Archive for the ‘Hitler’ Category

Pence to speak at conference hosted by pastor who claimed God created Hitler to hunt down the Jews – Raw Story

Vice President Mike Pence next month will address Christians United for Israel, a group founded by megachurch Pastor John Hagee, who once said Hitler was a hunter sent by God to expedite the return of Jews to Israel.

According to Right Wing Watch, Pence has signed on to speak at Christians Uniteds annual gathering in Washington D.C., after Hagee supported the president and vice president throughout the 2016 presidential election.

Hagee made the remarks in a 1990s sermon uncovered during the 2008 presidential electionwhich prompted then-candidate John McCain to disavow the prominent evangelical.

And they the hunters should hunt them, that will be the Jews, Hagee said in that sermon, which he later apologized for. From every mountain and from every hill and from out of the holes of the rocksIf that doesnt describe what Hitler did in the holocaust you cant see that.

Theodore Herzl is the father of Zionism, Hagee continued. He was a Jew who at the turn of the 19th century said, this land is our land, God wants us to live there. So he went to the Jews of Europe and said I want you to come and join me in the land of Israel. So few went that Hertzel went into depression.

Those who came founded Israel; those who did not went through the hell of the Holocaust, he added. Then god sent a hunter. A hunter is someone with a gun and he forces you. Hitler was a hunter.

Pences boss, Donald Trump has pledged support for evangelical Christians. Last week, the president spoke at the Christian conservative nonprofit Faith and Freedom Coalition, arguing It is time to put a stop to the attacks on religion.

We will end the discrimination against people of faith. Our government will once again celebrate and protect religious freedom, he said, later adding he and his evangelical audience are under siege.

Link:

Pence to speak at conference hosted by pastor who claimed God created Hitler to hunt down the Jews – Raw Story

Fair Usage Law

June 13, 2017   Posted in: Hitler  Comments Closed

Did melting ice just reveal a secret Antarctic Nazi base? – Daily Star

IT’S a conspiracy that won’t quit, did the Nazis really have a secret base in Antarctica?

The Germans visited Antarctica looking to set up a whaling base in World War Two.

Another goal was scouting a place for a naval base, but nothing came of it.

Despite this, legends of a secret base continue to fuel speculation still.

GETTY/GOOGLE

Now one Russian anorak believes he may have cracked the case using Google Earth.

A travesty of history has occurred

Valentin Degtyarev claims he’s spotted a cave on the side of a mountain in the frozen continent.

And he says the mouth of it is 60m high and 20m wide, something that’s “not a typical phenomenon” in nature.

Mr Degtyarev, who’s described by Russian newspaper Pravda as a researcher and radio host, described the find on his blog.

Eva Braun kept a personal photo album, full of photos of her lover Adolf Hitler which he had never authorised to be released to the public. The album was found in Eva Braun’s home by a photographer at the end of WW2, and has gone up for auction at C&T Auctions in Kent

1 / 15

A candid photo of Adolf Hitler reading through papers

He wrote: “In the 1930s the Germans actively explored Antarctica. For this purpose they made the largest submarine in the world.

“A huge amount of cargo was taken, as well as 11,000 concentration camp prisoners. The last expedition was arranged before the fall of Germany.”

Mr Degtyarev says a cabal of top Nazis could have been evacuated there, writing that “not all the perpetrators were found and executed”.

And while no trace of a Nazi base has ever been found in Antarctica, he says this cave may be newly revealed by retreating ice.

NC

The mountain he identifies is part of the Mhlig-Hofmann range, where a conspiracy theory says Hitler’s ashes were hidden.

Hitler’s Ashes, a book attributed to Colonel Howard Buechner and Captain Wilhelm Bernard, sparked the bizarre legend.

It claims the crew of Nazi submarine U-530 visited the cave, which was found by the earlier expedition, in 1945.

Colin Summerhayes of the University of Cambridge, however, rules out the theory as “entirely fallacious”.

The inside of the bunker where Hitler spent his final days has been revealed for the first time.

1 / 18

In a peer-reviewed paper, published in 2006, Mr Summerhayes probed the various legends about a Nazi Antarctic base.

“Our analysis suggests that in these writings fantasy has ruled and a travesty of history has occurred,” the paper concludes.

“Fragments of these accounts have been stitched together Information that did not fit has been left out. Gaps have been filled by speculation.”

The real Nazi expedition to Antarctica visited an area known as New Swabia named after a German region left on 6 February 1939.

Continued here:

Did melting ice just reveal a secret Antarctic Nazi base? – Daily Star

Fair Usage Law

June 13, 2017   Posted in: Hitler  Comments Closed

Death of Hitler Video – Adolf Hitler – HISTORY.com

Death of Hitler 4min

Adolf Hitler’s Parkinson’s 3min

How Close was Hitler to the A-Bomb? 4min

Adolf Hitler: Fast Facts 5min

Hitler Plans a New German Capital 3min

Hitler’s Remains 3min

Arnold Ropeik on the Concentration Camps 3min

Hitler Plans the World’s Largest Stadium 3min

Battle of Stalingrad 3min

Rise of the Nazis 4min

Concentration Camp Liberation 3min

Hitler’s Military Blunders 4min

Drawn History: The Blitz 2min

761st Activated 3min

Manhattan Project 4min

Blacks in the Military 4min

Deconstructing History: B-17 2min

Leap of Faith: A WWII Story 12min

Dwight Eisenhower 4min

Did WWI Lead to WWII? 3min

Winston Churchill 5min

Deconstructing History: Sherman Tank 2min

America Enters World War II 5min

Women of War 2min

Penicillin 3min

Deconstructing History: U-Boats 2min

Amphibious Assaults of World War II 3min

World War II Soldiers Dig In 3min

World War II Tanks 4min

World War II in North Africa 3min

Jack Werner 3min

Nostradamus Predicts Hitler? 3min

Battle of Guam 3min

Patton’s Guns 3min

Douglas MacArthur 4min

Secret Atomic City in Tennessee 4min

Joseph Heller on the G.I. Bill NaNmin

D-Day Invasion of Normandy 4min

Eisenhower Leads America 4min

Shelby Westbrook 3min

Homefront Funeral 3min

Presidents Who Served 4min

At the Battle of the Bulge 4min

Jack Yusen 3min

Satellites: Invention of War 3min

Battle of Peleliu 3min

Ask HISTORY: Rosie the Riveter 3min

Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Last Presidential Term 2min

Patton’s Soldiers 4min

D-Day 2min

Patton and the Liberation of Europe 3min

Japanese Ace Hiroyoshi Nishizawa 3min

Chaplain G.I. 4min

War Photographer 3min

Patton’s Generals 3min

Japanese Attack Pearl Harbor 2min

Weapons of Patton’s Armies 3min

USS Arizona Under Attack at Pearl Harbor 3min

Germans Test V-2 Rockets 3min

Battle of Saipan 3min

Japanese Internment in America 3min

761st Enters Combat 3min

French Resistance 4min

Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Personal Strength 4min

From Farm to Flyer 4min

D-Day: Allied Invasion at Normandy 4min

Women in the Cockpit 4min

Franklin D. Roosevelt 5min

D-Day Invasion 4min

Christmas on the Western Front 1min

George S. Patton 4min

Franklin D. Roosevelt: The World War II Years 4min

Jimmie Kayana 3min

B-52 Bomber Remade 4min

D-Day: The Lost Evidence – In the Heat of Battle 4min

FDR: A Voice of Hope 5min

D-Day Battle Gear 3min

D-Day Deception 4min

Allied Advance Stalls at Normandy 4min

Friend or Enemy? 3min

Patton’s Adversaries 3min

Battle of Okinawa 3min

Battle of the Bulge 3min

Combat Rations in WWII 2min

Franklin D. Roosevelt Reports to the New American Congress 2min

Patton vs. Germany’s Tiger Tanks 3min

Rockie Blunt 3min

Patton the Legend 3min

Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress Bomber 2min

Franklin D. Roosevelt at the Moscow Conference 2min

Ed McMahon and the G.I. Bill 4min

Patton the Warrior 3min

WWII Spy Strategy 3min

MacArthur and Me 4min

Motorcycle MP 4min

Then Came War 3min

A Key to Victory 3min

General Omar Bradley 3min

Atomic Bomb Assembled 2min

Battle of Kwajalein 3min

Read more:

Death of Hitler Video – Adolf Hitler – HISTORY.com

Fair Usage Law

June 12, 2017   Posted in: Hitler  Comments Closed

Former movie star survived Hitler’s vengeance – The Sydney Morning Herald

Eve Esnouf: “I remember that night all so clearly, and most certainly the events that followed.”Photo: Supplied

I have long held the belief that everyone has a story to tell if you are prepared to listen. But nothing prepared me for the story told by 87-year-old Eve Esnouf during a chance meeting at a South Yarra social function in 2008.

It began with her simple question: “How have you spent your day?”

I replied that my wife and I had been to the movies, but before I could continue further,her calm demeanour perceptibly changed. “I refuse to go to the movies since my row with that silly little film man.”

Slightly bemused, I asked who the “silly little film man” might be.

‘Tom Cruise,” she replied without a moment’s hesitation. The Tom Cruise, I asked.”Yes, he has made a film about my family and we are not very happy.”

“May I ask why Tom Cruise would make a film about your family?”

“It’s about my uncle, Claus Von Stauffenberg. He was the manwho put the bomb under Adolf Hitler.”

For the next 30 minutes, I sat spellbound as this sprightly octogenarian with a slightly aristocratic air recountedher uncle’sfailed attempt to assassinate one of the world’s most despotic dictators. As I sat next to the niece of thewould-be assassinthe horror of Hitler’sretribution was clearly showing onherface, 64years later.

It would take anothernine years to discoverthe rest of her amazing life story. A life as an award-winning European film star before the war, alongside such names as Marlene Dietrich and Ilse Werner. Her survival from Hitler’s henchmen and an incredible escape from invading Russians. Becoming an interpreter to Field-Marshal Montgomery in postwar Germany; and finally a love story that led to her starting a new life in Melbourne.

During our initial encounter, shespoke with a strong German accent clipped by a recent stroke, yet her long-term memory fordetail was astounding. “Yes, I remember that night all so clearly, andmostcertainly the events that followed.”

Born on December 14, 1919, Ruth Eva (Eve) Esnoufwas about 21 at the time her Uncle Claus carried the briefcase bomb into the wooden barracks of the German high command in what was code named “Operation Valkyrie”.

The Stauffenbergs were one of the oldest and most distinguished Roman Catholic families in southern Germany andEve was relatedon her father’s side through marriage. Claus Philip von Stauffenberg, the third ofthree sons, had risen to the rank of colonel and was one of the few who had direct access to the Fuehrer.

The horror of Hitler’s retribution was clearly showing on her face, 64 years later.

“I met Hitleron the several occasions he visitedourfamily,” Eve recalled, “butUncleClaussaw no other alternative for the future of Germany than in his assassination.”

On July 20 that year his briefcase contained two small bombs, only one of which would be activated.He slid it under the conference table, as close to Hitler as he could, and made an excuse to leave.

He waited nearby as the blast ripped through the building, killing four people and injuring many others, including his intended target, who was shielded from thefullblast by the heavy oak table.

Hitler’s retribution was as swift as it was violent. Recounting the event 64 years later, Eve visibly stiffened at the horror that followed. “He ordered the execution of all the male members of my family.”

At the time ofour conversation in the South Yarra apartment Eve was still under the impression her father had been shotalong with Uncle Claus.It wasonly recently the family discovered Eve’sfather had escaped execution, only to die some time later in a Russian jail.

Eve was one of thesurvivors but the war would leaveits pain. In1942 her brother Fritz, a Stukapilotin theLuftwaffe,was shot down in France but survivedonly to be killed18 months laterin the battle of Stalingrad.

After the failed assassination attempt on Hitler, the execution ofher uncle Claus andthe disappearance of her father,Eve’s homewasoverrun bytheRussians, who used the Schloss as their command post in what would become East Germany.

Whileher mother and sister decided tostay,Eve smuggled herselfina truckload of motorcycles and made it tothe British-controlled city ofHanover where,according to family records,Eve used her charms andschoolgirl English to become an interpreter to Field Marshal Montgomery,who wasrunning the Allied Information Control Unit.

There she met and married the dashing Scottish/ItalianHector Pelman, conceiving a son, Ashley, before migrating to Melbourne in 1951. Their marriage soon ended andEvemet Stuart Esnouf, an East Melbourne doctor.Hector also remarried and so began a very amicable blended arrangement with both familiesthat lasted a lifetime.

In 1966 travel regulations in easternEurope relaxed and Eve became a regular attraction on the Melbourne speaking circuit, describinglife behind the Iron Curtain. Throughout the1970s and1980s she was on the Lady Mayoress’committee, heading many charity and fundraising events in Melbourne.

In later years health becamean issue. But accordingto her loving daughter Durelle, “no kidney stone,nor three strokes, diabetes, heart disease or theloss of an eye through melanoma, interfered with her life”.

She said: “Mum was a pack-a-day smoker until her tennis friends at Kooyong refused to share her room onovernighttournaments, and only then didshe give them up.Not her friends. The cigarettes.”

At92 Eve became part of a successful world trialfor an aortic heart valve; now acommon procedure.

Despitemany attempts since our meetingin 2008 Eve refusedall requestsfor a furtherinterview.According to her daughter shewas avery pragmaticwoman:”What’s done is done,she would say.Forget the past and look to the future.”

As a journalist Iwas more interested in her past:the irony of her own history as aEuropean film starin the 30sand herissuewith Tom Cruise.

While Operation Valkyrie had already been well documentedatthe time I met Eve, thefamily in Germany had lodged strong objections to the choice of TomCruise, an avowed Scientologist. The film came and went without breaking any box office records,but I doubt Eve ever sawit.

She passed away in a Melbourne nursing home onMay 10, just short of her 98thbirthday.

See the rest here:

Former movie star survived Hitler’s vengeance – The Sydney Morning Herald

Fair Usage Law

June 12, 2017   Posted in: Hitler  Comments Closed

The end of the war: Remembering the fall of Hitler, Nazi Germany in the towering Alps – Reporter-Times

Editors note: This is the last in an 11-part series chronicling World War II battle sites visited by Reporter-Times correspondent Ronald May on an 11-day trip to Europe in France, Belgium and Germany places that some of our Morgan County veterans once walked on or flew over in July 2016. This series of articles is a summary of what he saw and learned there as he followed the path of American heroes who answered the call of duty over 75 years ago.

Adolph Hitler loved Obersalzberg, a mountain retreat nestled in the Alps just above the village of Berchtesgaden, about 75 miles southeast of Munich in Bavaria, Germany.

After coming to power in the Nazi Party, Hitler purchased a chalet in the mountains and turned Obersalzberg into his own private residence a secured Fuhrers off-limits area that included buying out or pushing out previous inhabitants to make way for his new domain.

He later renovated and expanded the chalet, making it his beloved Berghof, a vacation residence that he would use extensively for 10 years.

Today there is almost no visible remnant of Hitlers prized home.

Its absence symbolizes the end of the once mighty Nazi Party and the final demise of its powerful and maniacal dictator, Adolph Hitler.

Our tour group traveled to the sight of Hitlers former residence at Obersalzberg. We gazed upon its faint ruins and tried to imagine its former splendor.

Hitler especially loved the mountain area around the bucolic village of Berchtesgaden. He felt the Bavarian mountain region produced the ideal Germans rural and industrious with ties to the earth through farming and outdoor living.

Beginning in 1923, as he was flexing his political aspirations, Hitler began coming to the area of Berchtesgaden regularly for rest, relaxation and contemplation.

In time, his Berghof became a seat of power second only to Berlin, a city Hitler did not care for because of its large urban area and more liberal outlooks.

His vacation home was his getaway, his retreat, the place where he could walk his dog in solitude along the forested mountain paths; the place where he could spend romantic time with his lover, Eva Braun; and the place that he could host visiting dignitaries.

It was not just a place for resting; it was his place for thinking. Many of Hitlers grand visions for the Third Reich were first contemplated at this mountain retreat.

During the years of World War II, Hitler spent more time at the Berghof than at any of his other homes or headquarters throughout Germany and Poland.

Our guide, Steve, showed us old photographs of Hitler at his Berghof residence. He pointed out exactly where on the ground that we stood a portion of the residence would have been located.

Our tour group could almost imagine the Fuhrer standing on his deck or driveway and greeting visitors, hosting dignitaries or enjoying the spectacular view of the valley below and the Alps all around him.

The last time that Hitler was known to visit his favorite residence was in July 1944, after the Allies had made their invasion at Normandy and were beginning to push across France. He was alleged to have said of his beloved Berghof, I will come back either a victor or not at all.

Less than a year later, in April 1945, he committed suicide at his underground bunker in Berlin as the Russians advanced on the city from the east and the Allies closed in from the west.

Although the home was heavily guarded and included a sophisticated underground bunker for retreat in the event of bombing, it was destroyed by both the Americans and the British who bombed it to rubble in late April 1945.

The retreating SS Nazi troops who had been living in the area then lit the remains of the home on fire when the French and American troops approached in early May 1945.

What remained of the house and the nearby Nazi SS barracks were then completely razed in 1952 by the Bavarian government, shortly before the United States handed the area back to Bavarian control.

The Americans wanted the remains of the edifice destroyed so that it could not be a symbolic rallying point for Neo-Nazism.

Today, very little remains of the home Hitler once loved. Our guide showed us a small segment of the south supporting wall of Hitlers residence that was still barely visible in what is now an area of new growth forest.

Not far from the foundation, he also showed us a surviving portion of the driveway that once led up to Hitlers residence.

Although the Berghof is gone, its significance and that of Hitler and the Nazi party is preserved in a nearby museum.

The Dokumentation Obersalzberg, located just above Berchtesgaden and a short walk from the former Berghof, opened in 1999. This museum has wonderful exhibits on the history of the Nazi Party and the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler.

After a short walk from Hitlers former house we came upon the underground bunkers for Hitler, his SS troops and the high ranking members of his party.

We descended a spiral staircase and entered into an underground world of thick concrete walls connected by long hallways. Everything that was needed for defense and survival was there including food, weapons, ammunition, communication equipment, berthing and living areas and more.

The air was moist and the temperature cool inside the concrete underworld. We saw the bunker opening which led to Hitlers residence, but it was bricked up. It too had been destroyed along with Hitlers home.

Following lunch at the Berggasthof Obersalzberg mountain restaurant with its stunning views of the Alps, we left for our next destination located 900 meters above us the famed Eagles Nest.

Located on the peak of a mountain, this structure was built and given to Hitler to honor him on his 50th birthday in 1939. Known as the Kehlsteinhaus in German, it is built on the rocky outcrop perch of the Kehlstein peak.

The architectural wonder had begun in 1937 and took 13 months to complete. It is as much a marvel for the engineering process of building the roads and tunnels and getting the materials up the mountain as it is for the structure itself.

It was designed to be a retreat area for Hitler and a place for government and social gatherings.

Records indicate that Hitler used the Kehlsteinhaus no more than 15 times. His preference was always his Berghof, located 900 meters lower on Obersalzberg.

The person who did enjoy the Eagles Nest was his secret lover, Eva Braun, who spent time there when Hitler was away.

Today, the only transportation up to the mountain peak is by bus the ride up taking about 20 minutes. The final 120 meters up to the peak requires walking through a tunnel that ascends gently and then entering an elevator that ascends to the house on the peak.

Our tour group spent little time inside the building, as the real treasure was the view outside of the building.

At 1,800 meters in elevation, the views were stunning and breath taking.

We walked up the path which led to even higher elevations and took photos, vainly trying to adequately capture the majestic views we enjoyed.

In one direction we could look down into the valley below and see Salzburg, Austria. We were extraordinarily blessed with clear skies and great weather.

I came upon a large wooden cross erected on the path up from the Eagles Nest. I lingered there for a few moments and reflected on the rise and fall of the Nazi empire and what remains today.

Hitler ascended to power, his Nazi Party rose to prominence and control and sought to dominate Europe, but they could not rise above the higher and even more powerful ideals of faith, freedom and the force of right to conquer evil.

I descended the mountain, grateful that such ideals were preserved by those who fought on our behalf 70-plus years ago.

Gratitude is the word that encapsulates the entire 11 day trip for me. From the hallowed beaches of Normandy and the sacred cemeteries bearing the dead soldiers who once landed there, along the dense and rolling Ardennes Forest in Belgium where fox holes are still visible and small monuments appear everywhere, into the beautiful city of Munich where the Nazi Party was born, across the haunted grounds of Dachau Concentration Camp where so many tragically died, and finally up to the majestic peaks of the Alps that mark both the rise and fall of Hitler and his Nazi Party, I feel deep gratitude to those men and women in our armed forces who confronted and defeated an evil regime thousands of miles from home and helped to preserve liberty for future generations.

Among them some wonderful veterans from Morgan County, Indiana.

If you would like more information about the Beyond Band of Brothers tour company that I used for the trip, you can learn more at beyondbandofbrothers.com, or you can reach them by phone or email at 1-888-335-1996 or info@procomtours.com. I heartily recommend them.

Ronald P. May, USN (Ret.), is author of the book, Our Service, Our Stories. He helps veterans share and preserve the stories of their military service. For more information or to tell your story, contact May at 317-435-7636 or by email at yourlifestory@live.com. You can also follow him on Facebook at Our Service, Our Stories.

More:

The end of the war: Remembering the fall of Hitler, Nazi Germany in the towering Alps – Reporter-Times

Fair Usage Law

June 12, 2017   Posted in: Hitler  Comments Closed

Scindia likens Shivraj Singh govt to ‘Hitler’s rule’ – Daily News & Analysis

Stating that the death of five farmers in police firing in Mandsaur was a blot on the Shivraj Singh Chouhan government, Congress leader Jyotiraditya Scindia today equated the BJP regime in Madhya Pradesh to the “Hitler’s rule”.

“The police firing on farmers agitating for getting right price for their produce and waiver of loans, which resulted in the death of the five of them is a blot on the head of Shivraj Singh’s government. It appears that Hitler’s rule is prevailing in the state. Chouhan has no right to remain in power,” Scindia told reporters at the Indore Press Club.

“It is a matter of shame that instead of meeting grieving farmers’ families, the chief minister staged a nautanki (drama) in Bhopal in the name fast. By announcing hefty compensation for them, the Chouhan government tried to trivialise invaluable human lives through money,” he alleged.

Scindia, who also met injured farmers at the government M Y Hospital here said, “I am totally shattered with their ordeal. They alleged that after the firing, police dragged them on the roads and also took away money and mobile phones from their pockets.”

The former union minister claimed that police have termed nearly 700 agitating farmers as anti-social elements and have registered cases against them while it has not yet filed a case against those policemen, who ordered to open fire at the protesters.

He alleged that the state government was just hushing up the matter in the name of probe. “The policemen in Khaki dress should not consider themselves as god,” he remarked.

The senior Congress leader also denied allegations that his party had added fuel to the agitation.

“Congress has no role in the farmers’ agitation. We always follow the path of non-violence shown by Mahatma Gandhi,” he said.

Targeting Prime Minister Narendra Modi, he said that nearly 65 crore people are dependent on agriculture in the country, but the government has hiked the rates of power and diesel, which has increased the cost of cultivation, forcing the farmers to commit suicide.

Scindia also announced to stage 72-hour ‘satyagraha’ in support of the farmers at Bhopal from June 14.

(This article has not been edited by DNA’s editorial team and is auto-generated from an agency feed.)

Read the original here:

Scindia likens Shivraj Singh govt to ‘Hitler’s rule’ – Daily News & Analysis

Fair Usage Law

June 12, 2017   Posted in: Hitler  Comments Closed

Why Hitler’s Most Powerful Battleship Ever Refused to Sink – The National Interest Online (blog)

On May 24, southwest of Iceland,BismarckandPrinzEugentangled with the battleship HMSPrince of Walesand the agingbattlecruiserHMSHood. Trading armored protection for speed,Hoods designers had left it dangerously exposed to enemy fire. Hits from the German task force ignited an ammunition fire that raged out of control onHood. Within ten minutes a titanic explosion shook the Denmark Strait as the fire reached the aft magazine.Hoodbroke in half and sank, taking 1,418 men with it.

Bismarck, despite its stunning victory, had not emerged from the battle unscathed. Hit three times byPrince of Wales, it lost some of its fuel supply to seawater contamination, sustained damage to its propulsion, and suffered a nine-degree list to port. Its captain, desperate to get away from the site of the battle and a slowly coalescing Royal Navy force eager for revenge, refused to slow down to allow damage control to effect repairs.

On May 23, 1941, the Battleship Bismarckwas on a roll. The largest and most powerful ship in the German Navy, the mightyBismarckhad broken out into the Atlantic Ocean, sunk a Royal Navybattlecruiser, badly damaged a battleship and was poised to add its guns to a naval blockade that threatened to strangle Great Britain.

Ninety-six hours later, heavily damaged, the battleship was on the bottom of the North Atlantic.Bismarcks swift reversal of fortune was the result of a heroic effort by the Royal Navy to hunt down and destroy the battlewagon, and avenge the more than 1,400 Royal Navy personnel killed in the Denmark Strait.

The German battleshipBismarckwas the the pride of theKriegsmarine, Nazi Germanys naval service. Construction began in 1936, and the ship was commissioned in April 1940. It and its sister ship,Tirpitz, were 821 feet long and displaced fifty thousand tons, making them by far the largest warships ever built by Germany. Despite its size, twelve Wagner steam boilers made it capable of a fast thirty knots.

Like any battlewagon,Bismarcks firepower lay in its main gun batteries.Bismarckhad eight fifteen-inch guns in four large turrets, each capable of hurling a 1,800-pound armor-piercing, capped projectile 21.75 miles. This gave it the ability to penetrate 16.5 inches of armor at eleven miles.

The relatively small size of Germanys World War II navy made it incapable of taking on the British and French navies head-on. Instead, theKriegsmarinewas given a much more limited role, of shepherding invasion fleets and cutting off the flow of commerce to Great Britain. On May 18, 1941,Bismarckand its escort, the heavy cruiserPrinzEugen, embarked on OperationRheinbung, a campaign to sink Allied shipping in the North Atlantic and knock Britain out of the war.

On May 24, southwest of Iceland,BismarckandPrinzEugentangled with the battleship HMSPrince of Walesand the agingbattlecruiserHMSHood. Trading armored protection for speed,Hoods designers had left it dangerously exposed to enemy fire. Hits from the German task force ignited an ammunition fire that raged out of control onHood. Within ten minutes a titanic explosion shook the Denmark Strait as the fire reached the aft magazine.Hoodbroke in half and sank, taking 1,418 men with it.

Bismarck, despite its stunning victory, had not emerged from the battle unscathed. Hit three times byPrince of Wales, it lost some of its fuel supply to seawater contamination, sustained damage to its propulsion, and suffered a nine-degree list to port. Its captain, desperate to get away from the site of the battle and a slowly coalescing Royal Navy force eager for revenge, refused to slow down to allow damage control to effect repairs.

Bismarcks captain was correct. The Royal Navy was assembling a large force to sink it, and indeed had ordered every ship in the area to join in the search to find it. The much larger Royal Navy was able to assemble a force of six battleships and battlecruisers, two aircraft carriers, thirteen cruisers, and twenty-one destroyers to huntBismarck. Unfortunately, many of the larger ships were of World War I vintage, and could not catch up with the wounded, but still fastBismarck.

AlthoughBismarckoutclassed nearly all the heavy capital ships that chased it, naval aviation was another matter. The German task forces location was betrayed by oil leaking from the battleship and the aircraft carrier HMSVictoriouswas sent to slow it down. An air strike by six Fairey Fulmar carrier-based fighters and nine Fairey Swordfish carrier torpedo bombers managed a single hit onBismarck. The torpedo explosion did minor damage, but the evasive maneuvers conducted byBismarcks captain to evade the torpedo attack caused even more damage, slowing the mighty battleship to sixteen knots.

Although it was eventually able to get back up to twenty-eight knots, the temporary loss of its speed advantage allowed a Royal Navy task force, Force H, to catch up to it. Established to take the place of the surrendered French Navy in the western Mediterranean, Force H was based at Gibraltar. It consisted of the aircraft carrier HMSArk Royal, the battlecruiserRenownand a light cruiser.

Read the original post:

Why Hitler’s Most Powerful Battleship Ever Refused to Sink – The National Interest Online (blog)

Fair Usage Law

June 12, 2017   Posted in: Hitler  Comments Closed

The Scientist and the Fascist – The Atlantic

In September 1930, Germany held its first national elections since the Great Crash of 1929, and the National Socialists won a stunning tally: 6,400,000 votes10 times their total just two years beforeand 107 seats. They were now the second largest party in the Reichstag. The word Nazi no longer evoked images of the madhouse, as one commentator wrote. Suddenly the party was almost respectable.

Even so, it still seemed to many as if Hitlers support was tenuous. For Albert Einstein, Hitlers sudden rush to prominence confirmed his historic distrust of the German body politic. But at this time, he did not see Hitler or National Socialism as a lasting danger. Asked in December of 1930 what to make of the new force in German politics, he answered that I do not enjoy Herr Hitlers acquaintance. He is living on the empty stomach of Germany. As soon as economic conditions improve, he will no longer be important. Initially, he felt that no action at all would be needed to bring Hitler low. He reaffirmed for a Jewish organization that the momentarily desperate economic situation and the chronic childish disease of the Republic were to blame for the Nazi success. Solidarity of the Jews, I believe, is always called for, he wrote, but any special reaction to the election results would be quite inappropriate.

Einstein should have been rightthe evidence for the fragility of Hitlers support over the next two years makes for frustrating, bitter, what-if history. But even if he had persuasive reasons for believing that Hitler would not last, the election results reaffirmed the urgency of his core political stand. Even if he underestimated Hitler (as so many Germans did then), he still recognized the need to act to counter the more general pathology of which Hitlers rise was a symptom.

The threat of German rearmament, along with a resurgence of militarism across the European continent spurred Einstein to act. Germany had been almost completely disarmed by the Versailles Treaty after World War I. Its army could total no more than 100,000 men; its forces were denied most heavy weapons; it could not build an air force; its warships had to meet strict tonnage and armament restrictions. Evasion of these terms had been the rule almost from the start.

This rearming barely a decade after a conflict that ought to have inoculated Germany against the contagion of battle-lust forever, was intolerable to Einstein. In response, he advocated mass rejection of compulsory military service by young men throughout Europea campaign that had become a major pillar of pacifist politics after the war. Every thoughtful, well-meaning, and conscientious human being, he wrote in January 1928 in a letter to Londons No More War movement, should assume, in time of peace, the solemn and unconditional obligation not to participate in any war for any reason.

He grew more insistent as time passed. In the spring of 1929, he wrote that the people themselves must take the initiative to see to it that they will never again be led to slaughter. To expect protection from their governments is folly. During the next several months 1930, driven by the rise of militant nationalism across Europe, Einsteins level of urgency and passion grew. War had become an absolute anathema to him: I would rather be torn limb from limb, he wrote, than take part in such an ugly business.

By late 1932, Einstein abandoned the last of his hopesor illusionsthat a more or less democratic German society could survive economic collapse and the Nazis deliberate sabotage of civic life.

The Nazi setbacks in the November elections produced a brief moment of hope. Several quite acute political observers, including Einsteins friend Kessler, thought that the Nazi losses marked the beginning of the end. But the moment evaporated, destroyed by Chancellor Fritz von Papens vacuous incompetence and Hitlers relentless pursuit of power. Einstein had spoken at home and abroad against the collective surrender to unreason he saw around him. He had written, campaigned, served on committees, encouraged others, raised money when he could. But by late 1932, the end had clearly come.

From very early in his life, Einstein gave hints of a deep-seated streak of fatalism. It never prevented him from acting, from behaving as if what he sought to do could influence events. But the countervailing strain was always there, the perception that the apparently unique spark of any one human life must ultimately vanish into the vastness of the cosmos. The previous year, 1931, bound for California, he experienced a storm at sea. He wrote in his travel diary that the sea has a look of indescribable grandeur, especially when the sun falls on it. One feels as if one is dissolved and merged into nature. Even more than usual, one feels the insignificance of the individual and it makes one happy.

Insignificantand hence autonomous, free to do what one had to do. In the end, Einstein simply left the stage. On December 12, Albert and Elsa Einstein set out from Berlin for the United States. A photograph taken at the entrance of the train station shows an ordinary travelers tableau. Elsa looks a little worried, harried; she could be thinking about the luggage, or perhaps, more seriously, about her daughter Ilse, who was ailing. Einsteins face is unrevealing, almost grim. The overall impression is of impatience, a desire to be done with photography and catch their train. There is no way to read the image, except with hindsight, as the end of an era.

Before they reached the train station, Einstein and Elsa had to close up their house at Caputh. They may have paused at the door to Einsteins study or on the porch, looking down the sweep of lawn to the lake, visible then through the leafless trees. There might have been a glance round the back of the house, a survey of windows shut and doors latched, and then in and out again, carrying their bags. One of them locked the doorprobably Elsa, the master of all practical matters in the Einstein household. Finally, when nothing remained to be done, they walked away from the house. Einstein spoke. Take a good look, he told Elsa. You will never see it again.

* * *

In exile, Einstein rethought his core political beliefs and the moral reasoning that underpinned them. Being Einstein, he was faster to the conclusions that shift forced on him than almost all of his contemporaries.

On January 30, 1933, as Hitler took the oath as Chancellor of a republic about to become a Reich, Albert Einstein was safely out of reach in Pasadena. For the moment, there was little overt danger. Well treated by his American friends, he could be positively playful, even trying his hand at bicycling. The famous photograph of Einstein atop his two-wheeler was taken that February. He leans over, his front wheel a little askew. He seems a trifle unsteady but he grins hugely; life is pleasant in southern California.

Even after Hitler consolidated his hold, Einstein restrained himself for a while. Early in February, he even wrote to the Prussian Academy to discuss salary matters, fully as if he intended to resume work in Berlin later that year. But any illusions he may have had shattered almost immediately thereafter. On February 27, the Reichstag in Berlin burned to the ground. The crackdown on the left began immediately, with the SA and the SS competing to arrest and brutalize any perceived threat to the Reich.

By coincidence, the same day that Reichstag burned, Einstein wrote to his quondam mistress, Margarete Lenbach. He told her that I dare not enter Germany because of Hitler. The day before he left Pasadena, bound eventually for Belgium, he launched his first public attack against Germanys new regime. As long as I have any choice in the matter, I shall live only in a country where civil liberty, tolerance, and equality of all citizens before the law prevail. The completion of the syllogism was simpleThese conditions do not exist in Germany at the present timeand would not, Einstein implied, as long as the current regime remained in power.

Hitlers government reacted swiftly and bitterly to Einsteins charges. The Vlkicsher Beobachter published a series of attacks on him, and more mainstream papers followed suit. One headline read Good News of EinsteinHe Is Not Coming Back! over an article condemning this puffed-up bit of vanity [who] dared to sit in judgment on Germany without knowing what is going on herematters that forever must remain incomprehensible to a man who was never a German in our eyes and who declares himself to be a Jew and nothing but a Jew. A pamphlet that surfaced some months later reprinted Einsteins photograph in a collection of enemies of Nazi Germany, over the caption, Not Yet Hanged.

Such harassment did not touch Einstein very deeply. The sharpest blows came not from the Nazis themselves but from those who had once formed his chief reason for being in Berlin, his fellow members of the Prussian Academy. While still at sea on the way to Belgium, Einstein drafted his letter of resignation from the Academy, and on arrival he gave it to the German legation, along with his renunciation of German citizenship.

Subsequent events revealed the depth to which the rot had spread. Hitlers government ordered the Prussian Academy to begin the process of expelling Einstein from its midst. His resignation caught the government by surprise. Enraged that he had quit before he could be fired, the minister in charge demanded a proclamation from the Academy condemning its erstwhile hero. The draft statement declared that we have no reason to regret Einsteins resignation. The Academy is aghast at his foreign agitation. Einsteins old friend Max von Laue was horrified at the idea that the Academy might issue such a document, and he spoke against the proposal at an extraordinary meeting on April 6. Only one of the 14 members present supported him. Even Haber, the converted Jew and Einsteins close friend, voted with the majority.

Habers action was bad. Max Planck disgraced himself. Einstein had written to Planck to refute privately the charge that he had spread rumors against Germany, telling him that he spoke now only to combat what was clearly a Nazi war of extermination against my Jewish brethren. Planck answered Einstein in a letter that identified both Jewishness and National Socialism as ideologies that cannot co-exist. He deplored both and emphasized his loyalty to Germany, no matter who was in charge. It is greatly to be regretted, he said at the Academy meeting, that Mr. Einstein through his political behavior himself rendered his continued membership in the Academy impossible. Einsteins politics were to blame, not those of a German government that had chosen to destroy him.

Throughout the summer of 1933, Einstein sounded his warning about Hitler wherever he could. In September he visited Winston Churchill, then firmly in political exilebut while Churchill did not require much persuasion to view Hitler as a menace, he had no influence to bring to bear. Later that month, Einsteins frustration became more obvious. I cannot understand the passive response of the whole civilized world to this modern barbarism, he told one interviewer. Does the world not see that Hitler is aiming at war?

That contained hints of the tectonic shift that had overtaken Einsteins core political passion. By the time he spoke, he was no longer a pacifist. In September he had announced his change of heart in a letter to a Belgian war resister published in The New York Times. Until quite recently we in Europe could assume that personal war resistance constituted an effective attack on militarism, he began. But circumstances alter cases, and now, in the heart of Europe lies a power, Germany, that is obviously pushing towards war with all available means. For Einstein, even deeply held principles had to bend to the pressure of an overwhelming threat. I should not, in the present circumstances, refuse military service, he concluded. Rather I should enter such service cheerfully in the belief that I would thereby be helping to save European civilization.

The culmination of Einsteins commitment to defeat Hitler by whatever means necessary came in 1939 and 1940, when he sent his two letters to President Roosevelt about the possibility of the United States building an atomic bomb. In late 1938, Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman, two scientists still working in Berlin, were wrestling with some novel results from a series of experiments in which they bombarded uranium with a newly discovered subatomic particle, the neutron. Lise Meitner, Hahns former collaborator, and her nephew Otto Frisch, both exiles from Hitlers Germany, met at Christmas in the Swedish village of Kunglv and together they identified the process the Berliners had observed: neutrons striking uranium atoms had sparked nuclear fission, the violent destruction of atomic nuclei in which both energy and more neutrons are released. The result was published several months before wartime secrecy would have rung the curtain down. Every competent physicist who heard the news realized that the fact that each fission event could release more neutrons, raised the possibility of a chain reaction, the new neutrons splitting more atoms in an escalating cascade. The next step was obvious even to the newspapers. As early as the spring of 1939, The Washington Post reported that nuclear fission could lead to weapons powerful enough to destroy everything over two square miles of ground.

In the first months after the fission experiments became public knowledge, however, Einstein had not paid much attention. During the summer of 1939, however, Szilard came to visit him at his summer house on Long Island, accompanied by his fellow physicists Eugene Wigner and Edward Teller. The three migr Hungarians laid out the principle of the chain reaction, and then told Einstein of the interest the Germans were already showing in the use of uranium as a weapon. That was enough to persuade him to sign his first letter, in which he urged the president to consider the possibility of creating atomic weapons. Roosevelt replied in mid-October, saying that he had set up a committee to investigate Einsteins suggestions. Nothing much happenedno surprise, given the initial committee budget of $6,000 for its first year of operationso Szilard got Einstein to try again. In March, 1940, he sent his second letter to Roosevelt, urging him to give greater impetus to the effort because, Einstein wrote, Since the outbreak of the war, interest in uranium has intensified in Germany. I have now learned that research there is carried out in great secrecy.

Despite his attempt at presidential lobbying, and contrary to the often repeated fable that he was somehow the creator of the atom bomb, Einstein had next to nothing to do with the invention of nuclear weapons. The significance of his letters to Roosevelt was not the results they failed to achieve, but what they reveal about Einsteins own political evolution. Until 1932, he had argued as fervently as he could that no civilized man should permit the state to order him to kill.

In the end, the use of Americas bombs deeply saddened him. On hearing of the attack on Hiroshima he is reported to have said Oj WegWoe is me. He later said that had I known that the Germans would not succeed in producing an atomic bomb, I would not have lifted a finger. After the war ended, Einstein became one of the founding forces in the scientists anti-nuclear movement. The last public act of his life was to add his name to a manifesto drafted by Bertrand Russell that called for global nuclear disarmament. But he never wavered in the basic argument he had made in the summer of 1933: Hitler was a deadly poison. He had to be neutralized. No greater goals could be contemplated until Hitler and Germany had been utterly defeated. Once he reached that conclusion, he followed it through to its ultimate destination: the bomb itself.

This article has been adapted from Thomas Levensons book, Einstein in Berlin.

See the rest here:

The Scientist and the Fascist – The Atlantic

Fair Usage Law

June 11, 2017   Posted in: Hitler  Comments Closed

A Life Without Parole Sentence not the Death Penalty for Hitler – City Watch

DEATH PENALTY POLITICS-In a blood-thirsty columnclamoring for faster executions in the United States, John Steele Gordon, a writer specializing in financial and business history, asserts: Had Hitler been captured alive, would anyone have suggested life without parole?

Yes. Me. I would have.

Knowing the exorbitant costs of capital punishment on our judicial system and on our identity as civilized, compassionate, peaceful, justice-loving people had I been alive at the time, I would have recommended a life without parole sentence and not the death penalty for Hitler.

And Im Jewish. Both my parents come from Jewish families; before immigrating to the United States, my paternal grandparents were Jews from Poland and my maternal grandparents were Jews from Germany. My paternal grandfather, Denis Cooper, even fought for the United States Army against Hitler. (He came to the United States around 1938, working and attending George Washington University Law School at night. Once the war broke out, he joined the Army and his duties were wide-ranging; they included interrogating captured Germans, assisting liberated towns in reestablishing local governments, and participating in various de-Nazification efforts. Near the end of the war, my grandfather once captured a small group of German officers by walking into their office and introducing himself as Captain Cooper of the United States Army; then he informed them that they could either surrender to him or wait and surrender to the Russians.)

But Jewish or not, one need not linger long on Gordons hyperbolic Hitler-hypothesis undergirding much of his screed to know that its off-base. As horrific as their crimes have been, theres never been a prisoner on death row in the United States that has ever committed atrocities on the scale of Hitler and there never will be. The crimes of inmates on death row may be demonic in description but, despite the unsubtle attempts of Gordon and other death penalty proponents to cast them as such, death row inmates are not otherworldly demons. As I have written elsewhere, for example, when we talk about a backlog of death row inmates, we are not talking about curtailing an exploding population of coyotes. We are talking about a population of human beings, many of whom suffer from serious mental illness, a frequent byproduct of a childhood where poverty, abuse, violence, and neglect were the norm.

Gordons tenuous reliance on an imagined what if Hitler had been captured alive scenario to argue for expedited state-killing is also undercut by his erroneous claim that the history of the death penalty is one of ever-decreasing cruelty [and] spectacle. As a backdrop for his repugnant and incorrect supposition that lethal injection is humane and not a sick freak show, Gordon reminds us in macabre and disturbingly longing fashion that: The Romans, like all ancient peoples, put criminals to death, and for even petty offenses; Many of the condemned were dispatched by wild animals in the arena; [o]thers were crucified; beheading, hanging, drawing and quartering, and burning at the stake were all common punishments.

Gordon completely ignores the grisly horror of the big jab or stainless steel ride which Ive described in pieces like The death penalty in Alabama: Whats it really like?, Alabamas last execution may have burned a man alive, and When will the United States stop tinkering with the machinery of death? Heck, just last month I wrote a column demanding to know, Is Alabama hiding evidence it tortured its citizens? Guided by an op-ed entitled, The drugs we use for executions can cause immense pain and suffering by David Waisel, an associate professor of anesthesia at Harvard Medical School, I pointed specifically to the lethal injections of Christopher Brooks on January 21, 2016, and that of Ronald Bert Smith on December 8, 2016, as being based on publicly available information botched executions.

But Alabama just executed Tommy Arthur on May 25, right around the witching hour and before the expiration of his death warrant and everything went just dandy, swimmingly and according to protocol or so Alabamas Department of Corrections, John Steele Gordon and perhaps, even you, dear reader might say?

Perhaps. But, maybe the excruciating, cruel and unusual pain Arthur felt and the resultant torment on his body as the lethal drugs saturated his system was sanitized from public view by way of a chemical straightjacket?

Or, maybe, as I wrote after Christopher Brooks troubled execution which at the time was also rosily reported as having gone smoothly perhaps Alabama just got lucky this time? Hard to say, isnt it? As executions around the country demonstrate, killing another human being, even when done by the state, is hardly an exact science.

State-sponsored killing was horrific under the Romans, it was horrific under Hitler, and its horrific now, on any level, in modern times.

Still, the nation and Alabamas rattlesnake rodeo operation continues. In fact, its in high gear with the countrys and Alabamas next execution (and possibly torturous event) just around the corner the execution of Robert Melson scheduled for June 8.

(About the Author: Stephen Cooper is a former D.C. public defender who worked as an assistant federal public defender in Alabama between 2012 and 2015. He has contributed to numerous magazines and newspapers in the United States and overseas. He writes full-time and lives in Woodland Hills, California. Follow him on Twitter @SteveCooperEsq.) Prepped for CityWatch by Linda Abrams.

-cw

See the rest here:

A Life Without Parole Sentence not the Death Penalty for Hitler – City Watch

Fair Usage Law

June 9, 2017   Posted in: Hitler  Comments Closed

Pence to speak at conference hosted by pastor who claimed God created Hitler to hunt down the Jews – Raw Story

Vice President Mike Pence next month will address Christians United for Israel, a group founded by megachurch Pastor John Hagee, who once said Hitler was a hunter sent by God to expedite the return of Jews to Israel. According to Right Wing Watch, Pence has signed on to speak at Christians Uniteds annual gathering in Washington D.C., after Hagee supported the president and vice president throughout the 2016 presidential election. Hagee made the remarks in a 1990s sermon uncovered during the 2008 presidential electionwhich prompted then-candidate John McCain to disavow the prominent evangelical. And they the hunters should hunt them, that will be the Jews, Hagee said in that sermon, which he later apologized for. From every mountain and from every hill and from out of the holes of the rocksIf that doesnt describe what Hitler did in the holocaust you cant see that. Theodore Herzl is the father of Zionism, Hagee continued. He was a Jew who at the turn of the 19th century said, this land is our land, God wants us to live there. So he went to the Jews of Europe and said I want you to come and join me in the land of Israel. So few went that Hertzel went into depression. Those who came founded Israel; those who did not went through the hell of the Holocaust, he added. Then god sent a hunter. A hunter is someone with a gun and he forces you. Hitler was a hunter. Pences boss, Donald Trump has pledged support for evangelical Christians. Last week, the president spoke at the Christian conservative nonprofit Faith and Freedom Coalition, arguing It is time to put a stop to the attacks on religion. We will end the discrimination against people of faith. Our government will once again celebrate and protect religious freedom, he said, later adding he and his evangelical audience are under siege.

Fair Usage Law

June 13, 2017   Posted in: Hitler  Comments Closed

Did melting ice just reveal a secret Antarctic Nazi base? – Daily Star

IT’S a conspiracy that won’t quit, did the Nazis really have a secret base in Antarctica? The Germans visited Antarctica looking to set up a whaling base in World War Two. Another goal was scouting a place for a naval base, but nothing came of it. Despite this, legends of a secret base continue to fuel speculation still. GETTY/GOOGLE Now one Russian anorak believes he may have cracked the case using Google Earth. A travesty of history has occurred Valentin Degtyarev claims he’s spotted a cave on the side of a mountain in the frozen continent. And he says the mouth of it is 60m high and 20m wide, something that’s “not a typical phenomenon” in nature. Mr Degtyarev, who’s described by Russian newspaper Pravda as a researcher and radio host, described the find on his blog. Eva Braun kept a personal photo album, full of photos of her lover Adolf Hitler which he had never authorised to be released to the public. The album was found in Eva Braun’s home by a photographer at the end of WW2, and has gone up for auction at C&T Auctions in Kent 1 / 15 A candid photo of Adolf Hitler reading through papers He wrote: “In the 1930s the Germans actively explored Antarctica. For this purpose they made the largest submarine in the world. “A huge amount of cargo was taken, as well as 11,000 concentration camp prisoners. The last expedition was arranged before the fall of Germany.” Mr Degtyarev says a cabal of top Nazis could have been evacuated there, writing that “not all the perpetrators were found and executed”. And while no trace of a Nazi base has ever been found in Antarctica, he says this cave may be newly revealed by retreating ice. NC The mountain he identifies is part of the Mhlig-Hofmann range, where a conspiracy theory says Hitler’s ashes were hidden. Hitler’s Ashes, a book attributed to Colonel Howard Buechner and Captain Wilhelm Bernard, sparked the bizarre legend. It claims the crew of Nazi submarine U-530 visited the cave, which was found by the earlier expedition, in 1945. Colin Summerhayes of the University of Cambridge, however, rules out the theory as “entirely fallacious”. The inside of the bunker where Hitler spent his final days has been revealed for the first time. 1 / 18 In a peer-reviewed paper, published in 2006, Mr Summerhayes probed the various legends about a Nazi Antarctic base. “Our analysis suggests that in these writings fantasy has ruled and a travesty of history has occurred,” the paper concludes. “Fragments of these accounts have been stitched together Information that did not fit has been left out. Gaps have been filled by speculation.” The real Nazi expedition to Antarctica visited an area known as New Swabia named after a German region left on 6 February 1939.

Fair Usage Law

June 13, 2017   Posted in: Hitler  Comments Closed

Death of Hitler Video – Adolf Hitler – HISTORY.com

Death of Hitler 4min Adolf Hitler’s Parkinson’s 3min How Close was Hitler to the A-Bomb? 4min Adolf Hitler: Fast Facts 5min Hitler Plans a New German Capital 3min Hitler’s Remains 3min Arnold Ropeik on the Concentration Camps 3min Hitler Plans the World’s Largest Stadium 3min Battle of Stalingrad 3min Rise of the Nazis 4min Concentration Camp Liberation 3min Hitler’s Military Blunders 4min Drawn History: The Blitz 2min 761st Activated 3min Manhattan Project 4min Blacks in the Military 4min Deconstructing History: B-17 2min Leap of Faith: A WWII Story 12min Dwight Eisenhower 4min Did WWI Lead to WWII? 3min Winston Churchill 5min Deconstructing History: Sherman Tank 2min America Enters World War II 5min Women of War 2min Penicillin 3min Deconstructing History: U-Boats 2min Amphibious Assaults of World War II 3min World War II Soldiers Dig In 3min World War II Tanks 4min World War II in North Africa 3min Jack Werner 3min Nostradamus Predicts Hitler? 3min Battle of Guam 3min Patton’s Guns 3min Douglas MacArthur 4min Secret Atomic City in Tennessee 4min Joseph Heller on the G.I. Bill NaNmin D-Day Invasion of Normandy 4min Eisenhower Leads America 4min Shelby Westbrook 3min Homefront Funeral 3min Presidents Who Served 4min At the Battle of the Bulge 4min Jack Yusen 3min Satellites: Invention of War 3min Battle of Peleliu 3min Ask HISTORY: Rosie the Riveter 3min Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Last Presidential Term 2min Patton’s Soldiers 4min D-Day 2min Patton and the Liberation of Europe 3min Japanese Ace Hiroyoshi Nishizawa 3min Chaplain G.I. 4min War Photographer 3min Patton’s Generals 3min Japanese Attack Pearl Harbor 2min Weapons of Patton’s Armies 3min USS Arizona Under Attack at Pearl Harbor 3min Germans Test V-2 Rockets 3min Battle of Saipan 3min Japanese Internment in America 3min 761st Enters Combat 3min French Resistance 4min Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Personal Strength 4min From Farm to Flyer 4min D-Day: Allied Invasion at Normandy 4min Women in the Cockpit 4min Franklin D. Roosevelt 5min D-Day Invasion 4min Christmas on the Western Front 1min George S. Patton 4min Franklin D. Roosevelt: The World War II Years 4min Jimmie Kayana 3min B-52 Bomber Remade 4min D-Day: The Lost Evidence – In the Heat of Battle 4min FDR: A Voice of Hope 5min D-Day Battle Gear 3min D-Day Deception 4min Allied Advance Stalls at Normandy 4min Friend or Enemy? 3min Patton’s Adversaries 3min Battle of Okinawa 3min Battle of the Bulge 3min Combat Rations in WWII 2min Franklin D. Roosevelt Reports to the New American Congress 2min Patton vs. Germany’s Tiger Tanks 3min Rockie Blunt 3min Patton the Legend 3min Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress Bomber 2min Franklin D. Roosevelt at the Moscow Conference 2min Ed McMahon and the G.I. Bill 4min Patton the Warrior 3min WWII Spy Strategy 3min MacArthur and Me 4min Motorcycle MP 4min Then Came War 3min A Key to Victory 3min General Omar Bradley 3min Atomic Bomb Assembled 2min Battle of Kwajalein 3min

Fair Usage Law

June 12, 2017   Posted in: Hitler  Comments Closed

Former movie star survived Hitler’s vengeance – The Sydney Morning Herald

Eve Esnouf: “I remember that night all so clearly, and most certainly the events that followed.”Photo: Supplied I have long held the belief that everyone has a story to tell if you are prepared to listen. But nothing prepared me for the story told by 87-year-old Eve Esnouf during a chance meeting at a South Yarra social function in 2008. It began with her simple question: “How have you spent your day?” I replied that my wife and I had been to the movies, but before I could continue further,her calm demeanour perceptibly changed. “I refuse to go to the movies since my row with that silly little film man.” Slightly bemused, I asked who the “silly little film man” might be. ‘Tom Cruise,” she replied without a moment’s hesitation. The Tom Cruise, I asked.”Yes, he has made a film about my family and we are not very happy.” “May I ask why Tom Cruise would make a film about your family?” “It’s about my uncle, Claus Von Stauffenberg. He was the manwho put the bomb under Adolf Hitler.” For the next 30 minutes, I sat spellbound as this sprightly octogenarian with a slightly aristocratic air recountedher uncle’sfailed attempt to assassinate one of the world’s most despotic dictators. As I sat next to the niece of thewould-be assassinthe horror of Hitler’sretribution was clearly showing onherface, 64years later. It would take anothernine years to discoverthe rest of her amazing life story. A life as an award-winning European film star before the war, alongside such names as Marlene Dietrich and Ilse Werner. Her survival from Hitler’s henchmen and an incredible escape from invading Russians. Becoming an interpreter to Field-Marshal Montgomery in postwar Germany; and finally a love story that led to her starting a new life in Melbourne. During our initial encounter, shespoke with a strong German accent clipped by a recent stroke, yet her long-term memory fordetail was astounding. “Yes, I remember that night all so clearly, andmostcertainly the events that followed.” Born on December 14, 1919, Ruth Eva (Eve) Esnoufwas about 21 at the time her Uncle Claus carried the briefcase bomb into the wooden barracks of the German high command in what was code named “Operation Valkyrie”. The Stauffenbergs were one of the oldest and most distinguished Roman Catholic families in southern Germany andEve was relatedon her father’s side through marriage. Claus Philip von Stauffenberg, the third ofthree sons, had risen to the rank of colonel and was one of the few who had direct access to the Fuehrer. The horror of Hitler’s retribution was clearly showing on her face, 64 years later. “I met Hitleron the several occasions he visitedourfamily,” Eve recalled, “butUncleClaussaw no other alternative for the future of Germany than in his assassination.” On July 20 that year his briefcase contained two small bombs, only one of which would be activated.He slid it under the conference table, as close to Hitler as he could, and made an excuse to leave. He waited nearby as the blast ripped through the building, killing four people and injuring many others, including his intended target, who was shielded from thefullblast by the heavy oak table. Hitler’s retribution was as swift as it was violent. Recounting the event 64 years later, Eve visibly stiffened at the horror that followed. “He ordered the execution of all the male members of my family.” At the time ofour conversation in the South Yarra apartment Eve was still under the impression her father had been shotalong with Uncle Claus.It wasonly recently the family discovered Eve’sfather had escaped execution, only to die some time later in a Russian jail. Eve was one of thesurvivors but the war would leaveits pain. In1942 her brother Fritz, a Stukapilotin theLuftwaffe,was shot down in France but survivedonly to be killed18 months laterin the battle of Stalingrad. After the failed assassination attempt on Hitler, the execution ofher uncle Claus andthe disappearance of her father,Eve’s homewasoverrun bytheRussians, who used the Schloss as their command post in what would become East Germany. Whileher mother and sister decided tostay,Eve smuggled herselfina truckload of motorcycles and made it tothe British-controlled city ofHanover where,according to family records,Eve used her charms andschoolgirl English to become an interpreter to Field Marshal Montgomery,who wasrunning the Allied Information Control Unit. There she met and married the dashing Scottish/ItalianHector Pelman, conceiving a son, Ashley, before migrating to Melbourne in 1951. Their marriage soon ended andEvemet Stuart Esnouf, an East Melbourne doctor.Hector also remarried and so began a very amicable blended arrangement with both familiesthat lasted a lifetime. In 1966 travel regulations in easternEurope relaxed and Eve became a regular attraction on the Melbourne speaking circuit, describinglife behind the Iron Curtain. Throughout the1970s and1980s she was on the Lady Mayoress’committee, heading many charity and fundraising events in Melbourne. In later years health becamean issue. But accordingto her loving daughter Durelle, “no kidney stone,nor three strokes, diabetes, heart disease or theloss of an eye through melanoma, interfered with her life”. She said: “Mum was a pack-a-day smoker until her tennis friends at Kooyong refused to share her room onovernighttournaments, and only then didshe give them up.Not her friends. The cigarettes.” At92 Eve became part of a successful world trialfor an aortic heart valve; now acommon procedure. Despitemany attempts since our meetingin 2008 Eve refusedall requestsfor a furtherinterview.According to her daughter shewas avery pragmaticwoman:”What’s done is done,she would say.Forget the past and look to the future.” As a journalist Iwas more interested in her past:the irony of her own history as aEuropean film starin the 30sand herissuewith Tom Cruise. While Operation Valkyrie had already been well documentedatthe time I met Eve, thefamily in Germany had lodged strong objections to the choice of TomCruise, an avowed Scientologist. The film came and went without breaking any box office records,but I doubt Eve ever sawit. She passed away in a Melbourne nursing home onMay 10, just short of her 98thbirthday.

Fair Usage Law

June 12, 2017   Posted in: Hitler  Comments Closed

The end of the war: Remembering the fall of Hitler, Nazi Germany in the towering Alps – Reporter-Times

Editors note: This is the last in an 11-part series chronicling World War II battle sites visited by Reporter-Times correspondent Ronald May on an 11-day trip to Europe in France, Belgium and Germany places that some of our Morgan County veterans once walked on or flew over in July 2016. This series of articles is a summary of what he saw and learned there as he followed the path of American heroes who answered the call of duty over 75 years ago. Adolph Hitler loved Obersalzberg, a mountain retreat nestled in the Alps just above the village of Berchtesgaden, about 75 miles southeast of Munich in Bavaria, Germany. After coming to power in the Nazi Party, Hitler purchased a chalet in the mountains and turned Obersalzberg into his own private residence a secured Fuhrers off-limits area that included buying out or pushing out previous inhabitants to make way for his new domain. He later renovated and expanded the chalet, making it his beloved Berghof, a vacation residence that he would use extensively for 10 years. Today there is almost no visible remnant of Hitlers prized home. Its absence symbolizes the end of the once mighty Nazi Party and the final demise of its powerful and maniacal dictator, Adolph Hitler. Our tour group traveled to the sight of Hitlers former residence at Obersalzberg. We gazed upon its faint ruins and tried to imagine its former splendor. Hitler especially loved the mountain area around the bucolic village of Berchtesgaden. He felt the Bavarian mountain region produced the ideal Germans rural and industrious with ties to the earth through farming and outdoor living. Beginning in 1923, as he was flexing his political aspirations, Hitler began coming to the area of Berchtesgaden regularly for rest, relaxation and contemplation. In time, his Berghof became a seat of power second only to Berlin, a city Hitler did not care for because of its large urban area and more liberal outlooks. His vacation home was his getaway, his retreat, the place where he could walk his dog in solitude along the forested mountain paths; the place where he could spend romantic time with his lover, Eva Braun; and the place that he could host visiting dignitaries. It was not just a place for resting; it was his place for thinking. Many of Hitlers grand visions for the Third Reich were first contemplated at this mountain retreat. During the years of World War II, Hitler spent more time at the Berghof than at any of his other homes or headquarters throughout Germany and Poland. Our guide, Steve, showed us old photographs of Hitler at his Berghof residence. He pointed out exactly where on the ground that we stood a portion of the residence would have been located. Our tour group could almost imagine the Fuhrer standing on his deck or driveway and greeting visitors, hosting dignitaries or enjoying the spectacular view of the valley below and the Alps all around him. The last time that Hitler was known to visit his favorite residence was in July 1944, after the Allies had made their invasion at Normandy and were beginning to push across France. He was alleged to have said of his beloved Berghof, I will come back either a victor or not at all. Less than a year later, in April 1945, he committed suicide at his underground bunker in Berlin as the Russians advanced on the city from the east and the Allies closed in from the west. Although the home was heavily guarded and included a sophisticated underground bunker for retreat in the event of bombing, it was destroyed by both the Americans and the British who bombed it to rubble in late April 1945. The retreating SS Nazi troops who had been living in the area then lit the remains of the home on fire when the French and American troops approached in early May 1945. What remained of the house and the nearby Nazi SS barracks were then completely razed in 1952 by the Bavarian government, shortly before the United States handed the area back to Bavarian control. The Americans wanted the remains of the edifice destroyed so that it could not be a symbolic rallying point for Neo-Nazism. Today, very little remains of the home Hitler once loved. Our guide showed us a small segment of the south supporting wall of Hitlers residence that was still barely visible in what is now an area of new growth forest. Not far from the foundation, he also showed us a surviving portion of the driveway that once led up to Hitlers residence. Although the Berghof is gone, its significance and that of Hitler and the Nazi party is preserved in a nearby museum. The Dokumentation Obersalzberg, located just above Berchtesgaden and a short walk from the former Berghof, opened in 1999. This museum has wonderful exhibits on the history of the Nazi Party and the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler. After a short walk from Hitlers former house we came upon the underground bunkers for Hitler, his SS troops and the high ranking members of his party. We descended a spiral staircase and entered into an underground world of thick concrete walls connected by long hallways. Everything that was needed for defense and survival was there including food, weapons, ammunition, communication equipment, berthing and living areas and more. The air was moist and the temperature cool inside the concrete underworld. We saw the bunker opening which led to Hitlers residence, but it was bricked up. It too had been destroyed along with Hitlers home. Following lunch at the Berggasthof Obersalzberg mountain restaurant with its stunning views of the Alps, we left for our next destination located 900 meters above us the famed Eagles Nest. Located on the peak of a mountain, this structure was built and given to Hitler to honor him on his 50th birthday in 1939. Known as the Kehlsteinhaus in German, it is built on the rocky outcrop perch of the Kehlstein peak. The architectural wonder had begun in 1937 and took 13 months to complete. It is as much a marvel for the engineering process of building the roads and tunnels and getting the materials up the mountain as it is for the structure itself. It was designed to be a retreat area for Hitler and a place for government and social gatherings. Records indicate that Hitler used the Kehlsteinhaus no more than 15 times. His preference was always his Berghof, located 900 meters lower on Obersalzberg. The person who did enjoy the Eagles Nest was his secret lover, Eva Braun, who spent time there when Hitler was away. Today, the only transportation up to the mountain peak is by bus the ride up taking about 20 minutes. The final 120 meters up to the peak requires walking through a tunnel that ascends gently and then entering an elevator that ascends to the house on the peak. Our tour group spent little time inside the building, as the real treasure was the view outside of the building. At 1,800 meters in elevation, the views were stunning and breath taking. We walked up the path which led to even higher elevations and took photos, vainly trying to adequately capture the majestic views we enjoyed. In one direction we could look down into the valley below and see Salzburg, Austria. We were extraordinarily blessed with clear skies and great weather. I came upon a large wooden cross erected on the path up from the Eagles Nest. I lingered there for a few moments and reflected on the rise and fall of the Nazi empire and what remains today. Hitler ascended to power, his Nazi Party rose to prominence and control and sought to dominate Europe, but they could not rise above the higher and even more powerful ideals of faith, freedom and the force of right to conquer evil. I descended the mountain, grateful that such ideals were preserved by those who fought on our behalf 70-plus years ago. Gratitude is the word that encapsulates the entire 11 day trip for me. From the hallowed beaches of Normandy and the sacred cemeteries bearing the dead soldiers who once landed there, along the dense and rolling Ardennes Forest in Belgium where fox holes are still visible and small monuments appear everywhere, into the beautiful city of Munich where the Nazi Party was born, across the haunted grounds of Dachau Concentration Camp where so many tragically died, and finally up to the majestic peaks of the Alps that mark both the rise and fall of Hitler and his Nazi Party, I feel deep gratitude to those men and women in our armed forces who confronted and defeated an evil regime thousands of miles from home and helped to preserve liberty for future generations. Among them some wonderful veterans from Morgan County, Indiana. If you would like more information about the Beyond Band of Brothers tour company that I used for the trip, you can learn more at beyondbandofbrothers.com, or you can reach them by phone or email at 1-888-335-1996 or info@procomtours.com. I heartily recommend them. Ronald P. May, USN (Ret.), is author of the book, Our Service, Our Stories. He helps veterans share and preserve the stories of their military service. For more information or to tell your story, contact May at 317-435-7636 or by email at yourlifestory@live.com. You can also follow him on Facebook at Our Service, Our Stories.

Fair Usage Law

June 12, 2017   Posted in: Hitler  Comments Closed

Scindia likens Shivraj Singh govt to ‘Hitler’s rule’ – Daily News & Analysis

Stating that the death of five farmers in police firing in Mandsaur was a blot on the Shivraj Singh Chouhan government, Congress leader Jyotiraditya Scindia today equated the BJP regime in Madhya Pradesh to the “Hitler’s rule”. “The police firing on farmers agitating for getting right price for their produce and waiver of loans, which resulted in the death of the five of them is a blot on the head of Shivraj Singh’s government. It appears that Hitler’s rule is prevailing in the state. Chouhan has no right to remain in power,” Scindia told reporters at the Indore Press Club. “It is a matter of shame that instead of meeting grieving farmers’ families, the chief minister staged a nautanki (drama) in Bhopal in the name fast. By announcing hefty compensation for them, the Chouhan government tried to trivialise invaluable human lives through money,” he alleged. Scindia, who also met injured farmers at the government M Y Hospital here said, “I am totally shattered with their ordeal. They alleged that after the firing, police dragged them on the roads and also took away money and mobile phones from their pockets.” The former union minister claimed that police have termed nearly 700 agitating farmers as anti-social elements and have registered cases against them while it has not yet filed a case against those policemen, who ordered to open fire at the protesters. He alleged that the state government was just hushing up the matter in the name of probe. “The policemen in Khaki dress should not consider themselves as god,” he remarked. The senior Congress leader also denied allegations that his party had added fuel to the agitation. “Congress has no role in the farmers’ agitation. We always follow the path of non-violence shown by Mahatma Gandhi,” he said. Targeting Prime Minister Narendra Modi, he said that nearly 65 crore people are dependent on agriculture in the country, but the government has hiked the rates of power and diesel, which has increased the cost of cultivation, forcing the farmers to commit suicide. Scindia also announced to stage 72-hour ‘satyagraha’ in support of the farmers at Bhopal from June 14. (This article has not been edited by DNA’s editorial team and is auto-generated from an agency feed.)

Fair Usage Law

June 12, 2017   Posted in: Hitler  Comments Closed

Why Hitler’s Most Powerful Battleship Ever Refused to Sink – The National Interest Online (blog)

On May 24, southwest of Iceland,BismarckandPrinzEugentangled with the battleship HMSPrince of Walesand the agingbattlecruiserHMSHood. Trading armored protection for speed,Hoods designers had left it dangerously exposed to enemy fire. Hits from the German task force ignited an ammunition fire that raged out of control onHood. Within ten minutes a titanic explosion shook the Denmark Strait as the fire reached the aft magazine.Hoodbroke in half and sank, taking 1,418 men with it. Bismarck, despite its stunning victory, had not emerged from the battle unscathed. Hit three times byPrince of Wales, it lost some of its fuel supply to seawater contamination, sustained damage to its propulsion, and suffered a nine-degree list to port. Its captain, desperate to get away from the site of the battle and a slowly coalescing Royal Navy force eager for revenge, refused to slow down to allow damage control to effect repairs. On May 23, 1941, the Battleship Bismarckwas on a roll. The largest and most powerful ship in the German Navy, the mightyBismarckhad broken out into the Atlantic Ocean, sunk a Royal Navybattlecruiser, badly damaged a battleship and was poised to add its guns to a naval blockade that threatened to strangle Great Britain. Ninety-six hours later, heavily damaged, the battleship was on the bottom of the North Atlantic.Bismarcks swift reversal of fortune was the result of a heroic effort by the Royal Navy to hunt down and destroy the battlewagon, and avenge the more than 1,400 Royal Navy personnel killed in the Denmark Strait. The German battleshipBismarckwas the the pride of theKriegsmarine, Nazi Germanys naval service. Construction began in 1936, and the ship was commissioned in April 1940. It and its sister ship,Tirpitz, were 821 feet long and displaced fifty thousand tons, making them by far the largest warships ever built by Germany. Despite its size, twelve Wagner steam boilers made it capable of a fast thirty knots. Like any battlewagon,Bismarcks firepower lay in its main gun batteries.Bismarckhad eight fifteen-inch guns in four large turrets, each capable of hurling a 1,800-pound armor-piercing, capped projectile 21.75 miles. This gave it the ability to penetrate 16.5 inches of armor at eleven miles. The relatively small size of Germanys World War II navy made it incapable of taking on the British and French navies head-on. Instead, theKriegsmarinewas given a much more limited role, of shepherding invasion fleets and cutting off the flow of commerce to Great Britain. On May 18, 1941,Bismarckand its escort, the heavy cruiserPrinzEugen, embarked on OperationRheinbung, a campaign to sink Allied shipping in the North Atlantic and knock Britain out of the war. On May 24, southwest of Iceland,BismarckandPrinzEugentangled with the battleship HMSPrince of Walesand the agingbattlecruiserHMSHood. Trading armored protection for speed,Hoods designers had left it dangerously exposed to enemy fire. Hits from the German task force ignited an ammunition fire that raged out of control onHood. Within ten minutes a titanic explosion shook the Denmark Strait as the fire reached the aft magazine.Hoodbroke in half and sank, taking 1,418 men with it. Bismarck, despite its stunning victory, had not emerged from the battle unscathed. Hit three times byPrince of Wales, it lost some of its fuel supply to seawater contamination, sustained damage to its propulsion, and suffered a nine-degree list to port. Its captain, desperate to get away from the site of the battle and a slowly coalescing Royal Navy force eager for revenge, refused to slow down to allow damage control to effect repairs. Bismarcks captain was correct. The Royal Navy was assembling a large force to sink it, and indeed had ordered every ship in the area to join in the search to find it. The much larger Royal Navy was able to assemble a force of six battleships and battlecruisers, two aircraft carriers, thirteen cruisers, and twenty-one destroyers to huntBismarck. Unfortunately, many of the larger ships were of World War I vintage, and could not catch up with the wounded, but still fastBismarck. AlthoughBismarckoutclassed nearly all the heavy capital ships that chased it, naval aviation was another matter. The German task forces location was betrayed by oil leaking from the battleship and the aircraft carrier HMSVictoriouswas sent to slow it down. An air strike by six Fairey Fulmar carrier-based fighters and nine Fairey Swordfish carrier torpedo bombers managed a single hit onBismarck. The torpedo explosion did minor damage, but the evasive maneuvers conducted byBismarcks captain to evade the torpedo attack caused even more damage, slowing the mighty battleship to sixteen knots. Although it was eventually able to get back up to twenty-eight knots, the temporary loss of its speed advantage allowed a Royal Navy task force, Force H, to catch up to it. Established to take the place of the surrendered French Navy in the western Mediterranean, Force H was based at Gibraltar. It consisted of the aircraft carrier HMSArk Royal, the battlecruiserRenownand a light cruiser.

Fair Usage Law

June 12, 2017   Posted in: Hitler  Comments Closed

The Scientist and the Fascist – The Atlantic

In September 1930, Germany held its first national elections since the Great Crash of 1929, and the National Socialists won a stunning tally: 6,400,000 votes10 times their total just two years beforeand 107 seats. They were now the second largest party in the Reichstag. The word Nazi no longer evoked images of the madhouse, as one commentator wrote. Suddenly the party was almost respectable. Even so, it still seemed to many as if Hitlers support was tenuous. For Albert Einstein, Hitlers sudden rush to prominence confirmed his historic distrust of the German body politic. But at this time, he did not see Hitler or National Socialism as a lasting danger. Asked in December of 1930 what to make of the new force in German politics, he answered that I do not enjoy Herr Hitlers acquaintance. He is living on the empty stomach of Germany. As soon as economic conditions improve, he will no longer be important. Initially, he felt that no action at all would be needed to bring Hitler low. He reaffirmed for a Jewish organization that the momentarily desperate economic situation and the chronic childish disease of the Republic were to blame for the Nazi success. Solidarity of the Jews, I believe, is always called for, he wrote, but any special reaction to the election results would be quite inappropriate. Einstein should have been rightthe evidence for the fragility of Hitlers support over the next two years makes for frustrating, bitter, what-if history. But even if he had persuasive reasons for believing that Hitler would not last, the election results reaffirmed the urgency of his core political stand. Even if he underestimated Hitler (as so many Germans did then), he still recognized the need to act to counter the more general pathology of which Hitlers rise was a symptom. The threat of German rearmament, along with a resurgence of militarism across the European continent spurred Einstein to act. Germany had been almost completely disarmed by the Versailles Treaty after World War I. Its army could total no more than 100,000 men; its forces were denied most heavy weapons; it could not build an air force; its warships had to meet strict tonnage and armament restrictions. Evasion of these terms had been the rule almost from the start. This rearming barely a decade after a conflict that ought to have inoculated Germany against the contagion of battle-lust forever, was intolerable to Einstein. In response, he advocated mass rejection of compulsory military service by young men throughout Europea campaign that had become a major pillar of pacifist politics after the war. Every thoughtful, well-meaning, and conscientious human being, he wrote in January 1928 in a letter to Londons No More War movement, should assume, in time of peace, the solemn and unconditional obligation not to participate in any war for any reason. He grew more insistent as time passed. In the spring of 1929, he wrote that the people themselves must take the initiative to see to it that they will never again be led to slaughter. To expect protection from their governments is folly. During the next several months 1930, driven by the rise of militant nationalism across Europe, Einsteins level of urgency and passion grew. War had become an absolute anathema to him: I would rather be torn limb from limb, he wrote, than take part in such an ugly business. By late 1932, Einstein abandoned the last of his hopesor illusionsthat a more or less democratic German society could survive economic collapse and the Nazis deliberate sabotage of civic life. The Nazi setbacks in the November elections produced a brief moment of hope. Several quite acute political observers, including Einsteins friend Kessler, thought that the Nazi losses marked the beginning of the end. But the moment evaporated, destroyed by Chancellor Fritz von Papens vacuous incompetence and Hitlers relentless pursuit of power. Einstein had spoken at home and abroad against the collective surrender to unreason he saw around him. He had written, campaigned, served on committees, encouraged others, raised money when he could. But by late 1932, the end had clearly come. From very early in his life, Einstein gave hints of a deep-seated streak of fatalism. It never prevented him from acting, from behaving as if what he sought to do could influence events. But the countervailing strain was always there, the perception that the apparently unique spark of any one human life must ultimately vanish into the vastness of the cosmos. The previous year, 1931, bound for California, he experienced a storm at sea. He wrote in his travel diary that the sea has a look of indescribable grandeur, especially when the sun falls on it. One feels as if one is dissolved and merged into nature. Even more than usual, one feels the insignificance of the individual and it makes one happy. Insignificantand hence autonomous, free to do what one had to do. In the end, Einstein simply left the stage. On December 12, Albert and Elsa Einstein set out from Berlin for the United States. A photograph taken at the entrance of the train station shows an ordinary travelers tableau. Elsa looks a little worried, harried; she could be thinking about the luggage, or perhaps, more seriously, about her daughter Ilse, who was ailing. Einsteins face is unrevealing, almost grim. The overall impression is of impatience, a desire to be done with photography and catch their train. There is no way to read the image, except with hindsight, as the end of an era. Before they reached the train station, Einstein and Elsa had to close up their house at Caputh. They may have paused at the door to Einsteins study or on the porch, looking down the sweep of lawn to the lake, visible then through the leafless trees. There might have been a glance round the back of the house, a survey of windows shut and doors latched, and then in and out again, carrying their bags. One of them locked the doorprobably Elsa, the master of all practical matters in the Einstein household. Finally, when nothing remained to be done, they walked away from the house. Einstein spoke. Take a good look, he told Elsa. You will never see it again. * * * In exile, Einstein rethought his core political beliefs and the moral reasoning that underpinned them. Being Einstein, he was faster to the conclusions that shift forced on him than almost all of his contemporaries. On January 30, 1933, as Hitler took the oath as Chancellor of a republic about to become a Reich, Albert Einstein was safely out of reach in Pasadena. For the moment, there was little overt danger. Well treated by his American friends, he could be positively playful, even trying his hand at bicycling. The famous photograph of Einstein atop his two-wheeler was taken that February. He leans over, his front wheel a little askew. He seems a trifle unsteady but he grins hugely; life is pleasant in southern California. Even after Hitler consolidated his hold, Einstein restrained himself for a while. Early in February, he even wrote to the Prussian Academy to discuss salary matters, fully as if he intended to resume work in Berlin later that year. But any illusions he may have had shattered almost immediately thereafter. On February 27, the Reichstag in Berlin burned to the ground. The crackdown on the left began immediately, with the SA and the SS competing to arrest and brutalize any perceived threat to the Reich. By coincidence, the same day that Reichstag burned, Einstein wrote to his quondam mistress, Margarete Lenbach. He told her that I dare not enter Germany because of Hitler. The day before he left Pasadena, bound eventually for Belgium, he launched his first public attack against Germanys new regime. As long as I have any choice in the matter, I shall live only in a country where civil liberty, tolerance, and equality of all citizens before the law prevail. The completion of the syllogism was simpleThese conditions do not exist in Germany at the present timeand would not, Einstein implied, as long as the current regime remained in power. Hitlers government reacted swiftly and bitterly to Einsteins charges. The Vlkicsher Beobachter published a series of attacks on him, and more mainstream papers followed suit. One headline read Good News of EinsteinHe Is Not Coming Back! over an article condemning this puffed-up bit of vanity [who] dared to sit in judgment on Germany without knowing what is going on herematters that forever must remain incomprehensible to a man who was never a German in our eyes and who declares himself to be a Jew and nothing but a Jew. A pamphlet that surfaced some months later reprinted Einsteins photograph in a collection of enemies of Nazi Germany, over the caption, Not Yet Hanged. Such harassment did not touch Einstein very deeply. The sharpest blows came not from the Nazis themselves but from those who had once formed his chief reason for being in Berlin, his fellow members of the Prussian Academy. While still at sea on the way to Belgium, Einstein drafted his letter of resignation from the Academy, and on arrival he gave it to the German legation, along with his renunciation of German citizenship. Subsequent events revealed the depth to which the rot had spread. Hitlers government ordered the Prussian Academy to begin the process of expelling Einstein from its midst. His resignation caught the government by surprise. Enraged that he had quit before he could be fired, the minister in charge demanded a proclamation from the Academy condemning its erstwhile hero. The draft statement declared that we have no reason to regret Einsteins resignation. The Academy is aghast at his foreign agitation. Einsteins old friend Max von Laue was horrified at the idea that the Academy might issue such a document, and he spoke against the proposal at an extraordinary meeting on April 6. Only one of the 14 members present supported him. Even Haber, the converted Jew and Einsteins close friend, voted with the majority. Habers action was bad. Max Planck disgraced himself. Einstein had written to Planck to refute privately the charge that he had spread rumors against Germany, telling him that he spoke now only to combat what was clearly a Nazi war of extermination against my Jewish brethren. Planck answered Einstein in a letter that identified both Jewishness and National Socialism as ideologies that cannot co-exist. He deplored both and emphasized his loyalty to Germany, no matter who was in charge. It is greatly to be regretted, he said at the Academy meeting, that Mr. Einstein through his political behavior himself rendered his continued membership in the Academy impossible. Einsteins politics were to blame, not those of a German government that had chosen to destroy him. Throughout the summer of 1933, Einstein sounded his warning about Hitler wherever he could. In September he visited Winston Churchill, then firmly in political exilebut while Churchill did not require much persuasion to view Hitler as a menace, he had no influence to bring to bear. Later that month, Einsteins frustration became more obvious. I cannot understand the passive response of the whole civilized world to this modern barbarism, he told one interviewer. Does the world not see that Hitler is aiming at war? That contained hints of the tectonic shift that had overtaken Einsteins core political passion. By the time he spoke, he was no longer a pacifist. In September he had announced his change of heart in a letter to a Belgian war resister published in The New York Times. Until quite recently we in Europe could assume that personal war resistance constituted an effective attack on militarism, he began. But circumstances alter cases, and now, in the heart of Europe lies a power, Germany, that is obviously pushing towards war with all available means. For Einstein, even deeply held principles had to bend to the pressure of an overwhelming threat. I should not, in the present circumstances, refuse military service, he concluded. Rather I should enter such service cheerfully in the belief that I would thereby be helping to save European civilization. The culmination of Einsteins commitment to defeat Hitler by whatever means necessary came in 1939 and 1940, when he sent his two letters to President Roosevelt about the possibility of the United States building an atomic bomb. In late 1938, Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman, two scientists still working in Berlin, were wrestling with some novel results from a series of experiments in which they bombarded uranium with a newly discovered subatomic particle, the neutron. Lise Meitner, Hahns former collaborator, and her nephew Otto Frisch, both exiles from Hitlers Germany, met at Christmas in the Swedish village of Kunglv and together they identified the process the Berliners had observed: neutrons striking uranium atoms had sparked nuclear fission, the violent destruction of atomic nuclei in which both energy and more neutrons are released. The result was published several months before wartime secrecy would have rung the curtain down. Every competent physicist who heard the news realized that the fact that each fission event could release more neutrons, raised the possibility of a chain reaction, the new neutrons splitting more atoms in an escalating cascade. The next step was obvious even to the newspapers. As early as the spring of 1939, The Washington Post reported that nuclear fission could lead to weapons powerful enough to destroy everything over two square miles of ground. In the first months after the fission experiments became public knowledge, however, Einstein had not paid much attention. During the summer of 1939, however, Szilard came to visit him at his summer house on Long Island, accompanied by his fellow physicists Eugene Wigner and Edward Teller. The three migr Hungarians laid out the principle of the chain reaction, and then told Einstein of the interest the Germans were already showing in the use of uranium as a weapon. That was enough to persuade him to sign his first letter, in which he urged the president to consider the possibility of creating atomic weapons. Roosevelt replied in mid-October, saying that he had set up a committee to investigate Einsteins suggestions. Nothing much happenedno surprise, given the initial committee budget of $6,000 for its first year of operationso Szilard got Einstein to try again. In March, 1940, he sent his second letter to Roosevelt, urging him to give greater impetus to the effort because, Einstein wrote, Since the outbreak of the war, interest in uranium has intensified in Germany. I have now learned that research there is carried out in great secrecy. Despite his attempt at presidential lobbying, and contrary to the often repeated fable that he was somehow the creator of the atom bomb, Einstein had next to nothing to do with the invention of nuclear weapons. The significance of his letters to Roosevelt was not the results they failed to achieve, but what they reveal about Einsteins own political evolution. Until 1932, he had argued as fervently as he could that no civilized man should permit the state to order him to kill. In the end, the use of Americas bombs deeply saddened him. On hearing of the attack on Hiroshima he is reported to have said Oj WegWoe is me. He later said that had I known that the Germans would not succeed in producing an atomic bomb, I would not have lifted a finger. After the war ended, Einstein became one of the founding forces in the scientists anti-nuclear movement. The last public act of his life was to add his name to a manifesto drafted by Bertrand Russell that called for global nuclear disarmament. But he never wavered in the basic argument he had made in the summer of 1933: Hitler was a deadly poison. He had to be neutralized. No greater goals could be contemplated until Hitler and Germany had been utterly defeated. Once he reached that conclusion, he followed it through to its ultimate destination: the bomb itself. This article has been adapted from Thomas Levensons book, Einstein in Berlin.

Fair Usage Law

June 11, 2017   Posted in: Hitler  Comments Closed

A Life Without Parole Sentence not the Death Penalty for Hitler – City Watch

DEATH PENALTY POLITICS-In a blood-thirsty columnclamoring for faster executions in the United States, John Steele Gordon, a writer specializing in financial and business history, asserts: Had Hitler been captured alive, would anyone have suggested life without parole? Yes. Me. I would have. Knowing the exorbitant costs of capital punishment on our judicial system and on our identity as civilized, compassionate, peaceful, justice-loving people had I been alive at the time, I would have recommended a life without parole sentence and not the death penalty for Hitler. And Im Jewish. Both my parents come from Jewish families; before immigrating to the United States, my paternal grandparents were Jews from Poland and my maternal grandparents were Jews from Germany. My paternal grandfather, Denis Cooper, even fought for the United States Army against Hitler. (He came to the United States around 1938, working and attending George Washington University Law School at night. Once the war broke out, he joined the Army and his duties were wide-ranging; they included interrogating captured Germans, assisting liberated towns in reestablishing local governments, and participating in various de-Nazification efforts. Near the end of the war, my grandfather once captured a small group of German officers by walking into their office and introducing himself as Captain Cooper of the United States Army; then he informed them that they could either surrender to him or wait and surrender to the Russians.) But Jewish or not, one need not linger long on Gordons hyperbolic Hitler-hypothesis undergirding much of his screed to know that its off-base. As horrific as their crimes have been, theres never been a prisoner on death row in the United States that has ever committed atrocities on the scale of Hitler and there never will be. The crimes of inmates on death row may be demonic in description but, despite the unsubtle attempts of Gordon and other death penalty proponents to cast them as such, death row inmates are not otherworldly demons. As I have written elsewhere, for example, when we talk about a backlog of death row inmates, we are not talking about curtailing an exploding population of coyotes. We are talking about a population of human beings, many of whom suffer from serious mental illness, a frequent byproduct of a childhood where poverty, abuse, violence, and neglect were the norm. Gordons tenuous reliance on an imagined what if Hitler had been captured alive scenario to argue for expedited state-killing is also undercut by his erroneous claim that the history of the death penalty is one of ever-decreasing cruelty [and] spectacle. As a backdrop for his repugnant and incorrect supposition that lethal injection is humane and not a sick freak show, Gordon reminds us in macabre and disturbingly longing fashion that: The Romans, like all ancient peoples, put criminals to death, and for even petty offenses; Many of the condemned were dispatched by wild animals in the arena; [o]thers were crucified; beheading, hanging, drawing and quartering, and burning at the stake were all common punishments. Gordon completely ignores the grisly horror of the big jab or stainless steel ride which Ive described in pieces like The death penalty in Alabama: Whats it really like?, Alabamas last execution may have burned a man alive, and When will the United States stop tinkering with the machinery of death? Heck, just last month I wrote a column demanding to know, Is Alabama hiding evidence it tortured its citizens? Guided by an op-ed entitled, The drugs we use for executions can cause immense pain and suffering by David Waisel, an associate professor of anesthesia at Harvard Medical School, I pointed specifically to the lethal injections of Christopher Brooks on January 21, 2016, and that of Ronald Bert Smith on December 8, 2016, as being based on publicly available information botched executions. But Alabama just executed Tommy Arthur on May 25, right around the witching hour and before the expiration of his death warrant and everything went just dandy, swimmingly and according to protocol or so Alabamas Department of Corrections, John Steele Gordon and perhaps, even you, dear reader might say? Perhaps. But, maybe the excruciating, cruel and unusual pain Arthur felt and the resultant torment on his body as the lethal drugs saturated his system was sanitized from public view by way of a chemical straightjacket? Or, maybe, as I wrote after Christopher Brooks troubled execution which at the time was also rosily reported as having gone smoothly perhaps Alabama just got lucky this time? Hard to say, isnt it? As executions around the country demonstrate, killing another human being, even when done by the state, is hardly an exact science. State-sponsored killing was horrific under the Romans, it was horrific under Hitler, and its horrific now, on any level, in modern times. Still, the nation and Alabamas rattlesnake rodeo operation continues. In fact, its in high gear with the countrys and Alabamas next execution (and possibly torturous event) just around the corner the execution of Robert Melson scheduled for June 8. (About the Author: Stephen Cooper is a former D.C. public defender who worked as an assistant federal public defender in Alabama between 2012 and 2015. He has contributed to numerous magazines and newspapers in the United States and overseas. He writes full-time and lives in Woodland Hills, California. Follow him on Twitter @SteveCooperEsq.) Prepped for CityWatch by Linda Abrams. -cw

Fair Usage Law

June 9, 2017   Posted in: Hitler  Comments Closed


Fair Use Disclaimer

"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances."

Under the 'fair use' rule of copyright law, an author may make limited use of another author's work without asking permission. Fair use is based on the belief that the public is entitled to freely use portions of copyrighted materials for purposes of commentary and criticism. The fair use privilege is perhaps the most significant limitation on a copyright owner's exclusive rights.

Fair use as described at 17 U.S.C. Section 107:

"Notwithstanding the provisions of section 106 and 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phono-records or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright.

In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include:

  • (1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for or nonprofit educational purposes,
  • (2) the nature of the copyrighted work,
  • (3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole, and
  • (4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work."