Archive for the ‘Hitler’ Category

Amazon.com: Hitler: A Biography (9780393337617): Ian Kershaw …

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Amazon.com: Hitler: A Biography (9780393337617): Ian Kershaw …

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September 21, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Hitler  Comments Closed

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Did Hitler have children?

For many years, the record books stated that Adolf Hitler did not have any biological children. He only married his longtime girlfriend the day before he committed suicide, after all, and was likely too involved in his political efforts to bother with being a father. However, recent information has surfaced that alleges that Hitler may have had a ‘secret son’, born to a French teenager who encountered Hitler while he was on leave in the military. According to the memoir written by Jean-Marie Loret, Hitler’s claimed son, they began an affair during this time and his birth was the result of that affair.Loret’s mother, Charlotte Lobjoie, says she had an affair with the man in 1917, when she was only 16 years old to Hitler’s 28 years of age. She didn’t tell her son about his father’s identity until right before she died. According to military documents, cash deliveries were made to Lobjoie during the time when Germany occupied France. They also found paintings with Hitler’s signature in her attic and there was a painting Hitler had done that looks just like the woman claiming to have his son. Lobjoie died in the 1950s, and after Loret learned the possibility of who his father was, he set out for the truth.Loret hired historians, geneticists, and others to help verify the claim that his mother had made. He did have the same blood type as Hitler, as well as similar handwriting. Pictures proved that they also looked eerily similar in many ways. The official record still states that Hitler had no children. Loret died in 1985, in a time when potential DNA testing or other means weren’t even an option. If Hitler was the father of this man, however, he does have a lineage through Loret’s own children.Loret’s attorney has pointed out that his surviving children might be eligible to get royalties from Mein Kampf, if they can be proven to be descendants of Hitler. Of course, no one is in a hurry to admit their relation to Adolf Hitler, a known Nazi and one of the most evil people in 20th century history, as most people see him. Loret wrote a memoir in 1981 called Your Father’s Name was Hitler, which is where he discusses finding out, the affair he was told about, and what his mother said about his father before she died. Facts are still being validated and as of yet, no official record of this relationship has been made.

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August 13, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Hitler  Comments Closed

Hitler’s Time-Travel Exemption Act – TV Tropes

“If you time-travel into the past and then try to kill Hitler, it won’t work as intended. It may even backfire.”

Rules of Time Travel

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Johnny: If you could travel back in time, say, to Germany, before Hitler came to power, what would you do? Would you kill him? Weizak: Johnny, you must know that… I love people. And as a doctor, I am expected to save lives. So naturally, I would have no choice… but to kill the son of a bitch. (raises his drink) Do svidaniya.

Literature

Live Action TV

Chapulin: And then history will say that he commited suicide, that the Allies bombarded the place… anyway.

Rory: I’m getting this sort of banging in my head. Amy: Yeah, I think that’s Hitler in the cupboard.

Music

Other Sites

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Theodore Roosevelt: I do declare you boys picked the wrong Roosevelt!

Young Jamie: A.k.a.: How much more can we mess up history?

Samantha: His success is your fault? But he’s the most overrated artist of the 20th century! What could have possibly been worse?

Beret Guy: Anyway, I’m here to kill Hitler. Ponytail: But he died long ago! Beret Guy: Oh, good! That was easy.

(Outskirts of Berlin, 1910note(1920 in the original Hebrew)

Hitler: (Having just killed him) This is the TENTH time a random Jew has tried to kill me. THERE MUST BE SOME SOLUTION TO THIS JEWISH PROBLEM.

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June 19, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Hitler  Comments Closed

Downfall (2004) – IMDb

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In April of 1945, Germany stands at the brink of defeat with the Soviet Armies closing in from the west and south. In Berlin, capital of the Third Reich, Adolf Hitler proclaims that Germany will still achieve victory and orders his Generals and advisers to fight to the last man. “Downfall” explores these final days of the Reich, where senior German leaders (such as Himmler and Goring) began defecting from their beloved Fuhrer, in an effort to save their own lives, while still others (Joseph Goebbels) pledge to die with Hitler. Hitler, himself, degenerates into a paranoid shell of a man, full of optimism one moment and suicidal depression the next. When the end finally does comes, and Hitler lies dead by his own hand, what is left of his military must find a way to end the killing that is the Battle of Berlin, and lay down their arms in surrender. Written byAnthony Hughes {husnock31@hotmail.com}

Taglines:April 1945, a nation awaits its…

Budget:13,500,000 (estimated)

Opening Weekend: $3,540,118 (Germany),17 September 2004

Opening Weekend USA: $24,220,18 February 2005, Limited Release

Gross USA: $5,509,040, 2 November 2013

Cumulative Worldwide Gross: $92,180,910, 2 November 2013

Runtime: 156 min | 178 min (extended)

Aspect Ratio: 1.85 : 1

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Downfall (2004) – IMDb

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Big lie – Wikipedia

A big lie (German: groe Lge) is a propaganda technique. The expression was coined by Adolf Hitler, when he dictated his 1925 book Mein Kampf, about the use of a lie so “colossal” that no one would believe that someone “could have the impudence to distort the truth so infamously.”

The source of the Big Lie technique is this passage, taken from Chapter 10 of James Murphy’s translation of Mein Kampf:

But it remained for the Jews, with their unqualified capacity for falsehood, and their fighting comrades, the Marxists, to impute responsibility for the downfall precisely to the man who alone had shown a superhuman will and energy in his effort to prevent the catastrophe which he had foreseen and to save the nation from that hour of complete overthrow and shame. By placing responsibility for the loss of the world war on the shoulders of Ludendorff they took away the weapon of moral right from the only adversary dangerous enough to be likely to succeed in bringing the betrayers of the Fatherland to Justice.

All this was inspired by the principlewhich is quite true within itselfthat in the big lie there is always a certain force of credibility; because the broad masses of a nation are always more easily corrupted in the deeper strata of their emotional nature than consciously or voluntarily; and thus in the primitive simplicity of their minds they more readily fall victims to the big lie than the small lie, since they themselves often tell small lies in little matters but would be ashamed to resort to large-scale falsehoods.

Thus, according to Hitler, the “Big Lie” was a propaganda technique typically used by “the Jews”.[1]

Later, Joseph Goebbels put forth a slightly different theory which has come to be more commonly associated with the expression “big lie”. Goebbels wrote the following paragraph in an article dated 12 January 1941, 16years after Hitler’s first use of the phrase. The article, titled Aus Churchills Lgenfabrik (English: “From Churchill’s Lie Factory”) was published in Die Zeit ohne Beispiel.

The essential English leadership secret does not depend on particular intelligence. Rather, it depends on a remarkably stupid thick-headedness. The English follow the principle that when one lies, one should lie big, and stick to it. They keep up their lies, even at the risk of looking ridiculous.[2]

Jeffrey Herf maintains that Goebbels and the Nazis used the Big Lie to turn long-standing anti-semitism into mass murder.[3] Herf argues that the Big Lie was a narrative of an innocent, besieged Germany striking back at an “international Jewry”, which it said started World War I. The propaganda repeated over and over the conspiracy that Jews were the real powers in Britain, Russia and the U.S. It went on to state that the Jews had begun a “war of extermination” against Germany, and so Germany had a duty and a right to “exterminate” and “annihilate” the Jews in self-defense.[4]

The phrase was also used in a report prepared during the war by the United States Office of Strategic Services in describing Hitler’s psychological profile:[5][6]

His primary rules were: never allow the public to cool off; never admit a fault or wrong; never concede that there may be some good in your enemy; never leave room for alternatives; never accept blame; concentrate on one enemy at a time and blame him for everything that goes wrong; people will believe a big lie sooner than a little one; and if you repeat it frequently enough people will sooner or later believe it.[7]

The above quote appears in the Nizkor Project’s site[8] though the source document is not cited. The quote does not appear in the report, A Psychological Analysis of Adolph Hitler: His Life and Legend, by Walter C. Langer with collaboration by Henry Murray, Ernst Kris and Bertram Lewin,[9] which is available from the US National Archives, though it does appear, unreferenced, on page 57 in Langer’s ebook by the same title (without mention of the collaborators on his previous work).[10] A somewhat similar quote “never to admit a fault or wrong; never to accept blame; concentrate on one enemy at a time; blame that enemy for everything that goes wrong; take advantage of every opportunity to raise a political whirlwind” appears on page 219 in a different report also available from the US National Archive, namely, Analysis of the Personality of Adolph Hitler: With Predictions of His Future Behaviour and Suggestions for Dealing with Him Now and After Germany’s Surrender, by Henry A. Murray, October 1943[11] though Murray’s work is neither referenced in Langer’s ebook nor in the Hitler’s Source-Book[12] compiled by Langer and upon which his ebook heavily depends.

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March 22, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Hitler  Comments Closed

Adolf Hitler and vegetarianism – Wikipedia

Towards the end of his life, Adolf Hitler (1889 1945) followed a vegetarian diet. It is not clear when he adopted it, since some accounts of his dietary habits prior to the Second World War indicate that he consumed meat as late as 1937. By 1938, Hitler’s public image as a vegetarian was already being fostered and from 1942 he self-identified as a vegetarian. Personal accounts from people who knew Hitler and were familiar with his diet indicate that he did not consume meat as part of his diet during this period, with several contemporaneous witnessessuch as Albert Speer (in his memoirs, Inside the Third Reich)noting that Hitler used vivid and gruesome descriptions of animal suffering and slaughter at the dinner table to try to dissuade his colleagues from eating meat.

Some modern day analysis has theorized that Hitler’s vegetarianism may have been for health reasons due to Richard Wagner’s historical theories, or even a psychological reaction to his niece’s death rather than a commitment to animal welfare. In contrast, other reports maintain the motives were due to the claims Hitler was often distressed by images of animal cruelty and suffering, and was an antivivisectionist.

In a 1937 article, The New York Times noted “It is well known that Hitler is a vegetarian and does not drink or smoke. His lunch and dinner consist, therefore, for the most part of soup, eggs, vegetables and mineral water, although he occasionally relishes a slice of ham and relieves the tediousness of his diet with such delicacies as caviar …”.[2] In November 1938, an article for the English magazine Homes & Gardens describing Hitler’s mountain home, The Berghof, stated that in addition to being a teetotaler and a non-smoker, Hitler was also a vegetarian. Ignatius Phayre wrote, “A life-long vegetarian at table, Hitler’s kitchen plots are both varied and heavy in produce. Even in his meatless diet Hitler is something of a gourmet as Sir John Simon and Anthony Eden were surprised to note when they dined with him in the Chancellery at Berlin. His Bavarian chef, Herr Kannenberg, contrives an imposing array of vegetarian dishes, savoury and rich, pleasing to the eye as well as to the palate, and all conforming to the dietic standards which Hitler exacts.”[3]

According to stenographic transcripts translated by Hugh Trevor-Roper of conversations between Hitler and his inner circle which took place between July 1941 and November 1944, Hitler regarded himself as a vegetarian. These conversations were gathered together under the title Hitler’s Table Talk. Written notes taken at the time were transcribed and then were edited by Martin Bormann.[4] According to these transcripts dated 11 November 1941, Hitler said, “One may regret living at a period when it’s impossible to form an idea of the shape the world of the future will assume. But there’s one thing I can predict to eaters of meat: the world of the future will be vegetarian.” On 12 January 1942, he said, “The only thing of which I shall be incapable is to share the sheiks’ mutton with them. I’m a vegetarian, and they must spare me from their meat.”[5] In a diary entry dated 26 April 1942, Joseph Goebbels described Hitler as a committed vegetarian, writing,

An extended chapter of our talk was devoted by the Fhrer to the vegetarian question. He believes more than ever that meat-eating is harmful to humanity. Of course he knows that during the war we cannot completely upset our food system. After the war, however, he intends to tackle this problem also. Maybe he is right. Certainly the arguments that he adduces in favor of his standpoint are very compelling.[6]

In his table talks, on 25 April 1942 at midday, Hitler addressed the issue of vegetarianism and spoke about Roman soldiers eating fruits and cereals and the importance of raw vegetables. He placed the emphasis on scientific arguments such as naturalists’ observations and chemical efficacy.[7] Hitler also disapproved of cosmetics since they contained animal by-products, and he frequently teased Eva Braun about her habit of wearing makeup.[5] Braun was also fond of turtle soup and notes from the interrogation of Hitler’s personal aides about his daily routine in 1944 reveal that after midnight she would “direct that there should be another light snack of turtle soup, sandwiches, and sausages”.[8][9]

All accounts by people familiar with Hitler’s diet from 1942 onwards are in agreement that Hitler adhered to a vegetarian diet, but accounts of his diet prior to the Second World War are inconsistent in this regard with some stating he ate meat. Princess Sophie of Greece and Denmark met with Hitler in 1932 and wrote in her memoirs that she had been “warned he was a vegetarian, and found it difficult to plan an appropriate meal”,[10] but this is contradicted by Dione Lucas, a chef at a Hamburg hotel patronised by Hitler prior to the war, who claimed that her stuffed squab was a favourite of his.[11] According to Ilse Hess (wife of Rudolph Hess), in 1937 Hitler ceased eating meat except for liver dumplings.[12] Margot Wlk, who became his unwilling food taster in 1942, stated that all the food she tested for Hitler was vegetarian, and she recalled no meat or fish.[13][14]

Traudl Junge, who became Hitler’s secretary in 1942, reported that he “always avoided meat” but that his Austrian cook Kruemel sometimes added a little animal broth or fat to his meals. “Mostly the Fuehrer would notice the attempt at deception, would get very annoyed and then get tummy ache,” Junge said. “At the end he would only let Kruemel cook him clear soup and mashed potato.”[15] In addition, Marlene von Exner, who became Hitler’s dietician in 1943, reportedly added bone marrow to his soups without his knowledge because she “despised” his vegetarian diet.[16]

Even though Hitler adhered to a vegetarian diet during this period, his physician, Theodor Morell, administered many unorthodox medications that contained animal by-products from 1936 until Hitler’s death in 1945. These included Glyconorm (an injectable compound containing cardiac muscle, adrenal gland, liver, and pancreas), placenta, bovine testosterone, and extracts containing seminal vesicles and prostate. At the time, extracts from animal glands were popularly believed to be “elixirs of youth” but it is not known if Hitler requested them or if he blindly accepted them.[17]

Prior to the Second World War, there are many accounts of Hitler eating meat, including stuffed squab, Bavarian sausages and caviar.[11][18] According to Ilse Hess, in 1937 Hitler ceased eating all meat except for liver dumplings,[12] an account that Dr. Kalechofsky found “consistent with other descriptions of Hitler’s diet, which always included some form of meat, whether ham, sausages or liver dumplings.”[19] Frau Hess’s comments are also backed up by several biographies about Hitler, with Fritz Redlich noting that Hitler “avoided any kind of meat, with the exception of an Austrian dish he loved, Leberkndl (liver dumpling)”.[20] Thomas Fuchs concurred, observing that a “typical day’s consumption included eggs prepared in any number of ways, spaghetti, baked potatoes with cottage cheese, oatmeal, stewed fruits and vegetable puddings. Meat was not completely excluded. Hitler continued to eat a favourite dish, Leberkloesse (liver dumplings).” [21]

Today, it is acknowledged by historians that Hitlerat least during the warfollowed a vegetarian diet.[23] Several theories have been put forward for Hitler’s transition to vegetarianism. The psychoanalyst, Erich Fromm speculated that Hitler’s vegetarianism was actually a means of atoning for the death of his half-niece Geli Raubal, as well as a means of proving to himself and others that he was incapable of killing.[24] British historical biographer Robert Payne, in his book The Life and Death of Adolph Hitler (Praeger, 1973) believed that Hitler’s diet was ascetic and deliberately fostered by propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels to emphasize Hitler’s self-control and total dedication to Germany.[25] Rynn Berryan authority on vegetarian historyon the other hand, has argued that Hitler transitioned to a vegetarian diet mostly for health reasons rather than ethical reasons, noting his fondness for liver dumplings.[26]

However, there is evidence that suggests that Hitleralso an antivivisectionistmay have followed his selective diet out of a profound concern for animals. At social events, he sometimes gave graphic accounts of the slaughter of animals in an effort to make his dinner guests shun meat.[16] In the BBC series The Nazis: A Warning from History, an eyewitness account tells of Hitler watching movies (which he did very often). If ever a scene showed (even fictional) cruelty to or death of an animal, Hitler would cover his eyes and look away until someone alerted him the scene was over. Alexander Cockburn also wrote of Hitler:

Nazi leaders were noted for love of their pets and for certain animals, notably apex predators like the wolf and the lion. Hitler, a vegetarian and hater of hunting, adored dogs and spent some of his final hours in the company of Blondi, whom he would take for walks outside the bunker at some danger to himself. He had a particular enthusiasm for birds and most of all for wolves. […] Goebbels said, famously, The only real friend one has in the end is the dog. . . The more I get to know the human species, the more I care for my Benno. Goebbels also agreed with Hitler that meat eating is a perversion in our human nature, and that Christianity was a symptom of decay, since it did not urge vegetarianism. […] On the one hand, monsters of cruelty towards their fellow humans; on the other, kind to animals and zealous in their interest. In their very fine essay on such contradictions, Arnold Arluke and Boria Sax offer three observations. One, as just noted, many Nazi leaders harboured affection towards animals but antipathy to humans. Hitler was given films by a maharaja which displayed animals killing people. The Fhrer watched with equanimity. Another film showed humans killing animals. Hitler covered his eyes and begged to be told when the slaughter was over.[28]

It has also been theorized that Hitler’s diet may have been based on Richard Wagner’s historical theories[29] which connected the future of Germany with vegetarianism.[30] In the book, The Mind of Adolf Hitler by psychologist Walter C. Langer, the author speculates:

“If he (Hitler) does not eat meat, drink alcoholic beverages, or smoke, it is not due to the fact that he has some kind of inhibition or does it because he believes it will improve his health. He abstains from these because he is following the example of the great German, Richard Wagner, or because he has discovered that it increases his energy and endurance to such a degree that he can give much more of himself to the creation of the new German Reich.”[31]

Despite Hitler’s plans to convert Germany to vegetarianism after the war,[13] some authors have questioned Hitler’s commitment to the vegetarian cause due to the Nazi ban on vegetarian societies and the persecution of their leaders.[32] However, the Nazi ban of non-Nazi organizations was widespread: all opposition political parties were banned,[33] independent trade unions were replaced by Nazi equivalents,[34] while non-government organizations and associations ranging from women’s groups to film societies were either dissolved or incorporated into new organizations under the control of the Nazi leadership.[35] The Nazi regime also introduced animal welfare laws which were unparalleled at the time.[36]

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Hitler’s Mercedes spotted near Seattle | Fox News

(Worldwide Auctioneers)

Hitlers Mercedes is on the move.

A Mercedes-Benz limousine that was once used to parade the Nazi leader and his henchmen around Germany, and famously failed to sell at an Arizona auction in January, has been spotted on the streets of Medina, Wash., just outside Seattle.

The 1939 770K Grosser Offener Tourenwagen was the most lavish Mercedes-Benz of its day.(Worldwide Auctioneers)

Jessi Sites told The Seattle Times that she was driving through the upscale city on a Saturday last month when she saw an unusual car being unloaded from a delivery truck outside of a private school. She said the deep blue four-door convertible was running on its own power and that it was loud, sounded like an old car, kind of sputtering.

Medina is on the east shore of Lake Washington across from downtown Seattle.(Google Earth)

The stately 1939 770K Grosser Offener Tourenwagen is powered by a 7.7-liter supercharged V8 and weighs roughly five tons due to its armor plating and bulletproof glass. Period photographs confirm that Hitler rode in it on numerous locations, although the German High Commands motor pool had a fleet of several similar vehicles. It was captured by U.S. forces in France at the end of the war and eventually brought to the United States, but its ties to Hitler werent uncovered until the 1970s.

Hitler was photographed in the car being paraded through Berlin on July 6, 1940 following the fall of Paris.(Getty Images)

Sites noticed another covered vehicle inside the truck, and photographed the Mercedes before driving off to take care of some errands. When she passed by again a short time later, the truck was heading toward the highway and there was no sign of either of the cars.

READ MORE FROM THE SEATTLE TIMES

Not knowing what the car was, she did some searching on the Internet and matched the license plate to the one that was offered at the Worldwide Auctioneers event in Scottsdale.

The car has been restored to its original condition.(Worldwide Auctioneers)

The car received a high bid of $7 million, but that was below the reserve price so it didnt sell. However, the auction house later confirmed that private negotiations continued after the auction and ended in transaction between anonymous parties.

As to why it turned up in Seattle, that remains a mystery. A spokesman for the auction house could not reveal to the newspaper who the buyer was, citing a confidentially agreement, but did reveal that the end destination is not in this country. Its far, far away.

Along with bulletproof glass, the Mercedes is equipped with an armor shield that rises up behind the passenger compartment.(Worldwide Auctioneers)

He suggested that it was the other car that was being dropped off in Medina and that the Mercedes was just making way for it. Seattle and Tacomas Northwest Port Alliance is the third largest cargo port in the United States, while nearby Vancouver handles the most cargo of any port on North Americas West Coast.

Gary Gastelu is FoxNews.com’s Automotive Editor. Follow him on Twitter @garygastelu

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Adolf Hitler Biography – Biography

Who Was Adolf Hitler?

Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 to April 30, 1945) was chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, serving as dictator and leader of the Nazi Party, or National Socialist German Workers Party, for the bulk of his time in power. Hitlers policies precipitated World War II and led to the genocide known as the Holocaust, which resulted in the deaths of some six million Jews and another five million noncombatants. With defeat on the horizon, Hitler committed suicide with wife Eva Braun on April 30, 1945, in his Berlin bunker.

Adolf Hitler was born in Braunau am Inn, Austria, on April 20, 1889.

The fourth of six children, Adolf Hitler was born to Alois Hitler and Klara Polzl. As a child, Hitler clashed frequently with his emotionally harsh father, who also didn’t approve of his son’s later interest in fine art as a career. Following the death of his younger brother, Edmund, in 1900, Hitler became detached and introverted.

Hitler showed an early interest in German nationalism, rejecting the authority of Austria-Hungary. This nationalism would become the motivating force of Hitler’s life.

In 1903, Hitlers father died suddenly. Two years later, Adolf’s mother allowed her son to drop out of school. After her death in December 1907, Hitler moved to Vienna and worked as a casual laborer and watercolor painter. Hitler applied to the Academy of Fine Arts twice and was rejected both times. Lacking money outside of an orphan’s pension and funds from selling postcards, he stayed in homeless shelters. Hitler later pointed to these years as the time when he first cultivated his anti-Semitism, though there is some debate about this account.

In 1913, Hitler relocated to Munich. At the outbreak of World War I, he applied to serve in the German army. He was accepted in August 1914, though he was still an Austrian citizen. Although Hitler spent much of his time away from the front lines (with some reports that his recollections of his time on the field were generally exaggerated), he was present at a number of significant battles and was wounded at the Somme. He was decorated for bravery, receiving the Iron Cross First Class and the Black Wound Badge.

Hitler became embittered over the collapse of the war effort. The experience reinforced his passionate German patriotism, and he was shocked by Germany’s surrender in 1918. Like other German nationalists, he purportedly believed that the German army had been betrayed by civilian leaders and Marxists. He found the Treaty of Versailles degrading, particularly the demilitarization of the Rhineland and the stipulation that Germany accept responsibility for starting the war.

After World War I, Hitler returned to Munich and continued to work for the German military. As an intelligence officer, he monitored the activities of the German Workers Party (DAP) and adopted many of the anti-Semitic, nationalist and anti-Marxist ideas of party founder Anton Drexler. In September 1919, Hitler joined the DAP, which changed its name to the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP) often abbreviated to Nazi.

Hitler personally designed the Nazi party banner, appropriating the swastika symbol and placing it in a white circle on a red background. He soon gained notoriety for his vitriolic speeches against the Treaty of Versailles, rival politicians, Marxists and Jews. In 1921, Hitler replaced Drexler as the Nazi party chairman.

Hitler’s fervid beer-hall speeches began attracting regular audiences. Early followers included army captain Ernst Rohm, the head of the Nazi paramilitary organization the Sturmabteilung (SA), which protected meetings and frequently attacked political opponents.

On November 8, 1923, Hitler and the SA stormed a public meeting featuring Bavarian prime minister Gustav Kahr at a large beer hall in Munich. Hitler announced that the national revolution had begun and declared the formation of a new government. After a short struggle that led to several deaths, the coup known as the “Beer Hall Putsch” failed. Hitler was arrested and tried for high treason and sentenced to nine months in prison.

During Hitlers nine months in prison in 1924, he dictated most of the first volume of his autobiographical book and political manifesto, Mein Kampf (“My Struggle”), to his deputy, Rudolf Hess. The first volume was published in 1925, and a second volume came out in 1927. It was abridged and translated into 11 languages, selling more than five million copies by 1939. A work of propaganda and falsehoods, the book laid out Hitler’s plans for transforming German society into one based on race.

In the first volume, Hitler shared his Anti-Semitic, pro-Aryan worldview along with his sense of betrayal at the outcome of World War I, calling for revenge against France and expansion eastward into Russia. The second volume outlined his plan to gain and maintain power. While often illogical and full of grammatical errors, Mein Kampf was provocative and subversive, making it appealing to the many Germans who felt displaced at the end of World War I.

With millions unemployed, the Great Depression in Germany provided a political opportunity for Hitler. Germans were ambivalent to the parliamentary republic and increasingly open to extremist options. In 1932, Hitler ran against 84-year-old Paul von Hindenburg for the presidency. Hitler came in second in both rounds of the election, garnering more than 36 percent of the vote in the final count. The results established Hitler as a strong force in German politics. Hindenburg reluctantly agreed to appoint Hitler as chancellor in order to promote political balance.

Hitler used his position as chancellor to form a de facto legal dictatorship. The Reichstag Fire Decree, announced after a suspicious fire at parliament, suspended basic rights and allowed detention without trial. Hitler also engineered the passage of the Enabling Act, which gave his cabinet full legislative powers for a period of four years and allowed for deviations from the constitution.

Having achieved full control over the legislative and executive branches of government, Hitler and his political allies embarked on a systematic suppression of the remaining political opposition. By the end of June, the other parties had been intimidated into disbanding. On July 14, 1933, Hitler’s Nazi Party was declared the only legal political party in Germany. In October of that year, Hitler ordered Germany’s withdrawal from the League of Nations.

Military opposition was also punished. The demands of the SA for more political and military power led to the Night of the Long Knives, which took place from June 30 to July 2, 1934. Rohm, a perceived rival, and other SA leaders, along with a number of Hitler’s political enemies, were rounded up and shot.

The day before Hindenburg’s death in August 1934, the cabinet had enacted a law abolishing the office of president, combining its powers with those of the chancellor. Hitler thus became head of state as well as head of government and was formally named leader and chancellor. As head of state, Hitler became supreme commander of the armed forces.

Hitlers self-imposed dietary restrictions included abstinence from alcohol and meat (or veganism). Fueled by fanaticism over what he believed was a superior Aryan race, he encouraged Germans to keep their bodies pure of any intoxicating or unclean substances and promoted anti-smoking campaigns across the country.

From 1933 until the start of the war in 1939, Hitler and his Nazi regime instituted hundreds of laws and regulations to restrict and exclude Jews in society. These Anti-Semitic laws were issued throughout all levels of government, making good on the Nazis pledge to persecute Jews.

On April 1, 1933, Hitler implemented a national boycott of Jewish businesses. This was followed by the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service” of April 7, 1933, which excluded Jews from state service. The law was a Nazi implementation of the Aryan Paragraph, which called for the exclusion of Jews and non-Aryans from organizations, employment and eventually all aspects of public life.

Antisemitism in Germany: on 1 April 1933 SA troopers urge a national boycott of Jewish businesses. Here they are outside Israel’s Department Store in Berlin. The signs read: “Germans! Defend yourselves! Don’t buy from Jews.” (“Deutsche! Wehrt Euch! Kauft nicht bei Juden!”). The store was later ransacked during Kristallnacht in 1938, then handed over to a non-Jewish family.

Bundesarchiv, Bild 102-14469 / CC-BY-SA 3.0 [CC BY-SA 3.0 de (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/de/deed.en)], via Wikimedia Commons

Additional legislation restricted the number of Jewish students at schools and universities, limited Jews working in medical and legal professions, and revoked the licenses of Jewish tax consultants. The Main Office for Press and Propaganda of the German Student Union also called for “Action Against the Un-German Spirit, prompting students to burn more than 25,000 Un-German books, ushering in an era of censorship and Nazi propaganda. By 1934, Jewish actors were forbidden from performing in film or in the theater.

On September 15, 1935, the Reichstag introduced the Nuremberg Laws, which defined a “Jew” as anyone with three or four grandparents who were Jewish, regardless of whether the person considered themselves Jewish or observed the religion. The Nuremberg Laws also set forth the “Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour,” which banned marriage between non-Jewish and Jewish Germans; and the Reich Citizenship Law, which deprived “non-Aryans” of the benefits of German citizenship.

In 1936, Hitler and his regime muted their Anti-Semitic rhetoric and actions when Germany hosted the Winter and Summer Olympic Games, in an effort to avoid criticism on the world stage and a negative impact on tourism.

After the Olympics, the Nazi persecution of Jews intensified with the continued “Aryanization” of Jewish businesses, which involved the firing of Jewish workers and takeover by non-Jewish owners. The Nazis continued to segregate Jews from German society, banning them from public school, universities, theaters, sports events and “Aryan” zones. Jewish doctors were also barred from treating “Aryan” patients. Jews were required to carry identity cards and, in the fall of 1938, Jewish people had to have their passports stamped with a “J.”

On November 9 and 10, 1938, a wave of violent anti-Jewish pogroms swept Germany, Austria and parts of the Sudetenland. Nazis destroyed synagogues and vandalized Jewish homes, schools and businesses. Close to 100 Jews were murdered. Called Kristallnacht, the “Night of Crystal” or the “Night of Broken Glass,” referring to the broken glass left in the wake of the destruction, it escalated the Nazi persecution of Jews to another level of brutality and violence. Almost 30,000 Jewish men were arrested and sent to concentration camps, signaling more horrors to come.

Hitler’s eugenic policies also targeted children with physical and developmental disabilities, later authorizing a euthanasia program for disabled adults. His regime also persecuted homosexuals, arresting an estimated 100,000 men from 1933 to 1945, some of whom were imprisoned or sent to concentration camps. At the camps, gay prisoners were forced to wear pink triangles to identify their homosexuality, which Nazis considered a crime and a disease.

Between the start of World War II, in 1939, and its end, in 1945, Nazis and their collaborators were responsible for the deaths of at least one million noncombatants, including about six million Jews, representing two-thirds of the Jewish population in Europe. As part of Hitler’s “Final Solution,” the genocide enacted by the regime would come to be known as the Holocaust.

German police shooting women and children from the Mizocz Ghetto, 14 October 1942.

By Gustav Hille [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Deaths and mass executions took place in concentration and extermination camps including Auschwitz-Birkenau, Bergen-Belsen, Dachau and Treblinka, among many others. Other persecuted groups included Poles, communists, homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses and trade unionists. Prisoners were used as forced laborers for SS construction projects, and in some instances they were forced to build and expand concentration camps. They were subject to starvation, torture and horrific brutalities, including having to endure gruesome and painful medical experiments.

Hitler probably never visited the concentration camps and did not speak publicly about the mass killings. However Germans documented the atrocities committed at the camps on paper and in films.

In 1938, Hitler, along with several other European leaders, signed the Munich Agreement. The treaty ceded the Sudetenland districts to Germany, reversing part of the Versailles Treaty. As a result of the summit, Hitler was named Time magazine’s Man of the Year for 1938.

This diplomatic win only whetted his appetite for a renewed German dominance. On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland, sparking the beginning of World War II. In response, Britain and France declared war on Germany two days later.

In 1940 Hitler escalated his military activities, invading Norway, Denmark, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Belgium. By July, Hitler ordered bombing raids on the United Kingdom, with the goal of invasion. Germanys formal alliance with Japan and Italy, known collectively as the Axis powers, was agreed upon toward the end of September to deter the United States from supporting and protecting the British.

On June 22, 1941, Hitler violated the 1939 non-aggression pact with Joseph Stalin, sending a massive army of German troops into the Soviet Union. The invading force seized a huge area of Russia before Hitler temporarily halted the invasion and diverted forces to encircle Leningrad and Kiev. The pause allowed the Red Army to regroup and conduct a counter-offensive attack, and the German advance was stopped outside Moscow in December 1941.

On December 7, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. Honoring the alliance with Japan, Hitler was now at war against the Allied powers, a coalition that included Britain, the world’s largest empire, led by Prime Minister Winston Churchill; the United States, the world’s greatest financial power, led by President Franklin D. Roosevelt; and the Soviet Union, which had the world’s largest army, commanded by Stalin.

Though initially hoping that he could play the Allies off of one another, Hitler’s military judgment became increasingly erratic, and the Axis powers could not sustain his aggressive and expansive war. In late 1942, German forces failed to seize the Suez Canal, leading to the loss of German control over North Africa. The German army also suffered defeats at the Battle of Stalingrad (1942-43), seen as a turning point in the war, and the Battle of Kursk (1943).

On June 6, 1944, on what would come to be known as D-Day, the Western Allied armies landed in northern France. As a result of these significant setbacks, many German officers concluded that defeat was inevitable and that Hitler’s continued rule would result in the destruction of the country. Organized efforts to assassinate the dictator gained traction, and opponents came close in 1944 with the notorious July Plot, though it ultimately proved unsuccessful.

By early 1945, Hitler realized that Germany was going to lose the war. The Soviets had driven the German army back into Western Europe and the Allies were advancing into Germany from the west. At midnight, going into April 29, 1945, Hitler married his girlfriend, Eva Braun, in a small civil ceremony in his Berlin bunker. Around this time, Hitler was informed of the execution of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini. Afraid of falling into the hands of enemy troops, Hitler and Braun committed suicide the day after their wedding, on April 30, 1945. Their bodies were carried to a bombed-out area outside of the Reich Chancellery, where they were burned.

Berlin fell on May 2, 1945. Five days later, on May 7, 1945, Germany surrendered unconditionally to the Allies.

Hitler’s political programs brought about a world war, leaving behind a devastated and impoverished Eastern and Central Europe, including Germany. His policies inflicted human suffering on an unprecedented scale and resulted in the death of tens of millions of people, including more than 20 million in the Soviet Union and six million Jews in Europe. Hitler’s defeat marked the end of Germany’s dominance in European history and the defeat of fascism. A new ideological global conflict, the Cold War, emerged in the aftermath of the devastating violence of World War II.

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Adolf Hitler Biography – Biography

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Amazon.com: Hitler: A Biography (9780393337617): Ian Kershaw …

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hitler | eBay

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Did Hitler have children?

For many years, the record books stated that Adolf Hitler did not have any biological children. He only married his longtime girlfriend the day before he committed suicide, after all, and was likely too involved in his political efforts to bother with being a father. However, recent information has surfaced that alleges that Hitler may have had a ‘secret son’, born to a French teenager who encountered Hitler while he was on leave in the military. According to the memoir written by Jean-Marie Loret, Hitler’s claimed son, they began an affair during this time and his birth was the result of that affair.Loret’s mother, Charlotte Lobjoie, says she had an affair with the man in 1917, when she was only 16 years old to Hitler’s 28 years of age. She didn’t tell her son about his father’s identity until right before she died. According to military documents, cash deliveries were made to Lobjoie during the time when Germany occupied France. They also found paintings with Hitler’s signature in her attic and there was a painting Hitler had done that looks just like the woman claiming to have his son. Lobjoie died in the 1950s, and after Loret learned the possibility of who his father was, he set out for the truth.Loret hired historians, geneticists, and others to help verify the claim that his mother had made. He did have the same blood type as Hitler, as well as similar handwriting. Pictures proved that they also looked eerily similar in many ways. The official record still states that Hitler had no children. Loret died in 1985, in a time when potential DNA testing or other means weren’t even an option. If Hitler was the father of this man, however, he does have a lineage through Loret’s own children.Loret’s attorney has pointed out that his surviving children might be eligible to get royalties from Mein Kampf, if they can be proven to be descendants of Hitler. Of course, no one is in a hurry to admit their relation to Adolf Hitler, a known Nazi and one of the most evil people in 20th century history, as most people see him. Loret wrote a memoir in 1981 called Your Father’s Name was Hitler, which is where he discusses finding out, the affair he was told about, and what his mother said about his father before she died. Facts are still being validated and as of yet, no official record of this relationship has been made.

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Hitler’s Time-Travel Exemption Act – TV Tropes

“If you time-travel into the past and then try to kill Hitler, it won’t work as intended. It may even backfire.” Rules of Time Travel open/close all folders Anime and Manga Comic Books Film Johnny: If you could travel back in time, say, to Germany, before Hitler came to power, what would you do? Would you kill him? Weizak: Johnny, you must know that… I love people. And as a doctor, I am expected to save lives. So naturally, I would have no choice… but to kill the son of a bitch. (raises his drink) Do svidaniya. Literature Live Action TV Chapulin: And then history will say that he commited suicide, that the Allies bombarded the place… anyway. Rory: I’m getting this sort of banging in my head. Amy: Yeah, I think that’s Hitler in the cupboard. Music Other Sites Tabletop Games Video Games Visual Novels Web Comics Theodore Roosevelt: I do declare you boys picked the wrong Roosevelt! Young Jamie: A.k.a.: How much more can we mess up history? Samantha: His success is your fault? But he’s the most overrated artist of the 20th century! What could have possibly been worse? Beret Guy: Anyway, I’m here to kill Hitler. Ponytail: But he died long ago! Beret Guy: Oh, good! That was easy. (Outskirts of Berlin, 1910note(1920 in the original Hebrew) Hitler: (Having just killed him) This is the TENTH time a random Jew has tried to kill me. THERE MUST BE SOME SOLUTION TO THIS JEWISH PROBLEM. Web Original Western Animation Other

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Downfall (2004) – IMDb

Edit Storyline In April of 1945, Germany stands at the brink of defeat with the Soviet Armies closing in from the west and south. In Berlin, capital of the Third Reich, Adolf Hitler proclaims that Germany will still achieve victory and orders his Generals and advisers to fight to the last man. “Downfall” explores these final days of the Reich, where senior German leaders (such as Himmler and Goring) began defecting from their beloved Fuhrer, in an effort to save their own lives, while still others (Joseph Goebbels) pledge to die with Hitler. Hitler, himself, degenerates into a paranoid shell of a man, full of optimism one moment and suicidal depression the next. When the end finally does comes, and Hitler lies dead by his own hand, what is left of his military must find a way to end the killing that is the Battle of Berlin, and lay down their arms in surrender. Written byAnthony Hughes {husnock31@hotmail.com} Taglines:April 1945, a nation awaits its… Budget:13,500,000 (estimated) Opening Weekend: $3,540,118 (Germany),17 September 2004 Opening Weekend USA: $24,220,18 February 2005, Limited Release Gross USA: $5,509,040, 2 November 2013 Cumulative Worldwide Gross: $92,180,910, 2 November 2013 Runtime: 156 min | 178 min (extended) Aspect Ratio: 1.85 : 1

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Big lie – Wikipedia

A big lie (German: groe Lge) is a propaganda technique. The expression was coined by Adolf Hitler, when he dictated his 1925 book Mein Kampf, about the use of a lie so “colossal” that no one would believe that someone “could have the impudence to distort the truth so infamously.” The source of the Big Lie technique is this passage, taken from Chapter 10 of James Murphy’s translation of Mein Kampf: But it remained for the Jews, with their unqualified capacity for falsehood, and their fighting comrades, the Marxists, to impute responsibility for the downfall precisely to the man who alone had shown a superhuman will and energy in his effort to prevent the catastrophe which he had foreseen and to save the nation from that hour of complete overthrow and shame. By placing responsibility for the loss of the world war on the shoulders of Ludendorff they took away the weapon of moral right from the only adversary dangerous enough to be likely to succeed in bringing the betrayers of the Fatherland to Justice. All this was inspired by the principlewhich is quite true within itselfthat in the big lie there is always a certain force of credibility; because the broad masses of a nation are always more easily corrupted in the deeper strata of their emotional nature than consciously or voluntarily; and thus in the primitive simplicity of their minds they more readily fall victims to the big lie than the small lie, since they themselves often tell small lies in little matters but would be ashamed to resort to large-scale falsehoods. Thus, according to Hitler, the “Big Lie” was a propaganda technique typically used by “the Jews”.[1] Later, Joseph Goebbels put forth a slightly different theory which has come to be more commonly associated with the expression “big lie”. Goebbels wrote the following paragraph in an article dated 12 January 1941, 16years after Hitler’s first use of the phrase. The article, titled Aus Churchills Lgenfabrik (English: “From Churchill’s Lie Factory”) was published in Die Zeit ohne Beispiel. The essential English leadership secret does not depend on particular intelligence. Rather, it depends on a remarkably stupid thick-headedness. The English follow the principle that when one lies, one should lie big, and stick to it. They keep up their lies, even at the risk of looking ridiculous.[2] Jeffrey Herf maintains that Goebbels and the Nazis used the Big Lie to turn long-standing anti-semitism into mass murder.[3] Herf argues that the Big Lie was a narrative of an innocent, besieged Germany striking back at an “international Jewry”, which it said started World War I. The propaganda repeated over and over the conspiracy that Jews were the real powers in Britain, Russia and the U.S. It went on to state that the Jews had begun a “war of extermination” against Germany, and so Germany had a duty and a right to “exterminate” and “annihilate” the Jews in self-defense.[4] The phrase was also used in a report prepared during the war by the United States Office of Strategic Services in describing Hitler’s psychological profile:[5][6] His primary rules were: never allow the public to cool off; never admit a fault or wrong; never concede that there may be some good in your enemy; never leave room for alternatives; never accept blame; concentrate on one enemy at a time and blame him for everything that goes wrong; people will believe a big lie sooner than a little one; and if you repeat it frequently enough people will sooner or later believe it.[7] The above quote appears in the Nizkor Project’s site[8] though the source document is not cited. The quote does not appear in the report, A Psychological Analysis of Adolph Hitler: His Life and Legend, by Walter C. Langer with collaboration by Henry Murray, Ernst Kris and Bertram Lewin,[9] which is available from the US National Archives, though it does appear, unreferenced, on page 57 in Langer’s ebook by the same title (without mention of the collaborators on his previous work).[10] A somewhat similar quote “never to admit a fault or wrong; never to accept blame; concentrate on one enemy at a time; blame that enemy for everything that goes wrong; take advantage of every opportunity to raise a political whirlwind” appears on page 219 in a different report also available from the US National Archive, namely, Analysis of the Personality of Adolph Hitler: With Predictions of His Future Behaviour and Suggestions for Dealing with Him Now and After Germany’s Surrender, by Henry A. Murray, October 1943[11] though Murray’s work is neither referenced in Langer’s ebook nor in the Hitler’s Source-Book[12] compiled by Langer and upon which his ebook heavily depends.

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Adolf Hitler and vegetarianism – Wikipedia

Towards the end of his life, Adolf Hitler (1889 1945) followed a vegetarian diet. It is not clear when he adopted it, since some accounts of his dietary habits prior to the Second World War indicate that he consumed meat as late as 1937. By 1938, Hitler’s public image as a vegetarian was already being fostered and from 1942 he self-identified as a vegetarian. Personal accounts from people who knew Hitler and were familiar with his diet indicate that he did not consume meat as part of his diet during this period, with several contemporaneous witnessessuch as Albert Speer (in his memoirs, Inside the Third Reich)noting that Hitler used vivid and gruesome descriptions of animal suffering and slaughter at the dinner table to try to dissuade his colleagues from eating meat. Some modern day analysis has theorized that Hitler’s vegetarianism may have been for health reasons due to Richard Wagner’s historical theories, or even a psychological reaction to his niece’s death rather than a commitment to animal welfare. In contrast, other reports maintain the motives were due to the claims Hitler was often distressed by images of animal cruelty and suffering, and was an antivivisectionist. In a 1937 article, The New York Times noted “It is well known that Hitler is a vegetarian and does not drink or smoke. His lunch and dinner consist, therefore, for the most part of soup, eggs, vegetables and mineral water, although he occasionally relishes a slice of ham and relieves the tediousness of his diet with such delicacies as caviar …”.[2] In November 1938, an article for the English magazine Homes & Gardens describing Hitler’s mountain home, The Berghof, stated that in addition to being a teetotaler and a non-smoker, Hitler was also a vegetarian. Ignatius Phayre wrote, “A life-long vegetarian at table, Hitler’s kitchen plots are both varied and heavy in produce. Even in his meatless diet Hitler is something of a gourmet as Sir John Simon and Anthony Eden were surprised to note when they dined with him in the Chancellery at Berlin. His Bavarian chef, Herr Kannenberg, contrives an imposing array of vegetarian dishes, savoury and rich, pleasing to the eye as well as to the palate, and all conforming to the dietic standards which Hitler exacts.”[3] According to stenographic transcripts translated by Hugh Trevor-Roper of conversations between Hitler and his inner circle which took place between July 1941 and November 1944, Hitler regarded himself as a vegetarian. These conversations were gathered together under the title Hitler’s Table Talk. Written notes taken at the time were transcribed and then were edited by Martin Bormann.[4] According to these transcripts dated 11 November 1941, Hitler said, “One may regret living at a period when it’s impossible to form an idea of the shape the world of the future will assume. But there’s one thing I can predict to eaters of meat: the world of the future will be vegetarian.” On 12 January 1942, he said, “The only thing of which I shall be incapable is to share the sheiks’ mutton with them. I’m a vegetarian, and they must spare me from their meat.”[5] In a diary entry dated 26 April 1942, Joseph Goebbels described Hitler as a committed vegetarian, writing, An extended chapter of our talk was devoted by the Fhrer to the vegetarian question. He believes more than ever that meat-eating is harmful to humanity. Of course he knows that during the war we cannot completely upset our food system. After the war, however, he intends to tackle this problem also. Maybe he is right. Certainly the arguments that he adduces in favor of his standpoint are very compelling.[6] In his table talks, on 25 April 1942 at midday, Hitler addressed the issue of vegetarianism and spoke about Roman soldiers eating fruits and cereals and the importance of raw vegetables. He placed the emphasis on scientific arguments such as naturalists’ observations and chemical efficacy.[7] Hitler also disapproved of cosmetics since they contained animal by-products, and he frequently teased Eva Braun about her habit of wearing makeup.[5] Braun was also fond of turtle soup and notes from the interrogation of Hitler’s personal aides about his daily routine in 1944 reveal that after midnight she would “direct that there should be another light snack of turtle soup, sandwiches, and sausages”.[8][9] All accounts by people familiar with Hitler’s diet from 1942 onwards are in agreement that Hitler adhered to a vegetarian diet, but accounts of his diet prior to the Second World War are inconsistent in this regard with some stating he ate meat. Princess Sophie of Greece and Denmark met with Hitler in 1932 and wrote in her memoirs that she had been “warned he was a vegetarian, and found it difficult to plan an appropriate meal”,[10] but this is contradicted by Dione Lucas, a chef at a Hamburg hotel patronised by Hitler prior to the war, who claimed that her stuffed squab was a favourite of his.[11] According to Ilse Hess (wife of Rudolph Hess), in 1937 Hitler ceased eating meat except for liver dumplings.[12] Margot Wlk, who became his unwilling food taster in 1942, stated that all the food she tested for Hitler was vegetarian, and she recalled no meat or fish.[13][14] Traudl Junge, who became Hitler’s secretary in 1942, reported that he “always avoided meat” but that his Austrian cook Kruemel sometimes added a little animal broth or fat to his meals. “Mostly the Fuehrer would notice the attempt at deception, would get very annoyed and then get tummy ache,” Junge said. “At the end he would only let Kruemel cook him clear soup and mashed potato.”[15] In addition, Marlene von Exner, who became Hitler’s dietician in 1943, reportedly added bone marrow to his soups without his knowledge because she “despised” his vegetarian diet.[16] Even though Hitler adhered to a vegetarian diet during this period, his physician, Theodor Morell, administered many unorthodox medications that contained animal by-products from 1936 until Hitler’s death in 1945. These included Glyconorm (an injectable compound containing cardiac muscle, adrenal gland, liver, and pancreas), placenta, bovine testosterone, and extracts containing seminal vesicles and prostate. At the time, extracts from animal glands were popularly believed to be “elixirs of youth” but it is not known if Hitler requested them or if he blindly accepted them.[17] Prior to the Second World War, there are many accounts of Hitler eating meat, including stuffed squab, Bavarian sausages and caviar.[11][18] According to Ilse Hess, in 1937 Hitler ceased eating all meat except for liver dumplings,[12] an account that Dr. Kalechofsky found “consistent with other descriptions of Hitler’s diet, which always included some form of meat, whether ham, sausages or liver dumplings.”[19] Frau Hess’s comments are also backed up by several biographies about Hitler, with Fritz Redlich noting that Hitler “avoided any kind of meat, with the exception of an Austrian dish he loved, Leberkndl (liver dumpling)”.[20] Thomas Fuchs concurred, observing that a “typical day’s consumption included eggs prepared in any number of ways, spaghetti, baked potatoes with cottage cheese, oatmeal, stewed fruits and vegetable puddings. Meat was not completely excluded. Hitler continued to eat a favourite dish, Leberkloesse (liver dumplings).” [21] Today, it is acknowledged by historians that Hitlerat least during the warfollowed a vegetarian diet.[23] Several theories have been put forward for Hitler’s transition to vegetarianism. The psychoanalyst, Erich Fromm speculated that Hitler’s vegetarianism was actually a means of atoning for the death of his half-niece Geli Raubal, as well as a means of proving to himself and others that he was incapable of killing.[24] British historical biographer Robert Payne, in his book The Life and Death of Adolph Hitler (Praeger, 1973) believed that Hitler’s diet was ascetic and deliberately fostered by propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels to emphasize Hitler’s self-control and total dedication to Germany.[25] Rynn Berryan authority on vegetarian historyon the other hand, has argued that Hitler transitioned to a vegetarian diet mostly for health reasons rather than ethical reasons, noting his fondness for liver dumplings.[26] However, there is evidence that suggests that Hitleralso an antivivisectionistmay have followed his selective diet out of a profound concern for animals. At social events, he sometimes gave graphic accounts of the slaughter of animals in an effort to make his dinner guests shun meat.[16] In the BBC series The Nazis: A Warning from History, an eyewitness account tells of Hitler watching movies (which he did very often). If ever a scene showed (even fictional) cruelty to or death of an animal, Hitler would cover his eyes and look away until someone alerted him the scene was over. Alexander Cockburn also wrote of Hitler: Nazi leaders were noted for love of their pets and for certain animals, notably apex predators like the wolf and the lion. Hitler, a vegetarian and hater of hunting, adored dogs and spent some of his final hours in the company of Blondi, whom he would take for walks outside the bunker at some danger to himself. He had a particular enthusiasm for birds and most of all for wolves. Goebbels said, famously, The only real friend one has in the end is the dog. . . The more I get to know the human species, the more I care for my Benno. Goebbels also agreed with Hitler that meat eating is a perversion in our human nature, and that Christianity was a symptom of decay, since it did not urge vegetarianism. On the one hand, monsters of cruelty towards their fellow humans; on the other, kind to animals and zealous in their interest. In their very fine essay on such contradictions, Arnold Arluke and Boria Sax offer three observations. One, as just noted, many Nazi leaders harboured affection towards animals but antipathy to humans. Hitler was given films by a maharaja which displayed animals killing people. The Fhrer watched with equanimity. Another film showed humans killing animals. Hitler covered his eyes and begged to be told when the slaughter was over.[28] It has also been theorized that Hitler’s diet may have been based on Richard Wagner’s historical theories[29] which connected the future of Germany with vegetarianism.[30] In the book, The Mind of Adolf Hitler by psychologist Walter C. Langer, the author speculates: “If he (Hitler) does not eat meat, drink alcoholic beverages, or smoke, it is not due to the fact that he has some kind of inhibition or does it because he believes it will improve his health. He abstains from these because he is following the example of the great German, Richard Wagner, or because he has discovered that it increases his energy and endurance to such a degree that he can give much more of himself to the creation of the new German Reich.”[31] Despite Hitler’s plans to convert Germany to vegetarianism after the war,[13] some authors have questioned Hitler’s commitment to the vegetarian cause due to the Nazi ban on vegetarian societies and the persecution of their leaders.[32] However, the Nazi ban of non-Nazi organizations was widespread: all opposition political parties were banned,[33] independent trade unions were replaced by Nazi equivalents,[34] while non-government organizations and associations ranging from women’s groups to film societies were either dissolved or incorporated into new organizations under the control of the Nazi leadership.[35] The Nazi regime also introduced animal welfare laws which were unparalleled at the time.[36]

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Hitler’s Mercedes spotted near Seattle | Fox News

(Worldwide Auctioneers) Hitlers Mercedes is on the move. A Mercedes-Benz limousine that was once used to parade the Nazi leader and his henchmen around Germany, and famously failed to sell at an Arizona auction in January, has been spotted on the streets of Medina, Wash., just outside Seattle. The 1939 770K Grosser Offener Tourenwagen was the most lavish Mercedes-Benz of its day.(Worldwide Auctioneers) Jessi Sites told The Seattle Times that she was driving through the upscale city on a Saturday last month when she saw an unusual car being unloaded from a delivery truck outside of a private school. She said the deep blue four-door convertible was running on its own power and that it was loud, sounded like an old car, kind of sputtering. Medina is on the east shore of Lake Washington across from downtown Seattle.(Google Earth) The stately 1939 770K Grosser Offener Tourenwagen is powered by a 7.7-liter supercharged V8 and weighs roughly five tons due to its armor plating and bulletproof glass. Period photographs confirm that Hitler rode in it on numerous locations, although the German High Commands motor pool had a fleet of several similar vehicles. It was captured by U.S. forces in France at the end of the war and eventually brought to the United States, but its ties to Hitler werent uncovered until the 1970s. Hitler was photographed in the car being paraded through Berlin on July 6, 1940 following the fall of Paris.(Getty Images) Sites noticed another covered vehicle inside the truck, and photographed the Mercedes before driving off to take care of some errands. When she passed by again a short time later, the truck was heading toward the highway and there was no sign of either of the cars. READ MORE FROM THE SEATTLE TIMES Not knowing what the car was, she did some searching on the Internet and matched the license plate to the one that was offered at the Worldwide Auctioneers event in Scottsdale. The car has been restored to its original condition.(Worldwide Auctioneers) The car received a high bid of $7 million, but that was below the reserve price so it didnt sell. However, the auction house later confirmed that private negotiations continued after the auction and ended in transaction between anonymous parties. As to why it turned up in Seattle, that remains a mystery. A spokesman for the auction house could not reveal to the newspaper who the buyer was, citing a confidentially agreement, but did reveal that the end destination is not in this country. Its far, far away. Along with bulletproof glass, the Mercedes is equipped with an armor shield that rises up behind the passenger compartment.(Worldwide Auctioneers) He suggested that it was the other car that was being dropped off in Medina and that the Mercedes was just making way for it. Seattle and Tacomas Northwest Port Alliance is the third largest cargo port in the United States, while nearby Vancouver handles the most cargo of any port on North Americas West Coast. Gary Gastelu is FoxNews.com’s Automotive Editor. Follow him on Twitter @garygastelu

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Adolf Hitler Biography – Biography

Who Was Adolf Hitler? Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 to April 30, 1945) was chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, serving as dictator and leader of the Nazi Party, or National Socialist German Workers Party, for the bulk of his time in power. Hitlers policies precipitated World War II and led to the genocide known as the Holocaust, which resulted in the deaths of some six million Jews and another five million noncombatants. With defeat on the horizon, Hitler committed suicide with wife Eva Braun on April 30, 1945, in his Berlin bunker. Adolf Hitler was born in Braunau am Inn, Austria, on April 20, 1889. The fourth of six children, Adolf Hitler was born to Alois Hitler and Klara Polzl. As a child, Hitler clashed frequently with his emotionally harsh father, who also didn’t approve of his son’s later interest in fine art as a career. Following the death of his younger brother, Edmund, in 1900, Hitler became detached and introverted. Hitler showed an early interest in German nationalism, rejecting the authority of Austria-Hungary. This nationalism would become the motivating force of Hitler’s life. In 1903, Hitlers father died suddenly. Two years later, Adolf’s mother allowed her son to drop out of school. After her death in December 1907, Hitler moved to Vienna and worked as a casual laborer and watercolor painter. Hitler applied to the Academy of Fine Arts twice and was rejected both times. Lacking money outside of an orphan’s pension and funds from selling postcards, he stayed in homeless shelters. Hitler later pointed to these years as the time when he first cultivated his anti-Semitism, though there is some debate about this account. In 1913, Hitler relocated to Munich. At the outbreak of World War I, he applied to serve in the German army. He was accepted in August 1914, though he was still an Austrian citizen. Although Hitler spent much of his time away from the front lines (with some reports that his recollections of his time on the field were generally exaggerated), he was present at a number of significant battles and was wounded at the Somme. He was decorated for bravery, receiving the Iron Cross First Class and the Black Wound Badge. Hitler became embittered over the collapse of the war effort. The experience reinforced his passionate German patriotism, and he was shocked by Germany’s surrender in 1918. Like other German nationalists, he purportedly believed that the German army had been betrayed by civilian leaders and Marxists. He found the Treaty of Versailles degrading, particularly the demilitarization of the Rhineland and the stipulation that Germany accept responsibility for starting the war. After World War I, Hitler returned to Munich and continued to work for the German military. As an intelligence officer, he monitored the activities of the German Workers Party (DAP) and adopted many of the anti-Semitic, nationalist and anti-Marxist ideas of party founder Anton Drexler. In September 1919, Hitler joined the DAP, which changed its name to the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP) often abbreviated to Nazi. Hitler personally designed the Nazi party banner, appropriating the swastika symbol and placing it in a white circle on a red background. He soon gained notoriety for his vitriolic speeches against the Treaty of Versailles, rival politicians, Marxists and Jews. In 1921, Hitler replaced Drexler as the Nazi party chairman. Hitler’s fervid beer-hall speeches began attracting regular audiences. Early followers included army captain Ernst Rohm, the head of the Nazi paramilitary organization the Sturmabteilung (SA), which protected meetings and frequently attacked political opponents. On November 8, 1923, Hitler and the SA stormed a public meeting featuring Bavarian prime minister Gustav Kahr at a large beer hall in Munich. Hitler announced that the national revolution had begun and declared the formation of a new government. After a short struggle that led to several deaths, the coup known as the “Beer Hall Putsch” failed. Hitler was arrested and tried for high treason and sentenced to nine months in prison. During Hitlers nine months in prison in 1924, he dictated most of the first volume of his autobiographical book and political manifesto, Mein Kampf (“My Struggle”), to his deputy, Rudolf Hess. The first volume was published in 1925, and a second volume came out in 1927. It was abridged and translated into 11 languages, selling more than five million copies by 1939. A work of propaganda and falsehoods, the book laid out Hitler’s plans for transforming German society into one based on race. In the first volume, Hitler shared his Anti-Semitic, pro-Aryan worldview along with his sense of betrayal at the outcome of World War I, calling for revenge against France and expansion eastward into Russia. The second volume outlined his plan to gain and maintain power. While often illogical and full of grammatical errors, Mein Kampf was provocative and subversive, making it appealing to the many Germans who felt displaced at the end of World War I. With millions unemployed, the Great Depression in Germany provided a political opportunity for Hitler. Germans were ambivalent to the parliamentary republic and increasingly open to extremist options. In 1932, Hitler ran against 84-year-old Paul von Hindenburg for the presidency. Hitler came in second in both rounds of the election, garnering more than 36 percent of the vote in the final count. The results established Hitler as a strong force in German politics. Hindenburg reluctantly agreed to appoint Hitler as chancellor in order to promote political balance. Hitler used his position as chancellor to form a de facto legal dictatorship. The Reichstag Fire Decree, announced after a suspicious fire at parliament, suspended basic rights and allowed detention without trial. Hitler also engineered the passage of the Enabling Act, which gave his cabinet full legislative powers for a period of four years and allowed for deviations from the constitution. Having achieved full control over the legislative and executive branches of government, Hitler and his political allies embarked on a systematic suppression of the remaining political opposition. By the end of June, the other parties had been intimidated into disbanding. On July 14, 1933, Hitler’s Nazi Party was declared the only legal political party in Germany. In October of that year, Hitler ordered Germany’s withdrawal from the League of Nations. Military opposition was also punished. The demands of the SA for more political and military power led to the Night of the Long Knives, which took place from June 30 to July 2, 1934. Rohm, a perceived rival, and other SA leaders, along with a number of Hitler’s political enemies, were rounded up and shot. The day before Hindenburg’s death in August 1934, the cabinet had enacted a law abolishing the office of president, combining its powers with those of the chancellor. Hitler thus became head of state as well as head of government and was formally named leader and chancellor. As head of state, Hitler became supreme commander of the armed forces. Hitlers self-imposed dietary restrictions included abstinence from alcohol and meat (or veganism). Fueled by fanaticism over what he believed was a superior Aryan race, he encouraged Germans to keep their bodies pure of any intoxicating or unclean substances and promoted anti-smoking campaigns across the country. From 1933 until the start of the war in 1939, Hitler and his Nazi regime instituted hundreds of laws and regulations to restrict and exclude Jews in society. These Anti-Semitic laws were issued throughout all levels of government, making good on the Nazis pledge to persecute Jews. On April 1, 1933, Hitler implemented a national boycott of Jewish businesses. This was followed by the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service” of April 7, 1933, which excluded Jews from state service. The law was a Nazi implementation of the Aryan Paragraph, which called for the exclusion of Jews and non-Aryans from organizations, employment and eventually all aspects of public life. Antisemitism in Germany: on 1 April 1933 SA troopers urge a national boycott of Jewish businesses. Here they are outside Israel’s Department Store in Berlin. The signs read: “Germans! Defend yourselves! Don’t buy from Jews.” (“Deutsche! Wehrt Euch! Kauft nicht bei Juden!”). The store was later ransacked during Kristallnacht in 1938, then handed over to a non-Jewish family. Bundesarchiv, Bild 102-14469 / CC-BY-SA 3.0 [CC BY-SA 3.0 de (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/de/deed.en)], via Wikimedia Commons Additional legislation restricted the number of Jewish students at schools and universities, limited Jews working in medical and legal professions, and revoked the licenses of Jewish tax consultants. The Main Office for Press and Propaganda of the German Student Union also called for “Action Against the Un-German Spirit, prompting students to burn more than 25,000 Un-German books, ushering in an era of censorship and Nazi propaganda. By 1934, Jewish actors were forbidden from performing in film or in the theater. On September 15, 1935, the Reichstag introduced the Nuremberg Laws, which defined a “Jew” as anyone with three or four grandparents who were Jewish, regardless of whether the person considered themselves Jewish or observed the religion. The Nuremberg Laws also set forth the “Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour,” which banned marriage between non-Jewish and Jewish Germans; and the Reich Citizenship Law, which deprived “non-Aryans” of the benefits of German citizenship. In 1936, Hitler and his regime muted their Anti-Semitic rhetoric and actions when Germany hosted the Winter and Summer Olympic Games, in an effort to avoid criticism on the world stage and a negative impact on tourism. After the Olympics, the Nazi persecution of Jews intensified with the continued “Aryanization” of Jewish businesses, which involved the firing of Jewish workers and takeover by non-Jewish owners. The Nazis continued to segregate Jews from German society, banning them from public school, universities, theaters, sports events and “Aryan” zones. Jewish doctors were also barred from treating “Aryan” patients. Jews were required to carry identity cards and, in the fall of 1938, Jewish people had to have their passports stamped with a “J.” On November 9 and 10, 1938, a wave of violent anti-Jewish pogroms swept Germany, Austria and parts of the Sudetenland. Nazis destroyed synagogues and vandalized Jewish homes, schools and businesses. Close to 100 Jews were murdered. Called Kristallnacht, the “Night of Crystal” or the “Night of Broken Glass,” referring to the broken glass left in the wake of the destruction, it escalated the Nazi persecution of Jews to another level of brutality and violence. Almost 30,000 Jewish men were arrested and sent to concentration camps, signaling more horrors to come. Hitler’s eugenic policies also targeted children with physical and developmental disabilities, later authorizing a euthanasia program for disabled adults. His regime also persecuted homosexuals, arresting an estimated 100,000 men from 1933 to 1945, some of whom were imprisoned or sent to concentration camps. At the camps, gay prisoners were forced to wear pink triangles to identify their homosexuality, which Nazis considered a crime and a disease. Between the start of World War II, in 1939, and its end, in 1945, Nazis and their collaborators were responsible for the deaths of at least one million noncombatants, including about six million Jews, representing two-thirds of the Jewish population in Europe. As part of Hitler’s “Final Solution,” the genocide enacted by the regime would come to be known as the Holocaust. German police shooting women and children from the Mizocz Ghetto, 14 October 1942. By Gustav Hille [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons Deaths and mass executions took place in concentration and extermination camps including Auschwitz-Birkenau, Bergen-Belsen, Dachau and Treblinka, among many others. Other persecuted groups included Poles, communists, homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses and trade unionists. Prisoners were used as forced laborers for SS construction projects, and in some instances they were forced to build and expand concentration camps. They were subject to starvation, torture and horrific brutalities, including having to endure gruesome and painful medical experiments. Hitler probably never visited the concentration camps and did not speak publicly about the mass killings. However Germans documented the atrocities committed at the camps on paper and in films. In 1938, Hitler, along with several other European leaders, signed the Munich Agreement. The treaty ceded the Sudetenland districts to Germany, reversing part of the Versailles Treaty. As a result of the summit, Hitler was named Time magazine’s Man of the Year for 1938. This diplomatic win only whetted his appetite for a renewed German dominance. On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland, sparking the beginning of World War II. In response, Britain and France declared war on Germany two days later. In 1940 Hitler escalated his military activities, invading Norway, Denmark, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Belgium. By July, Hitler ordered bombing raids on the United Kingdom, with the goal of invasion. Germanys formal alliance with Japan and Italy, known collectively as the Axis powers, was agreed upon toward the end of September to deter the United States from supporting and protecting the British. On June 22, 1941, Hitler violated the 1939 non-aggression pact with Joseph Stalin, sending a massive army of German troops into the Soviet Union. The invading force seized a huge area of Russia before Hitler temporarily halted the invasion and diverted forces to encircle Leningrad and Kiev. The pause allowed the Red Army to regroup and conduct a counter-offensive attack, and the German advance was stopped outside Moscow in December 1941. On December 7, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. Honoring the alliance with Japan, Hitler was now at war against the Allied powers, a coalition that included Britain, the world’s largest empire, led by Prime Minister Winston Churchill; the United States, the world’s greatest financial power, led by President Franklin D. Roosevelt; and the Soviet Union, which had the world’s largest army, commanded by Stalin. Though initially hoping that he could play the Allies off of one another, Hitler’s military judgment became increasingly erratic, and the Axis powers could not sustain his aggressive and expansive war. In late 1942, German forces failed to seize the Suez Canal, leading to the loss of German control over North Africa. The German army also suffered defeats at the Battle of Stalingrad (1942-43), seen as a turning point in the war, and the Battle of Kursk (1943). On June 6, 1944, on what would come to be known as D-Day, the Western Allied armies landed in northern France. As a result of these significant setbacks, many German officers concluded that defeat was inevitable and that Hitler’s continued rule would result in the destruction of the country. Organized efforts to assassinate the dictator gained traction, and opponents came close in 1944 with the notorious July Plot, though it ultimately proved unsuccessful. By early 1945, Hitler realized that Germany was going to lose the war. The Soviets had driven the German army back into Western Europe and the Allies were advancing into Germany from the west. At midnight, going into April 29, 1945, Hitler married his girlfriend, Eva Braun, in a small civil ceremony in his Berlin bunker. Around this time, Hitler was informed of the execution of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini. Afraid of falling into the hands of enemy troops, Hitler and Braun committed suicide the day after their wedding, on April 30, 1945. Their bodies were carried to a bombed-out area outside of the Reich Chancellery, where they were burned. Berlin fell on May 2, 1945. Five days later, on May 7, 1945, Germany surrendered unconditionally to the Allies. Hitler’s political programs brought about a world war, leaving behind a devastated and impoverished Eastern and Central Europe, including Germany. His policies inflicted human suffering on an unprecedented scale and resulted in the death of tens of millions of people, including more than 20 million in the Soviet Union and six million Jews in Europe. Hitler’s defeat marked the end of Germany’s dominance in European history and the defeat of fascism. A new ideological global conflict, the Cold War, emerged in the aftermath of the devastating violence of World War II.

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