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BBC – iWonder – Adolf Hitler: Man and monster

Few names from history inspire such immediate and emphatic revulsion as that of Nazi leader Adolf Hitler. His hands are stained with the blood of millions killed in the devastation of the Second World War and the horror of the Holocaust.

But Hitler was not born a brutal tyrant, he became one. Explore Hitler’s life and discover the road that led to destruction.

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BBC – iWonder – Adolf Hitler: Man and monster

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A Short Biography of Adolf Hitler (1889-1945)

Born: April 20, 1889,Braunau am Inn, Austria

Died:April 30, 1945, Berlin, by suicide

Adolf Hitler was leader of Germany during the Third Reich (1933 1945) and the primary instigator of both the Second World War in Europe and the mass execution of millions of people deemed to be “enemies” or inferior to the Aryan ideal. He rose from being a talentless painter to dictator of Germany and, for a few months, emperor of much of Europe, before the constant gambling approach which had led him that far now brought only disaster.

His empire was crushed by an array of the world’s strongest nations, and he killed himself, having killed millions in turn.

Adolf Hitler was born in Braunau am Inn, Austria, on April 20th 1889 to Alois Hitler (who, as an illegitimate child, had previously used his mothers name of Schickelgruber) and Klara Poelzl. A moody child, he grew hostile towards his father, especially once the latter had retired and the family had moved to the outskirts of Linz. Alois died in 1903 but left money to take care of the family. Hitler was close to his mother, who was highly indulgent of Hitler, and he was deeply affected when she died in 1907. He left school at 16 in 1905, intending to become a painter. Unfortunately, he wasn’t a very good one.

Hitler went to Vienna in 1907 where he applied to the Viennese Academy of Fine Arts but was twice turned down. This experience further embittered the increasingly angry Hitler, and he returned when his mother died, living first with a more successful friend (Kubizek), and then moving from hostel to hostel, a lonely, vagabond figure.

He recovered to make a living selling his art cheaply as a resident in a community ‘Men’s Home.’ During this period, Hitler appears to have developed the worldview that would characterize his whole life: a hatred for Jews and Marxists. Hitler was well placed to be influenced by the demagogy of Karl Lueger, Viennas deeply anti-Semitic mayor and a man who used hate to help create a party of mass support.

Hitler had previously been influenced by Schonerer, an Austrian politician against liberals, socialists, Catholics, and Jews. Vienna was also highly anti-Semitic with a press extolling it: Hitler’s hate was not unusual, it was simply part of the popular mindset. What Hitler went on to do was present these ideas as a whole and more successfully than ever before.

Hitler moved to Munich in 1913 and avoided Austrian military service in early 1914 by virtue of being unfit. However, when the First World War broke out in 1914, he joined the 16th Bavarian Infantry Regiment (an oversight prevented him from being sent to Austria), serving throughout the war, mostly as a corporal after refusing promotion. He proved to be an able and brave soldier as a dispatch runner, winning the Iron Cross on two occasions (First and Second Class). He was also wounded twice, and four weeks before the war ended suffered a gas attack which temporarily blinded and hospitalized him. It was there he learned of Germanys surrender, which he took as a betrayal. He especially hated the Treaty of Versailles, which Germany had to sign after the war as part of the settlement. An enemy soldier once claimed he had a chance to kill Hitler during World War I.

After WWI, Hitler became convinced he was destined to help Germany, but his first move was to stay in the army for as long as possible because it paid wages, and to do so, he went along with the socialists now in charge of Germany. He was soon able to turn the tables and drew the attention of army anti-socialists, who were setting up anti-revolutionary units. Had he not been picked out by one interested man, he may never have amounted to anything. In 1919, working for an army unit, he was assigned to spy on a political party of roughly 40 idealists called the German Workers Party. Instead, he joined it, swiftly rose to a position of dominance (he was chairman by 1921), and renamed it the Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP). He gave the party the Swastika as a symbol and organized a personal army of storm troopers (the SA or Brownshirts) and a bodyguard of black-shirted men, the SS, to attack opponents.

He also discovered, and used, his powerful ability for public speaking.

In November 1923, Hitler organized Bavarian nationalists under a figurehead of General Ludendorff into a coup (or ‘putsch’). They declared their new government in a beer hall in Munich and then 3000 marched through the streets, but they were met by police who opened fire, killing 16. It was a poorly thought out plan based mostly in the realms of fantasy and could have ended the career of the young man. Hitler was arrested and tried in 1924 but was sentenced to only five years in prison, a sentence often taken as a sign of tacit agreement with his views after a trial he’d used to spread his name and his ideas widely (with success). Hitler served only nine months in prison, during which he wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle), a book outlining his theories on race, Germany, and Jews. It sold five million copies by 1939. Only then, in prison, did Hitler come to believe he was the one who should be leaderinstead of just their drummer. A man who thought he was paving the way for a German leader of genius now thought he was the genius who could take and use power. He was only half right.

After the Beer-Hall Putsch, Hitler resolved to seek power through subverting the Weimar government system, and he carefully rebuilt the NSDAP, or Nazi, party, allying with future key figures like Goeringand propaganda mastermind Goebbels. Over time, he expanded the partys support, partly by exploiting fears of socialists and partly by appealing to everyone who felt their economic livelihood threatened by the depression of the 1930s until he had the ears of big business, the press , and the middle classes. Nazi votes jumped to 107 seats in the Reichstag in 1930. It’s important to stress that Hitler wasn’t a socialist. The Nazi party that he was molding was based on race, not the class of socialism, but it took a good few years for Hitler to grow powerful enough to expel the socialists from the party.

Hitler didn’t take power in Germany overnight, and he didn’t take full power of his party overnight. Sadly, he did do both eventually.

In 1932, Hitler acquired German citizenship and ran for president, coming second to von Hindenburg. Later that year, the Nazi party acquired 230 seats in the Reichstag, making them the largest party in Germany. At first, Hitler was refused the office of Chancellor by a president who distrusted him, and a continued snub might have seen Hitler cast out as his support failed. However, factional divisions at the top of government meant that, thanks to conservative politicians believing they could control Hitler, he was appointed Chancellor of Germany on January 30, 1933. Hitler moved with great speed to isolate and expel opponents from power, shutting trade unions, removing communists, conservatives, and Jews.

Later that year, Hitler perfectly exploited an act of arson on the Reichstag (which some believe the Nazis helped cause) to begin the creation of a totalitarian state, dominating the March 5th elections thanks to support from nationalist groups. Hitler soon took over the role of president when Hindenburg died and merged the role with that of Chancellor to become Fhrer (Leader) of Germany.

Hitler continued to move with speed in radically changing Germany, consolidating power, locking up enemies in camps, bending culture to his will, rebuilding the army, and breaking the constraints of the Treaty of Versailles. He tried to change the social fabric of Germany by encouraging women to breed more and bringing in laws to secure racial purity; Jews were particularly targeted. Employment, high elsewhere in a time of depression, fell to zero in Germany. Hitler also made himself head of the army, smashed the power of his former brownshirt street warriors, and expunged the socialists fully from his party and his state. Nazism was the dominant ideology. Socialists were the first in the camps.

Hitler believed he must make Germany great again through creating an empire, and engineered territorial expansion, uniting with Austria in an anschluss, and dismembering Czechoslovakia. The rest of Europe was worried, but France and Britain were prepared to concede limited expansion: Germany taking within it the German fringe. Hitler, however, wanted more, and it was in September 1939 when German forces invaded Poland, that other nations took a stand, declaring war. This was not unappealing to Hitler, who believed Germany should make itself great through war, and invasions in 1940 went well, knocking France out. However, his fatal mistake occurred in 1941 with the invasion of Russia, through which he wished to create lebensraum, or living room. After initial success, German forces were pushed back by Russia, and defeats in Africa and West Europe followed as Germany was slowly beaten. During this time, Hitler became gradually more paranoid and divorced from the world, retreating to a bunker. As armies approached Berlin from two directions, Hitler married his mistress, Eva Braun, and on April 30, 1945, killed himself. The Soviets found his body soon after and spirited it away so it would never become a memorial. A piece remains in a Russian archive.

Hitler will forever be remembered for starting the Second World War, the most costly conflict in world history, thanks to his desire to expand Germanys borders through force. He will equally be remembered for his dreams of racial purity, which prompted him to order the execution of millions of people, perhaps as high as eleven million. Although every arm of German bureaucracy was turned to pursuing the executions, Hitler was the chief driving force.

In the decades since Hitlers death, many commentators have concluded that he must have been mentally ill and that, if he wasnt when he started his rule, the pressures of his failed wars must have driven him mad. Given that he ordered genocide and ranted and raved, it is easy to see why people have come to this conclusion, but its important to state that there is no consensus among historians that he was insane, or what psychological problems he may have had.

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A Short Biography of Adolf Hitler (1889-1945)

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Adolf Hitler’s rise to power – Wikipedia

Adolf Hitler’s rise to power began in Germany in September 1919[a] when Hitler joined the political party known as the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei DAP (German Workers’ Party). The name was changed in 1920 to the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei NSDAP (National Socialist German Workers’ Party, commonly known as the Nazi Party). This political party was formed and developed during the post-World War I era. It was anti-Marxist and opposed to the democratic post-war government of the Weimar Republic and the Treaty of Versailles; and it advocated extreme nationalism and Pan-Germanism as well as virulent anti-Semitism. Hitler’s “rise” can be considered to have ended in March 1933, after the Reichstag adopted the Enabling Act of 1933 in that month. President Paul von Hindenburg had already appointed Hitler as Chancellor on 30 January 1933 after a series of parliamentary elections and associated backroom intrigues. The Enabling Actwhen used ruthlessly and with authorityvirtually assured that Hitler could thereafter constitutionally exercise dictatorial power without legal objection.

Adolf Hitler rose to a place of prominence in the early years of the party. Being one of the best speakers of the party, he told the other members to either make him leader of the party or he would never return. He was aided in part by his willingness to use violence in advancing his political objectives and to recruit party members who were willing to do the same. The Beer Hall Putsch in November 1923 and the later release of his book Mein Kampf (Translation: My Struggle) introduced Hitler to a wider audience. In the mid-1920s, the party engaged in electoral battles in which Hitler participated as a speaker and organizer,[b] as well as in street battles and violence between the Rotfrontkmpferbund and the Nazis’ Sturmabteilung (SA). Through the late 1920s and early 1930s, the Nazis gathered enough electoral support to become the largest political party in the Reichstag, and Hitler’s blend of political acuity, deceptiveness and cunning converted the party’s non-majority but plurality status into effective governing power in the ailing Weimar Republic of 1933.

Once in power, the Nazis created a mythology surrounding the rise to power, and they described the period that roughly corresponds to the scope of this article as either the Kampfzeit (the time of struggle) or the Kampfjahre (years of struggle).

Hitler became involved with the fledgling Nazi Party after the First World War, and set the violent tone of the movement early, by forming the Sturmabteilung (SA) paramilitary.[1] Catholic Bavaria resented rule from Protestant Berlin, and Hitler at first saw revolution in Bavaria as a means to power but an early attempt proved fruitless, and he was imprisoned after the 1923 Munich Beerhall Putsch. He used the time to produce Mein Kampf, in which he argued that the effeminate Jewish-Christian ethic was enfeebling Europe, and that Germany needed a man of iron to restore itself and build an empire.[2] He decided on the tactic of pursuing power through “legal” means.[3]

After being granted permission from King Ludwig III of Bavaria, 25-year-old Austrian-born Hitler enlisted in a Bavarian regiment of the German army, although he was not yet a German citizen. For over four years (August 1914 November 1918), Germany was a principal actor in World War I,[c] on the Western Front. Soon after the fighting on the front ended in November 1918,[d] Hitler returned[e] to Munich after the Armistice with no job, no real civilian job skills and no friends. He remained in the Reichswehr and was given a relatively meaningless assignment during the winter of 19181919,[f] but was eventually recruited by the Army’s Political Department (Press and News Bureau), possibly because of his assistance to the army in investigating the responsibility for the ill-fated Bavarian Soviet Republic.[g] He took part in “national thinking” courses under Captain Karl Mayr. Apparently his skills in oratory, as well as his extreme and open anti-Semitism, caught the eye of an approving army officer and he was promoted to an “education officer”which gave him an opportunity to speak in public.[h][i]

In July 1919 Hitler was appointed Verbindungsmann (intelligence agent) of an Aufklrungskommando (reconnaissance commando) of the Reichswehr, both to influence other soldiers and to infiltrate the German Workers’ Party (DAP). The DAP had been formed by Anton Drexler, Karl Harrer and others, through amalgamation of other groups, on 5 January 1919 at a small gathering in Munich at the restaurant Fuerstenfelder Hof. While he studied the activities of the DAP, Hitler became impressed with Drexler’s antisemitic, nationalist, anti-capitalist and anti-Marxist ideas.

During the 12 September 1919 meeting,[j] Hitler took umbrage with comments made by an audience member that were directed against Gottfried Feder, the speaker, a crank economist with whom Hitler was acquainted due to a lecture Feder delivered in an army “education” course.[k] The audience member (Hitler in Mein Kampf disparagingly called him the “professor”) asserted that Bavaria should be wholly independent from Germany and should secede from Germany and unite with Austria to form a new South German nation.[l] The volatile Hitler arose and scolded the unfortunate Professor Baumann, using his astonishing speaking skills and eventually causing Baumann to leave the meeting before its adjournment. Impressed with Hitler’s oratory skills, Drexler invited him to join the DAP. Hitler accepted on 12 September 1919. In less than a week, Hitler received a postcard from Drexler stating he had officially been accepted as a DAP member and he should come to a “committee” meeting to discuss it. Hitler attended the “committee” meeting held at the run-down Alte Rosenbad beer-house. Later Hitler wrote that joining the fledgling party “…was the most decisive resolve of my life. From here there was and could be no turning back. …I registered as a member of the German Workers’ Party and received a provisional membership card with the number 7”. Normally, enlisted army personnel were not allowed to join political parties. However, in this case, Hitler had Captain Mayr’s permission to join the DAP. Further, Hitler was allowed to stay in the army and receive his weekly pay of 20 gold marks a week.

Otto Strasser: What is the program of the NSDAP? Hitler: The program is not the question. The only question is power. Strasser: Power is only the means of accomplishing the program. Hitler: These are the opinions of the intellectuals. We need power![15]

By early 1920 the DAP had grown to over 101 members, and Hitler received his membership card as member number 555.[m]

Hitler’s considerable oratory and propaganda skills were appreciated by the party leadership. With the support of Anton Drexler, Hitler became chief of propaganda for the party in early 1920 and his actions began to transform the party. He organised their biggest meeting yet of 2,000 people, on 24 February 1920 in the Staatliches Hofbruhaus in Mnchen. There Hitler announced the party’s 25-point program (see National Socialist Program). He engineered the name change of the DAP to the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei NSDAP (National Socialist German Workers’ Party), commonly known to the rest of the world as the Nazi Party.[n] Hitler designed the party’s banner of a swastika in a white circle on a red background. Hitler was later discharged from the army in March 1920 and began working full-time for the NSDAP.

In August Hitler also organized a “hall protection” squad which later was known as the “Gymnastics and Sports Division.” The group was named at first the Ordnertruppen and it may well be that their principal intended purpose was, in fact, to keep order at Nazi meetings and to only suppress those who disrupted the Nazi meetings. In early October the group’s name was officially changed to the Sturmabteilung (Storm Detachment) or SA, which was certainly more descriptive and suggested the possibility of offensive, as well as solely defensive, action.

Throughout 1920, Hitler began to lecture at Munich’s beer halls, particularly the Hofbruhaus, Sterneckerbru and Brgerbrukeller. Only Hitler was able to bring in the crowds for the party speeches and meetings. By this time, the police were already monitoring the speeches, and their own surviving records reveal that Hitler delivered lectures with titles such as Political Phenomenon, Jews and the Treaty of Versailles. At the end of the year, party membership was recorded at 2,000.

In June 1921, while Hitler and Dietrich Eckart were on a fundraising trip to Berlin, a mutiny broke out within the NSDAP in Munich. Members of its executive committee wanted to merge with the rival German Socialist Party (DSP). Hitler returned to Munich on 11 July and angrily tendered his resignation. The committee members realised that the resignation of their leading public figure and speaker would mean the end of the party. Hitler announced he would rejoin on the condition that he would replace Drexler as party chairman, and that the party headquarters would remain in Munich. The committee agreed, and he rejoined the party on 26 July as member 3,680. In the following days, Hitler spoke to several packed houses and defended himself, to thunderous applause. His strategy proved successful: at a general membership meeting, he was granted absolute powers as party chairman, with only one nay vote cast.

On 14 September 1921, Hitler and a substantial number of SA members and other Nazi Party adherents disrupted a meeting at the Lwenbrukeller of the Bavarian League. This federalist organization objected to the centralism of the Weimar Constitution, but accepted its social program. The League was led by Otto Ballerstedt, an engineer whom Hitler regarded as “my most dangerous opponent.” One Nazi, Hermann Esser, climbed upon a chair and shouted that the Jews were to blame for the misfortunes of Bavaria, and the Nazis shouted demands that Ballerstedt yield the floor to Hitler.[27] The Nazis beat up Ballerstedt and shoved him off the stage into the audience. Both Hitler and Esser were arrested, and Hitler commented notoriously to the police commissioner, “It’s all right. We got what we wanted. Ballerstedt did not speak.”[28] Hitler was eventually sentenced to 3 months imprisonment and ended up serving only a little over one month.

On 4 November 1921, the Nazi Party held a large public meeting in the Munich Hofbruhaus. After Hitler had spoken for some time, the meeting erupted into a melee in which a small company of SA defeated the opposition.

In 1922 and early 1923, Hitler formed two organizations that would grow to have huge significance. The first was the Jungsturm and Jugendbund, which would later become the Hitler Youth. The other was the Stabswache, an early incarnation of what would later become the Schutzstaffel (SS).

Inspired by Benito Mussolini’s March on Rome Hitler decided that a coup d’tat was the proper strategy to seize control of the country. In May 1923, elements loyal to Hitler within the army helped the SA to procure a barracks and its weaponry, but the order to march never came.

A pivotal moment came when Hitler led the Beer Hall Putsch, an attempted coup d’tat on 89 November 1923. Sixteen NSDAP members and four police officers were killed in the failed coup. Hitler was arrested on 11 November 1923. Hitler was put on trial for high treason, gaining great public attention.

The rather spectacular trial began in February 1924. Hitler endeavored to turn the tables and put democracy and the Weimar Republic on trial as traitors to the German people. Hitler was convicted and on 1 April sentenced to five years’ imprisonment at Landsberg Prison. Hitler received friendly treatment from the guards; he had a room with a view of the river, wore a tie, regular visitors to his chambers, was allowed mail from supporters and was permitted the use of a private secretary. The Bavarian Supreme Court issued a pardon and he was released from jail on 20 December 1924, against the state prosecutor’s objections.

Hitler used the time in Landsberg Prison to consider his political strategy and dictate the first volume of Mein Kampf, principally to his loyal aide Rudolf Hess.[o] After the putsch the party was banned in Bavaria, but it participated in 1924’s two elections by proxy as the National Socialist Freedom Movement. In the German election, May 1924 the party gained seats in the Reichstag, with 6.55% (1,918,329) voting for the Movement. In the German election, December 1924 the National Socialist Freedom Movement (NSFB) (Combination of the Deutschvlkische Freiheitspartei (DVFP) and the Nazi Party (NSDAP)) lost 18 seats, only holding on to 14 seats, with 3% (907,242) of the electorate voting for Hitler’s party.

The Barmat Scandal was often used later in Nazi propaganda, both as an electoral strategy and as an appeal to anti-Semitism.

Hitler had determined, after some reflection, that power was to be achieved not through revolution outside of the government, but rather through legal means, within the confines of the democratic system established by Weimar.[citation needed]

For five to six years there would be no further prohibitions of the party (see below Seizure of Control: (19311933)).

In the German election, May 1928 the Party achieved just 12 seats (2.6% of the vote) in the Reichstag. The highest provincial gain was again in Bavaria (5.11%), though in three areas the NSDAP failed to gain even 1% of the vote. Overall the NSDAP gained 2.6% (810,100) of the vote. Partially due to the poor results, Hitler decided that Germans needed to know more about his goals. Despite being discouraged by his publisher, he wrote a second book that was discovered and released posthumously as the Zweites Buch. At this time the SA began a period of deliberate antagonism to the Rotfront by marching into Communist strongholds and starting violent altercations.

At the end of 1928, party membership was recorded at 130,000. In March 1929, Erich Ludendorff represented the Nazi Party in the Presidential elections. He gained 280,000 votes (1.1%), and was the only candidate to poll fewer than a million votes. The battles on the streets grew increasingly violent. After the Rotfront interrupted a speech by Hitler, the SA marched into the streets of Nuremberg and killed two bystanders. In a tit-for-tat action, the SA stormed a Rotfront meeting on 25 August and days later the Berlin headquarters of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) itself. In September Goebbels led his men into Neuklln, a KPD stronghold, and the two warring parties exchanged pistol and revolver fire.

The German referendum of 1929 was important as it gained the Nazi Party recognition and credibility it never had before.

On the evening of 14 January 1930, at around ten o’clock, Horst Wessel was fatally shot at point-blank range in the face by two members of the KPD in Friedrichshain. The attack occurred after an argument with his landlady who was a member of the KPD, and contacted one of her Rotfront friends, Albert Hochter, who shot Wessel. Wessel had penned a song months before which would become a Nazi anthem as the Horst-Wessel-Lied. Goebbels seized upon the attack (and the weeks Wessel spent on his deathbed) to publicize the song, and the funeral was used as an anti-Communist propaganda opportunity for the Nazis. In May Goebbels was convicted of “libeling” President Hindenberg and fined 800 marks. It stemmed from a 1929 article by Goebbels in his newspaper Der Angriff. In June, Goebbels was charged with high treason by the prosecutor in Leipzig based on statements Goebbels had made in 1927, but after a four month investigation it came to not.

Against this backdrop, Hitler’s party gained a victory in the Reichstag, obtaining 107 seats (18.3%, 6,409,600 votes) in September, 1930. The Nazis became the second largest party in Germany. In Bavaria the party gained 17.9% of the vote, though for the first time this percentage was exceeded by most other provinces: Oldenburg (27.3%), Braunschweig (26.6%), Waldeck (26.5%), Mecklenburg-Strelitz (22.6%), Lippe (22.3%) Mecklenburg-Schwerin (20.1%), Anhalt (19.8%), Thuringen (19.5%), Baden (19.2%), Hamburg (19.2%), Prussia (18.4%), Hessen (18.4%), Sachsen (18.3%), Lubeck (18.3%) and Schaumburg-Lippe (18.1%).

An unprecedented amount of money was thrown behind the campaign. Well over one million pamphlets were produced and distributed; sixty trucks were commandeered for use in Berlin alone. In areas where NSDAP campaigning was less rigorous, the total was as low as 9%. The Great Depression was also a factor in Hitler’s electoral success. Against this legal backdrop, the SA began its first major anti-Jewish action on 13 October 1930 when groups of brownshirts smashed the windows of Jewish-owned stores at Potsdamer Platz.[37]

The Wall Street Crash of 1929 heralded worldwide economic disaster. The Nazis and the Communists made great gains at the 1930 Election. Both the Nazis and Communists were pledged to eliminating democracy,[citation needed] and between them secured over 50% of Reichstag seats, which required the moderate parties to consider negotiations with anti-democrats. “The Communists”, wrote Bullock, “openly announced that they would prefer to see the Nazis in power rather than lift a finger to save the republic”.

The Weimar political parties failed to stop the Nazi rise. Germany’s Weimar political system made it difficult for chancellors to govern with a stable parliamentary majority, and successive chancellors instead relied on the president’s emergency powers to govern. From 1931 to 1933, the Nazis combined terror tactics with conventional campaigning Hitler criss-crossed the nation by air, while SA troops paraded in the streets, beat up opponents, and broke up their meetings.[3]

A middle class liberal party strong enough to block the Nazis did not exist the People’s Party and the Democrats suffered severe losses to the Nazis at the polls. The Social Democrats were essentially a conservative trade union party, with ineffectual leadership. The Catholic Centre Party maintained its voting block, but was preoccupied with defending its own particular interests and, wrote Bullock: “through 1932-3… was so far from recognizing the danger of a Nazi dictatorship that it continued to negotiate with the Nazis”. The Communists meanwhile were engaging in violent clashes with Nazis on the streets, but Moscow had directed the Communist Party to prioritise destruction of the Social Democrats, seeing more danger in them as a rival for the loyalty of the working class. Nevertheless, wrote Bullock, the heaviest responsibility lay with the German Right, who “forsook a true conservatism” and made Hitler their partner in a coalition government.

The Centre Party’s Heinrich Brning was Chancellor from 1930 to 1932. Brning and Hitler were unable to reach terms of co-operation, but Brning himself increasingly governed with the support of the President and Army over that of the parliament. The 84-year-old President von Hindenburg, a conservative monarchist, was reluctant to take action to suppress the Nazis, while the ambitious Major-General Kurt von Schleicher, as Minister handling army and navy matters hoped to harness their support. With Schleicher’s backing, and Hitler’s stated approval, Hindenburg appointed the Catholic monarchist Franz von Papen to replace Brning as Chancellor in June 1932. Papen had been active in the resurgence of the Harzburg Front. He had fallen out with the Centre Party. He hoped ultimately to outmaneuver Hitler.

At the July 1932 Elections, the Nazis became the largest party in the Reichstag, yet without a majority. Hitler withdrew support for Papen and demanded the Chancellorship. He was refused by Hindenburg. Papen dissolved Parliament, and the Nazi vote declined at the November Election. In the aftermath of the election, Papen proposed ruling by decree while drafting a new electoral system, with an upper house. Schleicher convinced Hindenburg to sack Papen, and Schleicher himself became Chancellor, promising to form a workable coalition.

The aggrieved Papen opened negotiations with Hitler, proposing a Nazi-Nationalist Coalition. Having nearly outmaneuvered Hitler, only to be trounced by Schleicher, Papen turned his attentions on defeating Schleicher, and concluded an agreement with Hitler.

On 10 March 1931, with street violence between the Rotfront and SA spiraling out of control, breaking all previous barriers and expectations, Prussia re-enacted its ban on brown shirts. Days after the ban SA-men shot dead two communists in a street fight, which led to a ban being placed on the public speaking of Goebbels, who sidestepped the prohibition by recording speeches and playing them to an audience in his absence.

When Hitler’s citizenship became discussion in 1924 he had a public declaration printed on 16 October 1924: “The loss of my Austrian citizenship is not painful to me, as I never felt as an Austrian citizen but always as a German only . . . . It was this mentality that made me draw the ultimate conclusion and do military service in the German Army.” Hitler formally renounced his Austrian citizenship on 7 April 1925, but did not acquire German citizenship until almost seven years later; thereby allowing him to run for public office. For almost seven years he was stateless, unable to run for public office, and facing the risk of deportation.

Ernst Rhm, in charge of the SA, put Count Micah von Helldorff, a convicted murderer and vehement anti-Semite, in charge of the Berlin SA. The deaths mounted, with many more on the Rotfront side, and by the end of 1931 the SA had suffered 47 deaths, and the Rotfront recorded losses of approximately 80. Street fights and beer hall battles resulting in deaths occurred throughout February and April 1932, all against the backdrop of Adolf Hitler’s competition in the presidential election which pitted him against the monumentally popular Hindenburg. In the first round on 13 March, Hitler had polled over 11 million votes but was still behind Hindenburg. The second and final round took place on 10 April: Hitler (36.8% 13,418,547) lost out to Paul von Hindenburg (53.0% 19,359,983) whilst KPD candidate Thlmann gained a meagre percentage of the vote (10.2% 3,706,759). At this time, the Nazi Party had just over 800,000 card-carrying members.

Three days after the presidential elections, the German government banned the NSDAP paramilitaries, the SA and the SS, on the basis of the Emergency Decree for the Preservation of State Authority.[56][57] This action was largely prompted by details that emerged at a trial of SA men for assaulting unarmed Jews in Berlin. After less than a month the law was repealed by Franz von Papen, Chancellor of Germany, on 30 May. Such ambivalence about the fate of Jews was supported by the culture of anti-Semitism that pervaded the German public at the time.

Dwarfed by Hitler’s electoral gains, the KPD turned away from legal means and increasingly towards violence. One resulting battle in Silesia resulted in the army being dispatched, each shot sending Germany further into a potential all-out civil war. By this time both sides marched into each other’s strongholds hoping to spark rivalry. Hermann Gring, as speaker of the Reichstag, asked the Papen government to prosecute shooters. Laws were then passed which made political violence a capital crime.

The attacks continued, and reached fever pitch when SA leader Axel Schaffeld was assassinated. At the end of July 1932, the Nazi Party gained 13,745,000 votes (37.3%), securing 230 out of 608 seats in the Reichstag. Energised by the incredible results, Hitler asked to be made Chancellor. Papen offered the position of Vice Chancellor, but Hitler refused.

Hermann Gring, in his position of Reichstag president, asked that decisive measures be taken by the government over the spate in murders of NSDAP members. On 9 August, amendments were made to the Reichstrafgesetzbuch statute on ‘acts of political violence’, increasing the penalty to ‘lifetime imprisonment, 20 years hard labour or death’. Special courts were announced to try such offences. When in power less than half a year later, Hitler would use this legislation against his opponents with devastating effect.

The law was applied almost immediately, but did not bring the perpetrators behind the recent massacres to trial as expected. Instead, five SA men who were alleged to have murdered a KPD member in Potempa (Upper Silesia) were tried. Hitler appeared at the trial as a defence witness, but on 22 August the five were convicted and sentenced to death. On appeal, this sentence was commuted to life imprisonment in early September. They would serve just over four months before Hitler freed all imprisoned Nazis in a 1933 amnesty.

The Nazi Party lost 35 seats in the November 1932 election, but remained the Reichstag’s largest party, with 196 seats (33.09%). The Social Democrats (SPD) won 121 seats (20.43%) and the Communists (KPD) won 100 (16.86%).

The Comintern described all moderate left-wing parties as “social fascists”, and urged the Communists to devote their energies to the destruction of the moderate left. As a result, the KPD, following orders from Moscow, rejected overtures from the Social Democrats to form a political alliance against the NSDAP.

After Chancellor Papen left office, he secretly told Hitler that he still held considerable sway with President Hindenburg and that he would make Hitler chancellor as long as he, Papen, could be the vice chancellor. Another notable event was the publication of the Industrielleneingabe, a petition signed by 22 important representatives of industry, finance and agriculture, asking Hindenburg to appoint Hitler as chancellor.

Hindenburg appointed Hitler as Chancellor on 30 January 1933, in a coalition arrangement between the Nazis and the Nationalist-Conservatives. Papen was to serve as Vice-Chancellor in a majority conservative Cabinet still falsely believing that he could “tame” Hitler. Initially, Papen did speak out against some Nazi excesses, and later narrowly escaped death in the Night of the Long Knives, whereafter he ceased to openly criticize the regime.

On 30 January 1933, Adolf Hitler was appointed chancellor of a coalition government of the NSDAP-DNVP Party. The SA and SS led torchlight parades throughout Berlin. In the coalition government, three members of the cabinet were Nazis: Hitler, Wilhelm Frick (Minister of the Interior) and Hermann Gring (Minister Without Portfolio).

Both within Germany and abroad initially there were few fears that Hitler could use his position to establish his later dictatorial single-party regime. Rather, the conservatives that helped making him chancellor were convinced that they could control Hitler and “tame” the Nazi Party while setting the relevant impulses in the government themselves; foreign ambassadors played down worries by emphasizing that Hitler was “mediocre” if not a bad copy of Mussolini; even SPD politician Kurt Schumacher trivialized Hitler as a “Dekorationsstck” (“piece of scenery/decoration”) of the new government. German newspapers wrote that, without doubt, the Hitler-led government would try to fight its political enemies (the left wing parties), but that it would be impossible to establish a dictatorship in Germany because there was “a barrier, over which violence cannot proceed” and because of the German nation being proud of “the freedom of speech and thought”. Theodor Wolff of Frankfurter Zeitung wrote:[58]

It is a hopeless misjudgement to think that one could force a dictatorial regime upon the German nation. […] The diversity of the German people calls for democracy.

Even within the Jewish German community, in spite of Hitler not hiding his ardent antisemitism, the worries appear to have been limited. In a declaration of January 30, the steering committee of the central Jewish German organization (Centralverein deutscher Staatsbrger jdischen Glaubens) wrote that “as a matter of course” the Jewish community faces the new government “with the largest mistrust”, but at the same they were convinced that “nobody would dare to touch [their] constitutional rights”. The Jewish German newspaper Jdische Rundschau wrote on Jan 31st:[59]

… that also within the German nation still the forces are active that would turn against a barbarian anti-Jewish policy.

However a growing number of keen observers, like Sir Horace Rumbold, British Ambassador in Berlin, began to revise their opinions. On 22 February 1933, he wrote, “Hitler may be no statesman but he is an uncommonly clever and audacious demagogue and fully alive to every popular instinct,” and he informed the Foreign Office that he had no doubt that the Nazis had “come to stay.”[60] On receiving the dispatch Lord Vansittart, Permanent Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, concluded that if Hitler eventually gained the upper hand, “then another European war [was] within measurable distance.”[61]

With Germans who opposed Nazism failing to unite against it, Hitler soon moved to consolidate absolute power.

At the risk of appearing to talk nonsense I tell you that the National Socialist movement will go on for 1,000 years!… Don’t forget how people laughed at me 15 years ago when I declared that one day I would govern Germany. They laugh now, just as foolishly, when I declare that I shall remain in power!

The German term Machtergreifung (seizure of power), which is also used by English historians, is a term originally used by some Nazis to suggest a revolutionary process, though Hitler, and others, used the word Machtbernahme (take-over of power), reflecting that the transfer of power took place within the existing constitutional framework and suggesting that the process was legal.

Following the Reichstag fire, the Nazis began to suspend civil liberties and eliminate political opposition. The Communists were excluded from the Reichstag. At the March 1933 elections, again no single party secured a majority. Hitler required the vote of the Centre Party and Conservatives in the Reichstag to obtain the powers he desired. He called on Reichstag members to vote for the Enabling Act on 24 March 1933. Hitler was granted plenary powers “temporarily” by the passage of the Act. The law gave him the freedom to act without parliamentary consent and even without constitutional limitations.

Employing his characteristic mix of negotiation and intimidation, Hitler offered the possibility of friendly co-operation, promising not to threaten the Reichstag, the President, the States or the Churches if granted the emergency powers. With Nazi paramilitary encircling the building, he said: “It is for you, gentlemen of the Reichstag to decide between war and peace”. The Centre Party, having obtained promises of non-interference in religion, joined with conservatives in voting for the Act (only the Social Democrats voted against).

The Act allowed Hitler and his Cabinet to rule by emergency decree for four years, though Hindenburg remained President. Hitler immediately set about abolishing the powers of the states and the existence of non-Nazi political parties and organisations. Non-Nazi parties were formally outlawed on 14 July, and the Reichstag abdicated its democratic responsibilities.

The Act did not infringe upon the powers of the President, and Hitler would not fully achieve full dictatorial power until after the death of Hindenburg in August 1934. Hindenburg remained commander-in-chief of the military and retained the power to negotiate foreign treaties.

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Is this Hitler’s secret Argentine bolt-hole? Fuhrer’s loot found behind hidden doorway – Express.co.uk

The amazing find backs long-held claims that Hitler did not die in his bunker in Berlin after committing suicide on April 30 1945 but escaped to South America alongside other senior Nazis.

Last month, Argentinian Police found hidden behind a sliding bookcase a secret door to a room in a property in the Argentine capital, that was stashed with a massive amount of Nazi relics many clearly the personal property of the Fuhrer himself.

The most compelling item of evidence found was a photograph of Hitler holding a magnifying glass alongside the actual magnifying glass.

The items were discovered during a police raid as part of an investigation into stolen artwork.

It is the biggest find of its kind ever seen in Argentina, where many Nazi officials sought refuge.

It included guns, ceremonial knives, military decorations, statues of Hitler a Nazi sundial, silver Ouija board, and items used to indoctrinate children, including harmonicas and puzzles.

A police statement said: We have turned to historians and they told us it is the original magnifying glass.

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ExclusivepixiMedia/Hitler’s Alpi

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Hitler speaks to a little girl visiting Obersalzberg

“We are reaching out to international experts to deepen the investigation.”

Argentine Security Minister Patricia Bullrich said: Our first investigations indicate that these are original pieces, they were found with the original photographs that prove this, it was the method by which they could be commercialised, showing that they were used by the horror, by the Fuhrer.

“There are photos of him with the objects.

She said there were also medical devices and added: “There are objects to measure heads that was the logic of the Aryan race.

Investigators want to establish how they entered the country.

We have turned to historians and they told us it is the original magnifying glass.

Police spokesman

It is documented that high-ranking Nazis fled to Argentina and other south American countries to escape punishment for war crimes in Europe.

They included sick Josef Mengele, the SS officer and physician based at Auschwitz.

He was known as the Angel of Death due to twisted experiments he carried out on inmates.

He lived in Buenos Aires for a decade, while other Nazi leaders faced trial.

He died in 1979 in the Brazilian city of Bertioga after having a stroke while swimming.

Last year, the book Hitler in Exile by Abel Basti put forward a conspiracy theory that Hitler also evaded justice by fleeing to Argentina, and then onto Paraguay to live under the protection of dictator Alfredo Stroessner.

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The book claimed Hitler died on February 3, 1971 in Paraguay, and wealthy families who helped him over the years were responsible for the organisation of his funeral.

Hitler was buried in an underground bunker, which is now an elegant hotel in the city of Asuncion, it was claimed.

Mr Basti claims another man may have been left in the Berlin bunker as the Allied forces moved across the German capital leaving Hitler free to escape through a tunnel to the Templhof Airport and into a waiting helicopter to Spain or the Canary Islands before making the journey to Argentina by submarine.

Speaking to Sputnik, the historian said: “There was an agreement with the US that Hitler would run away and that he shouldn’t fall into the hands of the Soviet Union.

“This also applies to many scientists, the military and spies who later took part in the struggle against the Soviet regime.

In 1973, the entrance to the bunker was sealed, and 40 people came to say goodbye to Hitler.

“One of those who attended [the funeral], Brazilian servicemen Fernando Nogueira de Araujo, then told a newspaper about the ceremony.

Using declassified FBI documents the historian found a report dated September 4, 1944 which said: Argentina kept silent in spite of all the accusations that it became a destination for Hitler, which he reached either flying 7,375 miles from Berlin on the plane, which was built specifically for this purpose, or as a passenger on a submarine.”

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Four paintings by Hitler fetch 7500 pounds at auction – Outlook India

London, Jul 9 Four paintings created by the German dictator Adolf Hitler, have been sold for a total of 7,500 pounds – much lower than the estimated price – at an auction in the UK.

The works of art all bear the signature ‘A Hitler’, and are dated in the early 1900s, according to the Mullocks auction house in the UK.

The paintings had been expected to fetch between 5,000 and 7,000 pounds each.

The signed works included one depicting a rural lakeside scene; a water-colour painting depicting a church within castle; an oil painting showing a lake side house with mountainous background, and another water-colour painting of a town and river scene.

The paintings were sold for 1,600, 1,500, 2,400 and 2,000 pounds respectively.

An unsigned painting, that shows the grave of Hilter’s half-niece Geli Raubel and is widely thought to have been made by the Nazi leader, remained unsold.

Hitler was romantically involved with Raubel, who committed suicide in 1931 with his pistol.

“We have sold Hitler’s paintings in previous sales, ranging between 600 and 1,200 pounds,” said Ben Jones, consultant at Mullocks auction house.

Hitler is estimated to have created between 2,000 and 3,000 drawings, watercolours and oil paintings in his lifetime.

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The Adolf Hitler painting that could be hiding a grave secret about … – Mirror.co.uk

A sickly picture of a tomb, said to have been painted by Adolf Hitler, provides a sinister link between the Nazi leader and the niece with whom he was rumoured to be having an illicit affair.

The Fhrer was reportedly heartbroken when Geli Raubal fell victim to a bullet from his own Walther pistol.

Officially it was suicide. But some historians believe he murdered her to keep their affair quiet.

The unsigned artwork showing Gelis resting place in the Central Cemetery in Vienna went up for sale today.

Ben Jones of auctioneers Mullocks said: Its controversial but it is history at the end of the day.

Geli was the daughter of Hitlers half-sister Angela Raubal and 19 years younger than him.

The relationship began in 1925 when Angela became housekeeper at his mountain retreat and brought her two girls.

Geli was a spirited, flirtatious 17-year-old who called him Uncle Alf. It is not clear whether the relationship was sexual.

But in September 1931 they were heard having a row. The next day, Geli, then 23, was found lying face down with a single bullet lodged in her lung.

Hitler was devastated and several times visited the grave depicted in the picture. It failed to attract a buyer at todays sale in Ludlow, Shrops.

Four other paintings all signed “A Hitler” and valued between 5,000 and 7,000 also went unsold.

Auctioneer Mr Jones said it was the second time they had tried to sell the five pictures. He added: They didnt go five years ago and have been in our office ever since.

But four other paintings attributed to Hitler were snapped up for 7,500.

Mr Jones said: Ive been asked, Who collects this? But people can do what they want behind closed doors.

Most of Hitlers paintings were done before the First World War when he was destitute in Vienna. By the time Geli died he was 15 months away from becoming Chancellor.

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State rightfully seized Adolf Hitler’s first home, Austrian high court rules – Jewish Telegraphic Agency

The house where Adolf Hitler was born in Braunau, Austria, April 10, 2016. (Evangelos Vlasopoulos/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)

(JTA) Austrias highest court ruled the statehad full authority to dispossess the home where Nazi leader Adolf Hitler was born.

The Austrian Constitutional Court ruled Friday that the governments seizure of the home in December was in the public interest, proportionate, and not without compensation and is thus not unconstitutional, The Associated Press reported.

The Decemberdecision came after theGerman border town of Braunau and later the national government spent years tryingto purchase the home from its owners in an attempt to prevent the site from becoming a shrine for neo-Nazis.

The building at 15 Salzburger Vorstadt St. is listed as a historical landmark, though Hitlers name does not appear on it. Razing the building would negate the countrys Nazi past, an expert commission has said.

Gerlinde Pommers family has owned the house where Hitler was born on April 20, 1889, for more than a century. The town has tried for decades to purchase the building.

The ministry had rented the home for decades and sublet it to charitable organizations. The house, which draws neo-Nazi visitors, especially on the anniversary of Hitlers birth, has stood empty since 2011 after the owner refused to authorize needed renovations.

Pommer had challenged the seizure of the home, saying the purchase offers were too low, according to AP. She can now appeal the case to the European Court of Human Rights.

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Austrian Court: Government’s Seizure of Hitler’s Birth Home Is Constitutional – Tablet Magazine

Austrian police officers walk by the house where Adolf Hitler was born during the anti-Nazi protest in Braunau Am Inn, Austria, April 18, 2015.(Joe Klamar/AFP/Getty Images)

But plans for the buildings future remain unclear

July 3, 2017 2:45 PM

Another chapter has closed in the ownership saga of Hitlers vacant birth home, which was seized last year by the Austrian government from its longtime owner, Gerlinde Pommer, who had refused to sell it. Last week, the AP reported that the Austrian Constitutional court, the countrys top court,ruledthat the governments seizure of the property was constitutional. (Pommer will continue to receive compensation). The government believes that the building, which is located in the town of Braunau am Inn on thenorthwest border with Germany, has the potential to become a Nazi pilgrimage site.

According to a press release (via Jurist), the governments measures, ruled the court, arenecessary todeprive it of its symbolic poweran act that can only be taken if the Republic of Austria obtains full power of disposal of the property. The lawyer representing Pommer argued that the appeal of the home as a pilgrimage site would still appeal, especially given that plans for the buildings future are still not in place.

Previous: What Should Austria do With Hitlers Vacant Birth House? Hitlers Birth Home May Not Be Demolished After All Austria To Seize Hitlers Birth Home

Jonathan Zalman, a staff editor, runs The Scroll, Tablet’s news blog.

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Austrian high court: State rightfully seized Adolf Hitler’s first home – Jewish Telegraphic Agency

The house where Adolf Hitler was born in Braunau, Austria, April 10, 2016. (Evangelos Vlasopoulos/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)

(JTA) Austrias highest court ruled the statehad full authority to dispossess the home where Nazi leader Adolf Hitler was born.

The government decision in December 2016 came after theGerman border town of Braunau and later the national government spent years tryingto purchase the home from its owners in an attempt to prevent the site from becoming a shrine for neo-Nazis.

The Austrian Constitutional Court ruled Friday that the governments seizure of the home was in the public interest, proportionate, and not without compensation and is thus not unconstitutional, The Associated Press reported.

The building at 15 Salzburger Vorstadt St. is listed as a historical landmark, though Hitlers name does not appear on it. Razing the building would negate the countrys Nazi past, an expert commission has said.

Gerlinde Pommers family has owned the house where Hitler was born on April 20, 1889, for more than a century. The town has tried for decades to purchase the building.

The ministry had rented the home for decades and sublet it to charitable organizations. The house, which draws neo-Nazi visitors, especially on the anniversary of Hitlers birth, has stood empty since 2011 after the owner refused to authorize needed renovations.

Pommer had challenged the seizure of the home, saying the purchase offers were too low, according to the AP. She can now appeal the case to the European Court of Human Rights.

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BBC – iWonder – Adolf Hitler: Man and monster

Few names from history inspire such immediate and emphatic revulsion as that of Nazi leader Adolf Hitler. His hands are stained with the blood of millions killed in the devastation of the Second World War and the horror of the Holocaust. But Hitler was not born a brutal tyrant, he became one. Explore Hitler’s life and discover the road that led to destruction.

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A Short Biography of Adolf Hitler (1889-1945)

Born: April 20, 1889,Braunau am Inn, Austria Died:April 30, 1945, Berlin, by suicide Adolf Hitler was leader of Germany during the Third Reich (1933 1945) and the primary instigator of both the Second World War in Europe and the mass execution of millions of people deemed to be “enemies” or inferior to the Aryan ideal. He rose from being a talentless painter to dictator of Germany and, for a few months, emperor of much of Europe, before the constant gambling approach which had led him that far now brought only disaster. His empire was crushed by an array of the world’s strongest nations, and he killed himself, having killed millions in turn. Adolf Hitler was born in Braunau am Inn, Austria, on April 20th 1889 to Alois Hitler (who, as an illegitimate child, had previously used his mothers name of Schickelgruber) and Klara Poelzl. A moody child, he grew hostile towards his father, especially once the latter had retired and the family had moved to the outskirts of Linz. Alois died in 1903 but left money to take care of the family. Hitler was close to his mother, who was highly indulgent of Hitler, and he was deeply affected when she died in 1907. He left school at 16 in 1905, intending to become a painter. Unfortunately, he wasn’t a very good one. Hitler went to Vienna in 1907 where he applied to the Viennese Academy of Fine Arts but was twice turned down. This experience further embittered the increasingly angry Hitler, and he returned when his mother died, living first with a more successful friend (Kubizek), and then moving from hostel to hostel, a lonely, vagabond figure. He recovered to make a living selling his art cheaply as a resident in a community ‘Men’s Home.’ During this period, Hitler appears to have developed the worldview that would characterize his whole life: a hatred for Jews and Marxists. Hitler was well placed to be influenced by the demagogy of Karl Lueger, Viennas deeply anti-Semitic mayor and a man who used hate to help create a party of mass support. Hitler had previously been influenced by Schonerer, an Austrian politician against liberals, socialists, Catholics, and Jews. Vienna was also highly anti-Semitic with a press extolling it: Hitler’s hate was not unusual, it was simply part of the popular mindset. What Hitler went on to do was present these ideas as a whole and more successfully than ever before. Hitler moved to Munich in 1913 and avoided Austrian military service in early 1914 by virtue of being unfit. However, when the First World War broke out in 1914, he joined the 16th Bavarian Infantry Regiment (an oversight prevented him from being sent to Austria), serving throughout the war, mostly as a corporal after refusing promotion. He proved to be an able and brave soldier as a dispatch runner, winning the Iron Cross on two occasions (First and Second Class). He was also wounded twice, and four weeks before the war ended suffered a gas attack which temporarily blinded and hospitalized him. It was there he learned of Germanys surrender, which he took as a betrayal. He especially hated the Treaty of Versailles, which Germany had to sign after the war as part of the settlement. An enemy soldier once claimed he had a chance to kill Hitler during World War I. After WWI, Hitler became convinced he was destined to help Germany, but his first move was to stay in the army for as long as possible because it paid wages, and to do so, he went along with the socialists now in charge of Germany. He was soon able to turn the tables and drew the attention of army anti-socialists, who were setting up anti-revolutionary units. Had he not been picked out by one interested man, he may never have amounted to anything. In 1919, working for an army unit, he was assigned to spy on a political party of roughly 40 idealists called the German Workers Party. Instead, he joined it, swiftly rose to a position of dominance (he was chairman by 1921), and renamed it the Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP). He gave the party the Swastika as a symbol and organized a personal army of storm troopers (the SA or Brownshirts) and a bodyguard of black-shirted men, the SS, to attack opponents. He also discovered, and used, his powerful ability for public speaking. In November 1923, Hitler organized Bavarian nationalists under a figurehead of General Ludendorff into a coup (or ‘putsch’). They declared their new government in a beer hall in Munich and then 3000 marched through the streets, but they were met by police who opened fire, killing 16. It was a poorly thought out plan based mostly in the realms of fantasy and could have ended the career of the young man. Hitler was arrested and tried in 1924 but was sentenced to only five years in prison, a sentence often taken as a sign of tacit agreement with his views after a trial he’d used to spread his name and his ideas widely (with success). Hitler served only nine months in prison, during which he wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle), a book outlining his theories on race, Germany, and Jews. It sold five million copies by 1939. Only then, in prison, did Hitler come to believe he was the one who should be leaderinstead of just their drummer. A man who thought he was paving the way for a German leader of genius now thought he was the genius who could take and use power. He was only half right. After the Beer-Hall Putsch, Hitler resolved to seek power through subverting the Weimar government system, and he carefully rebuilt the NSDAP, or Nazi, party, allying with future key figures like Goeringand propaganda mastermind Goebbels. Over time, he expanded the partys support, partly by exploiting fears of socialists and partly by appealing to everyone who felt their economic livelihood threatened by the depression of the 1930s until he had the ears of big business, the press , and the middle classes. Nazi votes jumped to 107 seats in the Reichstag in 1930. It’s important to stress that Hitler wasn’t a socialist. The Nazi party that he was molding was based on race, not the class of socialism, but it took a good few years for Hitler to grow powerful enough to expel the socialists from the party. Hitler didn’t take power in Germany overnight, and he didn’t take full power of his party overnight. Sadly, he did do both eventually. In 1932, Hitler acquired German citizenship and ran for president, coming second to von Hindenburg. Later that year, the Nazi party acquired 230 seats in the Reichstag, making them the largest party in Germany. At first, Hitler was refused the office of Chancellor by a president who distrusted him, and a continued snub might have seen Hitler cast out as his support failed. However, factional divisions at the top of government meant that, thanks to conservative politicians believing they could control Hitler, he was appointed Chancellor of Germany on January 30, 1933. Hitler moved with great speed to isolate and expel opponents from power, shutting trade unions, removing communists, conservatives, and Jews. Later that year, Hitler perfectly exploited an act of arson on the Reichstag (which some believe the Nazis helped cause) to begin the creation of a totalitarian state, dominating the March 5th elections thanks to support from nationalist groups. Hitler soon took over the role of president when Hindenburg died and merged the role with that of Chancellor to become Fhrer (Leader) of Germany. Hitler continued to move with speed in radically changing Germany, consolidating power, locking up enemies in camps, bending culture to his will, rebuilding the army, and breaking the constraints of the Treaty of Versailles. He tried to change the social fabric of Germany by encouraging women to breed more and bringing in laws to secure racial purity; Jews were particularly targeted. Employment, high elsewhere in a time of depression, fell to zero in Germany. Hitler also made himself head of the army, smashed the power of his former brownshirt street warriors, and expunged the socialists fully from his party and his state. Nazism was the dominant ideology. Socialists were the first in the camps. Hitler believed he must make Germany great again through creating an empire, and engineered territorial expansion, uniting with Austria in an anschluss, and dismembering Czechoslovakia. The rest of Europe was worried, but France and Britain were prepared to concede limited expansion: Germany taking within it the German fringe. Hitler, however, wanted more, and it was in September 1939 when German forces invaded Poland, that other nations took a stand, declaring war. This was not unappealing to Hitler, who believed Germany should make itself great through war, and invasions in 1940 went well, knocking France out. However, his fatal mistake occurred in 1941 with the invasion of Russia, through which he wished to create lebensraum, or living room. After initial success, German forces were pushed back by Russia, and defeats in Africa and West Europe followed as Germany was slowly beaten. During this time, Hitler became gradually more paranoid and divorced from the world, retreating to a bunker. As armies approached Berlin from two directions, Hitler married his mistress, Eva Braun, and on April 30, 1945, killed himself. The Soviets found his body soon after and spirited it away so it would never become a memorial. A piece remains in a Russian archive. Hitler will forever be remembered for starting the Second World War, the most costly conflict in world history, thanks to his desire to expand Germanys borders through force. He will equally be remembered for his dreams of racial purity, which prompted him to order the execution of millions of people, perhaps as high as eleven million. Although every arm of German bureaucracy was turned to pursuing the executions, Hitler was the chief driving force. In the decades since Hitlers death, many commentators have concluded that he must have been mentally ill and that, if he wasnt when he started his rule, the pressures of his failed wars must have driven him mad. Given that he ordered genocide and ranted and raved, it is easy to see why people have come to this conclusion, but its important to state that there is no consensus among historians that he was insane, or what psychological problems he may have had.

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Adolf Hitler’s rise to power – Wikipedia

Adolf Hitler’s rise to power began in Germany in September 1919[a] when Hitler joined the political party known as the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei DAP (German Workers’ Party). The name was changed in 1920 to the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei NSDAP (National Socialist German Workers’ Party, commonly known as the Nazi Party). This political party was formed and developed during the post-World War I era. It was anti-Marxist and opposed to the democratic post-war government of the Weimar Republic and the Treaty of Versailles; and it advocated extreme nationalism and Pan-Germanism as well as virulent anti-Semitism. Hitler’s “rise” can be considered to have ended in March 1933, after the Reichstag adopted the Enabling Act of 1933 in that month. President Paul von Hindenburg had already appointed Hitler as Chancellor on 30 January 1933 after a series of parliamentary elections and associated backroom intrigues. The Enabling Actwhen used ruthlessly and with authorityvirtually assured that Hitler could thereafter constitutionally exercise dictatorial power without legal objection. Adolf Hitler rose to a place of prominence in the early years of the party. Being one of the best speakers of the party, he told the other members to either make him leader of the party or he would never return. He was aided in part by his willingness to use violence in advancing his political objectives and to recruit party members who were willing to do the same. The Beer Hall Putsch in November 1923 and the later release of his book Mein Kampf (Translation: My Struggle) introduced Hitler to a wider audience. In the mid-1920s, the party engaged in electoral battles in which Hitler participated as a speaker and organizer,[b] as well as in street battles and violence between the Rotfrontkmpferbund and the Nazis’ Sturmabteilung (SA). Through the late 1920s and early 1930s, the Nazis gathered enough electoral support to become the largest political party in the Reichstag, and Hitler’s blend of political acuity, deceptiveness and cunning converted the party’s non-majority but plurality status into effective governing power in the ailing Weimar Republic of 1933. Once in power, the Nazis created a mythology surrounding the rise to power, and they described the period that roughly corresponds to the scope of this article as either the Kampfzeit (the time of struggle) or the Kampfjahre (years of struggle). Hitler became involved with the fledgling Nazi Party after the First World War, and set the violent tone of the movement early, by forming the Sturmabteilung (SA) paramilitary.[1] Catholic Bavaria resented rule from Protestant Berlin, and Hitler at first saw revolution in Bavaria as a means to power but an early attempt proved fruitless, and he was imprisoned after the 1923 Munich Beerhall Putsch. He used the time to produce Mein Kampf, in which he argued that the effeminate Jewish-Christian ethic was enfeebling Europe, and that Germany needed a man of iron to restore itself and build an empire.[2] He decided on the tactic of pursuing power through “legal” means.[3] After being granted permission from King Ludwig III of Bavaria, 25-year-old Austrian-born Hitler enlisted in a Bavarian regiment of the German army, although he was not yet a German citizen. For over four years (August 1914 November 1918), Germany was a principal actor in World War I,[c] on the Western Front. Soon after the fighting on the front ended in November 1918,[d] Hitler returned[e] to Munich after the Armistice with no job, no real civilian job skills and no friends. He remained in the Reichswehr and was given a relatively meaningless assignment during the winter of 19181919,[f] but was eventually recruited by the Army’s Political Department (Press and News Bureau), possibly because of his assistance to the army in investigating the responsibility for the ill-fated Bavarian Soviet Republic.[g] He took part in “national thinking” courses under Captain Karl Mayr. Apparently his skills in oratory, as well as his extreme and open anti-Semitism, caught the eye of an approving army officer and he was promoted to an “education officer”which gave him an opportunity to speak in public.[h][i] In July 1919 Hitler was appointed Verbindungsmann (intelligence agent) of an Aufklrungskommando (reconnaissance commando) of the Reichswehr, both to influence other soldiers and to infiltrate the German Workers’ Party (DAP). The DAP had been formed by Anton Drexler, Karl Harrer and others, through amalgamation of other groups, on 5 January 1919 at a small gathering in Munich at the restaurant Fuerstenfelder Hof. While he studied the activities of the DAP, Hitler became impressed with Drexler’s antisemitic, nationalist, anti-capitalist and anti-Marxist ideas. During the 12 September 1919 meeting,[j] Hitler took umbrage with comments made by an audience member that were directed against Gottfried Feder, the speaker, a crank economist with whom Hitler was acquainted due to a lecture Feder delivered in an army “education” course.[k] The audience member (Hitler in Mein Kampf disparagingly called him the “professor”) asserted that Bavaria should be wholly independent from Germany and should secede from Germany and unite with Austria to form a new South German nation.[l] The volatile Hitler arose and scolded the unfortunate Professor Baumann, using his astonishing speaking skills and eventually causing Baumann to leave the meeting before its adjournment. Impressed with Hitler’s oratory skills, Drexler invited him to join the DAP. Hitler accepted on 12 September 1919. In less than a week, Hitler received a postcard from Drexler stating he had officially been accepted as a DAP member and he should come to a “committee” meeting to discuss it. Hitler attended the “committee” meeting held at the run-down Alte Rosenbad beer-house. Later Hitler wrote that joining the fledgling party “…was the most decisive resolve of my life. From here there was and could be no turning back. …I registered as a member of the German Workers’ Party and received a provisional membership card with the number 7”. Normally, enlisted army personnel were not allowed to join political parties. However, in this case, Hitler had Captain Mayr’s permission to join the DAP. Further, Hitler was allowed to stay in the army and receive his weekly pay of 20 gold marks a week. Otto Strasser: What is the program of the NSDAP? Hitler: The program is not the question. The only question is power. Strasser: Power is only the means of accomplishing the program. Hitler: These are the opinions of the intellectuals. We need power![15] By early 1920 the DAP had grown to over 101 members, and Hitler received his membership card as member number 555.[m] Hitler’s considerable oratory and propaganda skills were appreciated by the party leadership. With the support of Anton Drexler, Hitler became chief of propaganda for the party in early 1920 and his actions began to transform the party. He organised their biggest meeting yet of 2,000 people, on 24 February 1920 in the Staatliches Hofbruhaus in Mnchen. There Hitler announced the party’s 25-point program (see National Socialist Program). He engineered the name change of the DAP to the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei NSDAP (National Socialist German Workers’ Party), commonly known to the rest of the world as the Nazi Party.[n] Hitler designed the party’s banner of a swastika in a white circle on a red background. Hitler was later discharged from the army in March 1920 and began working full-time for the NSDAP. In August Hitler also organized a “hall protection” squad which later was known as the “Gymnastics and Sports Division.” The group was named at first the Ordnertruppen and it may well be that their principal intended purpose was, in fact, to keep order at Nazi meetings and to only suppress those who disrupted the Nazi meetings. In early October the group’s name was officially changed to the Sturmabteilung (Storm Detachment) or SA, which was certainly more descriptive and suggested the possibility of offensive, as well as solely defensive, action. Throughout 1920, Hitler began to lecture at Munich’s beer halls, particularly the Hofbruhaus, Sterneckerbru and Brgerbrukeller. Only Hitler was able to bring in the crowds for the party speeches and meetings. By this time, the police were already monitoring the speeches, and their own surviving records reveal that Hitler delivered lectures with titles such as Political Phenomenon, Jews and the Treaty of Versailles. At the end of the year, party membership was recorded at 2,000. In June 1921, while Hitler and Dietrich Eckart were on a fundraising trip to Berlin, a mutiny broke out within the NSDAP in Munich. Members of its executive committee wanted to merge with the rival German Socialist Party (DSP). Hitler returned to Munich on 11 July and angrily tendered his resignation. The committee members realised that the resignation of their leading public figure and speaker would mean the end of the party. Hitler announced he would rejoin on the condition that he would replace Drexler as party chairman, and that the party headquarters would remain in Munich. The committee agreed, and he rejoined the party on 26 July as member 3,680. In the following days, Hitler spoke to several packed houses and defended himself, to thunderous applause. His strategy proved successful: at a general membership meeting, he was granted absolute powers as party chairman, with only one nay vote cast. On 14 September 1921, Hitler and a substantial number of SA members and other Nazi Party adherents disrupted a meeting at the Lwenbrukeller of the Bavarian League. This federalist organization objected to the centralism of the Weimar Constitution, but accepted its social program. The League was led by Otto Ballerstedt, an engineer whom Hitler regarded as “my most dangerous opponent.” One Nazi, Hermann Esser, climbed upon a chair and shouted that the Jews were to blame for the misfortunes of Bavaria, and the Nazis shouted demands that Ballerstedt yield the floor to Hitler.[27] The Nazis beat up Ballerstedt and shoved him off the stage into the audience. Both Hitler and Esser were arrested, and Hitler commented notoriously to the police commissioner, “It’s all right. We got what we wanted. Ballerstedt did not speak.”[28] Hitler was eventually sentenced to 3 months imprisonment and ended up serving only a little over one month. On 4 November 1921, the Nazi Party held a large public meeting in the Munich Hofbruhaus. After Hitler had spoken for some time, the meeting erupted into a melee in which a small company of SA defeated the opposition. In 1922 and early 1923, Hitler formed two organizations that would grow to have huge significance. The first was the Jungsturm and Jugendbund, which would later become the Hitler Youth. The other was the Stabswache, an early incarnation of what would later become the Schutzstaffel (SS). Inspired by Benito Mussolini’s March on Rome Hitler decided that a coup d’tat was the proper strategy to seize control of the country. In May 1923, elements loyal to Hitler within the army helped the SA to procure a barracks and its weaponry, but the order to march never came. A pivotal moment came when Hitler led the Beer Hall Putsch, an attempted coup d’tat on 89 November 1923. Sixteen NSDAP members and four police officers were killed in the failed coup. Hitler was arrested on 11 November 1923. Hitler was put on trial for high treason, gaining great public attention. The rather spectacular trial began in February 1924. Hitler endeavored to turn the tables and put democracy and the Weimar Republic on trial as traitors to the German people. Hitler was convicted and on 1 April sentenced to five years’ imprisonment at Landsberg Prison. Hitler received friendly treatment from the guards; he had a room with a view of the river, wore a tie, regular visitors to his chambers, was allowed mail from supporters and was permitted the use of a private secretary. The Bavarian Supreme Court issued a pardon and he was released from jail on 20 December 1924, against the state prosecutor’s objections. Hitler used the time in Landsberg Prison to consider his political strategy and dictate the first volume of Mein Kampf, principally to his loyal aide Rudolf Hess.[o] After the putsch the party was banned in Bavaria, but it participated in 1924’s two elections by proxy as the National Socialist Freedom Movement. In the German election, May 1924 the party gained seats in the Reichstag, with 6.55% (1,918,329) voting for the Movement. In the German election, December 1924 the National Socialist Freedom Movement (NSFB) (Combination of the Deutschvlkische Freiheitspartei (DVFP) and the Nazi Party (NSDAP)) lost 18 seats, only holding on to 14 seats, with 3% (907,242) of the electorate voting for Hitler’s party. The Barmat Scandal was often used later in Nazi propaganda, both as an electoral strategy and as an appeal to anti-Semitism. Hitler had determined, after some reflection, that power was to be achieved not through revolution outside of the government, but rather through legal means, within the confines of the democratic system established by Weimar.[citation needed] For five to six years there would be no further prohibitions of the party (see below Seizure of Control: (19311933)). In the German election, May 1928 the Party achieved just 12 seats (2.6% of the vote) in the Reichstag. The highest provincial gain was again in Bavaria (5.11%), though in three areas the NSDAP failed to gain even 1% of the vote. Overall the NSDAP gained 2.6% (810,100) of the vote. Partially due to the poor results, Hitler decided that Germans needed to know more about his goals. Despite being discouraged by his publisher, he wrote a second book that was discovered and released posthumously as the Zweites Buch. At this time the SA began a period of deliberate antagonism to the Rotfront by marching into Communist strongholds and starting violent altercations. At the end of 1928, party membership was recorded at 130,000. In March 1929, Erich Ludendorff represented the Nazi Party in the Presidential elections. He gained 280,000 votes (1.1%), and was the only candidate to poll fewer than a million votes. The battles on the streets grew increasingly violent. After the Rotfront interrupted a speech by Hitler, the SA marched into the streets of Nuremberg and killed two bystanders. In a tit-for-tat action, the SA stormed a Rotfront meeting on 25 August and days later the Berlin headquarters of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) itself. In September Goebbels led his men into Neuklln, a KPD stronghold, and the two warring parties exchanged pistol and revolver fire. The German referendum of 1929 was important as it gained the Nazi Party recognition and credibility it never had before. On the evening of 14 January 1930, at around ten o’clock, Horst Wessel was fatally shot at point-blank range in the face by two members of the KPD in Friedrichshain. The attack occurred after an argument with his landlady who was a member of the KPD, and contacted one of her Rotfront friends, Albert Hochter, who shot Wessel. Wessel had penned a song months before which would become a Nazi anthem as the Horst-Wessel-Lied. Goebbels seized upon the attack (and the weeks Wessel spent on his deathbed) to publicize the song, and the funeral was used as an anti-Communist propaganda opportunity for the Nazis. In May Goebbels was convicted of “libeling” President Hindenberg and fined 800 marks. It stemmed from a 1929 article by Goebbels in his newspaper Der Angriff. In June, Goebbels was charged with high treason by the prosecutor in Leipzig based on statements Goebbels had made in 1927, but after a four month investigation it came to not. Against this backdrop, Hitler’s party gained a victory in the Reichstag, obtaining 107 seats (18.3%, 6,409,600 votes) in September, 1930. The Nazis became the second largest party in Germany. In Bavaria the party gained 17.9% of the vote, though for the first time this percentage was exceeded by most other provinces: Oldenburg (27.3%), Braunschweig (26.6%), Waldeck (26.5%), Mecklenburg-Strelitz (22.6%), Lippe (22.3%) Mecklenburg-Schwerin (20.1%), Anhalt (19.8%), Thuringen (19.5%), Baden (19.2%), Hamburg (19.2%), Prussia (18.4%), Hessen (18.4%), Sachsen (18.3%), Lubeck (18.3%) and Schaumburg-Lippe (18.1%). An unprecedented amount of money was thrown behind the campaign. Well over one million pamphlets were produced and distributed; sixty trucks were commandeered for use in Berlin alone. In areas where NSDAP campaigning was less rigorous, the total was as low as 9%. The Great Depression was also a factor in Hitler’s electoral success. Against this legal backdrop, the SA began its first major anti-Jewish action on 13 October 1930 when groups of brownshirts smashed the windows of Jewish-owned stores at Potsdamer Platz.[37] The Wall Street Crash of 1929 heralded worldwide economic disaster. The Nazis and the Communists made great gains at the 1930 Election. Both the Nazis and Communists were pledged to eliminating democracy,[citation needed] and between them secured over 50% of Reichstag seats, which required the moderate parties to consider negotiations with anti-democrats. “The Communists”, wrote Bullock, “openly announced that they would prefer to see the Nazis in power rather than lift a finger to save the republic”. The Weimar political parties failed to stop the Nazi rise. Germany’s Weimar political system made it difficult for chancellors to govern with a stable parliamentary majority, and successive chancellors instead relied on the president’s emergency powers to govern. From 1931 to 1933, the Nazis combined terror tactics with conventional campaigning Hitler criss-crossed the nation by air, while SA troops paraded in the streets, beat up opponents, and broke up their meetings.[3] A middle class liberal party strong enough to block the Nazis did not exist the People’s Party and the Democrats suffered severe losses to the Nazis at the polls. The Social Democrats were essentially a conservative trade union party, with ineffectual leadership. The Catholic Centre Party maintained its voting block, but was preoccupied with defending its own particular interests and, wrote Bullock: “through 1932-3… was so far from recognizing the danger of a Nazi dictatorship that it continued to negotiate with the Nazis”. The Communists meanwhile were engaging in violent clashes with Nazis on the streets, but Moscow had directed the Communist Party to prioritise destruction of the Social Democrats, seeing more danger in them as a rival for the loyalty of the working class. Nevertheless, wrote Bullock, the heaviest responsibility lay with the German Right, who “forsook a true conservatism” and made Hitler their partner in a coalition government. The Centre Party’s Heinrich Brning was Chancellor from 1930 to 1932. Brning and Hitler were unable to reach terms of co-operation, but Brning himself increasingly governed with the support of the President and Army over that of the parliament. The 84-year-old President von Hindenburg, a conservative monarchist, was reluctant to take action to suppress the Nazis, while the ambitious Major-General Kurt von Schleicher, as Minister handling army and navy matters hoped to harness their support. With Schleicher’s backing, and Hitler’s stated approval, Hindenburg appointed the Catholic monarchist Franz von Papen to replace Brning as Chancellor in June 1932. Papen had been active in the resurgence of the Harzburg Front. He had fallen out with the Centre Party. He hoped ultimately to outmaneuver Hitler. At the July 1932 Elections, the Nazis became the largest party in the Reichstag, yet without a majority. Hitler withdrew support for Papen and demanded the Chancellorship. He was refused by Hindenburg. Papen dissolved Parliament, and the Nazi vote declined at the November Election. In the aftermath of the election, Papen proposed ruling by decree while drafting a new electoral system, with an upper house. Schleicher convinced Hindenburg to sack Papen, and Schleicher himself became Chancellor, promising to form a workable coalition. The aggrieved Papen opened negotiations with Hitler, proposing a Nazi-Nationalist Coalition. Having nearly outmaneuvered Hitler, only to be trounced by Schleicher, Papen turned his attentions on defeating Schleicher, and concluded an agreement with Hitler. On 10 March 1931, with street violence between the Rotfront and SA spiraling out of control, breaking all previous barriers and expectations, Prussia re-enacted its ban on brown shirts. Days after the ban SA-men shot dead two communists in a street fight, which led to a ban being placed on the public speaking of Goebbels, who sidestepped the prohibition by recording speeches and playing them to an audience in his absence. When Hitler’s citizenship became discussion in 1924 he had a public declaration printed on 16 October 1924: “The loss of my Austrian citizenship is not painful to me, as I never felt as an Austrian citizen but always as a German only . . . . It was this mentality that made me draw the ultimate conclusion and do military service in the German Army.” Hitler formally renounced his Austrian citizenship on 7 April 1925, but did not acquire German citizenship until almost seven years later; thereby allowing him to run for public office. For almost seven years he was stateless, unable to run for public office, and facing the risk of deportation. Ernst Rhm, in charge of the SA, put Count Micah von Helldorff, a convicted murderer and vehement anti-Semite, in charge of the Berlin SA. The deaths mounted, with many more on the Rotfront side, and by the end of 1931 the SA had suffered 47 deaths, and the Rotfront recorded losses of approximately 80. Street fights and beer hall battles resulting in deaths occurred throughout February and April 1932, all against the backdrop of Adolf Hitler’s competition in the presidential election which pitted him against the monumentally popular Hindenburg. In the first round on 13 March, Hitler had polled over 11 million votes but was still behind Hindenburg. The second and final round took place on 10 April: Hitler (36.8% 13,418,547) lost out to Paul von Hindenburg (53.0% 19,359,983) whilst KPD candidate Thlmann gained a meagre percentage of the vote (10.2% 3,706,759). At this time, the Nazi Party had just over 800,000 card-carrying members. Three days after the presidential elections, the German government banned the NSDAP paramilitaries, the SA and the SS, on the basis of the Emergency Decree for the Preservation of State Authority.[56][57] This action was largely prompted by details that emerged at a trial of SA men for assaulting unarmed Jews in Berlin. After less than a month the law was repealed by Franz von Papen, Chancellor of Germany, on 30 May. Such ambivalence about the fate of Jews was supported by the culture of anti-Semitism that pervaded the German public at the time. Dwarfed by Hitler’s electoral gains, the KPD turned away from legal means and increasingly towards violence. One resulting battle in Silesia resulted in the army being dispatched, each shot sending Germany further into a potential all-out civil war. By this time both sides marched into each other’s strongholds hoping to spark rivalry. Hermann Gring, as speaker of the Reichstag, asked the Papen government to prosecute shooters. Laws were then passed which made political violence a capital crime. The attacks continued, and reached fever pitch when SA leader Axel Schaffeld was assassinated. At the end of July 1932, the Nazi Party gained 13,745,000 votes (37.3%), securing 230 out of 608 seats in the Reichstag. Energised by the incredible results, Hitler asked to be made Chancellor. Papen offered the position of Vice Chancellor, but Hitler refused. Hermann Gring, in his position of Reichstag president, asked that decisive measures be taken by the government over the spate in murders of NSDAP members. On 9 August, amendments were made to the Reichstrafgesetzbuch statute on ‘acts of political violence’, increasing the penalty to ‘lifetime imprisonment, 20 years hard labour or death’. Special courts were announced to try such offences. When in power less than half a year later, Hitler would use this legislation against his opponents with devastating effect. The law was applied almost immediately, but did not bring the perpetrators behind the recent massacres to trial as expected. Instead, five SA men who were alleged to have murdered a KPD member in Potempa (Upper Silesia) were tried. Hitler appeared at the trial as a defence witness, but on 22 August the five were convicted and sentenced to death. On appeal, this sentence was commuted to life imprisonment in early September. They would serve just over four months before Hitler freed all imprisoned Nazis in a 1933 amnesty. The Nazi Party lost 35 seats in the November 1932 election, but remained the Reichstag’s largest party, with 196 seats (33.09%). The Social Democrats (SPD) won 121 seats (20.43%) and the Communists (KPD) won 100 (16.86%). The Comintern described all moderate left-wing parties as “social fascists”, and urged the Communists to devote their energies to the destruction of the moderate left. As a result, the KPD, following orders from Moscow, rejected overtures from the Social Democrats to form a political alliance against the NSDAP. After Chancellor Papen left office, he secretly told Hitler that he still held considerable sway with President Hindenburg and that he would make Hitler chancellor as long as he, Papen, could be the vice chancellor. Another notable event was the publication of the Industrielleneingabe, a petition signed by 22 important representatives of industry, finance and agriculture, asking Hindenburg to appoint Hitler as chancellor. Hindenburg appointed Hitler as Chancellor on 30 January 1933, in a coalition arrangement between the Nazis and the Nationalist-Conservatives. Papen was to serve as Vice-Chancellor in a majority conservative Cabinet still falsely believing that he could “tame” Hitler. Initially, Papen did speak out against some Nazi excesses, and later narrowly escaped death in the Night of the Long Knives, whereafter he ceased to openly criticize the regime. On 30 January 1933, Adolf Hitler was appointed chancellor of a coalition government of the NSDAP-DNVP Party. The SA and SS led torchlight parades throughout Berlin. In the coalition government, three members of the cabinet were Nazis: Hitler, Wilhelm Frick (Minister of the Interior) and Hermann Gring (Minister Without Portfolio). Both within Germany and abroad initially there were few fears that Hitler could use his position to establish his later dictatorial single-party regime. Rather, the conservatives that helped making him chancellor were convinced that they could control Hitler and “tame” the Nazi Party while setting the relevant impulses in the government themselves; foreign ambassadors played down worries by emphasizing that Hitler was “mediocre” if not a bad copy of Mussolini; even SPD politician Kurt Schumacher trivialized Hitler as a “Dekorationsstck” (“piece of scenery/decoration”) of the new government. German newspapers wrote that, without doubt, the Hitler-led government would try to fight its political enemies (the left wing parties), but that it would be impossible to establish a dictatorship in Germany because there was “a barrier, over which violence cannot proceed” and because of the German nation being proud of “the freedom of speech and thought”. Theodor Wolff of Frankfurter Zeitung wrote:[58] It is a hopeless misjudgement to think that one could force a dictatorial regime upon the German nation. The diversity of the German people calls for democracy. Even within the Jewish German community, in spite of Hitler not hiding his ardent antisemitism, the worries appear to have been limited. In a declaration of January 30, the steering committee of the central Jewish German organization (Centralverein deutscher Staatsbrger jdischen Glaubens) wrote that “as a matter of course” the Jewish community faces the new government “with the largest mistrust”, but at the same they were convinced that “nobody would dare to touch [their] constitutional rights”. The Jewish German newspaper Jdische Rundschau wrote on Jan 31st:[59] … that also within the German nation still the forces are active that would turn against a barbarian anti-Jewish policy. However a growing number of keen observers, like Sir Horace Rumbold, British Ambassador in Berlin, began to revise their opinions. On 22 February 1933, he wrote, “Hitler may be no statesman but he is an uncommonly clever and audacious demagogue and fully alive to every popular instinct,” and he informed the Foreign Office that he had no doubt that the Nazis had “come to stay.”[60] On receiving the dispatch Lord Vansittart, Permanent Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, concluded that if Hitler eventually gained the upper hand, “then another European war [was] within measurable distance.”[61] With Germans who opposed Nazism failing to unite against it, Hitler soon moved to consolidate absolute power. At the risk of appearing to talk nonsense I tell you that the National Socialist movement will go on for 1,000 years!… Don’t forget how people laughed at me 15 years ago when I declared that one day I would govern Germany. They laugh now, just as foolishly, when I declare that I shall remain in power! The German term Machtergreifung (seizure of power), which is also used by English historians, is a term originally used by some Nazis to suggest a revolutionary process, though Hitler, and others, used the word Machtbernahme (take-over of power), reflecting that the transfer of power took place within the existing constitutional framework and suggesting that the process was legal. Following the Reichstag fire, the Nazis began to suspend civil liberties and eliminate political opposition. The Communists were excluded from the Reichstag. At the March 1933 elections, again no single party secured a majority. Hitler required the vote of the Centre Party and Conservatives in the Reichstag to obtain the powers he desired. He called on Reichstag members to vote for the Enabling Act on 24 March 1933. Hitler was granted plenary powers “temporarily” by the passage of the Act. The law gave him the freedom to act without parliamentary consent and even without constitutional limitations. Employing his characteristic mix of negotiation and intimidation, Hitler offered the possibility of friendly co-operation, promising not to threaten the Reichstag, the President, the States or the Churches if granted the emergency powers. With Nazi paramilitary encircling the building, he said: “It is for you, gentlemen of the Reichstag to decide between war and peace”. The Centre Party, having obtained promises of non-interference in religion, joined with conservatives in voting for the Act (only the Social Democrats voted against). The Act allowed Hitler and his Cabinet to rule by emergency decree for four years, though Hindenburg remained President. Hitler immediately set about abolishing the powers of the states and the existence of non-Nazi political parties and organisations. Non-Nazi parties were formally outlawed on 14 July, and the Reichstag abdicated its democratic responsibilities. The Act did not infringe upon the powers of the President, and Hitler would not fully achieve full dictatorial power until after the death of Hindenburg in August 1934. Hindenburg remained commander-in-chief of the military and retained the power to negotiate foreign treaties.

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Is this Hitler’s secret Argentine bolt-hole? Fuhrer’s loot found behind hidden doorway – Express.co.uk

The amazing find backs long-held claims that Hitler did not die in his bunker in Berlin after committing suicide on April 30 1945 but escaped to South America alongside other senior Nazis. Last month, Argentinian Police found hidden behind a sliding bookcase a secret door to a room in a property in the Argentine capital, that was stashed with a massive amount of Nazi relics many clearly the personal property of the Fuhrer himself. The most compelling item of evidence found was a photograph of Hitler holding a magnifying glass alongside the actual magnifying glass. The items were discovered during a police raid as part of an investigation into stolen artwork. It is the biggest find of its kind ever seen in Argentina, where many Nazi officials sought refuge. It included guns, ceremonial knives, military decorations, statues of Hitler a Nazi sundial, silver Ouija board, and items used to indoctrinate children, including harmonicas and puzzles. A police statement said: We have turned to historians and they told us it is the original magnifying glass. GETTY ExclusivepixiMedia/Hitler’s Alpi 1 of 53 Hitler speaks to a little girl visiting Obersalzberg “We are reaching out to international experts to deepen the investigation.” Argentine Security Minister Patricia Bullrich said: Our first investigations indicate that these are original pieces, they were found with the original photographs that prove this, it was the method by which they could be commercialised, showing that they were used by the horror, by the Fuhrer. “There are photos of him with the objects. She said there were also medical devices and added: “There are objects to measure heads that was the logic of the Aryan race. Investigators want to establish how they entered the country. We have turned to historians and they told us it is the original magnifying glass. Police spokesman It is documented that high-ranking Nazis fled to Argentina and other south American countries to escape punishment for war crimes in Europe. They included sick Josef Mengele, the SS officer and physician based at Auschwitz. He was known as the Angel of Death due to twisted experiments he carried out on inmates. He lived in Buenos Aires for a decade, while other Nazi leaders faced trial. He died in 1979 in the Brazilian city of Bertioga after having a stroke while swimming. Last year, the book Hitler in Exile by Abel Basti put forward a conspiracy theory that Hitler also evaded justice by fleeing to Argentina, and then onto Paraguay to live under the protection of dictator Alfredo Stroessner. 1 of 18 The book claimed Hitler died on February 3, 1971 in Paraguay, and wealthy families who helped him over the years were responsible for the organisation of his funeral. Hitler was buried in an underground bunker, which is now an elegant hotel in the city of Asuncion, it was claimed. Mr Basti claims another man may have been left in the Berlin bunker as the Allied forces moved across the German capital leaving Hitler free to escape through a tunnel to the Templhof Airport and into a waiting helicopter to Spain or the Canary Islands before making the journey to Argentina by submarine. Speaking to Sputnik, the historian said: “There was an agreement with the US that Hitler would run away and that he shouldn’t fall into the hands of the Soviet Union. “This also applies to many scientists, the military and spies who later took part in the struggle against the Soviet regime. In 1973, the entrance to the bunker was sealed, and 40 people came to say goodbye to Hitler. “One of those who attended [the funeral], Brazilian servicemen Fernando Nogueira de Araujo, then told a newspaper about the ceremony. Using declassified FBI documents the historian found a report dated September 4, 1944 which said: Argentina kept silent in spite of all the accusations that it became a destination for Hitler, which he reached either flying 7,375 miles from Berlin on the plane, which was built specifically for this purpose, or as a passenger on a submarine.”

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Four paintings by Hitler fetch 7500 pounds at auction – Outlook India

London, Jul 9 Four paintings created by the German dictator Adolf Hitler, have been sold for a total of 7,500 pounds – much lower than the estimated price – at an auction in the UK. The works of art all bear the signature ‘A Hitler’, and are dated in the early 1900s, according to the Mullocks auction house in the UK. The paintings had been expected to fetch between 5,000 and 7,000 pounds each. The signed works included one depicting a rural lakeside scene; a water-colour painting depicting a church within castle; an oil painting showing a lake side house with mountainous background, and another water-colour painting of a town and river scene. The paintings were sold for 1,600, 1,500, 2,400 and 2,000 pounds respectively. An unsigned painting, that shows the grave of Hilter’s half-niece Geli Raubel and is widely thought to have been made by the Nazi leader, remained unsold. Hitler was romantically involved with Raubel, who committed suicide in 1931 with his pistol. “We have sold Hitler’s paintings in previous sales, ranging between 600 and 1,200 pounds,” said Ben Jones, consultant at Mullocks auction house. Hitler is estimated to have created between 2,000 and 3,000 drawings, watercolours and oil paintings in his lifetime.

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The Adolf Hitler painting that could be hiding a grave secret about … – Mirror.co.uk

A sickly picture of a tomb, said to have been painted by Adolf Hitler, provides a sinister link between the Nazi leader and the niece with whom he was rumoured to be having an illicit affair. The Fhrer was reportedly heartbroken when Geli Raubal fell victim to a bullet from his own Walther pistol. Officially it was suicide. But some historians believe he murdered her to keep their affair quiet. The unsigned artwork showing Gelis resting place in the Central Cemetery in Vienna went up for sale today. Ben Jones of auctioneers Mullocks said: Its controversial but it is history at the end of the day. Geli was the daughter of Hitlers half-sister Angela Raubal and 19 years younger than him. The relationship began in 1925 when Angela became housekeeper at his mountain retreat and brought her two girls. Geli was a spirited, flirtatious 17-year-old who called him Uncle Alf. It is not clear whether the relationship was sexual. But in September 1931 they were heard having a row. The next day, Geli, then 23, was found lying face down with a single bullet lodged in her lung. Hitler was devastated and several times visited the grave depicted in the picture. It failed to attract a buyer at todays sale in Ludlow, Shrops. Four other paintings all signed “A Hitler” and valued between 5,000 and 7,000 also went unsold. Auctioneer Mr Jones said it was the second time they had tried to sell the five pictures. He added: They didnt go five years ago and have been in our office ever since. But four other paintings attributed to Hitler were snapped up for 7,500. Mr Jones said: Ive been asked, Who collects this? But people can do what they want behind closed doors. Most of Hitlers paintings were done before the First World War when he was destitute in Vienna. By the time Geli died he was 15 months away from becoming Chancellor.

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July 9, 2017   Posted in: Hitler  Comments Closed

State rightfully seized Adolf Hitler’s first home, Austrian high court rules – Jewish Telegraphic Agency

The house where Adolf Hitler was born in Braunau, Austria, April 10, 2016. (Evangelos Vlasopoulos/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images) (JTA) Austrias highest court ruled the statehad full authority to dispossess the home where Nazi leader Adolf Hitler was born. The Austrian Constitutional Court ruled Friday that the governments seizure of the home in December was in the public interest, proportionate, and not without compensation and is thus not unconstitutional, The Associated Press reported. The Decemberdecision came after theGerman border town of Braunau and later the national government spent years tryingto purchase the home from its owners in an attempt to prevent the site from becoming a shrine for neo-Nazis. The building at 15 Salzburger Vorstadt St. is listed as a historical landmark, though Hitlers name does not appear on it. Razing the building would negate the countrys Nazi past, an expert commission has said. Gerlinde Pommers family has owned the house where Hitler was born on April 20, 1889, for more than a century. The town has tried for decades to purchase the building. The ministry had rented the home for decades and sublet it to charitable organizations. The house, which draws neo-Nazi visitors, especially on the anniversary of Hitlers birth, has stood empty since 2011 after the owner refused to authorize needed renovations. Pommer had challenged the seizure of the home, saying the purchase offers were too low, according to AP. She can now appeal the case to the European Court of Human Rights.

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July 4, 2017   Posted in: Hitler  Comments Closed

Austrian Court: Government’s Seizure of Hitler’s Birth Home Is Constitutional – Tablet Magazine

Austrian police officers walk by the house where Adolf Hitler was born during the anti-Nazi protest in Braunau Am Inn, Austria, April 18, 2015.(Joe Klamar/AFP/Getty Images) But plans for the buildings future remain unclear July 3, 2017 2:45 PM Another chapter has closed in the ownership saga of Hitlers vacant birth home, which was seized last year by the Austrian government from its longtime owner, Gerlinde Pommer, who had refused to sell it. Last week, the AP reported that the Austrian Constitutional court, the countrys top court,ruledthat the governments seizure of the property was constitutional. (Pommer will continue to receive compensation). The government believes that the building, which is located in the town of Braunau am Inn on thenorthwest border with Germany, has the potential to become a Nazi pilgrimage site. According to a press release (via Jurist), the governments measures, ruled the court, arenecessary todeprive it of its symbolic poweran act that can only be taken if the Republic of Austria obtains full power of disposal of the property. The lawyer representing Pommer argued that the appeal of the home as a pilgrimage site would still appeal, especially given that plans for the buildings future are still not in place. Previous: What Should Austria do With Hitlers Vacant Birth House? Hitlers Birth Home May Not Be Demolished After All Austria To Seize Hitlers Birth Home Jonathan Zalman, a staff editor, runs The Scroll, Tablet’s news blog.

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July 4, 2017   Posted in: Hitler  Comments Closed

Austrian high court: State rightfully seized Adolf Hitler’s first home – Jewish Telegraphic Agency

The house where Adolf Hitler was born in Braunau, Austria, April 10, 2016. (Evangelos Vlasopoulos/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images) (JTA) Austrias highest court ruled the statehad full authority to dispossess the home where Nazi leader Adolf Hitler was born. The government decision in December 2016 came after theGerman border town of Braunau and later the national government spent years tryingto purchase the home from its owners in an attempt to prevent the site from becoming a shrine for neo-Nazis. The Austrian Constitutional Court ruled Friday that the governments seizure of the home was in the public interest, proportionate, and not without compensation and is thus not unconstitutional, The Associated Press reported. The building at 15 Salzburger Vorstadt St. is listed as a historical landmark, though Hitlers name does not appear on it. Razing the building would negate the countrys Nazi past, an expert commission has said. Gerlinde Pommers family has owned the house where Hitler was born on April 20, 1889, for more than a century. The town has tried for decades to purchase the building. The ministry had rented the home for decades and sublet it to charitable organizations. The house, which draws neo-Nazi visitors, especially on the anniversary of Hitlers birth, has stood empty since 2011 after the owner refused to authorize needed renovations. Pommer had challenged the seizure of the home, saying the purchase offers were too low, according to the AP. She can now appeal the case to the European Court of Human Rights.

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July 3, 2017   Posted in: Hitler  Comments Closed


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