Archive for the ‘Hate Crimes’ Category

Should Oakley stabbing suspect with history of racial slurs have been charged with hate crime? – East Bay Times

OAKLEY A murder suspect with a long history of using racial slurs against blacks and who admitted in a jailhouse interview to referring to his purported victim by the N-word is not facing a hate crime charge from prosecutors, a decision that has generated a groundswell of criticism and anger on social media.

Some social media commentators have said the Contra Costa District Attorneys Office isin denial and covering up for white supremacists, but the case against Philip Wade, 38, also underscores the tricky legal issues surrounding hate crimes, an ever-more-commonly used term in social and political debate that poses tough challenges to prosecutors seeking a courtroom conviction.

Particularly in murder cases, its not unusual for prosecutors to decide not to make (a hate crime) an element of what they have to prove when they have an otherwise more contained direct murder case, said Brian Levin,the director of the Center for the Study of Hate and Extremism at Cal State San Bernardino.

On June 6, the District Attorneys Office charged Phillip Wade, 38, with one count of murder with an enhancement for using a deadly weapon in the June 3 stabbing death of 57-year-old Anthony Johnson, of Pittsburg. He faces 25 years to life in state prison with an additional year added for using a deadly weapon. Had he been charged with a hate crime enhancement, Wade could potentially have faced life in state prison without the possibility of parole.

On June 5, Oakley police Chief Chris Thorsen saidthey did not believethe incident was racially motivated, but would continue to investigate.

In addition to drawing criticism from community members who quickly foundcopious racially biased statements on Wades Facebook page, the decision by police and prosecutors not to pursue the homicide as a hate crime is raising questions about what standards law enforcement officials can and should follow in weighing whether such a charge is warranted.

Chris Thorsen, youre a police chief and you dont get that Wade is racist after telling the waitress at Mels he was

Posted by Sharon Tipton onTuesday, June 6, 2017

His Facebook promotes hatred toward brown people, those of differing religious views, and he seemed to take much of (President Donald) Trumps propaganda seriously, said Amber Avelino, a resident of Walnut Creek who was one of the first to criticize the decision on social media. He targeted men of color with his previous crimes, and to ignore that is criminal.

In a recent interview at the County Jail, Wade who was not charged with a crime in two previous stabbing incidents, one of which was also fatal said that while he was riding the bus that day, he had a tense argument with Johnson over politics. Wade said the argument became threatening when he called Johnson by the well-known racial slur.

There wasnt an excuse to call him the N-word, but thats just how angry and upset I was at the man, Wade said. I pointed at him, called him that word, and he stood up and came up to my face.

Wade maintains that he acted in self-defense after he was strangled and struck by Johnson in the face several times. Wade said Johnson was walking away when he fatally stabbed him.

Social media posts and interviews with people who know Wade indicate he has a long history of violent behavior and using the N-word.

At the time of the arrest, police reported that there was no indication that this was a hate crime, but after the announcement, details of Wades racially degrading and increasingly hostile statements on Facebook quickly surfaced. Wades posts involving weapons and black or Muslim people were held up as evidence of bias by posters on social media.

In January, Wade shared a petition from conservative commentator Sean Hannity to file hate crime charges against Brittany Covington, a Chicago teen who, along with three others, kidnapped and attacked a white mentally disabled teen in January. All four were charged with a hate crime for the use of racial slurs and references to the victims disability on a Facebook Live stream.

After reviewing the police departments case, Contra Costa deputy district attorney Derek Butts said that anyone would see objectively that the facts I had available did not support a hate crime allegation against Wade. He did not explain what factors he used to make his decision but said that he did not look at Wades social media statements, which had been reported in this newspaper two days before Butts filed murder charges.

On June 21, Wade pleaded not guilty to the murder charge.

Whether I called him the N-word or not, he had no right to react that way back toward me, Wade said in the jailhouse interview. What he did that day was a physical assault.

Levin, the Cal State professor and an expert on hate crimes, explained the careful decisions prosecutors need to make in homicide cases involving hate speech and its use in court as evidence of motive.

Racially charged statements made by a defendant are admissible (in court), but thats just one piece of evidence, he said. Specific intent crimes, even ones that arent hate crimes, require the proof of an additional element beyond the reasonable doubt, in this case, a particular motive.

Levin said that prior statements, whether on social media or elsewhere, can be used as evidence of intent or motive. The state Attorney Generals Office offers additional guidelines, including statements that may indicate a bias and whether witnesses to the incident believed the victim was targeted because of race or ethnicity.

A report issued recentlyby Attorney General Xavier Becerra showed that in 2016, Contra Costa County reported 43 hate crime offenses, more than half of which came from Antioch, and 17 suspects. The District Attorneys Office filed eight hate crime cases.

Wades public defender, Elise McNamara, declined to comment on the case.

Johnson is the third person Wade has stabbed in six years and the second death that resulted from those stabbings.

In March 2011, Wade stabbed 23-year-old Justin Garza after an argument on public transit in Brentwood. Garza survived, taking the knife and stabbing Wade back.

My husbands vehicle broke down and he was asking for change to go on the bus and asked Phillip Wade for some, Deena Wayne, Garzas wife, said. Just the fact that somebody approached him somehow triggered him.

In August 2013, Wade fatally stabbed 49-year-old Kann Cendejas, a homeless veteran, in Antioch. According to Antioch police, the case was presented to the District Attorneys Office, but prosecutors declined to file charges, saying it was self-defense.

In July 2015, Wade was arrested on suspicion of brandishing a knife and a stun gun at three individuals in Antioch, and was accused of charging at an officer while in custody. At the time of Johnsons stabbing, Wade was still on probation for a charge of battery from 2013.

Kipp Monroe Stephens, who worked as a security guard at the Starbucks in Antioch on West 18th and A streets, said Wade was a regular at the coffee shop and that he was a known issue.

According to Stephens, Wade was asked to leave after getting into a verbal altercation with the owner of the security company.

The manager asked him to leave, and he got irate and then he got pretty vulgar, saying, Hes an N-word and he was telling us God would come kill us all, Stephens said. It became a confrontation, and I got in the middle of it and he got a sucker punch in on me as I was watching the other guy.

Wades friend, Gabriel Desta, said this is not the first incident on a bus in which Wade used a racial slur, was attacked and then pulled a knife. According to Desta, on July 4, 2016, the altercation was over personal space and ended with Desta using pepper spray on the bus.

What happened was the guy kept getting in his personal space, and Phil asked him nicely to move and the guy refused, and the guy started cursing at him and then Phil called him the N-word and then the guy started choking him, Desta said.

The current case has been reassigned to deputy district attorney Chris Walpole, who is also the prosecutor assigned to the shooting death of a Richmond musician in November that initially carried a hate crime enhancement.

A sound-recording device picked up three men calling a 28-year-old musician the N-word, then brutally beating him and shooting him outside the Capri Club in El Sobrante.

In April, a Contra Costa grand jury refused the prosecutions request to indict the three men on hate crime enhancements to the murder charge. Before the case was brought before the grand jury, a judge upheld the hate crime enhancement for one of the three defendants, but the grand jurys decision eliminated that charge.

Walpole declined to comment for this story.

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Should Oakley stabbing suspect with history of racial slurs have been charged with hate crime? – East Bay Times

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The Media Loves Muslims Right Now. So Why Are Hate Crimes Against Them Up 91%? – GOOD Magazine

This week, the Council on American-Islamic Relations releaseda report findinganti-Muslim incidents in the United States are up 91% so far in2017 over the same period last year. The most common of these incidents are nonviolent harassments, and the second most common are termed hate crimes, which describe physical violence or property damage.

The presidential election campaign and the Trump administration have tapped into a seam of bigotry and hate that has resulted in the targeting of American Muslims and other minority groups, said Zainab Arain, a CAIR representative, in the press release. If acts of bias impacting the American Muslim community continue as they have been, 2017 could be one of the worst years ever for such incidents.

The findings come at a time when Muslims are increasingly visible even if representations of them remain narrowly defined. No longer sequestered to the realm of cable TV broadcasts about violence in other parts of the world, images of Muslims and particularly Muslim women have become commonplace in the cultural landscape: co-opted in protest art, appearing on TV shows and infilms, as part product advertisements,and dominating magazine covers.

When I read CAIRs report, my mind didnt go to front-page stories about terrorist attacks. I thought, instead, about the headscarved Muslim woman I saw last weekend in a Gap ad at L.A.s capitalist meccaThe Grove.

H&M’s 2015 ad campaign featuring model Mariah Idrissi.

Often, these cultural shifts feel like significant social change, and new representations are celebrated as progress. When H&M used a hijab-wearing model in a fashion campaign in September 2015, one Muslim fashion bloggerwrote for Elle magazines site: Brands are finally taking note of what I’ve been advocating since I founded the fashion brand Haute Hijab in 2010 that Muslims (in this case Muslim women) are a thriving, fully-functioning and active segment of society who deserve to be acknowledged and heard.

Two years later, brands and corporations are more aware of Muslim women than ever, especially as they comprise a significant portion of the American consumer base; for example, a Reuters study reported that Muslim consumers spent $243 billion on clothing in the global market in 2015. Diverse casting, too, has provento be profitable for the film and TV industry. The Bold Type, a new show on ABCs cable channel Freeform, features a hijab-wearing Muslim lesbian in its first few episodes. Pepsi and Coke have both made headlines for including hijab-wearing Muslim women in their Super Bowl ads. Hijab-wearing Somali-American Muslim model Halima Aden made a splash on the catwalks for Yeezy, Max Mara, and Aberta Ferretti early this yearand became the first hijab-wearing Muslim woman tocover an issue of Vogue.

This all feels very exciting. But it means nothing when Muslim Americans are still being targeted for harassment and hate crimes by their neighborsor singled out for screening by TSA at the airportor surveilled by national security organizations under the guise of public safety. Orwhen a large-scale travel ban is proposed to keep them from entering the country. Images of Muslims, and especially Muslim women, are becoming more and more common, but so is the harassment against them. This is why it becomes tricky for me to celebrate a movie like The Big Sick written by and starringa man who comes from a Muslim familybut relies on one-dimensional representations of them or thesensitivecasting of Aladdin, a fictional tale about fictional people wherein a half-white, half-South-Asian woman is set to play his Arabian romantic interest.

This is not a phenomenon unique to the Muslim American community. For the past few years, cultural commentators have heralded a transgender moment. Suddenly, transgender people were showing up in TV and film and magazine covers. And yet, 2016 was reportedly one of the deadliest years to date for transgender people in the U.S., with 27 of them killed, the majority of them women of color.

Representation is not justiceand is a poor substitution for it.

Share image via Vogue Arabia.

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The Media Loves Muslims Right Now. So Why Are Hate Crimes Against Them Up 91%? – GOOD Magazine

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Explaining the rise in hate crimes against Muslims in the US – SFGate – SFGate

(The Conversation is an independent and nonprofit source of news, analysis and commentary from academic experts.)

Brian Levin, California State University San Bernardino

(THE CONVERSATION) Hate crimes against Muslims have been on the rise. The murder of two samaritans for aiding two young women who were facing a barrage of anti-Muslim slurs on a Portland train is among the latest examples of brazen acts of anti-Islamic hatred.

Earlier in 2017, a mosque in Victoria, Texas was burned to the ground by an alleged anti-Muslim bigot. And just last year, members of a small extremist group called The Crusaders plotted a bombing bloodbath at a residential housing complex for Somali-Muslim immigrants in Garden City, Kansas.

I have analyzed hate crime for two decades at California State University-San Bernardinos Center for the Study of Hate and Extremism. And I have found that the rhetoric politicians use after terrorist attacks is correlated closely to sharp increases and decreases in hate crimes.

Since 1992 (following the promulgation of the Hate Crime Statistics Act of 1990), the FBI has annually tabulated hate crime data voluntarily submitted from state and territorial reporting agencies. A hate crime is defined as a criminal offense motivated by either race, ethnicity, religion, disability, sexual orientation, gender or gender identity.

According to the FBIs data, hate crimes against Muslims reported to police surged immediately following the terror attacks of 9/11. There were 481 crimes reported against Muslims in 2001, up from 28 the year before. However, from 2002 until 2014, the number of anti-Muslim crimes receded to a numerical range between 105 to 160 annually. This number was still several times higher than their pre-9/11 levels.

It should be noted that other government data, such as the Bureau of Justice Statistics, which relies on almost 200,000 residential crime surveys, as opposed to police reports, show severe official undercounting of hate crime. These studies, based on respondents answers to researchers, indicate a far higher annual average of hate crime 250,000 nationally with over half stating that they never reported such offenses to police.

FBI data show that in 2015 there were 257 hate crimes against Muslims the highest level since 2001 and a surge of 67 percent over the previous year.

As I noted in a prepared statement before the Senate Judiciary Committee in May 2017, this was the second-highest number of anti-Muslim hate crimes since FBI record-keeping began in 1992. Not only did anti-Muslim crime cases rise numerically in 2015, they also grew as a percentage of all hate crime. They now account for 4.4 percent of all reported hate crime even though Muslims are estimated to be only 1 percent of the population.

At our center, we analyzed even more recent disturbing trends related to hate crimes. Based on the latest available police data for 2016 from 25 of the nations largest cities and counties, we found a 6 percent increase in all hate crimes, with over half of the places at a multi-year high. In particular, hate crimes against Muslims had increased in six of the seven places that provided more detailed breakdowns.

We also observed a spike in such crime following certain events.

In 2015, for example, we found 45 incidents of anti-Muslim crime in the United States in the four weeks following the November 13 Paris terror attack.

Just under half of these occurred after December 2, when the San Bernardino terror attack took place. Of those, 15 took place in the five days following then-candidate Donald Trumps proposal of December 7, seeking to indefinitely ban all Muslims from entering the United States.

In contrast, as I observed in my prepared statement before the Senate Judiciary Committee, after an initial sharp spike following the 9/11 attacks, sociologist James Nolan and I found that there was a drop in hate crimes after President George W. Bush delivered a speech promoting tolerance on Sept. 17, 2001.

Other groups too, have found similar spikes in anti-Muslim hatred: The Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), for example, noted that from the month of the presidential election, through Dec. 12, 2016, there was a spike in hate incidents against many minority groups. The SPLC found that the third most frequently targeted group after immigrants and African-Americans were Muslims. And just this month the Council on American-Islamic Relations, a Muslim advocacy group, reported 72 instances of harassment and 69 hate crimes that had occurred between April and June 2017.

Prejudicial stereotypes that broadly paint Muslims in a negative light are quite pervasive.

From 2002 to 2014, the number of respondents who stated that Islam was more likely to encourage violence doubled from 25 percent to 50 percent, according to Pew research. A June 2016 Reuters/Ipsos online poll found that 37 percent of Americans had a somewhat or very unfavorable view of Islam, topped only by antipathy for atheism at 38 percent.

The latest polls also show how Muslims are feared and distrusted as a group in America. While most Americans do not believe that Muslims living in the U.S. support extremism, these views vary widely by age, level of education and partisan affiliation: Almost half of those 65 and older believe that Muslims in America support extremism, whereas only few college-educated adults do so.

Interestingly, current polls also show that when people personally know someone who is a Muslim, the bias is much less. This confirms what psychology scholar Gordon Allport concludes in his seminal book, The Nature of Prejudice, that meaningful contact with those who are different is crucial for reducing hatred.

Indeed, before we can truly say love thy neighbor(s), we need to know and understand them.

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article here: http://theconversation.com/explaining-the-rise-in-hate-crimes-against-muslims-in-the-us-80304.

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Explaining the rise in hate crimes against Muslims in the US – SFGate – SFGate

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Officials question decision to release possible hate crime defendants – News 12 Hudson Valley

PEEKSKILL –

Officials are questioning a city court judges decision to release two men on their own recognizance following their arrests in connection with at least two weekend assaults and robberies being investigated as possible hate crimes.

Her conduct is so outrageous, says Mayor Frank Catalina regarding city court Judge Melissa Lohr. It calls into question her judgment and her competence.

Catalina went on to say that he believes Judge Lohr has a bias against police officers.

He tells News 12 there are also allegations on social media that one or more of the defendants may have dated the judge’s daughter.

While News 12 is told all of the suspects are now behind bars on other charges, Judge Lohr denied that she acted improperly and insists that she released the men based on the information she had at the time.

Meanwhile, Mayor Catalina says he has started an assistance fund for the assault victims and is asking the public to stop by City Hall to make donations to pay for their medical expenses.

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Officials question decision to release possible hate crime defendants – News 12 Hudson Valley

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Explaining the rise in hate crimes against Muslims in the US – San Francisco Chronicle

(The Conversation is an independent and nonprofit source of news, analysis and commentary from academic experts.)

Brian Levin, California State University San Bernardino

(THE CONVERSATION) Hate crimes against Muslims have been on the rise. The murder of two samaritans for aiding two young women who were facing a barrage of anti-Muslim slurs on a Portland train is among the latest examples of brazen acts of anti-Islamic hatred.

Earlier in 2017, a mosque in Victoria, Texas was burned to the ground by an alleged anti-Muslim bigot. And just last year, members of a small extremist group called The Crusaders plotted a bombing bloodbath at a residential housing complex for Somali-Muslim immigrants in Garden City, Kansas.

I have analyzed hate crime for two decades at California State University-San Bernardinos Center for the Study of Hate and Extremism. And I have found that the rhetoric politicians use after terrorist attacks is correlated closely to sharp increases and decreases in hate crimes.

Since 1992 (following the promulgation of the Hate Crime Statistics Act of 1990), the FBI has annually tabulated hate crime data voluntarily submitted from state and territorial reporting agencies. A hate crime is defined as a criminal offense motivated by either race, ethnicity, religion, disability, sexual orientation, gender or gender identity.

According to the FBIs data, hate crimes against Muslims reported to police surged immediately following the terror attacks of 9/11. There were 481 crimes reported against Muslims in 2001, up from 28 the year before. However, from 2002 until 2014, the number of anti-Muslim crimes receded to a numerical range between 105 to 160 annually. This number was still several times higher than their pre-9/11 levels.

It should be noted that other government data, such as the Bureau of Justice Statistics, which relies on almost 200,000 residential crime surveys, as opposed to police reports, show severe official undercounting of hate crime. These studies, based on respondents answers to researchers, indicate a far higher annual average of hate crime 250,000 nationally with over half stating that they never reported such offenses to police.

FBI data show that in 2015 there were 257 hate crimes against Muslims the highest level since 2001 and a surge of 67 percent over the previous year.

As I noted in a prepared statement before the Senate Judiciary Committee in May 2017, this was the second-highest number of anti-Muslim hate crimes since FBI record-keeping began in 1992. Not only did anti-Muslim crime cases rise numerically in 2015, they also grew as a percentage of all hate crime. They now account for 4.4 percent of all reported hate crime even though Muslims are estimated to be only 1 percent of the population.

At our center, we analyzed even more recent disturbing trends related to hate crimes. Based on the latest available police data for 2016 from 25 of the nations largest cities and counties, we found a 6 percent increase in all hate crimes, with over half of the places at a multi-year high. In particular, hate crimes against Muslims had increased in six of the seven places that provided more detailed breakdowns.

We also observed a spike in such crime following certain events.

In 2015, for example, we found 45 incidents of anti-Muslim crime in the United States in the four weeks following the November 13 Paris terror attack.

Just under half of these occurred after December 2, when the San Bernardino terror attack took place. Of those, 15 took place in the five days following then-candidate Donald Trumps proposal of December 7, seeking to indefinitely ban all Muslims from entering the United States.

In contrast, as I observed in my prepared statement before the Senate Judiciary Committee, after an initial sharp spike following the 9/11 attacks, sociologist James Nolan and I found that there was a drop in hate crimes after President George W. Bush delivered a speech promoting tolerance on Sept. 17, 2001.

Other groups too, have found similar spikes in anti-Muslim hatred: The Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), for example, noted that from the month of the presidential election, through Dec. 12, 2016, there was a spike in hate incidents against many minority groups. The SPLC found that the third most frequently targeted group after immigrants and African-Americans were Muslims. And just this month the Council on American-Islamic Relations, a Muslim advocacy group, reported 72 instances of harassment and 69 hate crimes that had occurred between April and June 2017.

Prejudicial stereotypes that broadly paint Muslims in a negative light are quite pervasive.

From 2002 to 2014, the number of respondents who stated that Islam was more likely to encourage violence doubled from 25 percent to 50 percent, according to Pew research. A June 2016 Reuters/Ipsos online poll found that 37 percent of Americans had a somewhat or very unfavorable view of Islam, topped only by antipathy for atheism at 38 percent.

The latest polls also show how Muslims are feared and distrusted as a group in America. While most Americans do not believe that Muslims living in the U.S. support extremism, these views vary widely by age, level of education and partisan affiliation: Almost half of those 65 and older believe that Muslims in America support extremism, whereas only few college-educated adults do so.

Interestingly, current polls also show that when people personally know someone who is a Muslim, the bias is much less. This confirms what psychology scholar Gordon Allport concludes in his seminal book, The Nature of Prejudice, that meaningful contact with those who are different is crucial for reducing hatred.

Indeed, before we can truly say love thy neighbor(s), we need to know and understand them.

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article here: http://theconversation.com/explaining-the-rise-in-hate-crimes-against-muslims-in-the-us-80304.

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Explaining the rise in hate crimes against Muslims in the US – San Francisco Chronicle

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Organizers to rally against hate crimes in Anne Arundel County … – ABC2 News

A rally against hate crimes in Anne Arundel County is scheduled on Wednesday.

The Caucus of African-American Leaders will gather at 11 a.m. at the Civil Rights Foot Soldiers Memorial across from the Arundel Center in Annapolis to march to the courthouse in an effort to call attention to the “noose” cases that will be heard at that court, organizers said.

Back in May, two 19-year-old men were arrested and charged with a hate crime after a teacher found a noose hanging on a light fixture in front of Crofton Middle School.

Police identified the suspects, Conner Prout and John Haverman, using surveillance video.

RELATED: Two men facing hate crime charges after noose found at middle school

Anne Arundel County Public Schools have been in the spotlight over the last few years with racially charged events occurring including the hacking of school computers, in which anti-Semitic epithets were left, organizers said in a news release. The Wednesday, July 19th demonstration is to call attention to hate crimes in the county. Demonstrators will be carrying anti noose placards.

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Organizers to rally against hate crimes in Anne Arundel County … – ABC2 News

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Group Says Hate Crimes Against Muslims Increasing in US (VIDEO) – Newsy

An advocacy group says anti-Muslim hate crimes and religious discriminationappear to be rising in 2017.

The Council on American-Islamic Relations has tracked anti-Muslim incidents since 2013. But the group says this year could be the worst yet.

CAIR says in the first half of 2017, hate crimes against Muslims wereup 91 percentcompared with the same time last year. And it says religious discrimination incidents against Muslims in that period were up 24 percent.

Government data also shows hate crimes against Muslims havebeen risingin recent years. The most recentFBI dataavailable shows anti-Muslim crimesfrom 2014-15rose more than any other hate crime that year.

Related StoryA Grant Is Finding And Funding Muslims To Tell Humanizing Stories

But for the communities affected, it’s more than just stats.

“There’s absolute, incredible, incredible anger. There’s incredible fear. There’s incredible concern that these things, which have continued to happen ever since, especially since the last year’s election season, that it’s going to continue to happen,” said Hatem Abudayyeh, executive director of Arab American Action Network in Chicago.

But also, there is solidarity and camaraderie.

“But the most important takeaway is that it’s not only the Muslim community that’s being targeted right now. There is a chance and a really important moment for us to come together with our brothers and our sisters in the Latino community, other indigenous communities,” said community organizer Reema Ahmad.

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Group Says Hate Crimes Against Muslims Increasing in US (VIDEO) – Newsy

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Under Trump, Anti-Muslim Hate Crimes Have Increased at an … – Newsweek

There were more than 940 reports of potentialbiasincidents involving the targeting of Muslims between April and June, according to a report released by the Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR) on Monday. Of those, the organization determined 451 stemmed from anti-Muslim bias, which contributed to a 91 percent increase in anti-Muslim hate crimes during the first half of the year as compared to the same time period in 2016.

Nonviolent and nonthreatening instances of harassment accounted for 16 percent of the incidents involving Muslims between April 1 and June 30, while outright hate crimesin which violence or a physical altercation was involvedaccounted for 15 percent. Incidents in which Muslims were inappropriately targeted by the FBI made up 12 percent of cases.

People were targeted at their places of residence in 17 percent of the reports, while 14 percent involved Muslim who were on walking the streets or driving their cars. Another 13 percent faced anti-Muslim biaswhile flying or traveling by bus or train. About 33 percent of incidents took place at a mosque or Islamic center, and 9 percent occurred at schools.

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Of the incidents reported, CAIR identified triggeringfactors for 358, including a victims ethnicity or national origin32 percentand preconceived notions of a victim being a Muslim20 percent. Fifteen percent of incidents were triggered by the presence of a headscarf or hijab. Forty-six percent of the people targeted were from Middle Eastern and North African countries.

Of the number of crimes identified to be based on anti-Muslim bias, the CAIR report said 126 had been investigated by federal agencies between April 1 and June 30.

Although the CAIR report did not cite President Donald Trumps rhetoric towardMuslims as a factor in the increased anti-Muslim bias in the U.S., a previous report conducted by researchers at California State Universitys Center for the Study of Hate and Extremism found that biascrimes against various minorities and religious groups were up some 20 percent since Trumps election win in November. The majority of the crimes documented were against Muslims and individuals recognized as belonging to the LGBTcommunity.

On multiple occasions during his campaign, Trump made harshstatements regarding Islamic terrorists and promoted a stronger vetting system to identify immigrants with ties to radical ideology.

About 3.3 million people in the United States are Muslim, according to a Pew Research Center report released in May.

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What We Knowand Don’t KnowAbout Hate Crimes in America – Pacific Standard


Pacific Standard
What We Knowand Don't KnowAbout Hate Crimes in America
Pacific Standard
Documenting Hate is an attempt to overcome the inadequate data collection on hate crimes and bias incidents in America. We've been compiling incident reports from civil rights groups, as well as news reports, social media. and law enforcement records.

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What We Knowand Don’t KnowAbout Hate Crimes in America – Pacific Standard

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Should Oakley stabbing suspect with history of racial slurs have been charged with hate crime? – East Bay Times

OAKLEY A murder suspect with a long history of using racial slurs against blacks and who admitted in a jailhouse interview to referring to his purported victim by the N-word is not facing a hate crime charge from prosecutors, a decision that has generated a groundswell of criticism and anger on social media. Some social media commentators have said the Contra Costa District Attorneys Office isin denial and covering up for white supremacists, but the case against Philip Wade, 38, also underscores the tricky legal issues surrounding hate crimes, an ever-more-commonly used term in social and political debate that poses tough challenges to prosecutors seeking a courtroom conviction. Particularly in murder cases, its not unusual for prosecutors to decide not to make (a hate crime) an element of what they have to prove when they have an otherwise more contained direct murder case, said Brian Levin,the director of the Center for the Study of Hate and Extremism at Cal State San Bernardino. On June 6, the District Attorneys Office charged Phillip Wade, 38, with one count of murder with an enhancement for using a deadly weapon in the June 3 stabbing death of 57-year-old Anthony Johnson, of Pittsburg. He faces 25 years to life in state prison with an additional year added for using a deadly weapon. Had he been charged with a hate crime enhancement, Wade could potentially have faced life in state prison without the possibility of parole. On June 5, Oakley police Chief Chris Thorsen saidthey did not believethe incident was racially motivated, but would continue to investigate. In addition to drawing criticism from community members who quickly foundcopious racially biased statements on Wades Facebook page, the decision by police and prosecutors not to pursue the homicide as a hate crime is raising questions about what standards law enforcement officials can and should follow in weighing whether such a charge is warranted. Chris Thorsen, youre a police chief and you dont get that Wade is racist after telling the waitress at Mels he was Posted by Sharon Tipton onTuesday, June 6, 2017 His Facebook promotes hatred toward brown people, those of differing religious views, and he seemed to take much of (President Donald) Trumps propaganda seriously, said Amber Avelino, a resident of Walnut Creek who was one of the first to criticize the decision on social media. He targeted men of color with his previous crimes, and to ignore that is criminal. In a recent interview at the County Jail, Wade who was not charged with a crime in two previous stabbing incidents, one of which was also fatal said that while he was riding the bus that day, he had a tense argument with Johnson over politics. Wade said the argument became threatening when he called Johnson by the well-known racial slur. There wasnt an excuse to call him the N-word, but thats just how angry and upset I was at the man, Wade said. I pointed at him, called him that word, and he stood up and came up to my face. Wade maintains that he acted in self-defense after he was strangled and struck by Johnson in the face several times. Wade said Johnson was walking away when he fatally stabbed him. Social media posts and interviews with people who know Wade indicate he has a long history of violent behavior and using the N-word. At the time of the arrest, police reported that there was no indication that this was a hate crime, but after the announcement, details of Wades racially degrading and increasingly hostile statements on Facebook quickly surfaced. Wades posts involving weapons and black or Muslim people were held up as evidence of bias by posters on social media. In January, Wade shared a petition from conservative commentator Sean Hannity to file hate crime charges against Brittany Covington, a Chicago teen who, along with three others, kidnapped and attacked a white mentally disabled teen in January. All four were charged with a hate crime for the use of racial slurs and references to the victims disability on a Facebook Live stream. After reviewing the police departments case, Contra Costa deputy district attorney Derek Butts said that anyone would see objectively that the facts I had available did not support a hate crime allegation against Wade. He did not explain what factors he used to make his decision but said that he did not look at Wades social media statements, which had been reported in this newspaper two days before Butts filed murder charges. On June 21, Wade pleaded not guilty to the murder charge. Whether I called him the N-word or not, he had no right to react that way back toward me, Wade said in the jailhouse interview. What he did that day was a physical assault. Levin, the Cal State professor and an expert on hate crimes, explained the careful decisions prosecutors need to make in homicide cases involving hate speech and its use in court as evidence of motive. Racially charged statements made by a defendant are admissible (in court), but thats just one piece of evidence, he said. Specific intent crimes, even ones that arent hate crimes, require the proof of an additional element beyond the reasonable doubt, in this case, a particular motive. Levin said that prior statements, whether on social media or elsewhere, can be used as evidence of intent or motive. The state Attorney Generals Office offers additional guidelines, including statements that may indicate a bias and whether witnesses to the incident believed the victim was targeted because of race or ethnicity. A report issued recentlyby Attorney General Xavier Becerra showed that in 2016, Contra Costa County reported 43 hate crime offenses, more than half of which came from Antioch, and 17 suspects. The District Attorneys Office filed eight hate crime cases. Wades public defender, Elise McNamara, declined to comment on the case. Johnson is the third person Wade has stabbed in six years and the second death that resulted from those stabbings. In March 2011, Wade stabbed 23-year-old Justin Garza after an argument on public transit in Brentwood. Garza survived, taking the knife and stabbing Wade back. My husbands vehicle broke down and he was asking for change to go on the bus and asked Phillip Wade for some, Deena Wayne, Garzas wife, said. Just the fact that somebody approached him somehow triggered him. In August 2013, Wade fatally stabbed 49-year-old Kann Cendejas, a homeless veteran, in Antioch. According to Antioch police, the case was presented to the District Attorneys Office, but prosecutors declined to file charges, saying it was self-defense. In July 2015, Wade was arrested on suspicion of brandishing a knife and a stun gun at three individuals in Antioch, and was accused of charging at an officer while in custody. At the time of Johnsons stabbing, Wade was still on probation for a charge of battery from 2013. Kipp Monroe Stephens, who worked as a security guard at the Starbucks in Antioch on West 18th and A streets, said Wade was a regular at the coffee shop and that he was a known issue. According to Stephens, Wade was asked to leave after getting into a verbal altercation with the owner of the security company. The manager asked him to leave, and he got irate and then he got pretty vulgar, saying, Hes an N-word and he was telling us God would come kill us all, Stephens said. It became a confrontation, and I got in the middle of it and he got a sucker punch in on me as I was watching the other guy. Wades friend, Gabriel Desta, said this is not the first incident on a bus in which Wade used a racial slur, was attacked and then pulled a knife. According to Desta, on July 4, 2016, the altercation was over personal space and ended with Desta using pepper spray on the bus. What happened was the guy kept getting in his personal space, and Phil asked him nicely to move and the guy refused, and the guy started cursing at him and then Phil called him the N-word and then the guy started choking him, Desta said. The current case has been reassigned to deputy district attorney Chris Walpole, who is also the prosecutor assigned to the shooting death of a Richmond musician in November that initially carried a hate crime enhancement. A sound-recording device picked up three men calling a 28-year-old musician the N-word, then brutally beating him and shooting him outside the Capri Club in El Sobrante. In April, a Contra Costa grand jury refused the prosecutions request to indict the three men on hate crime enhancements to the murder charge. Before the case was brought before the grand jury, a judge upheld the hate crime enhancement for one of the three defendants, but the grand jurys decision eliminated that charge. Walpole declined to comment for this story.

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The Media Loves Muslims Right Now. So Why Are Hate Crimes Against Them Up 91%? – GOOD Magazine

This week, the Council on American-Islamic Relations releaseda report findinganti-Muslim incidents in the United States are up 91% so far in2017 over the same period last year. The most common of these incidents are nonviolent harassments, and the second most common are termed hate crimes, which describe physical violence or property damage. The presidential election campaign and the Trump administration have tapped into a seam of bigotry and hate that has resulted in the targeting of American Muslims and other minority groups, said Zainab Arain, a CAIR representative, in the press release. If acts of bias impacting the American Muslim community continue as they have been, 2017 could be one of the worst years ever for such incidents. The findings come at a time when Muslims are increasingly visible even if representations of them remain narrowly defined. No longer sequestered to the realm of cable TV broadcasts about violence in other parts of the world, images of Muslims and particularly Muslim women have become commonplace in the cultural landscape: co-opted in protest art, appearing on TV shows and infilms, as part product advertisements,and dominating magazine covers. When I read CAIRs report, my mind didnt go to front-page stories about terrorist attacks. I thought, instead, about the headscarved Muslim woman I saw last weekend in a Gap ad at L.A.s capitalist meccaThe Grove. H&M’s 2015 ad campaign featuring model Mariah Idrissi. Often, these cultural shifts feel like significant social change, and new representations are celebrated as progress. When H&M used a hijab-wearing model in a fashion campaign in September 2015, one Muslim fashion bloggerwrote for Elle magazines site: Brands are finally taking note of what I’ve been advocating since I founded the fashion brand Haute Hijab in 2010 that Muslims (in this case Muslim women) are a thriving, fully-functioning and active segment of society who deserve to be acknowledged and heard. Two years later, brands and corporations are more aware of Muslim women than ever, especially as they comprise a significant portion of the American consumer base; for example, a Reuters study reported that Muslim consumers spent $243 billion on clothing in the global market in 2015. Diverse casting, too, has provento be profitable for the film and TV industry. The Bold Type, a new show on ABCs cable channel Freeform, features a hijab-wearing Muslim lesbian in its first few episodes. Pepsi and Coke have both made headlines for including hijab-wearing Muslim women in their Super Bowl ads. Hijab-wearing Somali-American Muslim model Halima Aden made a splash on the catwalks for Yeezy, Max Mara, and Aberta Ferretti early this yearand became the first hijab-wearing Muslim woman tocover an issue of Vogue. This all feels very exciting. But it means nothing when Muslim Americans are still being targeted for harassment and hate crimes by their neighborsor singled out for screening by TSA at the airportor surveilled by national security organizations under the guise of public safety. Orwhen a large-scale travel ban is proposed to keep them from entering the country. Images of Muslims, and especially Muslim women, are becoming more and more common, but so is the harassment against them. This is why it becomes tricky for me to celebrate a movie like The Big Sick written by and starringa man who comes from a Muslim familybut relies on one-dimensional representations of them or thesensitivecasting of Aladdin, a fictional tale about fictional people wherein a half-white, half-South-Asian woman is set to play his Arabian romantic interest. This is not a phenomenon unique to the Muslim American community. For the past few years, cultural commentators have heralded a transgender moment. Suddenly, transgender people were showing up in TV and film and magazine covers. And yet, 2016 was reportedly one of the deadliest years to date for transgender people in the U.S., with 27 of them killed, the majority of them women of color. Representation is not justiceand is a poor substitution for it. Share image via Vogue Arabia.

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Explaining the rise in hate crimes against Muslims in the US – SFGate – SFGate

(The Conversation is an independent and nonprofit source of news, analysis and commentary from academic experts.) Brian Levin, California State University San Bernardino (THE CONVERSATION) Hate crimes against Muslims have been on the rise. The murder of two samaritans for aiding two young women who were facing a barrage of anti-Muslim slurs on a Portland train is among the latest examples of brazen acts of anti-Islamic hatred. Earlier in 2017, a mosque in Victoria, Texas was burned to the ground by an alleged anti-Muslim bigot. And just last year, members of a small extremist group called The Crusaders plotted a bombing bloodbath at a residential housing complex for Somali-Muslim immigrants in Garden City, Kansas. I have analyzed hate crime for two decades at California State University-San Bernardinos Center for the Study of Hate and Extremism. And I have found that the rhetoric politicians use after terrorist attacks is correlated closely to sharp increases and decreases in hate crimes. Since 1992 (following the promulgation of the Hate Crime Statistics Act of 1990), the FBI has annually tabulated hate crime data voluntarily submitted from state and territorial reporting agencies. A hate crime is defined as a criminal offense motivated by either race, ethnicity, religion, disability, sexual orientation, gender or gender identity. According to the FBIs data, hate crimes against Muslims reported to police surged immediately following the terror attacks of 9/11. There were 481 crimes reported against Muslims in 2001, up from 28 the year before. However, from 2002 until 2014, the number of anti-Muslim crimes receded to a numerical range between 105 to 160 annually. This number was still several times higher than their pre-9/11 levels. It should be noted that other government data, such as the Bureau of Justice Statistics, which relies on almost 200,000 residential crime surveys, as opposed to police reports, show severe official undercounting of hate crime. These studies, based on respondents answers to researchers, indicate a far higher annual average of hate crime 250,000 nationally with over half stating that they never reported such offenses to police. FBI data show that in 2015 there were 257 hate crimes against Muslims the highest level since 2001 and a surge of 67 percent over the previous year. As I noted in a prepared statement before the Senate Judiciary Committee in May 2017, this was the second-highest number of anti-Muslim hate crimes since FBI record-keeping began in 1992. Not only did anti-Muslim crime cases rise numerically in 2015, they also grew as a percentage of all hate crime. They now account for 4.4 percent of all reported hate crime even though Muslims are estimated to be only 1 percent of the population. At our center, we analyzed even more recent disturbing trends related to hate crimes. Based on the latest available police data for 2016 from 25 of the nations largest cities and counties, we found a 6 percent increase in all hate crimes, with over half of the places at a multi-year high. In particular, hate crimes against Muslims had increased in six of the seven places that provided more detailed breakdowns. We also observed a spike in such crime following certain events. In 2015, for example, we found 45 incidents of anti-Muslim crime in the United States in the four weeks following the November 13 Paris terror attack. Just under half of these occurred after December 2, when the San Bernardino terror attack took place. Of those, 15 took place in the five days following then-candidate Donald Trumps proposal of December 7, seeking to indefinitely ban all Muslims from entering the United States. In contrast, as I observed in my prepared statement before the Senate Judiciary Committee, after an initial sharp spike following the 9/11 attacks, sociologist James Nolan and I found that there was a drop in hate crimes after President George W. Bush delivered a speech promoting tolerance on Sept. 17, 2001. Other groups too, have found similar spikes in anti-Muslim hatred: The Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), for example, noted that from the month of the presidential election, through Dec. 12, 2016, there was a spike in hate incidents against many minority groups. The SPLC found that the third most frequently targeted group after immigrants and African-Americans were Muslims. And just this month the Council on American-Islamic Relations, a Muslim advocacy group, reported 72 instances of harassment and 69 hate crimes that had occurred between April and June 2017. Prejudicial stereotypes that broadly paint Muslims in a negative light are quite pervasive. From 2002 to 2014, the number of respondents who stated that Islam was more likely to encourage violence doubled from 25 percent to 50 percent, according to Pew research. A June 2016 Reuters/Ipsos online poll found that 37 percent of Americans had a somewhat or very unfavorable view of Islam, topped only by antipathy for atheism at 38 percent. The latest polls also show how Muslims are feared and distrusted as a group in America. While most Americans do not believe that Muslims living in the U.S. support extremism, these views vary widely by age, level of education and partisan affiliation: Almost half of those 65 and older believe that Muslims in America support extremism, whereas only few college-educated adults do so. Interestingly, current polls also show that when people personally know someone who is a Muslim, the bias is much less. This confirms what psychology scholar Gordon Allport concludes in his seminal book, The Nature of Prejudice, that meaningful contact with those who are different is crucial for reducing hatred. Indeed, before we can truly say love thy neighbor(s), we need to know and understand them. This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article here: http://theconversation.com/explaining-the-rise-in-hate-crimes-against-muslims-in-the-us-80304.

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Officials question decision to release possible hate crime defendants – News 12 Hudson Valley

PEEKSKILL – Officials are questioning a city court judges decision to release two men on their own recognizance following their arrests in connection with at least two weekend assaults and robberies being investigated as possible hate crimes. Her conduct is so outrageous, says Mayor Frank Catalina regarding city court Judge Melissa Lohr. It calls into question her judgment and her competence. Catalina went on to say that he believes Judge Lohr has a bias against police officers. He tells News 12 there are also allegations on social media that one or more of the defendants may have dated the judge’s daughter. While News 12 is told all of the suspects are now behind bars on other charges, Judge Lohr denied that she acted improperly and insists that she released the men based on the information she had at the time. Meanwhile, Mayor Catalina says he has started an assistance fund for the assault victims and is asking the public to stop by City Hall to make donations to pay for their medical expenses.

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Explaining the rise in hate crimes against Muslims in the US – San Francisco Chronicle

(The Conversation is an independent and nonprofit source of news, analysis and commentary from academic experts.) Brian Levin, California State University San Bernardino (THE CONVERSATION) Hate crimes against Muslims have been on the rise. The murder of two samaritans for aiding two young women who were facing a barrage of anti-Muslim slurs on a Portland train is among the latest examples of brazen acts of anti-Islamic hatred. Earlier in 2017, a mosque in Victoria, Texas was burned to the ground by an alleged anti-Muslim bigot. And just last year, members of a small extremist group called The Crusaders plotted a bombing bloodbath at a residential housing complex for Somali-Muslim immigrants in Garden City, Kansas. I have analyzed hate crime for two decades at California State University-San Bernardinos Center for the Study of Hate and Extremism. And I have found that the rhetoric politicians use after terrorist attacks is correlated closely to sharp increases and decreases in hate crimes. Since 1992 (following the promulgation of the Hate Crime Statistics Act of 1990), the FBI has annually tabulated hate crime data voluntarily submitted from state and territorial reporting agencies. A hate crime is defined as a criminal offense motivated by either race, ethnicity, religion, disability, sexual orientation, gender or gender identity. According to the FBIs data, hate crimes against Muslims reported to police surged immediately following the terror attacks of 9/11. There were 481 crimes reported against Muslims in 2001, up from 28 the year before. However, from 2002 until 2014, the number of anti-Muslim crimes receded to a numerical range between 105 to 160 annually. This number was still several times higher than their pre-9/11 levels. It should be noted that other government data, such as the Bureau of Justice Statistics, which relies on almost 200,000 residential crime surveys, as opposed to police reports, show severe official undercounting of hate crime. These studies, based on respondents answers to researchers, indicate a far higher annual average of hate crime 250,000 nationally with over half stating that they never reported such offenses to police. FBI data show that in 2015 there were 257 hate crimes against Muslims the highest level since 2001 and a surge of 67 percent over the previous year. As I noted in a prepared statement before the Senate Judiciary Committee in May 2017, this was the second-highest number of anti-Muslim hate crimes since FBI record-keeping began in 1992. Not only did anti-Muslim crime cases rise numerically in 2015, they also grew as a percentage of all hate crime. They now account for 4.4 percent of all reported hate crime even though Muslims are estimated to be only 1 percent of the population. At our center, we analyzed even more recent disturbing trends related to hate crimes. Based on the latest available police data for 2016 from 25 of the nations largest cities and counties, we found a 6 percent increase in all hate crimes, with over half of the places at a multi-year high. In particular, hate crimes against Muslims had increased in six of the seven places that provided more detailed breakdowns. We also observed a spike in such crime following certain events. In 2015, for example, we found 45 incidents of anti-Muslim crime in the United States in the four weeks following the November 13 Paris terror attack. Just under half of these occurred after December 2, when the San Bernardino terror attack took place. Of those, 15 took place in the five days following then-candidate Donald Trumps proposal of December 7, seeking to indefinitely ban all Muslims from entering the United States. In contrast, as I observed in my prepared statement before the Senate Judiciary Committee, after an initial sharp spike following the 9/11 attacks, sociologist James Nolan and I found that there was a drop in hate crimes after President George W. Bush delivered a speech promoting tolerance on Sept. 17, 2001. Other groups too, have found similar spikes in anti-Muslim hatred: The Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), for example, noted that from the month of the presidential election, through Dec. 12, 2016, there was a spike in hate incidents against many minority groups. The SPLC found that the third most frequently targeted group after immigrants and African-Americans were Muslims. And just this month the Council on American-Islamic Relations, a Muslim advocacy group, reported 72 instances of harassment and 69 hate crimes that had occurred between April and June 2017. Prejudicial stereotypes that broadly paint Muslims in a negative light are quite pervasive. From 2002 to 2014, the number of respondents who stated that Islam was more likely to encourage violence doubled from 25 percent to 50 percent, according to Pew research. A June 2016 Reuters/Ipsos online poll found that 37 percent of Americans had a somewhat or very unfavorable view of Islam, topped only by antipathy for atheism at 38 percent. The latest polls also show how Muslims are feared and distrusted as a group in America. While most Americans do not believe that Muslims living in the U.S. support extremism, these views vary widely by age, level of education and partisan affiliation: Almost half of those 65 and older believe that Muslims in America support extremism, whereas only few college-educated adults do so. Interestingly, current polls also show that when people personally know someone who is a Muslim, the bias is much less. This confirms what psychology scholar Gordon Allport concludes in his seminal book, The Nature of Prejudice, that meaningful contact with those who are different is crucial for reducing hatred. Indeed, before we can truly say love thy neighbor(s), we need to know and understand them. This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article here: http://theconversation.com/explaining-the-rise-in-hate-crimes-against-muslims-in-the-us-80304.

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Organizers to rally against hate crimes in Anne Arundel County … – ABC2 News

A rally against hate crimes in Anne Arundel County is scheduled on Wednesday. The Caucus of African-American Leaders will gather at 11 a.m. at the Civil Rights Foot Soldiers Memorial across from the Arundel Center in Annapolis to march to the courthouse in an effort to call attention to the “noose” cases that will be heard at that court, organizers said. Back in May, two 19-year-old men were arrested and charged with a hate crime after a teacher found a noose hanging on a light fixture in front of Crofton Middle School. Police identified the suspects, Conner Prout and John Haverman, using surveillance video. RELATED: Two men facing hate crime charges after noose found at middle school Anne Arundel County Public Schools have been in the spotlight over the last few years with racially charged events occurring including the hacking of school computers, in which anti-Semitic epithets were left, organizers said in a news release. The Wednesday, July 19th demonstration is to call attention to hate crimes in the county. Demonstrators will be carrying anti noose placards.

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July 19, 2017   Posted in: Hate Crimes  Comments Closed

Group Says Hate Crimes Against Muslims Increasing in US (VIDEO) – Newsy

An advocacy group says anti-Muslim hate crimes and religious discriminationappear to be rising in 2017. The Council on American-Islamic Relations has tracked anti-Muslim incidents since 2013. But the group says this year could be the worst yet. CAIR says in the first half of 2017, hate crimes against Muslims wereup 91 percentcompared with the same time last year. And it says religious discrimination incidents against Muslims in that period were up 24 percent. Government data also shows hate crimes against Muslims havebeen risingin recent years. The most recentFBI dataavailable shows anti-Muslim crimesfrom 2014-15rose more than any other hate crime that year. Related StoryA Grant Is Finding And Funding Muslims To Tell Humanizing Stories But for the communities affected, it’s more than just stats. “There’s absolute, incredible, incredible anger. There’s incredible fear. There’s incredible concern that these things, which have continued to happen ever since, especially since the last year’s election season, that it’s going to continue to happen,” said Hatem Abudayyeh, executive director of Arab American Action Network in Chicago. But also, there is solidarity and camaraderie. “But the most important takeaway is that it’s not only the Muslim community that’s being targeted right now. There is a chance and a really important moment for us to come together with our brothers and our sisters in the Latino community, other indigenous communities,” said community organizer Reema Ahmad.

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Under Trump, Anti-Muslim Hate Crimes Have Increased at an … – Newsweek

There were more than 940 reports of potentialbiasincidents involving the targeting of Muslims between April and June, according to a report released by the Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR) on Monday. Of those, the organization determined 451 stemmed from anti-Muslim bias, which contributed to a 91 percent increase in anti-Muslim hate crimes during the first half of the year as compared to the same time period in 2016. Nonviolent and nonthreatening instances of harassment accounted for 16 percent of the incidents involving Muslims between April 1 and June 30, while outright hate crimesin which violence or a physical altercation was involvedaccounted for 15 percent. Incidents in which Muslims were inappropriately targeted by the FBI made up 12 percent of cases. People were targeted at their places of residence in 17 percent of the reports, while 14 percent involved Muslim who were on walking the streets or driving their cars. Another 13 percent faced anti-Muslim biaswhile flying or traveling by bus or train. About 33 percent of incidents took place at a mosque or Islamic center, and 9 percent occurred at schools. Daily Emails and Alerts – Get the best of Newsweek delivered to your inbox Of the incidents reported, CAIR identified triggeringfactors for 358, including a victims ethnicity or national origin32 percentand preconceived notions of a victim being a Muslim20 percent. Fifteen percent of incidents were triggered by the presence of a headscarf or hijab. Forty-six percent of the people targeted were from Middle Eastern and North African countries. Of the number of crimes identified to be based on anti-Muslim bias, the CAIR report said 126 had been investigated by federal agencies between April 1 and June 30. Although the CAIR report did not cite President Donald Trumps rhetoric towardMuslims as a factor in the increased anti-Muslim bias in the U.S., a previous report conducted by researchers at California State Universitys Center for the Study of Hate and Extremism found that biascrimes against various minorities and religious groups were up some 20 percent since Trumps election win in November. The majority of the crimes documented were against Muslims and individuals recognized as belonging to the LGBTcommunity. On multiple occasions during his campaign, Trump made harshstatements regarding Islamic terrorists and promoted a stronger vetting system to identify immigrants with ties to radical ideology. About 3.3 million people in the United States are Muslim, according to a Pew Research Center report released in May.

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What We Knowand Don’t KnowAbout Hate Crimes in America – Pacific Standard

Pacific Standard What We Knowand Don't KnowAbout Hate Crimes in America Pacific Standard Documenting Hate is an attempt to overcome the inadequate data collection on hate crimes and bias incidents in America. We've been compiling incident reports from civil rights groups, as well as news reports, social media. and law enforcement records.

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