Archive for the ‘Hitler’ Category

Tuesday History: Following Hitler’s lead in Asheville – Mountain Xpress

MAN ON THE RUN: In 1942, Pelley was convicted in Buncombe County. Among his offenses, the court noted that Pelley “willfully, unlawfully, knowingly, and deliberately” published false statements concerning President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. His prison sentence, however, would be handed down in a separate trial in Indiana. Photo courtesy of North Carolina Collection, Pack Memorial Public Library, Asheville, North Carolina

William Dudley Pelley arrived to Asheville in 1930. He began his stint in the area by establishing the short-lived Galahad College. Soon thereafter he launched the magazine Liberation. By 1933, Pelley had created the Silver Legion of America an anti-Semitic, pro-Hitler organization.

As Jon Elliston reported in a Mountain Xpress article (New Age Nazi, Jan. 28, 2004):

In the pages of Liberation and Pelleys Silvershirt Weekly, [Pelley] trumpeted his plan for addressing the Jewish problem a plan that bore no small resemblance to Hitlers. The Silver Shirts, Pelley pledged, would spearhead a new Christian Commonwealth in the United States, which would register all Jews in a national census, then systematically reduce their role in business, government and cultural affairs, ultimately confining all Jews within one city in each state.

In 1935, Pelley was convicted of fraud in Buncombe County. His punishment: a fine and a suspended prison sentence on account of good behavior.

Whenthe U.S. entered into the Second World War, however, Pelleys business activities and publications fell underscrutiny of the FBI. It would result in his 1942 arrest for sedition. By that time, Pelley had relocated to Noblesville, Ind.

Congressional records, available in The North Carolina Room, include remarks made by Congressman Jerry Voorhis (Calif.) on Sept. 3, 1942:

It seems to me proper and of some importance to record briefly the work of the Committee on Un-American Activities in the Pelley case.The best key to Pelleys general attitude and to his purposes has recently been properly emphasized in the press. It consists of a paragraph in one of his many books, [The]Door to Revelation, in which he tells of sitting with a companion on the evening that the news came of Hitlers seizing power in Germany and of how upon receiving this news he arose and remarked to his companion, Tomorrow we have the Silver Shirts. Pelley then proceeded to organize the Silver Shirts, or the Silver Legion of America, along such lines and with such aims as to leave little doubt that its central purpose was to seize power in the United States and organize this country as a totalitarian state with William Dudley Pelley as its head.

Near the end of his statement, Voorhis noted one of the great struggles in prosecuting Pelley was both his popularity and manipulation:

The Pelley case has been particularly difficult because of [Pelleys]nation-wide prominence, widespread activities, his cleverness, and the considerable following that he succeeded in building up by appeals to prejudice and even to religion. Such followers have always included persons of wealth who stood ready to rush in and make bond for Pelley or finance his activities. As will be seen from this account he has been in court a very considerable portion of his time and has carried his appeals to the highest court possible in every case but has never lacked necessary funds for the purpose. That the investigations launched by the committee and carried on at considerable expenses have been fully justified is, of course, apparent. I am informed that the committee has spent more money on the investigation and subsequently assisting in the prosecution of Pelley than on any other single individual Nazi, Fascist, or Communist which it has investigated.

In August of 1942, Pelley was sentenced to 15 years. He was paroled in 1950. He died June 30, 1965, in Noblesville, Ind.

As Elliston reported, Pelleys decade in Asheville was spent crafting and spreading his propaganda through a number of publications. These ventures, however, did not always translate to financial success. Elliston wrote:

For all Pelleys energy, vision and skill as a propagandist, however, he proved to be an abysmal businessman. With each new political or spiritual whim, it seemed, Pelley founded another enterprise, never pausing to solidify any of them. In the course of a mere 10 years, he incorporated Galahad College, the Galahad Press, the Fellowship Press, the Foundation for Christian Economics, the League for the Liberation, Pelley Publishers and the Silver Shirts, and founded five publications:Liberation, Pelleys Silvershirt Weekly, The New Liberator, The GalileanandRoll-Call.

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Tuesday History: Following Hitler’s lead in Asheville – Mountain Xpress

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Hitler’s Little Helper: A History of Rampant Drug Use Under the Nazis – New York Times


New York Times
Hitler's Little Helper: A History of Rampant Drug Use Under the Nazis
New York Times
Similar problems arise in the other major tale at the heart of Blitzed: Hitler's own journey into addiction (or in Ohler's terms, his polytoxicomania). Here the prime character is Theodor Morell, Hitler's private physician, a slick and fawning
Speedballs for Hitler: According to Blitzed, Nazis Were Meth-Addled PsychosTheStranger.com

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Hitler’s Little Helper: A History of Rampant Drug Use Under the Nazis – New York Times

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High Hitler – VICE News

There are many things considered to be common knowledge about Adolf Hitler; he was vegetarian, partial to the toothbrush mustache, a failed fine artist and a Nazi despot responsible for the reprehensible, systematic murder of six million jews. Oh, and he was also high off his face for the entirety of World War II, as was much of the Third Reich.

Norman Ohler examines thisnarcotics habit that skirted detection in his international bestseller, Blitzed: Drugs in Nazi Germany

This segment originally aired March. 20, 2017, on VICE News Tonight on HBO.

Blitzed is based in part on the notes of Theodor Morell, the personal physician to Hitler. When Ohler stumbled upon the doctors papers, he says he recognized the presence of opiates.

Part of Hitlers manufactured image was a sober, seemlyman, but records show otherwise. In 1941, Hitler was prescribed an opiate, now recognized as oxycodone, for illness. He was hooked. And Hitler wasnt the only one in the Third Reich or the German Army mainlining drugs. Ohler found evidence that 35 million doses of methamphetamine were shipped to the tank troupes.

Ohler does not believe the drug abuse even slightly absolves the crimes against humanity committed by the Nazis, nor does he think it normalizes their behavior.Its very important to realize the politics, the planning, has nothing to do with drugs. He told VICE News, drugs were used later on in the war effort. But would drugs lessen the responsibility? My conclusion is no.

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Hitler’s mistress profiled in theatre guild season opener – Morehead News

A Fleming County man will be directing the latest the Morehead Theatre Guild production.

Jim Colgan began writing the play A Fuhrer’s Mistress in 2011 after a discussion with an actress friend about the kind of roles women like to play.

She said she liked to play ‘the woman behind a great man’ or ‘the woman behind a bad man’ and immediately I thought of Eva Braun, Colgan says.

Braun was the mysterious mistress of Adolf Hitler during his rise to power in Germany.

In researching Braun, Colgan found only one book about her written in English.

The 2007 biography The Lost Life of Eva Braun chronicles the relationship between Braun and Hitler from their meeting in 1929 through their mutual suicide in 1945.

No one knew who she was. Once he got his hands on her, he took her out of mainstream society. Her correspondence either disappeared or was destroyed. She was hidden in his mansionno one ever saw her, Colgan says.

After leaving the convent in 1929, 17-year-old Braun began working as a photographer for the Nazi party, where she was introduced to Hitler.

Colgan’s play follows Braun (portrayed by MSU student Kristyn Lawrence) from 1938 through her suicide in 1945.

Joining Lawrence in the cast are Mike Dobranski, Amanda Carter and Kathryn Reeder.

This is a play about a man who enthralled, dominated, and destroyed a young woman while at the same time enthralling, dominating, and destroying an entire country, Colgan says. It is an important play about events and history that we should never forget.

Although completed in 2013, this will be the first production of Colgan’s play, which he calls a serious drama.

Performances of The Fuhrer’s Mistress will be held at the Rowan County Arts Center Friday, March 31, Saturday, April 1, Friday, April 7, and Saturday, April 8, at 7:30 p.m. nightly. Matinee performances will also be held Sunday, April 2, and April 9, at 2 p.m.

There will be a question and answer session following the April 2 performance.

Admission is $10 per person. Student and senior tickets are $5 per person. Colgan recommends that the play not be viewed by children age 16 and under because of the serious nature of the play.

Proceeds will benefit the Morehead Theatre Guild.

For more information or to purchase tickets, contact the Rowan County Arts Center at 783-9857.

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Hitler’s mistress profiled in theatre guild season opener – Morehead News

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Hitler’s Man on British Radio – Slate Magazine

He speaks English of the haw, haw, damit-get-out-of-the-way variety, and his strong suit is gentlemanly indignation, wrote one columnist.

Imperial War Museum/Wikimedia Commons

This article supplements Fascism, a Slate Academy. To learn more and to enroll, visit Slate.com/Fascism.

William Joyce pictured it so clearly: Winston Churchill being led to his hanging in a prison yard. The Governor of a British prison accompanies Mr. Churchill on that last cheerless walk on a cold grey morning just before eight, Joyce wrote in 1940. On his way to the gallows, Joyce added, Churchill should be reminded of the famine he brought upon England by inviting war with Germany, leaving the islands lifelines snapped by German U-boats.

As it came to pass, England did not starve, and it was William Joyce who was led to the execution chamber of Wandsworth Prison one January morning in 1946. Convicted of aiding Nazi Germany as its chief propaganda broadcaster to Britain, he was the last person executed for treason in the U.K.

Born in Brooklyn to Irish immigrants, 40 years before, he returned with his parents to Galway at age 3. He never fit in there, being stridently pro-British in an Ireland on the verge of rebelling against British mastery. When the Irish War of Independence erupted in 1919, he fought as a young teenager with the Black and Tanshastily mustered WWI veterans infamous for their brutalityagainst his fellow Irishmen. With the Black and Tans, a Security Service agent reported, Joyce saw battle, murder, and sudden death at a very tender age.

The Joyce family left for London upon the creation of the Irish Free State in 1922, fearing reprisal. It was there, as a university student, that Joyce discovered fascism, embracing it with an intensity few ever matched. Mussolini had been in power in Italy for a short time, his movement promising to many an alternative to the shortcomings of democracy, a boost to prosperity, and a bulwark against socialism. The Italian Blackshirts violence and strike-breaking spoke to Joyces inborn taste for militancy, order, and domination. And their anti-leftism appealed, since Joyce imagined a global Jewish Bolshevik conspiracy.

Joyce enlisted in Oswald Mosleys British Union of Fascists as director of propaganda when the party became the leading standard-bearer for fascism in the U.K. in the early 1930s. He thrived, with a fellow fascist observing that Joyce was a brilliant writer, speaker and exponent of policy … [who] addressed hundreds of meetings, always at his best, always revealing the iron spirit of fascism. The BUF itself had around 40,000 members in 1934 and a number of wealthy and influential supporters, including press magnate Lord Rothermere, owner of the Daily Mail, and an array of dukes, marquesses, and baronets.

When Hitler came on the scene, Joyce found his true idol. The German added to Mussolinis fascism an anti-Semitism that was central to Hitlers and Joyces universal theory of how the world worked. Hitler articulated a vision of ending an imagined ages-long struggle between left and right, liberalism and absolutism, that appealed to Joyce, who also thought historically and saw the growth of fascism as the harbinger of the end of history. Joyce had spent his young life in search of the most totalizing ideas, the most uncompromising leader, and here they were.

Joyce lost his position with the British Union of Fascists in 1937 as the party itself lost support and clout as a result of its street violence and brawling at its rallies. Despite this, and the looming war with Germany, the diehard Joyce started an explicitly Nazi party in Britain, deriding Mosley as a vain pretender and the BUF as insufficiently hardcore.

A few months before the outbreak of war, MI5 reported of Joyce:

The MI5 report concluded by suggesting he be detained when war broke out. But, possibly tipped off, Joyce and his wifea fellow fascistfled for Berlin only days before Britain declared war in September 1939. Joyce, a U.S. citizen, falsely claimed U.K. citizenship on his passport application.

Within only weeks, Joyce had a job in the German Propaganda Ministrys English-language broadcasting section. Radio broadcasting had exploded over the course of the decade, with affordable receivers becoming ubiquitous and commercial broadcasters crowding the airwaves. Quickly, people came to view radio as an entertainment essential and information lifeline.

As such a lifeline, radio was never more vital than in wartime for the British public. The state-monopoly BBC, though, was heavily censored and played a somnolent organ refrain at intervals throughout the day. This made English-language radio beamed from the continent an appealing alternative.

Beginning his broadcasts with the catchphrase, Germany calling, Germany calling, Joyce would read genuine news gleaned from papers acquired in neutral countries, mixed with exaggerations about overwhelming German victoriesthough the real victories in the early months of the war were significant enough. Then Joyce would offer what he called views on the newshis editorial perspective.

This is when he would let loose on the aged satyr Churchill, for example, the whiskey-guzzling, cigar-chomping, bovine decadent liar. Or he would recycle some of his pro-Nazi speeches from earlier days in the BUF. In 1940 and early 1941, with German victories mounting and the British with little to celebrate, Joyce was in his heyday.

In his private life, Joyce was a domestic abuser, assaulting his first and second wives repeatedly; his broadcasts to Britain fit this pattern of torment and intimidation. Germany, he declared, wanted peace, but the British had forced the Reich into violence. Germany did not want to bomb the women and children of Britain, but it had been left no choice. Ultimately, though, a harsh corrective would be for Britains own good.

Joyce did not try to charm or coax. He created a sense that Germany could come and overrun Britain at any moment of Hitlers choosing. The only thing that could save the British people from ruin was if they tore down Churchill and came to terms. Since Joyce genuinely seemed to believe that a Jewish conspiracy pulled the strings controlling the British state, there can be little doubt that he imagined a final reckoning for them in the future.

Within Britain, Joyce received a mixed response. The newspapers tried to make him an object of ridicule, making fun of his pompous accent. He speaks English of the haw, haw, damit-get-out-of-the-way variety, and his strong suit is gentlemanly indignation, wrote one columnist. And from then on, Joyce was known as Lord Haw-Haw, a staple of cartoons and jokes.

Germany, he declared, wanted peace, but the British had forced the Reich into violence.

But the public, hungry for alternative channels of news, sought him out. The British Ministry of Information estimated that he had 6 million regular and 18 million occasional listeners. (Twenty-three million people regularly listened to the BBC.) Still, people recalled finding his voice horrible and creepy. Some thought his broadcasts contained messages for German agents or predicted where the next bombs would fall. They were not laughing.

The problem for Joyce was that the tactic of guaranteeing Britains ruin if its people did not rise against Churchill became less and less effective from around early 1942. Britain held out against the Blitz, the Royal Air Force made the Channel impassable, and then the Soviets and U.S. were drafted into the war effort.

Joyce was loyal to Hitler and the cause until the last. He and his wife ran ahead of the invading Soviet and U.S. armies, broadcasting until the last possible moment in May 1945. They were both captured alive and returned to the U.K.

The government put William Joyce on trial for treason, even though he was not really a British subject. In his claim for a British passport, went the governments case, he had claimed the protection of the crown and was thus bound to loyalty. Legal experts still consider this a dubious line of reasoning. The fact is that the British state intended to have its lethal revenge against a figure it detested.

In his last letter to his wife before his execution by hanging, William Joyce expressed the hope that, once again may the Swastika be raised from the dust, crowned with the historic words You have conquered nevertheless. Then he took his last cheerless walk.

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Hitler’s Man on British Radio – Slate Magazine

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The Plan to Kill Hitler on ‘Making History’ Fails, Becomes a ‘Mild Annoyance’ – Yahoo TV (blog)

Sunday nights episode of Making History started off in Berlin in 1937 with Dan and Chris running from Nazi soldiers. Right as the soldiers caught up to them, Dan and Chris got into their time travel bag and disappeared. The Nazi soldiers were shocked by their sudden disappearance, and two of them werent about to get in trouble for letting the guys get away. They spoke to each other in German, and the subtitles read: Im still telling Hitler we killed them.

Back in the present day, Dan was talking to Deb about his trip to Nazi Germany and how they werent able to kill Hitler. Chris explained, I wanted to kill Hitler when he was young, before he was surrounded by all those Nazis, but Chris had a real problem with stabbing a baby. Chris noted that he didnt leave Germany without getting a souvenir: he held up a spoon and exclaimed that he stole Hitlers spoon. When Deb asked if that had stopped World War II, Chris said, No. But I mean, think about it. He comes downstairs in the morning, he wants a bowl of cereal its a total disaster. Theres no way he realizes he has no spoon before he pours the milk, to which Deb replied, What a mild annoyance.

Making Historyairs Sundays at 8:30 p.m. on Fox. Watch clips and full episodes of Making Historyfor free on Yahoo View.

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The Plan to Kill Hitler on ‘Making History’ Fails, Becomes a ‘Mild Annoyance’ – Yahoo TV (blog)

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Chilling pics show Hitler’s troops devastating Soviet cities during … – The Sun

A HIGH-ranking Nazis photo album has emerged revealing never before seen picturesof the Third Reich before the Second World War turned against them have been unearthed.

Field Marshal Wolfram von Richthofen, who was the cousin of the First World War air ace the Red Baron, was a commanding officer in the German invasion of Russia in July 1941.

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He documented the devastating Operation Barbarossa in haunting pictures that have only just been released for the first time.

They include images of the wiped-out Soviet cities of Minsk, Grodnow and Smolensk, burnt out enemy tanks, thousands of captured troops, female Bolshevik soldiers and rounded-up Jewish citiziens.

One of the captured soldiers featured is Yakov Jugashvili, the eldest son of Russian communist leader Joseph Stalin, who went on to die in the notorious Sachsenhausen concentration camp.

And there are some bizarre images showing Nazis in more light-hearted moments of the campaign.

One is of a cute kitten sat in a German jack boot while others show officers catching fish by hurling stick bombs into a lake.

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One of the two personalised albums was compiled just before the war and is of a huge victory parade in Berlin for Germanys Condor Legion, a military unit which supported General Franco in the Spanish Civil War between 1936 and March 1939.

The photos depict von Richthofen shaking hands with Adolf Hitler in front of masses of Nazi soldiers.

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There are snaps showing von Richthofen marching alongside Hitler who is giving a Nazi salute and Luftwaffe chief Hermann Goering. Another shows him walking behind Franco.

The two albums document the honeymoon period of the Third Reich, before the onset of the Russian winter of 1941 which proved a significant turning point of the war.

The Russians hit back on the Eastern Front and pushed the enemy back towards Germany.

In 1944 the Allies invaded France and forced the Germans to retreat from the west.

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The two albums, which have hand-written captions by von Richthofen, were taken from Berlin by a British soldier at the end of the war. He kept them for 60 years before they were acquired by a private collector. Auctioneers Dickins of Buckinghamshire are now selling the historic albums for an estimated 20,000. Von Richthofen served in the First World War in the German Air Force and was in the same squadron as his cousin, Manfred von Richthofen, who was credited with 80 aerial victories.

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Wolfram was inadvertently responsible for the Red Barons death as Manfred was shot down while trying to defend the novice pilot during his first flight in 1918.

He trained as an aeronautical engineer between the wars before rejoining the Luftwaffe under Hermann Goering.

He designed the so-called Jericho trumpet, the propeller-driven high-pitched sirens on Stuka dive bombers which sent a shudder down any British pilots spine.

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In November 1936, he took command of the Condor Legion which carried out bombings in support of Francos nationalists in Spain.

During Operation Barbarossa the German army captured five million Soviet prisoners of war. The majority of them never returned alive.

More than a million Soviet Jews were murdered by death squads and gassing as part of the Holocaust.

Von Richthofen survived the war but died of a brain tumour in July 1945 and was never put on trial at Nuremberg.

Dickins/BNPS

John Dickins, of Dickins Auctioneers in Middle Claydon, Bucks, said: It is quite incredible to actually handle the personal album of a field marshal of his calibre.

He was the youngest field marshal in the German army and he would have gone further had he not had disagreements with his superior.

I am quite taken aback by what you see in the photos, especially the aerial photos looking down on the bombed Russian cities.

The auction takes place on March 31.

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Chilling pics show Hitler’s troops devastating Soviet cities during … – The Sun

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Diary Reveals JFK Thought Hitler Might Have Survived World War II – Sputnik International

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22:32 27.03.2017(updated 07:48 28.03.2017) Get short URL

Photo: C&T Auctioneers and Valuers

On April 26, what would have been Kennedys 100th birthday, the diary will be going tothe highest bidder. Bostons RR Auction, which is handling the sale, expects tobring inover $200,000 forthe artifact.

[Hitler] had boundless ambition forhis country which rendered him a menace tothe peace ofthe world, buthe had a mystery abouthim inthe way he lived and inthe manner ofhis death that will live and grow afterhim, Kennedy wrote aftervisiting Hitlers bunkers inBerlin, and his Eagles Nest mountaintop retreat, insummer 1945, the Independent reported.

After visiting the bunker where Hitler is widely said tohave committed suicide, Kennedy was skeptical.

When questioned aboutthe entry, the auction house denied that Kennedy admired Hitler, and urged readers not totake his writing outof context.

Theres no glorification, and I wouldnt take this outof context, Bobby Livingston, executive vice president ofRR Auction, told the Independent. I think Kennedy was a historian, and hes writing his understanding ofHitlers place inhistory.

Henderson has also shared her belief that Kennedy was not glorifying Nazis or Hitler.

When JFK said that Hitler had inhim the stuff ofwhich legends are made, he was speaking tothe mystery surrounding him, not the evil he demonstrated tothe world,” Henderson told People Magazine. “Nowhere inthis diary, or inany ofhis writings, is there any indication ofsympathy forNazi crimes or cause.”

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How Hitler Seized Power and Shocked His Opposition – The Daily … – Daily Beast

Elected chancellor of Germany in 1932, Hitler was held in contempt by his opponents, who thought he would be easy to control. They were wrong.

Adolf Hitler took power on January 30, 1933, and within no time at all he had:

let loose the police against Jews and Communists to a degree never seen before;

won emergency powers to govern by decree following the incredibly well-timed February 27 arson against the Reichstag, Germanys parliament building;

begun the shutdown of dissent and diversity in German publishing and culture through a policy of Gleichschaltung, or forcing everybody onto the same page.

The German establishment was taken aback. The well-meaning conservatives who in 1933 levered Hitler into office thought they could build fences of moderation around him once they got him under the tent. After all, the new cabinet would contain a majority of non-Nazis.

Within two months, well have Hitler in a corner so tight that he will squeak, said vice-chancellor Franz von Papen, who brokered the deal.

But Hitler surprised everyone by doing exactly what he had been preaching for more than a decade: turning Germany into an ethnically pure, nationalistically-driven economic machine for making Germany great again. And he thought he could do it fast. For that, Hitler had Hermann Gring and Joseph Goebbels. In 1933, they were not yet the monsters of history that they later became. But they were ambitious political operatives with a radical agenda and a charismatic leader. They acted with speed and force.

Grings power lay in the sly way Hitler had negotiated for control of the Prussian state police apparatus as part of his deal with Papen to become chancellor. Gring quickly fired the moderates in the security apparatus and suspended civil liberties of targeted groupsJews, Communists, and even Social Democrats. Gring operated under the pretext of defending Germany against imminent Marxist revolution, imported from the Soviet Union and mounted by Germanys own Communist party.

The government in Moscow had indeed hoped for years to foment revolution in Germany, and the local Communists were often inclined to violencejust like the Nazis. But the KPDthe German Communist Partynever came close to seizing power. In the 14 years of the Weimar Republic, the party only once polled more than 15 percent. The Nazis, meanwhile, had hit 37 percent in 1932, making them Germanys largest party even before the takeover in 1933.

Still, Communists served as Hitlers proximate bugaboo, justifying all kinds of excesses. He waved the bloody shirt of 30 million killed by the revolutionary regime in Russia to invoke a Jewish-Bolshevist threat in Germany. The only thing that stood between God-fearing Germans and a Communist dictatorship, he implied, was a dictatorship of the Nazis.

Hitler also built on an early version of fake news. His starting point was the invented calumny The Protocols of the Elders of Ziona 1903 document alleging a Jewish world conspiracy. Even after Hitler learned the text was a forgery, he continued using it as real because it contained the inner truth about Jewry, he said.

In 1932, with Hitler looming ever larger in German politics, Kurt Schumacher, a Social Democratic leader, noted that one thing we admire about the National Socialists is that they have succeeded for the first time in German politics, in the complete mobilization of human stupidity.

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Schumachers biting irony and trenchant warning made no difference. Desperate to build a political firewall against the perceived Communist and Social Democratic threat, the German establishment led by Papen and President von Hindenburg in 1933 invited Hitler to head a government of national concentrationa supposed compromise between Hitlers radicals and establishment conservatives.

Within months, it was the conservatives, not Hitler, who were in a corner. After little more than a year, most were marginalized and oneformer chancellor Kurt von Schleicherwas dead, assassinated in Hitlers Night of the Long Knives. Once under the tent, Hitler had been able to seize the whole show and, for Nazi Germany, there was no turning back, only the long, fateful march to self-destruction.

——– Peter Ross Range is author of 1924: The Year That Made Hitler. He is working on a new book about Hitlers rise to power.

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March 26, 2017   Posted in: Hitler  Comments Closed

Tuesday History: Following Hitler’s lead in Asheville – Mountain Xpress

MAN ON THE RUN: In 1942, Pelley was convicted in Buncombe County. Among his offenses, the court noted that Pelley “willfully, unlawfully, knowingly, and deliberately” published false statements concerning President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. His prison sentence, however, would be handed down in a separate trial in Indiana. Photo courtesy of North Carolina Collection, Pack Memorial Public Library, Asheville, North Carolina William Dudley Pelley arrived to Asheville in 1930. He began his stint in the area by establishing the short-lived Galahad College. Soon thereafter he launched the magazine Liberation. By 1933, Pelley had created the Silver Legion of America an anti-Semitic, pro-Hitler organization. As Jon Elliston reported in a Mountain Xpress article (New Age Nazi, Jan. 28, 2004): In the pages of Liberation and Pelleys Silvershirt Weekly, [Pelley] trumpeted his plan for addressing the Jewish problem a plan that bore no small resemblance to Hitlers. The Silver Shirts, Pelley pledged, would spearhead a new Christian Commonwealth in the United States, which would register all Jews in a national census, then systematically reduce their role in business, government and cultural affairs, ultimately confining all Jews within one city in each state. In 1935, Pelley was convicted of fraud in Buncombe County. His punishment: a fine and a suspended prison sentence on account of good behavior. Whenthe U.S. entered into the Second World War, however, Pelleys business activities and publications fell underscrutiny of the FBI. It would result in his 1942 arrest for sedition. By that time, Pelley had relocated to Noblesville, Ind. Congressional records, available in The North Carolina Room, include remarks made by Congressman Jerry Voorhis (Calif.) on Sept. 3, 1942: It seems to me proper and of some importance to record briefly the work of the Committee on Un-American Activities in the Pelley case.The best key to Pelleys general attitude and to his purposes has recently been properly emphasized in the press. It consists of a paragraph in one of his many books, [The]Door to Revelation, in which he tells of sitting with a companion on the evening that the news came of Hitlers seizing power in Germany and of how upon receiving this news he arose and remarked to his companion, Tomorrow we have the Silver Shirts. Pelley then proceeded to organize the Silver Shirts, or the Silver Legion of America, along such lines and with such aims as to leave little doubt that its central purpose was to seize power in the United States and organize this country as a totalitarian state with William Dudley Pelley as its head. Near the end of his statement, Voorhis noted one of the great struggles in prosecuting Pelley was both his popularity and manipulation: The Pelley case has been particularly difficult because of [Pelleys]nation-wide prominence, widespread activities, his cleverness, and the considerable following that he succeeded in building up by appeals to prejudice and even to religion. Such followers have always included persons of wealth who stood ready to rush in and make bond for Pelley or finance his activities. As will be seen from this account he has been in court a very considerable portion of his time and has carried his appeals to the highest court possible in every case but has never lacked necessary funds for the purpose. That the investigations launched by the committee and carried on at considerable expenses have been fully justified is, of course, apparent. I am informed that the committee has spent more money on the investigation and subsequently assisting in the prosecution of Pelley than on any other single individual Nazi, Fascist, or Communist which it has investigated. In August of 1942, Pelley was sentenced to 15 years. He was paroled in 1950. He died June 30, 1965, in Noblesville, Ind. As Elliston reported, Pelleys decade in Asheville was spent crafting and spreading his propaganda through a number of publications. These ventures, however, did not always translate to financial success. Elliston wrote: For all Pelleys energy, vision and skill as a propagandist, however, he proved to be an abysmal businessman. With each new political or spiritual whim, it seemed, Pelley founded another enterprise, never pausing to solidify any of them. In the course of a mere 10 years, he incorporated Galahad College, the Galahad Press, the Fellowship Press, the Foundation for Christian Economics, the League for the Liberation, Pelley Publishers and the Silver Shirts, and founded five publications:Liberation, Pelleys Silvershirt Weekly, The New Liberator, The GalileanandRoll-Call.

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March 30, 2017   Posted in: Hitler  Comments Closed

Hitler’s Little Helper: A History of Rampant Drug Use Under the Nazis – New York Times

New York Times Hitler's Little Helper: A History of Rampant Drug Use Under the Nazis New York Times Similar problems arise in the other major tale at the heart of Blitzed: Hitler's own journey into addiction (or in Ohler's terms, his polytoxicomania). Here the prime character is Theodor Morell, Hitler's private physician, a slick and fawning … Speedballs for Hitler : According to Blitzed, Nazis Were Meth-Addled Psychos TheStranger.com all 2 news articles »

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March 28, 2017   Posted in: Hitler  Comments Closed

High Hitler – VICE News

There are many things considered to be common knowledge about Adolf Hitler; he was vegetarian, partial to the toothbrush mustache, a failed fine artist and a Nazi despot responsible for the reprehensible, systematic murder of six million jews. Oh, and he was also high off his face for the entirety of World War II, as was much of the Third Reich. Norman Ohler examines thisnarcotics habit that skirted detection in his international bestseller, Blitzed: Drugs in Nazi Germany This segment originally aired March. 20, 2017, on VICE News Tonight on HBO. Blitzed is based in part on the notes of Theodor Morell, the personal physician to Hitler. When Ohler stumbled upon the doctors papers, he says he recognized the presence of opiates. Part of Hitlers manufactured image was a sober, seemlyman, but records show otherwise. In 1941, Hitler was prescribed an opiate, now recognized as oxycodone, for illness. He was hooked. And Hitler wasnt the only one in the Third Reich or the German Army mainlining drugs. Ohler found evidence that 35 million doses of methamphetamine were shipped to the tank troupes. Ohler does not believe the drug abuse even slightly absolves the crimes against humanity committed by the Nazis, nor does he think it normalizes their behavior.Its very important to realize the politics, the planning, has nothing to do with drugs. He told VICE News, drugs were used later on in the war effort. But would drugs lessen the responsibility? My conclusion is no.

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Hitler’s mistress profiled in theatre guild season opener – Morehead News

A Fleming County man will be directing the latest the Morehead Theatre Guild production. Jim Colgan began writing the play A Fuhrer’s Mistress in 2011 after a discussion with an actress friend about the kind of roles women like to play. She said she liked to play ‘the woman behind a great man’ or ‘the woman behind a bad man’ and immediately I thought of Eva Braun, Colgan says. Braun was the mysterious mistress of Adolf Hitler during his rise to power in Germany. In researching Braun, Colgan found only one book about her written in English. The 2007 biography The Lost Life of Eva Braun chronicles the relationship between Braun and Hitler from their meeting in 1929 through their mutual suicide in 1945. No one knew who she was. Once he got his hands on her, he took her out of mainstream society. Her correspondence either disappeared or was destroyed. She was hidden in his mansionno one ever saw her, Colgan says. After leaving the convent in 1929, 17-year-old Braun began working as a photographer for the Nazi party, where she was introduced to Hitler. Colgan’s play follows Braun (portrayed by MSU student Kristyn Lawrence) from 1938 through her suicide in 1945. Joining Lawrence in the cast are Mike Dobranski, Amanda Carter and Kathryn Reeder. This is a play about a man who enthralled, dominated, and destroyed a young woman while at the same time enthralling, dominating, and destroying an entire country, Colgan says. It is an important play about events and history that we should never forget. Although completed in 2013, this will be the first production of Colgan’s play, which he calls a serious drama. Performances of The Fuhrer’s Mistress will be held at the Rowan County Arts Center Friday, March 31, Saturday, April 1, Friday, April 7, and Saturday, April 8, at 7:30 p.m. nightly. Matinee performances will also be held Sunday, April 2, and April 9, at 2 p.m. There will be a question and answer session following the April 2 performance. Admission is $10 per person. Student and senior tickets are $5 per person. Colgan recommends that the play not be viewed by children age 16 and under because of the serious nature of the play. Proceeds will benefit the Morehead Theatre Guild. For more information or to purchase tickets, contact the Rowan County Arts Center at 783-9857.

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Hitler’s Man on British Radio – Slate Magazine

He speaks English of the haw, haw, damit-get-out-of-the-way variety, and his strong suit is gentlemanly indignation, wrote one columnist. Imperial War Museum/Wikimedia Commons This article supplements Fascism, a Slate Academy. To learn more and to enroll, visit Slate.com/Fascism. William Joyce pictured it so clearly: Winston Churchill being led to his hanging in a prison yard. The Governor of a British prison accompanies Mr. Churchill on that last cheerless walk on a cold grey morning just before eight, Joyce wrote in 1940. On his way to the gallows, Joyce added, Churchill should be reminded of the famine he brought upon England by inviting war with Germany, leaving the islands lifelines snapped by German U-boats. As it came to pass, England did not starve, and it was William Joyce who was led to the execution chamber of Wandsworth Prison one January morning in 1946. Convicted of aiding Nazi Germany as its chief propaganda broadcaster to Britain, he was the last person executed for treason in the U.K. Born in Brooklyn to Irish immigrants, 40 years before, he returned with his parents to Galway at age 3. He never fit in there, being stridently pro-British in an Ireland on the verge of rebelling against British mastery. When the Irish War of Independence erupted in 1919, he fought as a young teenager with the Black and Tanshastily mustered WWI veterans infamous for their brutalityagainst his fellow Irishmen. With the Black and Tans, a Security Service agent reported, Joyce saw battle, murder, and sudden death at a very tender age. The Joyce family left for London upon the creation of the Irish Free State in 1922, fearing reprisal. It was there, as a university student, that Joyce discovered fascism, embracing it with an intensity few ever matched. Mussolini had been in power in Italy for a short time, his movement promising to many an alternative to the shortcomings of democracy, a boost to prosperity, and a bulwark against socialism. The Italian Blackshirts violence and strike-breaking spoke to Joyces inborn taste for militancy, order, and domination. And their anti-leftism appealed, since Joyce imagined a global Jewish Bolshevik conspiracy. Joyce enlisted in Oswald Mosleys British Union of Fascists as director of propaganda when the party became the leading standard-bearer for fascism in the U.K. in the early 1930s. He thrived, with a fellow fascist observing that Joyce was a brilliant writer, speaker and exponent of policy … [who] addressed hundreds of meetings, always at his best, always revealing the iron spirit of fascism. The BUF itself had around 40,000 members in 1934 and a number of wealthy and influential supporters, including press magnate Lord Rothermere, owner of the Daily Mail, and an array of dukes, marquesses, and baronets. When Hitler came on the scene, Joyce found his true idol. The German added to Mussolinis fascism an anti-Semitism that was central to Hitlers and Joyces universal theory of how the world worked. Hitler articulated a vision of ending an imagined ages-long struggle between left and right, liberalism and absolutism, that appealed to Joyce, who also thought historically and saw the growth of fascism as the harbinger of the end of history. Joyce had spent his young life in search of the most totalizing ideas, the most uncompromising leader, and here they were. Joyce lost his position with the British Union of Fascists in 1937 as the party itself lost support and clout as a result of its street violence and brawling at its rallies. Despite this, and the looming war with Germany, the diehard Joyce started an explicitly Nazi party in Britain, deriding Mosley as a vain pretender and the BUF as insufficiently hardcore. A few months before the outbreak of war, MI5 reported of Joyce: The MI5 report concluded by suggesting he be detained when war broke out. But, possibly tipped off, Joyce and his wifea fellow fascistfled for Berlin only days before Britain declared war in September 1939. Joyce, a U.S. citizen, falsely claimed U.K. citizenship on his passport application. Within only weeks, Joyce had a job in the German Propaganda Ministrys English-language broadcasting section. Radio broadcasting had exploded over the course of the decade, with affordable receivers becoming ubiquitous and commercial broadcasters crowding the airwaves. Quickly, people came to view radio as an entertainment essential and information lifeline. As such a lifeline, radio was never more vital than in wartime for the British public. The state-monopoly BBC, though, was heavily censored and played a somnolent organ refrain at intervals throughout the day. This made English-language radio beamed from the continent an appealing alternative. Beginning his broadcasts with the catchphrase, Germany calling, Germany calling, Joyce would read genuine news gleaned from papers acquired in neutral countries, mixed with exaggerations about overwhelming German victoriesthough the real victories in the early months of the war were significant enough. Then Joyce would offer what he called views on the newshis editorial perspective. This is when he would let loose on the aged satyr Churchill, for example, the whiskey-guzzling, cigar-chomping, bovine decadent liar. Or he would recycle some of his pro-Nazi speeches from earlier days in the BUF. In 1940 and early 1941, with German victories mounting and the British with little to celebrate, Joyce was in his heyday. In his private life, Joyce was a domestic abuser, assaulting his first and second wives repeatedly; his broadcasts to Britain fit this pattern of torment and intimidation. Germany, he declared, wanted peace, but the British had forced the Reich into violence. Germany did not want to bomb the women and children of Britain, but it had been left no choice. Ultimately, though, a harsh corrective would be for Britains own good. Joyce did not try to charm or coax. He created a sense that Germany could come and overrun Britain at any moment of Hitlers choosing. The only thing that could save the British people from ruin was if they tore down Churchill and came to terms. Since Joyce genuinely seemed to believe that a Jewish conspiracy pulled the strings controlling the British state, there can be little doubt that he imagined a final reckoning for them in the future. Within Britain, Joyce received a mixed response. The newspapers tried to make him an object of ridicule, making fun of his pompous accent. He speaks English of the haw, haw, damit-get-out-of-the-way variety, and his strong suit is gentlemanly indignation, wrote one columnist. And from then on, Joyce was known as Lord Haw-Haw, a staple of cartoons and jokes. Germany, he declared, wanted peace, but the British had forced the Reich into violence. But the public, hungry for alternative channels of news, sought him out. The British Ministry of Information estimated that he had 6 million regular and 18 million occasional listeners. (Twenty-three million people regularly listened to the BBC.) Still, people recalled finding his voice horrible and creepy. Some thought his broadcasts contained messages for German agents or predicted where the next bombs would fall. They were not laughing. The problem for Joyce was that the tactic of guaranteeing Britains ruin if its people did not rise against Churchill became less and less effective from around early 1942. Britain held out against the Blitz, the Royal Air Force made the Channel impassable, and then the Soviets and U.S. were drafted into the war effort. Joyce was loyal to Hitler and the cause until the last. He and his wife ran ahead of the invading Soviet and U.S. armies, broadcasting until the last possible moment in May 1945. They were both captured alive and returned to the U.K. The government put William Joyce on trial for treason, even though he was not really a British subject. In his claim for a British passport, went the governments case, he had claimed the protection of the crown and was thus bound to loyalty. Legal experts still consider this a dubious line of reasoning. The fact is that the British state intended to have its lethal revenge against a figure it detested. In his last letter to his wife before his execution by hanging, William Joyce expressed the hope that, once again may the Swastika be raised from the dust, crowned with the historic words You have conquered nevertheless. Then he took his last cheerless walk.

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The Plan to Kill Hitler on ‘Making History’ Fails, Becomes a ‘Mild Annoyance’ – Yahoo TV (blog)

Sunday nights episode of Making History started off in Berlin in 1937 with Dan and Chris running from Nazi soldiers. Right as the soldiers caught up to them, Dan and Chris got into their time travel bag and disappeared. The Nazi soldiers were shocked by their sudden disappearance, and two of them werent about to get in trouble for letting the guys get away. They spoke to each other in German, and the subtitles read: Im still telling Hitler we killed them. Back in the present day, Dan was talking to Deb about his trip to Nazi Germany and how they werent able to kill Hitler. Chris explained, I wanted to kill Hitler when he was young, before he was surrounded by all those Nazis, but Chris had a real problem with stabbing a baby. Chris noted that he didnt leave Germany without getting a souvenir: he held up a spoon and exclaimed that he stole Hitlers spoon. When Deb asked if that had stopped World War II, Chris said, No. But I mean, think about it. He comes downstairs in the morning, he wants a bowl of cereal its a total disaster. Theres no way he realizes he has no spoon before he pours the milk, to which Deb replied, What a mild annoyance. Making Historyairs Sundays at 8:30 p.m. on Fox. Watch clips and full episodes of Making Historyfor free on Yahoo View. Watch:Founding Fathers Inspire Cher Performance on Making History See More: Tell us what you think! Hit us up on Twitter, Facebook, or Instagram, or leave your comments below. And check out our host, Cynthia LuCiette, on Twitter, Facebook, or Instagram.

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Chilling pics show Hitler’s troops devastating Soviet cities during … – The Sun

A HIGH-ranking Nazis photo album has emerged revealing never before seen picturesof the Third Reich before the Second World War turned against them have been unearthed. Field Marshal Wolfram von Richthofen, who was the cousin of the First World War air ace the Red Baron, was a commanding officer in the German invasion of Russia in July 1941. Dickins/BNPS Dickins/BNPS Dickins/BNPS He documented the devastating Operation Barbarossa in haunting pictures that have only just been released for the first time. They include images of the wiped-out Soviet cities of Minsk, Grodnow and Smolensk, burnt out enemy tanks, thousands of captured troops, female Bolshevik soldiers and rounded-up Jewish citiziens. One of the captured soldiers featured is Yakov Jugashvili, the eldest son of Russian communist leader Joseph Stalin, who went on to die in the notorious Sachsenhausen concentration camp. And there are some bizarre images showing Nazis in more light-hearted moments of the campaign. One is of a cute kitten sat in a German jack boot while others show officers catching fish by hurling stick bombs into a lake. Dickins/BNPS Dickins/BNPS Dickins/BNPS One of the two personalised albums was compiled just before the war and is of a huge victory parade in Berlin for Germanys Condor Legion, a military unit which supported General Franco in the Spanish Civil War between 1936 and March 1939. The photos depict von Richthofen shaking hands with Adolf Hitler in front of masses of Nazi soldiers. Dickins/BNPS Dickins/BNPS Dickins/BNPS Dickins/BNPS There are snaps showing von Richthofen marching alongside Hitler who is giving a Nazi salute and Luftwaffe chief Hermann Goering. Another shows him walking behind Franco. The two albums document the honeymoon period of the Third Reich, before the onset of the Russian winter of 1941 which proved a significant turning point of the war. The Russians hit back on the Eastern Front and pushed the enemy back towards Germany. In 1944 the Allies invaded France and forced the Germans to retreat from the west. Dickins/BNPS Dickins/BNPS Dickins/BNPS Dickins/BNPS Dickins/BNPS Dickins/BNPS The two albums, which have hand-written captions by von Richthofen, were taken from Berlin by a British soldier at the end of the war. He kept them for 60 years before they were acquired by a private collector. Auctioneers Dickins of Buckinghamshire are now selling the historic albums for an estimated 20,000. Von Richthofen served in the First World War in the German Air Force and was in the same squadron as his cousin, Manfred von Richthofen, who was credited with 80 aerial victories. Dickins/BNPS Wolfram was inadvertently responsible for the Red Barons death as Manfred was shot down while trying to defend the novice pilot during his first flight in 1918. He trained as an aeronautical engineer between the wars before rejoining the Luftwaffe under Hermann Goering. He designed the so-called Jericho trumpet, the propeller-driven high-pitched sirens on Stuka dive bombers which sent a shudder down any British pilots spine. Dickins/BNPS Dickins/BNPS In November 1936, he took command of the Condor Legion which carried out bombings in support of Francos nationalists in Spain. During Operation Barbarossa the German army captured five million Soviet prisoners of war. The majority of them never returned alive. More than a million Soviet Jews were murdered by death squads and gassing as part of the Holocaust. Von Richthofen survived the war but died of a brain tumour in July 1945 and was never put on trial at Nuremberg. Dickins/BNPS John Dickins, of Dickins Auctioneers in Middle Claydon, Bucks, said: It is quite incredible to actually handle the personal album of a field marshal of his calibre. He was the youngest field marshal in the German army and he would have gone further had he not had disagreements with his superior. I am quite taken aback by what you see in the photos, especially the aerial photos looking down on the bombed Russian cities. The auction takes place on March 31. We pay for your stories! Do you have a story for The Sun Online news team? Email us at tips@the-sun.co.uk or call 0207 782 4368

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Diary Reveals JFK Thought Hitler Might Have Survived World War II – Sputnik International

US 22:32 27.03.2017(updated 07:48 28.03.2017) Get short URL Photo: C&T Auctioneers and Valuers On April 26, what would have been Kennedys 100th birthday, the diary will be going tothe highest bidder. Bostons RR Auction, which is handling the sale, expects tobring inover $200,000 forthe artifact. [Hitler] had boundless ambition forhis country which rendered him a menace tothe peace ofthe world, buthe had a mystery abouthim inthe way he lived and inthe manner ofhis death that will live and grow afterhim, Kennedy wrote aftervisiting Hitlers bunkers inBerlin, and his Eagles Nest mountaintop retreat, insummer 1945, the Independent reported. After visiting the bunker where Hitler is widely said tohave committed suicide, Kennedy was skeptical. When questioned aboutthe entry, the auction house denied that Kennedy admired Hitler, and urged readers not totake his writing outof context. Theres no glorification, and I wouldnt take this outof context, Bobby Livingston, executive vice president ofRR Auction, told the Independent. I think Kennedy was a historian, and hes writing his understanding ofHitlers place inhistory. Henderson has also shared her belief that Kennedy was not glorifying Nazis or Hitler. When JFK said that Hitler had inhim the stuff ofwhich legends are made, he was speaking tothe mystery surrounding him, not the evil he demonstrated tothe world,” Henderson told People Magazine. “Nowhere inthis diary, or inany ofhis writings, is there any indication ofsympathy forNazi crimes or cause.”

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How Hitler Seized Power and Shocked His Opposition – The Daily … – Daily Beast

Elected chancellor of Germany in 1932, Hitler was held in contempt by his opponents, who thought he would be easy to control. They were wrong. Adolf Hitler took power on January 30, 1933, and within no time at all he had: let loose the police against Jews and Communists to a degree never seen before; won emergency powers to govern by decree following the incredibly well-timed February 27 arson against the Reichstag, Germanys parliament building; begun the shutdown of dissent and diversity in German publishing and culture through a policy of Gleichschaltung, or forcing everybody onto the same page. The German establishment was taken aback. The well-meaning conservatives who in 1933 levered Hitler into office thought they could build fences of moderation around him once they got him under the tent. After all, the new cabinet would contain a majority of non-Nazis. Within two months, well have Hitler in a corner so tight that he will squeak, said vice-chancellor Franz von Papen, who brokered the deal. But Hitler surprised everyone by doing exactly what he had been preaching for more than a decade: turning Germany into an ethnically pure, nationalistically-driven economic machine for making Germany great again. And he thought he could do it fast. For that, Hitler had Hermann Gring and Joseph Goebbels. In 1933, they were not yet the monsters of history that they later became. But they were ambitious political operatives with a radical agenda and a charismatic leader. They acted with speed and force. Grings power lay in the sly way Hitler had negotiated for control of the Prussian state police apparatus as part of his deal with Papen to become chancellor. Gring quickly fired the moderates in the security apparatus and suspended civil liberties of targeted groupsJews, Communists, and even Social Democrats. Gring operated under the pretext of defending Germany against imminent Marxist revolution, imported from the Soviet Union and mounted by Germanys own Communist party. The government in Moscow had indeed hoped for years to foment revolution in Germany, and the local Communists were often inclined to violencejust like the Nazis. But the KPDthe German Communist Partynever came close to seizing power. In the 14 years of the Weimar Republic, the party only once polled more than 15 percent. The Nazis, meanwhile, had hit 37 percent in 1932, making them Germanys largest party even before the takeover in 1933. Still, Communists served as Hitlers proximate bugaboo, justifying all kinds of excesses. He waved the bloody shirt of 30 million killed by the revolutionary regime in Russia to invoke a Jewish-Bolshevist threat in Germany. The only thing that stood between God-fearing Germans and a Communist dictatorship, he implied, was a dictatorship of the Nazis. Hitler also built on an early version of fake news. His starting point was the invented calumny The Protocols of the Elders of Ziona 1903 document alleging a Jewish world conspiracy. Even after Hitler learned the text was a forgery, he continued using it as real because it contained the inner truth about Jewry, he said. In 1932, with Hitler looming ever larger in German politics, Kurt Schumacher, a Social Democratic leader, noted that one thing we admire about the National Socialists is that they have succeeded for the first time in German politics, in the complete mobilization of human stupidity. Thank You! You are now subscribed to the Daily Digest and Cheat Sheet. We will not share your email with anyone for any reason Schumachers biting irony and trenchant warning made no difference. Desperate to build a political firewall against the perceived Communist and Social Democratic threat, the German establishment led by Papen and President von Hindenburg in 1933 invited Hitler to head a government of national concentrationa supposed compromise between Hitlers radicals and establishment conservatives. Within months, it was the conservatives, not Hitler, who were in a corner. After little more than a year, most were marginalized and oneformer chancellor Kurt von Schleicherwas dead, assassinated in Hitlers Night of the Long Knives. Once under the tent, Hitler had been able to seize the whole show and, for Nazi Germany, there was no turning back, only the long, fateful march to self-destruction. ——– Peter Ross Range is author of 1924: The Year That Made Hitler. He is working on a new book about Hitlers rise to power.

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