power company workers was trudging through a seldom-visited thicket in Southwest Washington when they spotted something odd in a ditch. Protruding from the grass was a rectangular slab of granite. They looked closer, and an inscription on the surface came into focus. What they saw astonished them. It was a memorial. In honor of Nazi spies. On U.S. government property. In memory of agents of the German Abwehr, the engraving began, executed August 8, 1942. Below that were six names, and below those was another cryptic line: Donated by the N.S.W.P.P. News of the unsettling discovery soon reached Jim Rosenstock, who worked in resource management for the National Park Service and also happened to be a local history buff. He was curious, but also skeptical. How could someone have planted such an item there? And why? And above all who? Rosenstock needed to see it for himself, so he, too, made the hike into Blue Plains, a woody area known best for a wastewater treatment plant and an abundance of mosquitoes. And thats when he saw the stone. I kind of started doing a little bit of my own research, Rosenstock recalled of that day in 2006 when he began to help unravel an only-in-Washington mystery, complete with World War II espionage, nationwide panic, a mass electrocution, J. Edgar Hoover chicanery, white supremacists, classic federal bureaucracy and a U.S. Supreme Court case that played a significant role in Americas modern war on terror. *** For decades, very few people in Washington, or elsewhere, knew of the stones existence. It wasnt a secret so much as something that just never got out remarkable in a town famous for its leaks. Only when a former Park Police detective mentioned it in passing to a Washington Post reporter, then provided photographic evidence, did anyone ask the Park Service about it. [Hitlers mother was the only person he genuinely loved. Cancer killed her decades before he became a monster.] A spokeswoman referred the Post to the now-retired Rosenstock, because perhaps no one has thought more about the 31-by-26-by-8-inch object than he has. At the start of World War II, Rosenstock discovered when he began his research, Adolf Hitler had been determined to show the world just how susceptible America was to a Nazi attack, so he ordered his military to devise a plan. The high command, according to a 2002 Post story, recruited eight Germans for the mission. In teams of four, the men were loaded onto a pair of U-boats, one destined for Jacksonville, Fla., and the other for a beach near the tip of Long Island. On June 13, 1942, the New York group reached shore and was almost immediately discovered by an unarmed Coast Guards member on foot patrol. The men escaped, but by morning, the Coast Guard had unearthed the Germans buried supplies: fuses, pre-made bombs and four crates of TNT. That wouldnt have mattered to their leader, George John Dasch, who hadnt intended to wreak devastation on Hitlers behalf anyway. When the group reached New York City, he and a comrade decided to turn the others in, so Dasch phoned the FBI. Four days later, he took the $82,000 hed been given for the operation more than $1 million in todays money and boarded a train for Washington. There, he met with FBI agents, whom he expected to welcome him as a hero. They didnt. J. Edgar Hoover, the infamous head of the bureau, recognized an opportunity. In late June, with all eight men caught, Hoover announced their capture in New York and claimed credit for his agency. He made no mention of Dasch. The country went wild, Francis Biddle, then attorney general, later wrote in a memoir. Hundreds of German aliens were rounded up and others, suspected of spying, were arrested. The Justice Department banned German and Italian barbers, servers and busboys from Washingtons hotels and restaurants because three of the would-be saboteurs had worked as waiters in America. Ignoring due process, President Franklin Roosevelt ordered that the men be tried in secret before a military commission a tactic, then backed by the U.S. Supreme Court, that President George W. Bush would replicate 59 years later in his directive that Guantanamo Bay detainees be judged in a similar fashion. In mid-summer 1942, seven U.S. Army generals found all eight men guilty but left their punishment to the president. He sentenced six to death and two, including Dasch, to lengthy prison terms (both were deported after the war). The electrocutions began at 12:01 p.m. on Aug. 8. By 1:04, all six were dead. Three days later, they were secretly buried amid a seldom-visited thicket of Southwest Washington known as Blue Plains. *** Rosenstock quickly learned the backstory of the six Nazi spies listed on the stone, but another question remained: Who had placed it there? The line at the bottom referencing the N.S.W.P.P. offered a clue. Until the mid-1960s, the National Socialist White Peoples Party had gone by a more familiar name: the American Nazi Party. According to the Southern Poverty Law Center, the groups founder, George Lincoln Rockwell, had given it the new title shortly before his assassination in 1967. By the 1970s, though, the group had begun to split apart and had lost much of its relevance, leading Rosenstock to believe the Nazi memorial dates back to that time. The party didnt entirely cease to exist until 1983, the law center said, so the stone may had been carved more recently though that still means it likely sat on Park Service land for more than two decades before the power companys discovery. [Hitler refused to use sarin gas during World War II. The mystery is why.] For Rosenstock and his colleagues, the memorial presented a conundrum. It was deplorable, and certainly not something that belonged on public property, but none of their handbooks suggested how to deal with a 200-plus pound monument to Nazis installed on public land by white supremacists. Plus, the Park Service couldnt do anything until they were sure it hadnt been placed atop someones bones. What if, they wondered, the Nazis were buried beneath it? The Park Service scoured World War II-era records for details on their bodies, but researchers could find nothing that provided a definitive answer. Old maps showed conflicting spots, including one beneath a building. The location is a little bit confusing, he said, and I think deliberately so. Rosenstock suspected that whoever disposed of the spies bodies didnt want them found. What he did learn, though, is that no one was buried beneath the stone because a creek had run through that area in the 1940s. Still, the Park Service hadnt decided what should be done. It was an illegal monument, Rosenstock said. And we certainly did not want to be hosting a site for midnight rituals on Hitlers birthday. That was a legitimate concern. Rosenstock once found deer bones arranged atop the memorial. Others had found candles around it and noticed that it was regularly cleaned. At least one fellow in the Park Service suggested breaking it up with sledge hammers and throwing it in the river, he recalled. Its not the argument that historic preservationists make. The memorial remained intact. In 2010, under the direction of a museum curator, a forklift exhumed the granite block and lowered it into a truck. The stone, tagged OXCO-475, now spends its days beneath a protective blanket on a shelf at a storage facility in suburban Maryland. Park Service staff asked that The Post be no more specific than that because, though they didnt mind its long-unknown story being told, theyd prefer that its exact location remain a secret. Read more Retropolis: The secret deal the Associated Press made with the Nazis during WWII The disturbing history of cat abuse: public hangings, pipe beatings and The Great Cat Massacre Discovered: Never-before seen photos of Charles Lindberghs first Spirit of St. Louis flight Great God, he is alive!The first man executed by electric chair died slower than Thomas Edison expected. Blood in the water: Four dead, a coast terrified and the birth of modern shark mania

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June 27, 2017   Posted in: George Lincoln Rockwell  Comments Closed

George Lincoln Rockwell – Military Wiki

George Lincoln Rockwell File:GeorgeLincolnRockwell.jpg Commander of the American Nazi Party In office March, 1958 August 25, 1967 (9 years) Preceded by Position established Succeeded by Matt Koehl Leader of the World Union of National Socialists In office 1962 August 25, 1967 (5 years) Preceded by Position established Succeeded by Matt Koehl Personal details Born George Lincoln Rockwell (1918-03-09)March 9, 1918 Bloomington, Illinois, United States Died August 25, 1967(1967-08-25) (aged49) Arlington County, Virginia, United States Political party American Nazi Party Spouse(s) Judy Aultman (1943-1953) ra Hallgrmsdttir (1953- 1961) Occupation Sailor, politician, activist Religion Agnostic Military service Allegiance United States Service/branch United States Navy Years of service 19411960 Rank Commander Battles/wars World War II Korean War Awards *American Defense Service Medal George Lincoln Rockwell (March 9, 1918 August 25, 1967) was the founder of the American Nazi Party.[1] Rockwell was a major figure in the neo-Nazi movement in the United States, and his beliefs and writings have continued to be influential among white nationalists and neo-Nazis. Rockwell was born in Bloomington, Illinois, the first of three children of George Lovejoy “Doc” Rockwell and Claire (Schade) Rockwell. His father was born in Providence, Rhode Island, and was of English and Scottish ancestry. His mother was the daughter of Augustus Schade, a German immigrant, and Corrine Boudreau, who was of Acadian French ancestry. Both parents were vaudeville comedians and actors, and his father’s acquaintances included Fred Allen, Benny Goodman, Walter Winchell, Jack Benny, and Groucho Marx.[2][3] His parents divorced when Rockwell was six years old, and he divided his youth with his mother in Atlantic City, New Jersey, and with his father in Boothbay Harbor, Maine.[2] Rockwell attended Atlantic City High School in Atlantic City, and applied to Harvard University when he was 17 years old. However, he was denied admission. One year later, his father enrolled him at Hebron Academy in Hebron, Maine.[4] He became an avid reader of Western philosophy and socially significant novels, leading him to re-examine the topic of religion. He had initially perceived himself as a devout Protestant, but after reading the Bible numerous times, he perceived religion as a necessary pillar to civilization. He contemplated the possibility of a “total intelligence” existing in the universe, and identified himself as an agnostic. Despite this, he promoted the Christian Identity sect in the 1960s.[citation needed] In August 1938, Rockwell enrolled at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island as a philosophy major.[2] In his sociology courses, he rejected equality and the idea that man was made by his environment and all human beings had the same potential in life. He debated with fellow students over topics such as social themes in popular novels. Rockwell during his military service. In his sophomore year, Rockwell dropped out of Brown University and accepted a commission in the United States Navy.[2] He appreciated the order and discipline of the Navy, and attended flight schools in Massachusetts and Florida in 1940. On April 24, 1943, Rockwell married Judy Aultman, whom he had met while attending Brown University. Aultman was a student at Pembroke College, which was the female section of the university. The couple had three daughters: Bonnie, Nancy, and Phoebe Jean. At the time, Rockwell was studying at the Navy’s aerial photography school in South Florida. When he completed his training, he served in the Pacific Theatre of World War II. Rockwell was recalled to duty as a lieutenant commander at the beginning of the Korean War. He moved to San Diego, California, with his wife and two children, where he trained Navy and United States Marine Corps pilots.[2] In 1952, Rockwell was ordered to report to Norfolk, Virginia, where he was notified by a superior officer that he would be transferred to Iceland.[2] Since families were not permitted to be with American service personnel stationed there, his wife and children stayed with her mother in Barrington, Rhode Island. Due to the separation, his wife filed for divorce the following year. Several months after his return to Iceland, Rockwell attended a diplomatic party in the capital city of Reykjavk. He met ra Hallgrmsdttir there, and they were married on October 3, 1953 in the Icelandic National Cathedral by ra’s uncle, the Bishop of Iceland. They spent their honeymoon in Berchtesgaden, Germany, where Hitler once owned the Berghof mountain retreat in the Bavarian Alps. Rockwell told ra about his political beliefs, and she replied that he would either be a “bum or a great man”.[5] She divorced him on October 15, 1961.[6] When the Korean War ended, Rockwell decided to become a graphic designer. He was accepted into the art program at the prestigious Pratt Institute in Brooklyn, New York.[2] He and his wife[Who?] In 1948, Rockwell won the $1,000 first prize for an advertisement he did for the American Cancer Society.[2][7] The contest was sponsored by the National Society of Illustrators in New York. He left Pratt before finishing his final year, and founded his own advertising agency in Maine. Rockwell saw a business opportunity in publishing a magazine for United States servicemen’s wives. In September 1955, he launched the U.S. Lady. After presenting the idea to the generals and admirals who headed public relations departments of the military services, Rockwell began publishing in Washington, D.C. The new enterprise also incorporated Rockwell’s political causes: his opposition to both racial integration and communism. He financed the operation through stock sales and subscriptions. With a staff of thirty workers, Rockwell could only promise to pay his employees before the launch of the first issue. The publication continued to have financial problems, and he sold his interest in the magazine. However, he still aspired to pursue a career in publishing. During his time in San Diego, Rockwell began moving towards the political far right. He was influenced by Senator Joseph McCarthy’s stance against communism. Rockwell supported General Douglas MacArthur’s candidacy for President of the United States. He adopted the corncob pipe, following MacArthur’s example. Rockwell attended a Gerald L. K. Smith rally in Los Angeles, and read Conde McGinley’s Common Sense, a political newspaper that introduced him to anti-semitism and Holocaust Denial. He then read the National Socialist manifesto Mein Kampf by Adolf Hitler and the Russian propaganda pamphlet Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Privately, he adopted their beliefs. He published an Animal Farm-type parody, The Fable of the Ducks and the Hens.[8] This was Rockwell’s interpretation of Jewish power in the United States in the 20th century. In 1952, Rockwell began working with anti-semitic and anti-communist groups. That year, he attended the American Nationalist Conference, which was organized by Conde McGinleys Christian Educational Association. In July 1958, Rockwell demonstrated in front of the White House in an anti-war protest against President Dwight D. Eisenhower’s decision to send ‘ peace-keeping ‘ troops to the Middle East. One day he received a large package from a supporter; it contained an 18-foot-long Swastika flag. He placed the flag on the wall of his home and made a shrine with Hitler’s photo in the center, three lighted candles in front. In his autobiography, Rockwell claimed to have had a religious experience and swore allegiance to his leader, saluting “Heil Hitler!” Rockwell and a few supporters had uniforms. They armed themselves with rifles and revolvers, and paraded about his home in Arlington, Virginia. The window to his home was left open, so that others could see the huge Swastika flag. Drew Pearson wrote a news column about Rockwell, giving him his first publicity. In the presidential election of 1964, Rockwell ran as a write-in candidate, receiving 212 votes.[9] He ran unsuccessfully for governor of Virginia in 1965 as an independent, this time polling 5,730 votes, or 1.02 percent of the total, finishing last among the four candidates.[10] In March 1959, Rockwell founded the World Union of Free Enterprise National Socialists (WUFENS), a name selected to denote opposition to state ownership of property. In December, the name was changed to the American Nazi Party, and the headquarters relocated to 928 North Randolph Street in Arlington, Virginia. In order to attract media attention, Rockwell held a rally April 3, 1960, on the National Mall of Washington, D.C., where Rockwell addressed the crowd with a two-hour long speech. The second rally was to be held at Union Square in New York City. Mayor Robert Wagner refused to grant him a permit to speak, and he appealed that decision to the New York Supreme Court. Jewish war veterans and Holocaust survivors gathered to oppose his appeal and, during a court recess, when Rockwell emerged into the court Rotunda he was surrounded by a crowd of television reporters. One of the reporters, Reese Schonfeld, asked Rockwell how he would treat Jews if he came to power in the United States. Rockwell replied he would treat Jews just as he treated any other American citizens. If they were loyal Americans, everything would be fine; if they were traitors, they would be executed. When Schonfeld asked what percentage of Jews Rockwell perceived as traitors, Rockwell replied, “Ninety percent.”[11] The Jewish war veterans and Holocaust survivors rioted and began beating Rockwell and the reporter with their umbrellas, and Rockwell was escorted out of the Courthouse Rotunda in the midst of a police convoy. Rockwell, with the aid of the ACLU, eventually won his permit, but it was long after the date of the planned event.[12] The third rally was set for July 4, 1960, again held on the Mall. Rockwell and his men were confronted by a mob and a riot ensued. The police arrested Rockwell and eight party members. Rockwell demanded a trial, however was instead committed to a psychiatric hospital for thirty days. In less than two weeks, he was released and found capable of standing trial. He published a pamphlet on this experience titled How to Get Out or Stay Out of the Insane Asylum. In summer 1966, Rockwell led a counter-demonstration to Martin Luther King’s attempt to bring an end to de facto segregation in the white Chicago suburb of Cicero, Illinois. He believed King was a tool for Jewish Communists to integrate America.[13] Rockwell led the American Nazi Party in assisting the Ku Klux Klan and similar groups during the Civil Rights Movement, in attempts to counter the Freedom Riders and the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. But he soon came to believe the Klan was stuck in the past and ineffective for helping him wage a modern race struggle. After hearing the slogan “Black Power” during a debate in 1966 with Black Panther Stokely Carmichael, Rockwell altered the phrase and started a call for “White Power”.[citation needed]White Power later became the name of the party’s newspaper and the title of a book authored by Rockwell. Rockwell’s principal message was racial separation. He attempted to form friendly associations with the Nation of Islam. He praised Elijah Muhammad as the “Black people’s Hitler,” and for doing the best job in promoting integrity and pride among his people. Rockwell also admired Malcolm X, seeing him as the next true leader for Black America. In 1965 Malcolm X sent Rockwell a telegram while Rockwell was on his “Hate Bus” tour of the South, threatening Rockwell with “maximum physical retaliation from those of us who are not hand-cuffed by the disarming philosophy of nonviolence” should Martin Luther King, Jr. or “any other black Americans who are only attempting to enjoy their rights as free human beings” be harmed.[14] Rockwell was a Holocaust denier.[2] In an April 1966 interview with Playboy journalist Alex Haley, Rockwell stated, “I don’t believe for one minute that any 6,000,000 Jews were exterminated by Hitler. It never happened.”[2] Haley would later author the 1976 novel Roots: The Saga of an American Family, which would eventually be made into a TV serial. The interview was dramatized in the TV miniseries Roots: The Next Generations, with Marlon Brando portraying Rockwell in an Emmy Award-winning performance and James Earl Jones portraying Haley. The two-story farm house Rockwell established as his “Stormtrooper Barracks” was located at 6150 Wilson Boulevard, in the Dominion Hills district of Arlington. It was there that the interview with Alex Haley occurred. Situated on the tallest hill in Arlington County, the house has long since been razed and the property incorporated into the Upton Hill Regional Park. A small picnic table pavilion marks the house’s former location. The site of the party headquarters, 928 North Randolph Street in the Ballston area of Arlington, is now a massive hotel and office building complex. Rockwell’s successor, Matt Koehl, relocated the headquarters after Rockwell’s death to 2507 North Franklin Road in the Clarendon area.[15] It would become the last physical address of the party before Koehl moved it to New Berlin, Wisconsin in the mid-1980s. The small red brick building, often misidentified today as Rockwell’s former headquarters, is now a coffee shop called “The Java Shack.”[16][17] In August 1962 Rockwell travelled secretly to Britain through Ireland. In the Cotswolds, he co-founded the World Union of National Socialists with Colin Jordan’s British organization the National Socialist Movement, before being deported back to the States. In 1966, the international group published National Socialist World, edited by former physics professor William Luther Pierce. From June 9 to 11, 1963, the party held its national conference in Arlington, aimed at reorganizing its leadership and “charting a new course of professionalism”.[citation needed] In July 1963, the party’s publication The Stormtrooper magazine was replaced with the newspaper White Power bearing the swastika in the center of the paper. Some within the NSWPP opposed this new ideological direction.[citation needed] On January 1, 1967, Rockwell announced the party’s next stage of development. He officially changed the name of the American Nazi Party to the National Socialist White People’s Party (NSWPP). Its new slogan would be “White Power”, replacing the inflammatory “Sieg Heil”. The new strategy would be to capitalize on growing support in the wake of the Chicago rallies and to focus the organization’s commitment to a universal white nationalism. An internal party newsletter, the “National Socialist Bulletin”, was started to help direct these new efforts.[citation needed] In the 1960s, Rockwell attempted to draw attention to his cause by starting a small record label, named Hatenanny Records (the name was based on the word “hootenanny”, a term given to folk music performances). The label released several 45 RPM singles, including recordings by a group credited as Odis Cochran and the Three Bigots [1][2][3], and were sold mostly through mail order and at party rallies. A truncated version of one of the band’s recordings, “Ship Those Niggers Back,” appears in the documentary The California Reich. When the Freedom Riders drove their campaign to desegregate bus stations in the Deep South, Rockwell secured a Volkswagen van and decorated it with swastikas and white supremacist slogans, dubbing it the “Hate Bus” and personally driving it to speaking engagements and party rallies.[3][18][19] According to an FBI report on the American Nazi Party, the van was repossessed after a loan default.[20] On June 28, 1967, the first attempt was made on Rockwells life. Returning from shopping, he drove into the party barracks driveway on Wilson Boulevard and found it blocked by a felled tree and brush. Rockwell assumed that it was another prank by local teens. As a young boy cleared the obstruction, two shots were fired at Rockwell from behind one of the swastika-embossed brick driveway pillars. One of the shots ricocheted off the car, right next to his head. Leaping from the car, Rockwell pursued the would-be assassin. On June 30, Rockwell petitioned the Arlington County Circuit Court for a gun permit. No action was ever taken on his request. On August 25, 1967, Rockwell was killed by gunshots while leaving the Econowash laundromat at the Dominion Hills Shopping Center in the 6000 block of Wilson Boulevard in Arlington, Virginia.[21] Two bullets, from what would later be found to be a model 1896 “Broomhandle” Mauser pistol,[22] passed through his 1958 Chevrolet’s windshield, and it slowly rolled backwards to a stop. Rockwell staggered out of the front passenger side door of the car, pointed towards the shopping center roof, and then collapsed face up on the pavement. The gunman ran along the shopping center roof and jumped to the ground in the rear. A shop owner and a customer briefly gave chase, but were unable to get a clear look at the fleeing figure. Other customers called the Arlington County police and checked Rockwell for a pulse. He had none; the one bullet that struck him had ripped through several major arteries just above his heart. The internal bleeding was so heavy that Rockwell died in two minutes.[23] A half hour later, at a bus stop about a half-mile (800 m) away,[24]John Patler, a former member of Rockwell’s group, was arrested as the suspected murderer by a passing patrolman familiar with the Arlington Nazis.[23] Later that day, after hearing of his sons death, Rockwell’s 78-year-old father was curt: “I am not surprised at all. I’ve expected it for quite some time.”[4] Matt Koehl, the number two man in the NSWPP, moved to establish legal control over Rockwells body and all NSWPP assets. At the time of his death, the NSWPP had approximately 300 active members nationwide, and perhaps 3,000 financial supporters. Although Rockwells parents wanted a private burial in Maine, they did not feel up to a public fight with the Nazis for his body. On August 27, an NSWPP spokesman reported that Federal officials had given verbal approval to a planned military burial of Rockwell at Culpeper National Cemetery, as an honorably discharged veteran of the U.S. Armed Forces.[25] On August 29, several dozen NSWPP troopers and about 100 party supporters formed a procession and drove the 65 miles (105km) from Arlington to Culpeper. At the cemetery gates they were met by General Carl C. Turner and 60 MPs who had been rushed in from Vint Hill to enforce the U.S. Armys burial protocol. They were backed by dozens of police from various jurisdictions. No mourners bearing Nazi insignia would be allowed into the cemetery. The NSWPP troopers refused to remove their uniforms, which led to a day-long standoff. They unsuccessfully tried to force their way into the cemetery three separate times. Several arrests resulted. With daylight fading, General Turner declared that Rockwell could not be buried until the NSWPP made a new request to the Pentagon and agreed to follow protocol. The Nazis returned to Arlington with Rockwells body. Plans were made to bury Rockwell in Spotsylvania County, but they fell apart when local Jewish organizations protested. Fearing that Arlington County officials might seize the body, the ANP had Rockwell cremated the next morning, and a memorial service was held that afternoon at party headquarters. On February 8, 1968, the NSWPP filed suit to obtain a Nazi burial for Rockwells remains at any National Cemetery. On March 15, 1969, a Federal district judge upheld the Army Secretarys ruling that Rockwell was ineligible for a burial with full military honors in a national cemetery. Today Rockwell’s ashes reside next to those of Savitri Devi in the memorial room of New Order headquarters in New Berlin, Wisconsin. Following psychiatric evaluation, John Patler was judged competent to stand trial. He pleaded not guilty at his preliminary hearing to the charge of first degree homicide. His trial began on November 27 amid tight security at the Arlington County Courthouse. On December 15, Patler was found guilty and released on bond to await sentencing. On February 23, 1968, Patler was sentenced to 20 years in prison, at that time the least amount possible for a first degree murder conviction. The Virginia Circuit Court postponed imprisonment[citation needed] pending his appeal. On November 30, 1970, the Virginia Supreme Court upheld Patlers conviction and 20-year sentence for slaying Rockwell, and ordered him to begin serving his sentence. On May 16, 1972, the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously rejected Patlers appeal based on claims of witness contamination. In August 1975, Patler was paroled from the Pulaski correctional unit after serving less than four years of his sentence. Judge Charles S. Russell, who had presided over Patlers murder trial, wrote a lengthy letter to the parole board supporting Patlers release, the only time he did so in his career. The following year Patler violated the terms of his parole and was returned to prison for an additional six years. On December 30, 1977, Patler petitioned the Henry County Circuit Court to change his surname back to its original form, Patsalos. After serving out the remainder of his sentence, John Patsalos returned to the New York City area. The exact reason for Rockwell’s murder is still a matter of debate. Patler’s nasty feud with Rockwell and a family history of violence weighed against him at the trial. Despite being convicted of the crime, Patler has always maintained his innocence. The case against him was largely circumstantial and key evidence against him (e.g., whether he possessed the murder weapon at the time of the killing) was disputed by defense witnesses. The small strip mall where Rockwell was killed is still called the Dominion Hills Shopping Center, although it has since been refurbished and the laundromat replaced by a dry cleaners. After his death, admirers of Rockwell painted a white swastika on the blacktop surface of the parking lot, marking the exact spot where he died. Several attempts by the property owners were made to obliterate the emblem with a square patch of black paint, but the white swastika would always surreptitiously reappear, usually on or near the anniversary of Rockwell’s death. It remained visible, off and on, well into the 1980s, until the NSWPP renamed itself the New Order and moved their headquarters to Wisconsin. Since then the parking lot has been resurfaced and a handicapped parking space symbol painted on the same spot. The site can be located today by using a crime scene photograph that appears on page 323 of William H. Schmaltz’s biography of Rockwell. On August 27, 2007, the 40th anniversary of the assassination, a group of unidentified, non-uniformed Rockwell admirers appeared at the Dominion Hills Shopping Center to conduct a brief ceremony and lay a wreath. They carried a plain white banner with black and red lettering that bore the symbolic slogan: “Lincoln Rockwell Lives!” Rockwell was a source of inspiration for White Nationalist politician David Duke. As a student in high school, when Duke learned of Rockwell’s assassination, he reportedly said “The greatest American who ever lived has been shot down and killed”.[26] In the mid-1960s, Rockwell had a strategy to develop his Nazi political philosophy within the Christian Identity religious movement. Previously, Christian Identity had antisemitic and racist views, but not a Third Reich orientation. The Christian Identity group Aryan Nations started to use various Nazi flags in its services, and its security personnel started wearing uniforms similar to those worn by Rockwell’s stormtroopers.[citation needed] Two of Rockwell’s associates, Matt Koehl and William Luther Pierce, formed their own organizations. Koehl, who was Rockwell’s successor, renamed the NSWPP to New Order in 1983 and relocated it to Wisconsin shortly thereafter. Pierce founded the National Alliance. George Lincoln Rockwell was also mentioned in the lyrics to the Bob Dylan song “Talkin’ John Birch Paranoid Blues”. In the lyrics to the song, the narrator parodies Abraham Lincoln and Thomas Jefferson as being Communists, and claims that the only “true American” is George Lincoln Rockwell. Quoting the lyrics, “I know for a fact that he hates Commies, ’cause he picketed the movie Exodus.”[27] In an episode of The Twilight Zone entitled “He’s Alive”, Dennis Hopper portrays the leader of a small Neo-Nazi group; a character apparently inspired by Rockwell[citation needed]. In the television miniseries Roots: The Next Generations, Marlon Brando portrayed Rockwell and won a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie for his performance. Rockwell had a successful Naval career, both on active duty and in the Naval Reserve. A veteran of World War II, he was a naval aviator and served a follow-on tour during the Korean War. He would transfer to the naval reserve. In his nineteen years of service, he had obtained the rank of Commander and was commanding officer of several aviation reserve units. In 1960, as a result of his political and racist activities, the United States Navy discharged Rockwell one year short of retirement, since he was regarded as “not deployable” due to his political views. The proceedings to dismiss him were an extremely public affair, and Rockwell widely advertised the results, saying he “had basically been thrown out of the Navy”[28] Service dates Dates of rank Awards

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June 25, 2017   Posted in: George Lincoln Rockwell  Comments Closed

Six Nazi spies were executed in DC White supremacists gave them a memorial on federal land. – The Mercury News

By John Woodrow Cox, (c) 2017, The Washington Post WASHINGTON A team of power company workers were trudging through a seldom-visited thicket in southwest Washington when they spotted something odd in a ditch. Protruding from the grass was a rectangular slab of granite. They looked closer, and an inscription on the surface came into focus. What they saw astonished them. It was a memorial. In honor of Nazi spies. On U.S. government property. In memory of agents of the German Abwehr, the engraving began, executed August 8, 1942. Below that were six names and below those was another cryptic line: Donated by the N.S.W.P.P. News of the unsettling discovery soon reached Jim Rosenstock, who worked in resource management for the National Park Service and also happened to be a local history buff. He was curious, but also skeptical. How could someone have planted such an item there? And why? And above all who? Rosenstock needed to see it for himself so he, too, made the hike into Blue Plains, a woody area known best for a wastewater treatment plant and an abundance of mosquitoes. And thats when he saw the stone. I kind of started doing a little bit of my own research, Rosenstock recalled of that day in 2006 when he began to help unravel an only-in-Washington mystery, complete with World War II espionage, nationwide panic, a mass electrocution, J. Edgar Hoover chicanery, white supremacists, classic federal bureaucracy and a U.S. Supreme Court case that played a significant role in Americas modern war on terror. For decades, very few people in Washington, or elsewhere, knew of the stones existence. It wasnt a secret so much as something that just never got out remarkable in a town famous for its leaks. Only when a former Park Police detective mentioned it in passing to a Washington Post reporter, then provided photographic evidence, did anyone ask the Park Service about it. A spokeswoman referred the Post to the now-retired Rosenstock, because perhaps no one has thought more about the 31-by-26-by-8-inch object than he has. At the start of World War II, Rosenstock discovered when he began his research, Adolf Hitler had been determined to show the world just how susceptible America was to a Nazi attack, so he ordered his military to devise a plan. The high command, according to a 2002 Post story, recruited eight Germans for the mission. In teams of four, the men were loaded onto a pair of U-boats, one destined for Jacksonville and the other for a beach near the tip of Long Island. On June 13, 1942, the New York group reached shore and was almost immediately discovered by an unarmed Coast Guardsman on foot patrol. The men escaped, but by morning, the Coast Guard had unearthed the Germans buried supplies: fuses, pre-made bombs and four crates of TNT. That wouldnt have mattered to their leader, George John Dasch, who hadnt intended to wreak devastation on Hitlers behalf anyway. When the group reached New York City, he and a comrade decided to turn the others in, so Dasch phoned the FBI. Four days later, he took the $82,000 hed been given for the operation more than $1 million in todays money and boarded a train for Washington. There, he met with FBI agents, whom he expected to welcome him as a hero. They didnt. J. Edgar Hoover, the infamous head of the bureau, recognized an opportunity. In late June, with all eight men caught, Hoover announced their capture in New York and claimed credit for his agency. He made no mention of Dasch. The country went wild, Francis Biddle, then attorney general, later wrote in a memoir. Hundreds of German aliens were rounded up and others, suspected of spying, were arrested. The Justice Department banned German and Italian barbers, servers and busboys from Washingtons hotels and restaurants because three of the would-be saboteurs had worked as waiters in America. Ignoring due process, President Franklin Roosevelt ordered that the men be tried in secret before a military commission a tactic, then backed by the U.S. Supreme Court, that President George W. Bush would replicate 59 years later in his directive that Guantanamo Bay detainees be judged in a similar fashion. In mid-summer 1942, seven U.S. Army generals found all eight men guilty but left their punishment to the president. He sentenced six to death and two, including Dasch, to lengthy prison terms, though both were deported after the war. The electrocutions began at 12:01 p.m. on Aug. 8. By 1:04, all six were dead. Three days later, they were secretly buried amid a seldom-visited thicket of southwest Washington known as Blue Plains. Rosenstock quickly learned the backstory of the six Nazi spies listed on the stone, but another question remained: Who had placed it there? The line at the bottom referencing the N.S.W.P.P. offered a clue. Until the mid-1960s, the National Socialist White Peoples Party had gone by a more familiar name: the American Nazi Party. According to the Southern Poverty Law Center, the groups founder, George Lincoln Rockwell, had given it the new title shortly before his assassination in 1967. By the 1970s, though, the group had begun to split apart and had lost much of its relevance, leading Rosenstock to believe the Nazi memorial dates back to that time. The party didnt entirely cease to exist until 1983, the law center said, so the stone may had been carved more recently though that still means it likely sat on Park Service land for more than two decades before the power companys discovery. For Rosenstock and his colleagues, the memorial presented a conundrum. It was deplorable, and certainly not something that belonged on public property, but none of their handbooks suggested how to deal with a 200-plus pound monument to Nazis installed on public land by white supremacists. Plus, the Park Service couldnt do anything until they were sure it hadnt been placed atop someones bones. What if, they wondered, the Nazis were buried beneath it? The Park Service scoured World War II-era records for details on their bodies, but researchers could find nothing that provided a definitive answer. Old maps showed conflicting spots, including one beneath a building. The location is a little bit confusing, he said, and I think deliberately so. Rosenstock suspected that whoever disposed of the spies bodies didnt want them found. What he did learn, though, is that no one was buried beneath the stone because a creek had run through that area in the 1940s. Still, the Park Service hadnt decided what should be done. It was an illegal monument, Rosenstock said. And we certainly did not want to be hosting a site for midnight rituals on Hitlers birthday. That was a legitimate concern. Rosenstock once found deer bones arranged atop the memorial. Others had found candles around it and noticed that it was regularly cleaned. At least one fellow in the Park Service suggested breaking it up with sledge hammers and throwing it in the river, he recalled. Its not the argument that historic preservationists make. The memorial remained intact. In 2010, under the direction of a museum curator, a fork lift exhumed the granite block and lowered it into a truck. The stone, tagged OXCO-475, now spends its days beneath a protective blanket on a shelf at a storage facility in suburban Maryland. Park Service staff asked that the Post be no more specific than that because, though they didnt mind its long-unknown story being told, theyd prefer that its exact location remain a secret.

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June 25, 2017   Posted in: George Lincoln Rockwell  Comments Closed

White supremacists gave 6 Nazi spies a memorial on federal land – Stars and Stripes

Stars and Stripes White supremacists gave 6 Nazi spies a memorial on federal land Stars and Stripes Until the mid-1960s, the National Socialist White People's Party had gone by a more familiar name: the American Nazi Party. According to the Southern Poverty Law Center, the group's founder, George Lincoln Rockwell , had given it the new title shortly … and more »

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June 24, 2017   Posted in: George Lincoln Rockwell  Comments Closed

George Lincoln Rockwell for Beginners – Renegade Tribune

By James Harting (2014) Rockwell is the father of both contemporary, post-1945 National-Socialism, as well as the modern White Nationalist movement. Movement veterans are familiar with the important, dynamic figure and his career, but to newcomers he is little more than a name. Here is the authorized biographical sketch of Rockwell that was published by the American Nazi Party in the 1960s. My comments follow. George Lincoln Rockwell was born in Bloomington, Illinois, the home of his maternal grandfather on March 9, 1918. His father was a very successful headline comedian from 1912 until about 1935. His ancestors were German, French, English and Scottish, numbering among them many Revolutionary War figures, back to Marie Antoinette, the French queen. Rockwell was in Bloomington only until he was old enough to get out of the hospital, when he was taken on the vaudeville circuit by his parents. He then spent some time in New Jersey, New York and California, but most of the time in Boothay Harbor, Maine. He attended Hebron Academy, a prep school near Lewiston, Maine, after which he entered Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island, majoring in philosophy. In college, Rockwell enjoyed and did well in science and other objective courses, but fought blindly and instinctively against the sociology and other similar departments which, unknown to him, were then preaching the Marxist environmentalism and egalitarianism, which have played such havoc with our human, biological sciences. Leaving Brown in the middle of his junior year, when it became obvious that the US would get into World War II. Rockwell enlisted as a Seaman in the United States Navy in Boston, Massachusetts. By the entrance of the US into World War II on December 7, 1941, he had entered Naval Aviation, and became a cruiser and battleship scout pilot and a fighter pilot. He served aboard the USS Omaha in the South Atlantic and off North Africa during the invasion. He was then sent to the naval photographic school for pilots, and assigned to the USS Wasp and sent to the Pacific. He also became a commander of forward air control operations for Marine Corps assault troops. He was at Guadalcanal, Guam and other Pacific hot spots. At the end of World War II he was commanding officer of a squadron in Hawaii, and had earned nine decorations. Released from active duty, Rockwell attended Pratt Institute Art school in New York, working part time in advertising and commercial art. In 1948, while still at Pratt, he won first prize of $1,000 in the National Society of Illustrators competition for a full page newspaper ad for the American Cancer Society. While still in the ready reserves as commanding officer of a squadron in Washington, DC, he launched a new magazine, U.S. Lady, for the wives of US servicemen. In 1949, Rockwell founded the first big national advertising agency in the state of Maine. Recalled to active duty for the Korean War in 1950, he trained Marine and Navy pilots in close support of troops, and then was transferred to Iceland, where he became the commanding officer of a squadron at Keflavik. About this time he became deeply concerned about the way that all he had fought for in two wars was being turned over to communism. He noticed that almost all of the convicted communist spies and traitors, such as Julius Rosenberg, Ethel Rosenberg, Nathan Silvermaster, Harry Dexter White (Weiss), Robert Soblen, Morton Sobell, David Greenglass, Harry Gold, Miriam Moskowitz, Fred Rosenberg, and Sam Cohen (chief of the communist spies caught in Canada), and most of the communist intellectual leaders, such as Herbert and Bettina Aptheker, were racial Jews. He was especially shocked to find that Whos Who in Jewry, published by the Jews themselves, listed many of these atheist communists very proudly as Jews, even though he had believed that the Jews were just a religion. Observing that Hitler has said that communism was Jewish, and that the Jews were out to degenerate the White race by subversion and race-mixing, Rockwell bought a copy of Mein Kampf and read it, even though he thought he already knew what was in it from all hed heard. He was astonished to find that it was actually a brilliant analysis of the mess that Western Civilization has gotten into, and the only plan hed ever seen to save the White race and its culture. For a number of years he tried to work with various rightwing organizations, all of whom believed, as he did for a while, that it was necessary to disguise ones admiration for Adolf Hitler and National Socialism. Finally disgusted with the emptiness, the weakness, the hypocrisy and especially the cowardice of the so-called conservatives, Rockwell determined to attack at last, flying the Swastika banner which came so close to saving Western Civilization and the White race. Since our Cause is fundamentally the truth, he explained to horrified friends, I do not see how we can win by lying or misrepresenting what we are for fear of the Jews. The only times in the hundred years of the rise of communism that this plague has actually ever been BEATEN, it was beaten not by conservatives, but by radicals and fighters whom the enemy calls Nazis and fascists, and whom they really fear. Only in Germany, Spain and Italy has communism ever been conquered. We are damned fools to be afraid to follow the only examples that have ever worked! He hung up a Nazi banner in front of his home and dared the Jews to do something about it. Theyand their friends and dupescame in droves to do something about it, but Rockwell survived all the shootings, rocks and other Jewish arguments. The publicity gave him such a much needed platform from which to call the attention of his fellow Americans to the increasingly desperate situation of America and our great White family of people. Speaking at colleges, at great city rallies and to private groups, Rockwell has won a larger and larger circle of responsible Americans who begin to realize that the old pray-talk-petition-and-stamp-licking societies will not save America and our White race. Rockwell believes that it is now time for the White Man to take America back from the aliens, the minorities and the terrorists now in power under the demagoguery of cheap politicians. To do this we must win not the few in the rightwing, or the upper classes, but the millions and millions of our people. And to win these people we must offer something beside a lot of empty platitudes about freedom and the Constitution. Only National Socialism has a positive and progressive program for all the people, rather than just the upper class, and combines a concern for the purity and protection of the great White race with a fighting determination to stop all further mongrelization of our people. In five short years, Rockwell has led the American Nazi Party from a tiny and scorned band of roughnecks willing to take to the streets to fight treason and race-mixing, until today the Party has headquarters in Washington, Chicago, Los Angeles and most major cities, and commands a grudging respect of the enemy, even though there is a powerful censorship of the American right-to-know of what Rockwell is doing, as shown by an article in the Spring, 1965, issue of the Columbia Journalism Review by Ben H. Bagdikian. The Party publishes The Rockwell Report (monthly), The Stormtrooper Magazine (quarterly) and National Socialist World (quarterly), plus bulletins available to Party members only. Rockwell is presently organizing the WHITE GUARDyoung, White fighting men to help protect society from the Black and Red revolution which has already overwhelmed police departments in Los Angeles, Chicago, Cleveland and other cities. Comments by James Harting: For most of his career as commander of the ANP, Rockwell lived a shadowy existence on the fringes of the American political scene. He was misunderstood and rejected by the vast majority of his fellow White Americans, whom he dearly loved. He and his tiny band of roughnecks were alternately cursed, ridiculed and ignored by the mainstream media. They fought street battles without end with communist and Jewish thugs who sought to silence them by force, and spent many a night in jail, courtesy of hostile politicians and corrupt police officials. But throughout it all, Lincoln Rockwells warrior spirit of courage, integrity and heroic defiance was never broken. His persistence finally paid off in 1966, when thousands of White men, women and youth in Chicago followed his leadership in a spontaneous uprising against efforts to integrate all-White workingclass neighborhoods. The uprising culminated in the now-famous White Peoples March of Sept. 10, 1966, in which hundreds of ordinary Whites followed Rockwells leadership under the sign of the Swastika. Tragically, within a year Rockwell was dead. On August 25, 1967, this authentic American hero fell beneath the bullets of a cowardly Marxist sneak-murderer. Yet, although Rockwells body died on the black August afternoon, his spirit lives on in the hearts and minds of White men and women everywhere who continue to draw strength and inspiration from his heroic example. In addition to countless, speeches, inteviews, articles and essays, Rockwell wrote two books: In 1960, at the beginning of his career as an open National-Socialist, Rockwell wrote In Hoc Signo Vinces, a short manifesto in which he summarized his ideas and political strategy. You may read it here: In Hoc Signo Vinces | The New Order On January 1, 1967, Rockwell re-named his party as the National Socialist White Peoples Party. In 1984, the NSWPP was reorganized by Rockwells successor, Matt Koehl, as the NEW ORDER. It continues to this day. See: Home | The New Order

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June 22, 2017   Posted in: George Lincoln Rockwell  Comments Closed

Government responsiveness, political violence, and the ’60s – Vox

This post is part of Mischiefs of Faction, an independent political science blog featuring reflections on the party system. Wednesdays shooting during a congressional baseball practice in Alexandria, Virginia, was a disturbing incidence of political violence. Julia Azari wrote an important post Thursday explaining the possible relationship between political violence and a lack of government responsiveness. I wanted to comment a bit on this and note that this relationship isnt necessarily a very clear one. Drawing on work by Nathan Kalmoe and Lilliana Mason, Azari noted that individuals who lack faith in democratic systems are more likely to say they favor violence to solve political problems. The logical extension would be that if more Americans feel that their government isnt working for them and isnt responsive to their needs, more Americans will find violence an acceptable alternative to democracy. If this is whats going on, it is indeed a deeply disturbing trend. But its important to think back to what was perhaps the most politically violent decade in modern American history the 1960s. This saw the assassinations of John Kennedy and Medgar Evers (1963), Malcolm X (1965), American Nazi Party leader George Lincoln Rockwell (1967), and Robert Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr. (1968). Its difficult for those who didnt live through that era to understand how much violence had become an ingrained part of the political system. The most politically violent era was also the era in which people considered their government most responsive to them But was this turbulent era also a time when Americans had lost faith in the political process? The American National Election Studies has been collecting an index of questions on democratic responsiveness since 1964. This index includes questions on whether people believe the government cares what they think and whether they have a say in governmental decisions. The chart below shows the average level of this index since 1964. As the chart shows, the 1960s were actually a high point in peoples faith in their government. The most politically violent era was also the era in which people considered their government most responsive to them. There may, in fact, be little relationship between faith in government and incidences of political violence. Now, there are obviously a lot of other factors to consider. The 1960s are considered violent in large part because there were many successful assassination attempts. There were assassination attempts on every president from Nixon to Obama; only Reagan was actually harmed. George Wallace was shot in 1972 but survived. Its hard to know how many assassinations have been thwarted through improvements in the way the Secret Service protects presidents and candidates. Its also important to note, as Azari does, that responsiveness itself has changed form over the years. Individual Americans may have enjoyed more direct responsiveness from their elected officials back in the 60s, which was during a period of weak political parties. Today, in a very polarized era, responsiveness exists more through the parties themselves. That is, the average Democrat is better represented by the Democratic Party than she was a few decades ago in terms of policy, but thats of little satisfaction to her if that party is out of power. People today can be more confident theyll get what they want when their party is in power, but that leaves a narrow minority of voters intensely frustrated with the government at any given time. We should also keep in mind that the actions of those violent individuals who actually attack government officials dont necessarily speak to larger societal trends or beliefs. There are obviously a great many people angry at national leaders right now, and theres a great deal of heated rhetoric fanning that anger. Its an incredibly small percentage of those people who actually become violent. Indeed, as Nancy Leong suggests at the Washington Post, a past history of violence, especially violence against women, is a far better predictor of future violent behavior than extreme political beliefs are. Our nations history is rife with both heated rhetoric and political violence, and an attack on our elected officials, no less a ranking congressional leader, is an assault on representative democracy that must be taken very seriously. But its not obvious that this tragedy portends a rising number of such events.

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June 16, 2017   Posted in: George Lincoln Rockwell  Comments Closed


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