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The Man Who Almost Killed Hitler – Jewish Week

JTA What if Adolf Hitler had been assassinated shortly after his armies invaded Poland to start World War II? How would global and Jewish history have played out?

The question is not answered directly in the German film 13 Minutes. But the movie, based on an actual, lone-wolf plot to kill the Fuhrer that nearly succeeded, is both a classical thriller, pitting one man against the system, and an exploration of how minute circumstance can affect the fates of millions.

13 Minutes is directed by Oliver Hirschbiegel, who is perhaps best known for his remake of Invasion of the Body Snatchers with Nicole Kidman and Daniel Craig, as well as The Downfall, which re-created Hitlers last days in a Berlin bunker.

At the heart of the films plot is Georg Elser (played by Christian Friedel), a 35-year-old carpenter and tinkerer in a small Swabian village who played in the town band and was popular with the local girls. Hes a communist sympathizer but not a party member who observes with growing concern how his village gradually transformed during the early years of Nazi rule.

Elser sees an acquaintance who is forced to sit on the street surrounded by Brownshirts and townspeople with a sign around her neck reading, In the village I am the greatest swine and consort only with Jews (it rhymes in German). He attends a propaganda film in which Hitler proclaims that under his rule every German will have a radio, then a luxury, and the rutted village roads will be paved and lighted.

In 13 Minutes, Christian Friedel portrays Georg Elser, a German whose bomb, intended to kill Adolf Hitler, failed because the Fuhrer ended his beer hall speech earlier than expected. Bernd Schuller/Sony Pictures Classics

At a time when expert statesmen and pundits maintained that Hitler represented a temporary aberration or could be appeased, Elser becomes convinced that the Fuhrer will plunge Germany into war and that if nobody else will stop the Nazi dictator, he must do the job himself.

Elser knew that Hitler addressed his followers at Munichs largest beer hall every Nov. 8, the date of his foiled 1923 putsch to seize power in the Bavarian city as a base to overthrow the Weimar Republic.

So, starting in late 1938, he repeatedly visited the beer hall, taking careful measurements of the columns flanking the speakers podium. Elser took a job in an armaments factory and smuggled out explosives, dynamite sticks and detonators.

As Nov. 8 drew closer, Elser labored night after night on his knees, holding a flashlight in his mouth, to insert the homemade bomb into the column. He connected the bomb to two clocks timed to trigger during Hitlers typically lengthy tirade.

Christian Friedel during the 5th German Director Award Metropolis at in Munich, Germany in 2015. Getty Images

On the evening of the putsch anniversary, Elser took a train to the Swiss border to await news of Hitlers death. Instead, however, he learned that the Fuhrer had unexpectedly cut short his speech.

Exactly 13 minutes after Hitler left the podium, the bomb exploded at the precise spot where Hitler had been standing. The blast killed seven Nazi officials and, to Elsers lifelong regret, an innocent waitress.

As Elser tried to cross the border into Switzerland, something about his behavior aroused the suspicion of a German border guard, who arrested Elser and sent him, under guard, to a Gestapo prison in Berlin.

Hitler was convinced that Elser was but a tool in a vast conspiracy orchestrated by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and demanded that Elser be tortured until he revealed the masterminds behind the assassination attempt. But even under the most brutal torture, Elser refused to give even his name and birth date. Only after the Gestapo drags in his longtime lover, who is pregnant with his child, does he acknowledge the plot, with himself as the sole author.

Nobody believed Elsers story, but instead of being executed on the spot, he was shipped to various concentration camps, ending up in Dachau.

In April 1945, however, as Hitlers dream of a 1,000-year Reich came crashing down, the Fuhrer remembered Elser and ordered that he be executed with a pistol shot through the neck. Two weeks after Elser was killed, U.S. troops liberated Dachau.

13 Minutes, released in Germany in 2015 with the title Elser He Would Have Changed the World, was well received by German critics and the public, Hirschbiegel said by phone from Vienna.

The influential magazine Der Spiegel noted that because of the film, Elser became recognized as a true German hero after having been largely ignored by historians.

13 Minutes is the latest in a number of German movies showing how individual Germans, men and women, stood up against the Nazi regime. They include Sophie Scholl: The Final Days, Rosenstrasse and, most recently, Labyrinth of Lies.

Does the spate of films about Germans who resisted the Nazis reign of terror show the world that there were good Germans during this horrific time?

Not exactly, Hirschbiegel said, noting that for at least two decades after World War II, most Germans tried to ignore the crimes of the wartime generation entirely and it took even longer to honor the bravery of resistors like Elser.

But, he added, there are only a few courageous individuals in every society who embody the spirit of freedom. As an American example, the filmmaker cited whistleblower Edward Snowden, who exposed thousands of secret U.S. government documents.

Snowden saw that something wrong was going on and if no one else would do anything about it, he had to do it himself, Hirschbiegel said.

13 Minutes opens June 30 at Lincoln Plaza Cinema, 1886 Broadway, lincolnplazacinema.com.

Christian Friedel in an armaments factory in a scene from 13 Minutes. Sony Pictures Classics

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The Man Who Almost Killed Hitler – Jewish Week

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‘Who Was Hitler’: New documentary lets people who knew him speak – Deutsche Welle

“All his relatives considered him to be a no-hoper who shied away from all hard work,” said boyhood friend August Kubizek of Adolf Hitler. “He was the darling of his mother and adored her the same,” commented Hitler’s Jewish family doctor. “If Adolf wanted something, he got it – mostly at the expense of others,” noted sister Paula Wolf.

Thesetelling impressions of a young Adolf Hitler are among countless quotes from contemporaries of thedictator that make upthe much-anticipated documentary, “Wer war Hitler” (Who Was Hitler). The seven-a-half-hour TV series premiered this week at the Munich Film Festival.

Using no narrator ortalking heads, and sparse additional information, writer and director Hermann Plking retraces the life of Hitler – from his birth in 1889 in upper Austriato his suicide in Berlin 1945 – entirely from statements made by companions, enemies, victims and observers.

The festival version of the film is 7.5 hours long

Plking catalogued 120 archives in 14 countries and reviewed 850 hours of footage in an effort to create a unique, up-close portrayal of the evolution of the 20th century’s most infamous historical figure.The hundredsofquotes were recorded by 125 speakers.

A new perspective

At over seven hours, the film is extremely long and demanding – which is why a shortened three-hour cinema version is planned. But the endurance required is rewarded througha fascinating montage of rarely-seen archival film material.

“Hitler Youth” – archive footage used in “Who was Hitler”

Plking has dedicated himself to such monumental projects for decades, including his 12-part series from 2005, “Die Deutschen von 1815 bis heute” (The Germans from 1815 to the Present). He began research for “Who Was Hitler” in 2014 by initially searching more than 800 books for suitable quotations related to Hitler before delving into archives around the world to find related film footage and photos.

“Who Was Hitler” follows the same principle as Plking’s book of the same name (published in 2016), which includes 17 collections of quotes forming 17 chapters that each deal with a part of Hitler’s life.

Although the footage used is taken from the time portrayed (with a maximum deviation of twoyears), the imagery often only has an incidental connection to the actual quotes.

Contrast and irony

This technique gives the film some memorablebut also questionable moments – for example, shots of naked women combined with quotations related to Hitler’s body.

They did not appear as a couple in public: Adolf Hitler and companion Eva Braun

But other scenes successfully utilize such contrast to bring out some telling irony, like when boys play with toy soldiers as a quotation is read in which Hitler promises that “Germany will never break the peace of its own accord.”It’s also oddly fitting when the outbreak of war is accompanied by footage oftwo newly-weds canoeing on the Oder River.

Much of the film material is horrifying: People starvingin death camps in Warsaw;piles of corpses in concentration camps;Jewish people being shot to death in a line. Even more cruelty comes viascenes of a family idyll, a scene bursting with life as children play in a garden that is backgroundedby a quote from Primo Levi recalling his journeyto the Auschwitz concentration camp.

Entrance to the Auschwitz concentration camp

“All took leave from life in the manner which most suited them,” saidLevi. “Some praying, some deliberately drunk, others lustfully intoxicated for the last time. The mothers stayed up to prepare the food for the journey with tender care, and washed their children and packed their luggage; and at dawn the barbed wire was full of children’s washing hung out in the wind to dry. Nor did they forget the diapers, the toys, the cushions and the hundreds other small things which mothers remember and which children always need. Would you not do the same? If you and your child were going to die tomorrow, would you not give him to eat today?

A great liar

The filmmaker almost completely avoids showing crowds screaming for Hitler at one of the latter’smany mass rallies. Overall, the film is surprisingly noise-free: the silent footage is discreetly overdubbed with music as Hitler’s populist chest-thumping falls into the background andHitler’s true selfshines through.

Plking’s personal conclusion on Hitler is predictably scathing: “Hitler was a great liar, a very talented actor who lied without inhibitions; a man capable of self-suggestion,from which he wouldbuild his willpower – the most dangerous combination you could imagine.”

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‘Who Was Hitler’: New documentary lets people who knew him speak – Deutsche Welle

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Justin Huggler talks about ISIS, Brexit, Hitler, fiction vs reportage – The Hindu

The Return Home is Justin Hugglers second novel. Huggler grew up on the Channel Island of Jersey and has worked as foreign correspondent in Turkey, Israel, Afghanistan, Iraq, India and Prague for the Independent newspaper. He currently lives in a quiet town in Germany called Babelsberg, where he hopes to be able to get back to woodcarving.

I always wanted to write novels but I didn’t have the stories to tell. The turning point came when I started to find there were stories I could tell better through fiction than reportage.

I think a key difference is that, paradoxically, fiction forces you to be more truthful than news reporting. In order to make your characters believable you have to get their motivations right. You cant hide behind assumptions the way the news does. In a novel it isn’t enough to say someone is a terrorist or a patriot: the reader needs to know why. In reportage its often enough to write what you see: you go to a war or disaster zone and tell what you witness. But writing a novel forces you to look at things from another point of view, to see them with your characters eyes. And a novel allows you to explore the drama of daily life. Most people are more concerned with things that dont make the news: family, love, friendship. Theres as much drama in the average family as there is in a war.

I miss different things about different places. I miss the warmth of Indians. You stop for a chai and you start talking to the person next to you. Europeans dont open up so readily. And I miss the way it was impossible to be bored in India. I remember sitting in a traffic jam in the summer heat, going crazy, and getting to the front and discovering the hold-up was because an elephant was ahead and it had stopped to eat the leaves off a tree.

Places like Afghanistan and Iraq are different. A lot of my time there was very frightening, but you miss the resilience of people, and the camaraderie, and the courage. I remember, in the Hindu Kush once, the jeep we were travelling in started to slip on a mountain track. There was a thousand-foot drop to the side. I was grateful when the driver suggested we get down to lessen the weight. But when he started up again, the wheels kept skidding and he was getting closer to the abyss. He started to panic. An Afghan I was travelling with got back in beside him. He put his life in the drivers hands, just to steady his nerves, and talked him up the track. You can learn a lot from courage like that.

As for how I negotiate place and pace, I try to remember what I learnt from India, and let things come at their own pace. Cities are full of people in such a hurry they dont see whats all around them. Theyre lost in smartphones and earphones, and they dont even notice theyre walking in history. Im grateful for the quiet of Babelsberg, its forests and lakes. You can sleep with the windows open, and the only sound is the trees moving in the wind.

When I wrote The Return Home, I wanted to set it in Jersey to contrast this quiet little island where nothing ever happened with places like Afghanistan, where one of the characters has been injured. But when I went back to Jersey to research the book, I realised just how littered my childhood had been with the legacy of war. I went out to this old German watchtower on the coast we used to play in as children, a huge concrete tower, about five storeys tall. Its kept locked up now, but in those days we used to run up and down the stairs and play soldiers inside. And I realised Id been playing in this war relic long before I ever thought of travelling to report on wars.

It went deeper. This character in my book, Uncle Jack, has lost his leg to a landmine in Afghanistan. I was looking for a place on Jersey to set the family home, and there was this spot I wanted to use because its called Egypt Wood, and I loved the name. Its the most un-Egyptianlooking place you could imagine. I found out that theres a memorial in Egypt Wood to a British soldier who was killed on a secret mission to Jersey during the war. He was killed by a landmine. Hed led a team of commandos over in the night to spy on the Nazis who were occupying the island, but he trod on a mine on his way through the wood. Here was I, writing about landmines, and Id never even realised the island where I grew up had once been mined. Of course, after that I had to set the book in Egypt Wood. But I dont think I was very conscious of this heritage growing up. I think Jersey influenced me more to go out and see the world because it was so tiny. I was the child who sat on the beach dreaming of the world beyond the sea.

Im very worried about where were heading in Europe at the moment. I grew up in a Europe that had put the far-right behind it, now it seems to be turning back that way. Everywhere people are talking about putting up walls and keeping the Other out, whether its foreigners or Muslims, immigrants or refugees.

I fell in love with my wife because of who she is, not where shes from or the colour of her skin. I grew up in a Europe where we assumed we could marry whomever we wanted, but Im aware what a privileged minority that makes us in human history. I hope our children will have the same possibilities. I was actually the product of a mixed marriage myself, albeit an invisible one since both my parents are white: my father is English and my mother is Irish. When I was growing up, at the height of the IRA campaign for a united Ireland, it could make life a little complicated at times. I was growing up on this British island, and some of the other kids were very anti-Irish. And I remember wondering how I was supposed to feel: was half of me supposed to feel one way and half the other? Was I supposed to be angry at myself? So, I think I was always aware of the absurdity of associating people with political ideas just because of where they were from.

I actually worry less about Germany than about other parts of Europe. The far-right has been back on the rise here, but only on the margins. Theres an in-built resistance to those ideas in Germany because they’ve seen where they can lead. I was talking to a German friend about this the other day, and he said you could never get a politician here saying Make Germany great again. Because Hitler already did that. He took that idea to its poisonous limits and made it somewhere no one ever wants to go again. They had a great billboard at Berlin airport recently. It was right outside the terminal, the first thing you saw when you arrived. And it just said: Berlin. Done with walls.

I think what I like about it is the triumph of its disappearance. Theres hardly a trace of it left, apart from a couple of small stretches they’ve preserved for historical reasons. The city has grown back over the divide and in places it can be hard to work out where the Wall ran. Its even harder to believe it was ever there.

I was talking to a German friend about this the other day, and he said you could never get a politician here saying Make Germany great again. Because Hitler already did that. He took that idea to its poisonous limits and made it somewhere no one ever wants to go again.

The Wall was a failure. It was supposed to force people to live the way the East German government told them, to fence out the corrupting influence of the West. And now East Germany is gone: the corrupting ideas of democracy and freedom have simply swept it and its Wall away.

I interviewed a group of men who built a tunnel under the Wall so people could escape from the East. Theyre all old men now, but they were just students then, kids in West Berlin who didn’t like the Wall and decided to do something about it. They got 57 people out. And I interviewed a man who escaped by swimming across a canal. He had to hide underwater from the East German snipers and got attacked by a swan on the way. After he got out he started going back for his friends, smuggling them out in the boot of his car. I like the story of the Wall because its a tale of the triumph of the human spirit.

It goes back to what we were talking about with the rise of the far-right and the desire to keep the Other out. A lot of the arguments put forward for Brexit were about keeping people out of the country. Theres this myth that immigrants are taking jobs away from people, and its simply not true. Britain has almost never had lower unemployment. But theres this tendency to blame everything on the immigrants, and at times it gets uncomfortably close to the way anti-Semitism worked in 1930s Germany, and we all know how that ended.

A lot of the pro-Brexit stuff seemed to be about a desire to go back to the good old days, to a sort of idyllic 1950s Britain that never existed, but of course it always remains unspoken that the country was a lot whiter in those days.

The trouble is the debate has been argued in the wrong terms in Britain. The only thing that is talked about is the economy, as if thats all the European Union is good for. Theres no discussion of the way the EU has brought 50 years of peace to the bloodiest and most war-torn continent in human history. And worst of all, the British are now setting themselves up against the EU. The Brexiteers, as theyre called, dont just want to leave, they want the rest of the EU to fail, like spoiled children who cant stand to see others enjoying what they have rejected.

I think were getting into very dangerous territory with the way the terror attacks in Europe are increasingly portrayed in terms of Islam against the West. Its being talked about as a clash of civilisations when its no such thing: its angry young men committing evil and wicked deeds in the name of God, just as they have throughout the centuries.

A clash of civilisations is the way ISIS sees it, and what troubles me is were beginning to speak their language. If you think of some one like Osama bin Laden, when he died six years ago he was a beaten man. But if he were to wake up in 2017, I think hed be pretty happy: his cause is on the march again. Were breathing life back into it by allowing ISIS and its followers to get away with the lie that they speak for Islam.

Angry youth have always taken up unworthy causes to win respect, or money, or attention from women. They used to go off to the jungle and become Maoists, today they become jihadis.

I fear the news media is playing a part in this. We rush to put their picture on the television, track down their relatives, tell their story. As long as we keep giving them the attention they want, theyll keep killing to get it.

The Middle East has plenty of problems of its own making. But its no coincidence that the places exporting violence to the West are Iraq and Afghanistan, which the West invaded, and Syria, where civil war spread from the Iraq invasion. We made these messes, and sooner or later were going to have to clear them up. If the U.S. had spent a fraction of what it did on invading Iraq into building schools and hospitals for the people, who knows where we might be today?

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Adolf Hitler: Austrian Court to Rule On His Birth Home | Time.com – TIME

Hitler’s place of birth in Braunau, AustriaGetty Images

The owner of the house Adolf Hitler was born is disputing the right of the Austrian government to seize the property.

The property , which is in the town of Braunau am Inn near the Austro-German border, was seized in 2016 after the owner Gerlinde Pommer repeatedly refused to sell the building or allow renovations.

Her lawyer Gerhard Lebitsch told reporters on Thursday that his client filed the legal challenge because authorities had used the bill “like a club” after she refused purchase offers from the state that were apparently too low, Associated Press reports .

Hitler was born in a rented room on the top floor in 1889 and the Austrian government does not want the building to become a pilgrimage site for neo-Nazis. According to the BBC , the house was turned into a shrine to Hitler during Nazi rule and was shut in 1944 when they began to lose control. The Vienna court decision is due in two weeks.

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Adolf Hitler: Austrian Court to Rule On His Birth Home | Time.com – TIME

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How did Hitler rise to power? – Alex Gendler and Anthony …

There were several key dates in Hitlers political rise to power. First and foremost, the way World War I ended had a huge influence on these events. The German government surrendered without being militarily defeated. This caused a great deal of frustration and anger amongst the German people. Hitler exploited this to the fullest extent, and used it to discredit and criticize the new Weimar Republic that was created thereafter. The Great Depression was another key event in the story of how Hitler was able to rise to political power in Germany. He continued feeding the German people lies of government economicconspiracies, and banking corruption (which he alleged were caused by Jews within the country).

While this lesson focuses on Hitlers rhetoric and exploitation of Germanys fears in his campaign forpower, more information on his life before politics can be found here. For more information on his background, childhood, and rise to power, seeHitlers Boyhood and political views.

It is also interesting to consider the international contemporary perspective on Hitler’s ascension – seeBritish media perspectives on Hitlers Rise, key events and dates for his ascension to the top of German politics. Also, this BBC video is included for visual learners. This is a documentary that takes people through the reasons why the German people grew to think of Hitler as the savior of the country. Propaganda played a core role inconvincingthe German people that democracy and freedom was making the country weak and powerless.

For a useful resource for younger learners curious about the rise of Hitler and Nazi Germany, please see Nathaniel Harriss 2004 picture bookThe Rise of Hitler.

For older readers, Henry Ashby Turner Jr.’s bookHitlers Thirty Days to Power: January 1933 book explains how government officials and business leaders made certain behind closed doors that Hitler would become chancellor of Germany. These officials underestimated Hitler, and thought he could be used as a government puppet to increase their own power and further their ownagendas.

A number of the sound effects for this video were sourced from Free Sound. Special thanks to: Robinhood76, Cell31_Sound_Productions, unchaz, RT759

Full credits for this video: Directed by Owen Gent and Hugh Cowling Produced by Owen Gent and Hugh Cowling Designed by Owen Gent and Hugh Cowling Art Directed by Owen Gent and Hugh Cowing Storyboard Art by Owen Gent and Hugh Cowling Illustration by Owen Gent Animated by Hugh Cowling Edited by Hugh Cowling Composited by Hugh Cowling Sound Design by Hugh Cowling Composed by Hugh Cowling

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Adolf Hitler – Rise to power | dictator of Germany …

Discharged from the hospital amid the social chaos that followed Germanys defeat, Hitler took up political work in Munich in MayJune 1919. As an army political agent, he joined the small German Workers Party in Munich (September 1919). In 1920 he was put in charge of the partys propaganda and left the army to devote himself to improving his position within the party, which in that year was renamed the National-sozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (Nazi). Conditions were ripe for the development of such a party. Resentment at the loss of the war and the severity of the peace terms added to the economic woes and brought widespread discontent. This was especially sharp in Bavaria, due to its traditional separatism and the regions popular dislike of the republican government in Berlin. In March 1920 a coup dtat by a few army officers attempted in vain to establish a right-wing government.

Munich was a gathering place for dissatisfied former servicemen and members of the Freikorps, which had been organized in 191819 from units of the German army that were unwilling to return to civilian life, and for political plotters against the republic. Many of these joined the Nazi Party. Foremost among them was Ernst Rhm, a staff member of the district army command, who had joined the German Workers Party before Hitler and who was of great help in furthering Hitlers rise within the party. It was he who recruited the strong arm squads used by Hitler to protect party meetings, to attack socialists and communists, and to exploit violence for the impression of strength it gave. In 1921 these squads were formally organized under Rhm into a private party army, the SA (Sturmabteilung). Rhm was also able to secure protection from the Bavarian government, which depended on the local army command for the maintenance of order and which tacitly accepted some of his terrorist tactics.

Conditions were favourable for the growth of the small party, and Hitler was sufficiently astute to take full advantage of them. When he joined the party, he found it ineffective, committed to a program of nationalist and socialist ideas but uncertain of its aims and divided in its leadership. He accepted its program but regarded it as a means to an end. His propaganda and his personal ambition caused friction with the other leaders of the party. Hitler countered their attempts to curb him by threatening resignation, and because the future of the party depended on his power to organize publicity and to acquire funds, his opponents relented. In July 1921 he became their leader with almost unlimited powers. From the first he set out to create a mass movement, whose mystique and power would be sufficient to bind its members in loyalty to him. He engaged in unrelenting propaganda through the party newspaper, the Vlkischer Beobachter (Popular Observer, acquired in 1920), and through meetings whose audiences soon grew from a handful to thousands. With his charismatic personality and dynamic leadership, he attracted a devoted cadre of Nazi leaders, men whose names today live in infamyJohann Dietrich Eckart (who acted as a mentor for Hitler), Alfred Rosenberg, Rudolf Hess, Hermann Gring, and Julius Streicher.

The climax of this rapid growth of the Nazi Party in Bavaria came in an attempt to seize power in the Munich (Beer Hall) Putsch of November 1923, when Hitler and General Erich Ludendorff tried to take advantage of the prevailing confusion and opposition to the Weimar Republic to force the leaders of the Bavarian government and the local army commander to proclaim a national revolution. In the melee that resulted, the police and the army fired at the advancing marchers, killing a few of them. Hitler was injured, and four policemen were killed. Placed on trial for treason, he characteristically took advantage of the immense publicity afforded to him. He also drew a vital lesson from the Putschthat the movement must achieve power by legal means. He was sentenced to prison for five years but served only nine months, and those in relative comfort at Landsberg castle. Hitler used the time to dictate the first volume of Mein Kampf, his political autobiography as well as a compendium of his multitudinous ideas.

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Hitlers ideas included inequality among races, nations, and individuals as part of an unchangeable natural order that exalted the Aryan race as the creative element of mankind. According to Hitler, the natural unit of mankind was the Volk (the people), of which the German people was the greatest. Moreover, he believed that the state existed to serve the Volka mission that to him the Weimar German Republic betrayed. All morality and truth were judged by this criterion: whether it was in accordance with the interest and preservation of the Volk. Parliamentary democratic government stood doubly condemned. It assumed the equality of individuals that for Hitler did not exist and supposed that what was in the interests of the Volk could be decided by parliamentary procedures. Instead, Hitler argued that the unity of the Volk would find its incarnation in the Fhrer, endowed with perfect authority. Below the Fhrer the party was drawn from the Volk and was in turn its safeguard.

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The greatest enemy of Nazism was not, in Hitlers view, liberal democracy in Germany, which was already on the verge of collapse. It was the rival Weltanschauung, Marxism (which for him embraced social democracy as well as communism), with its insistence on internationalism and economic conflict. Beyond Marxism he believed the greatest enemy of all to be the Jew, who was for Hitler the incarnation of evil. There is debate among historians as to when anti-Semitism became Hitlers deepest and strongest conviction. As early as 1919 he wrote, Rational anti-Semitism must lead to systematic legal opposition. Its final objective must be the removal of the Jews altogether. In Mein Kampf, he described the Jew as the destroyer of culture, a parasite within the nation, and a menace.

During Hitlers absence in prison, the Nazi Party languished as the result of internal dissension. After his release, Hitler faced difficulties that had not existed before 1923. Economic stability had been achieved by a currency reform and the Dawes Plan had scaled back Germanys World War I reparations. The republic seemed to have become more respectable. Hitler was forbidden to make speeches, first in Bavaria, then in many other German states (these prohibitions remained in force until 192728). Nevertheless, the party grew slowly in numbers, and in 1926 Hitler successfully established his position within it against Gregor Strasser, whose followers were primarily in northern Germany.

The advent of the Depression in 1929, however, led to a new period of political instability. In 1930 Hitler made an alliance with the Nationalist Alfred Hugenberg in a campaign against the Young Plan, a second renegotiation of Germanys war reparation payments. With the help of Hugenbergs newspapers, Hitler was able for the first time to reach a nationwide audience. The alliance also enabled him to seek support from many of the magnates of business and industry who controlled political funds and were anxious to use them to establish a strong right-wing, antisocialist government. The subsidies Hitler received from the industrialists placed his party on a secure financial footing and enabled him to make effective his emotional appeal to the lower middle class and the unemployed, based on the proclamation of his faith that Germany would awaken from its sufferings to reassert its natural greatness. Hitlers dealings with Hugenberg and the industrialists exemplify his skill in using those who sought to use him. But his most important achievement was the establishment of a truly national party (with its voters and followers drawn from different classes and religious groups), unique in Germany at the time.

Unremitting propaganda, set against the failure of the government to improve conditions during the Depression, produced a steadily mounting electoral strength for the Nazis. The party became the second largest in the country, rising from 2.6 percent of the vote in the national election of 1928 to more than 18 percent in September 1930. In 1932 Hitler opposed Hindenburg in the presidential election, capturing 36.8 percent of the votes on the second ballot. Finding himself in a strong position by virtue of his unprecedented mass following, he entered into a series of intrigues with conservatives such as Franz von Papen, Otto Meissner, and President Hindenburgs son, Oskar. The fear of communism and the rejection of the Social Democrats bound them together. In spite of a decline in the Nazi Partys votes in November 1932, Hitler insisted that the chancellorship was the only office he would accept. On January 30, 1933, Hindenburg offered him the chancellorship of Germany. His cabinet included few Nazis at that point.

Hitlers personal life had grown more relaxed and stable with the added comfort that accompanied political success. After his release from prison, he often went to live on the Obersalzberg, near Berchtesgaden. His income at this time was derived from party funds and from writing for nationalist newspapers. He was largely indifferent to clothes and food but did not eat meat and gave up drinking beer (and all other alcohols). His rather irregular working schedule prevailed. He usually rose late, sometimes dawdled at his desk, and retired late at night.

At Berchtesgaden, his half sister Angela Raubal and her two daughters accompanied him. Hitler became devoted to one of them, Geli, and it seems that his possessive jealousy drove her to suicide in September 1931. For weeks Hitler was inconsolable. Some time later Eva Braun, a shop assistant from Munich, became his mistress. Hitler rarely allowed her to appear in public with him. He would not consider marriage on the grounds that it would hamper his career. Braun was a simple young woman with few intellectual gifts. Her great virtue in Hitlers eyes was her unquestioning loyalty, and in recognition of this he legally married her at the end of his life.

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Austria: Dispute over who owns house where Hitler was born – ABC News

A lawyer for the owner of the house where Adolf Hitler was born is disputing the government’s right to take possession of the property in Austria’s highest court, saying authorities are using the measure “like a club” because his client refused purchase offers from authorities that were too low.

The challenge is in response to a government bill to take the house after owner Gerlinde Pommer refused to sell it.

Hitler was born in 1889 in the house in Braunau am Inn, a town on the German border. The government wants to remodel the property’s facade to reduce its draw as a shrine for admirers of the Nazi dictator and to offer it to an agency that runs workshops for disabled people.

Ahead of the first day of Constitutional Court hearings Thursday, lawyer Gerhard Lebitsch questioned the timing of the government’s move so long after World War II, noting that “they could have neutralized the site 40-50 years ago.”

While the price offered by the state has not been disclosed, Lebitsch suggested it was too low, describing the offer as “half-hearted.”

In court, officials for the government argued that the state decided to seize the house after the owner refused to make alternations needed for use for workshops. They also said the state was confronted with unjustified rent increases while leasing the building previously.

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Austria: Dispute over who owns house where Hitler was born – ABC News

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Bleeding at my typewriter: Sleeping with Hitler – Roodepoort Record

During the heydays of Apartheid, I was a little boy. By the late 80s I was a typical carefree, rebellious teenager. By 1994, I was a young adult and hopefully embraced the Rainbow Nation like most South Africans. I was lucky enough to have made this transition with ease. Race and colour never existed for me. Full stop.

Fast forward to 2017. Racism seems to be at an all-time high. I find the subject dour, boring and think our country suffers from some kind of schizophrenic immaturity. (I am not exactly sure what I mean by that but it sounded good). Last week, I was forced, screaming and kicking, into a discussion about racism. How intense is the racism in our country? Arent we just a bunch of over-sensitive, chip-on-the-shoulder, politically correct, safe-space-seeking sissies? Are people maybe inherently racist? Does hatred necessarily accompany racism? Has the race card become an excuse to avoid manning up and facing the countrys real problems? These were the questions asked, and I did not know. I did not even know if I cared. But hey, I would buy the ticket and take the ride and in the name of Gonzo journalism hurl myself into the heart of this whore called racism.

And then the universe presented the perfect opportunity for me to determine where our little republic lies on the racism scale.

An acquaintance gave me a bunch of books. (Mostly nonsense I do not read, like David Baldacci, Dan Patterson, Micheal Connolly, etc.). As I was sifting through the books on my bed, one, face down, caught my eye. I turned it over and my stomach turned. I could not pinpoint my emotions. It was somewhere between discomfort and guilt. There it was Mein Kampf (My Struggle). Adolf Hitlers lunatic ravings that lead to the murder of 6 million people based on their ethnicity. The original blueprint for racism.

Yip. I am going to read it. I want to understand what unadulterated racism is. Maybe then I will be able to treat the racism in our country differently. Maybe I will see it for what it is.

Yes, for the next week or so you will find the Bible, The Fox and the Flies by Charles van Onselen (which I am currently enjoying) and Mein Kampf on my bedside table.

In order to put this demon, who haunts my fellow beloved countrymen and women, into perspective for once and for all, Ill be sleeping with Hitler.

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Bleeding at my typewriter: Sleeping with Hitler – Roodepoort Record

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Women at war: how did it feel to fly for Hitler or fight in the Red Army? – Telegraph.co.uk

Anne Sebba reviewsThe Women who Flew for Hitler by Clare Mulley (Macmillan) and Avenging Angels: Soviet Women Snipers on the Eastern Front by Lyuba Vinogradova(MacLehose)

Should women serve in combat roles? Only last year Britain lifted the last restrictions, making all combat jobs open to women, even those demanding great physical strength. General Sir Peter Wall, former Chief of the General Staff, observed that the reform would make [the Army] look more normal in society but there will always be people who say the close battle is no place for female soldiers.

In many other countries, that is exactly what is still said, but the debate is fierce. Does having women on the front create more danger partly because of the sexual tension? On the other hand, does treating female recruits differently, or lowering standards in their training, reinforce age-old cultural myths which in turn…

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Women at war: how did it feel to fly for Hitler or fight in the Red Army? – Telegraph.co.uk

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The Man Who Almost Killed Hitler – Jewish Week

JTA What if Adolf Hitler had been assassinated shortly after his armies invaded Poland to start World War II? How would global and Jewish history have played out? The question is not answered directly in the German film 13 Minutes. But the movie, based on an actual, lone-wolf plot to kill the Fuhrer that nearly succeeded, is both a classical thriller, pitting one man against the system, and an exploration of how minute circumstance can affect the fates of millions. 13 Minutes is directed by Oliver Hirschbiegel, who is perhaps best known for his remake of Invasion of the Body Snatchers with Nicole Kidman and Daniel Craig, as well as The Downfall, which re-created Hitlers last days in a Berlin bunker. At the heart of the films plot is Georg Elser (played by Christian Friedel), a 35-year-old carpenter and tinkerer in a small Swabian village who played in the town band and was popular with the local girls. Hes a communist sympathizer but not a party member who observes with growing concern how his village gradually transformed during the early years of Nazi rule. Elser sees an acquaintance who is forced to sit on the street surrounded by Brownshirts and townspeople with a sign around her neck reading, In the village I am the greatest swine and consort only with Jews (it rhymes in German). He attends a propaganda film in which Hitler proclaims that under his rule every German will have a radio, then a luxury, and the rutted village roads will be paved and lighted. In 13 Minutes, Christian Friedel portrays Georg Elser, a German whose bomb, intended to kill Adolf Hitler, failed because the Fuhrer ended his beer hall speech earlier than expected. Bernd Schuller/Sony Pictures Classics At a time when expert statesmen and pundits maintained that Hitler represented a temporary aberration or could be appeased, Elser becomes convinced that the Fuhrer will plunge Germany into war and that if nobody else will stop the Nazi dictator, he must do the job himself. Elser knew that Hitler addressed his followers at Munichs largest beer hall every Nov. 8, the date of his foiled 1923 putsch to seize power in the Bavarian city as a base to overthrow the Weimar Republic. So, starting in late 1938, he repeatedly visited the beer hall, taking careful measurements of the columns flanking the speakers podium. Elser took a job in an armaments factory and smuggled out explosives, dynamite sticks and detonators. As Nov. 8 drew closer, Elser labored night after night on his knees, holding a flashlight in his mouth, to insert the homemade bomb into the column. He connected the bomb to two clocks timed to trigger during Hitlers typically lengthy tirade. Christian Friedel during the 5th German Director Award Metropolis at in Munich, Germany in 2015. Getty Images On the evening of the putsch anniversary, Elser took a train to the Swiss border to await news of Hitlers death. Instead, however, he learned that the Fuhrer had unexpectedly cut short his speech. Exactly 13 minutes after Hitler left the podium, the bomb exploded at the precise spot where Hitler had been standing. The blast killed seven Nazi officials and, to Elsers lifelong regret, an innocent waitress. As Elser tried to cross the border into Switzerland, something about his behavior aroused the suspicion of a German border guard, who arrested Elser and sent him, under guard, to a Gestapo prison in Berlin. Hitler was convinced that Elser was but a tool in a vast conspiracy orchestrated by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and demanded that Elser be tortured until he revealed the masterminds behind the assassination attempt. But even under the most brutal torture, Elser refused to give even his name and birth date. Only after the Gestapo drags in his longtime lover, who is pregnant with his child, does he acknowledge the plot, with himself as the sole author. Nobody believed Elsers story, but instead of being executed on the spot, he was shipped to various concentration camps, ending up in Dachau. In April 1945, however, as Hitlers dream of a 1,000-year Reich came crashing down, the Fuhrer remembered Elser and ordered that he be executed with a pistol shot through the neck. Two weeks after Elser was killed, U.S. troops liberated Dachau. 13 Minutes, released in Germany in 2015 with the title Elser He Would Have Changed the World, was well received by German critics and the public, Hirschbiegel said by phone from Vienna. The influential magazine Der Spiegel noted that because of the film, Elser became recognized as a true German hero after having been largely ignored by historians. 13 Minutes is the latest in a number of German movies showing how individual Germans, men and women, stood up against the Nazi regime. They include Sophie Scholl: The Final Days, Rosenstrasse and, most recently, Labyrinth of Lies. Does the spate of films about Germans who resisted the Nazis reign of terror show the world that there were good Germans during this horrific time? Not exactly, Hirschbiegel said, noting that for at least two decades after World War II, most Germans tried to ignore the crimes of the wartime generation entirely and it took even longer to honor the bravery of resistors like Elser. But, he added, there are only a few courageous individuals in every society who embody the spirit of freedom. As an American example, the filmmaker cited whistleblower Edward Snowden, who exposed thousands of secret U.S. government documents. Snowden saw that something wrong was going on and if no one else would do anything about it, he had to do it himself, Hirschbiegel said. 13 Minutes opens June 30 at Lincoln Plaza Cinema, 1886 Broadway, lincolnplazacinema.com. Christian Friedel in an armaments factory in a scene from 13 Minutes. Sony Pictures Classics

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‘Who Was Hitler’: New documentary lets people who knew him speak – Deutsche Welle

“All his relatives considered him to be a no-hoper who shied away from all hard work,” said boyhood friend August Kubizek of Adolf Hitler. “He was the darling of his mother and adored her the same,” commented Hitler’s Jewish family doctor. “If Adolf wanted something, he got it – mostly at the expense of others,” noted sister Paula Wolf. Thesetelling impressions of a young Adolf Hitler are among countless quotes from contemporaries of thedictator that make upthe much-anticipated documentary, “Wer war Hitler” (Who Was Hitler). The seven-a-half-hour TV series premiered this week at the Munich Film Festival. Using no narrator ortalking heads, and sparse additional information, writer and director Hermann Plking retraces the life of Hitler – from his birth in 1889 in upper Austriato his suicide in Berlin 1945 – entirely from statements made by companions, enemies, victims and observers. The festival version of the film is 7.5 hours long Plking catalogued 120 archives in 14 countries and reviewed 850 hours of footage in an effort to create a unique, up-close portrayal of the evolution of the 20th century’s most infamous historical figure.The hundredsofquotes were recorded by 125 speakers. A new perspective At over seven hours, the film is extremely long and demanding – which is why a shortened three-hour cinema version is planned. But the endurance required is rewarded througha fascinating montage of rarely-seen archival film material. “Hitler Youth” – archive footage used in “Who was Hitler” Plking has dedicated himself to such monumental projects for decades, including his 12-part series from 2005, “Die Deutschen von 1815 bis heute” (The Germans from 1815 to the Present). He began research for “Who Was Hitler” in 2014 by initially searching more than 800 books for suitable quotations related to Hitler before delving into archives around the world to find related film footage and photos. “Who Was Hitler” follows the same principle as Plking’s book of the same name (published in 2016), which includes 17 collections of quotes forming 17 chapters that each deal with a part of Hitler’s life. Although the footage used is taken from the time portrayed (with a maximum deviation of twoyears), the imagery often only has an incidental connection to the actual quotes. Contrast and irony This technique gives the film some memorablebut also questionable moments – for example, shots of naked women combined with quotations related to Hitler’s body. They did not appear as a couple in public: Adolf Hitler and companion Eva Braun But other scenes successfully utilize such contrast to bring out some telling irony, like when boys play with toy soldiers as a quotation is read in which Hitler promises that “Germany will never break the peace of its own accord.”It’s also oddly fitting when the outbreak of war is accompanied by footage oftwo newly-weds canoeing on the Oder River. Much of the film material is horrifying: People starvingin death camps in Warsaw;piles of corpses in concentration camps;Jewish people being shot to death in a line. Even more cruelty comes viascenes of a family idyll, a scene bursting with life as children play in a garden that is backgroundedby a quote from Primo Levi recalling his journeyto the Auschwitz concentration camp. Entrance to the Auschwitz concentration camp “All took leave from life in the manner which most suited them,” saidLevi. “Some praying, some deliberately drunk, others lustfully intoxicated for the last time. The mothers stayed up to prepare the food for the journey with tender care, and washed their children and packed their luggage; and at dawn the barbed wire was full of children’s washing hung out in the wind to dry. Nor did they forget the diapers, the toys, the cushions and the hundreds other small things which mothers remember and which children always need. Would you not do the same? If you and your child were going to die tomorrow, would you not give him to eat today? A great liar The filmmaker almost completely avoids showing crowds screaming for Hitler at one of the latter’smany mass rallies. Overall, the film is surprisingly noise-free: the silent footage is discreetly overdubbed with music as Hitler’s populist chest-thumping falls into the background andHitler’s true selfshines through. Plking’s personal conclusion on Hitler is predictably scathing: “Hitler was a great liar, a very talented actor who lied without inhibitions; a man capable of self-suggestion,from which he wouldbuild his willpower – the most dangerous combination you could imagine.”

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Justin Huggler talks about ISIS, Brexit, Hitler, fiction vs reportage – The Hindu

The Return Home is Justin Hugglers second novel. Huggler grew up on the Channel Island of Jersey and has worked as foreign correspondent in Turkey, Israel, Afghanistan, Iraq, India and Prague for the Independent newspaper. He currently lives in a quiet town in Germany called Babelsberg, where he hopes to be able to get back to woodcarving. I always wanted to write novels but I didn’t have the stories to tell. The turning point came when I started to find there were stories I could tell better through fiction than reportage. I think a key difference is that, paradoxically, fiction forces you to be more truthful than news reporting. In order to make your characters believable you have to get their motivations right. You cant hide behind assumptions the way the news does. In a novel it isn’t enough to say someone is a terrorist or a patriot: the reader needs to know why. In reportage its often enough to write what you see: you go to a war or disaster zone and tell what you witness. But writing a novel forces you to look at things from another point of view, to see them with your characters eyes. And a novel allows you to explore the drama of daily life. Most people are more concerned with things that dont make the news: family, love, friendship. Theres as much drama in the average family as there is in a war. I miss different things about different places. I miss the warmth of Indians. You stop for a chai and you start talking to the person next to you. Europeans dont open up so readily. And I miss the way it was impossible to be bored in India. I remember sitting in a traffic jam in the summer heat, going crazy, and getting to the front and discovering the hold-up was because an elephant was ahead and it had stopped to eat the leaves off a tree. Places like Afghanistan and Iraq are different. A lot of my time there was very frightening, but you miss the resilience of people, and the camaraderie, and the courage. I remember, in the Hindu Kush once, the jeep we were travelling in started to slip on a mountain track. There was a thousand-foot drop to the side. I was grateful when the driver suggested we get down to lessen the weight. But when he started up again, the wheels kept skidding and he was getting closer to the abyss. He started to panic. An Afghan I was travelling with got back in beside him. He put his life in the drivers hands, just to steady his nerves, and talked him up the track. You can learn a lot from courage like that. As for how I negotiate place and pace, I try to remember what I learnt from India, and let things come at their own pace. Cities are full of people in such a hurry they dont see whats all around them. Theyre lost in smartphones and earphones, and they dont even notice theyre walking in history. Im grateful for the quiet of Babelsberg, its forests and lakes. You can sleep with the windows open, and the only sound is the trees moving in the wind. When I wrote The Return Home, I wanted to set it in Jersey to contrast this quiet little island where nothing ever happened with places like Afghanistan, where one of the characters has been injured. But when I went back to Jersey to research the book, I realised just how littered my childhood had been with the legacy of war. I went out to this old German watchtower on the coast we used to play in as children, a huge concrete tower, about five storeys tall. Its kept locked up now, but in those days we used to run up and down the stairs and play soldiers inside. And I realised Id been playing in this war relic long before I ever thought of travelling to report on wars. It went deeper. This character in my book, Uncle Jack, has lost his leg to a landmine in Afghanistan. I was looking for a place on Jersey to set the family home, and there was this spot I wanted to use because its called Egypt Wood, and I loved the name. Its the most un-Egyptianlooking place you could imagine. I found out that theres a memorial in Egypt Wood to a British soldier who was killed on a secret mission to Jersey during the war. He was killed by a landmine. Hed led a team of commandos over in the night to spy on the Nazis who were occupying the island, but he trod on a mine on his way through the wood. Here was I, writing about landmines, and Id never even realised the island where I grew up had once been mined. Of course, after that I had to set the book in Egypt Wood. But I dont think I was very conscious of this heritage growing up. I think Jersey influenced me more to go out and see the world because it was so tiny. I was the child who sat on the beach dreaming of the world beyond the sea. Im very worried about where were heading in Europe at the moment. I grew up in a Europe that had put the far-right behind it, now it seems to be turning back that way. Everywhere people are talking about putting up walls and keeping the Other out, whether its foreigners or Muslims, immigrants or refugees. I fell in love with my wife because of who she is, not where shes from or the colour of her skin. I grew up in a Europe where we assumed we could marry whomever we wanted, but Im aware what a privileged minority that makes us in human history. I hope our children will have the same possibilities. I was actually the product of a mixed marriage myself, albeit an invisible one since both my parents are white: my father is English and my mother is Irish. When I was growing up, at the height of the IRA campaign for a united Ireland, it could make life a little complicated at times. I was growing up on this British island, and some of the other kids were very anti-Irish. And I remember wondering how I was supposed to feel: was half of me supposed to feel one way and half the other? Was I supposed to be angry at myself? So, I think I was always aware of the absurdity of associating people with political ideas just because of where they were from. I actually worry less about Germany than about other parts of Europe. The far-right has been back on the rise here, but only on the margins. Theres an in-built resistance to those ideas in Germany because they’ve seen where they can lead. I was talking to a German friend about this the other day, and he said you could never get a politician here saying Make Germany great again. Because Hitler already did that. He took that idea to its poisonous limits and made it somewhere no one ever wants to go again. They had a great billboard at Berlin airport recently. It was right outside the terminal, the first thing you saw when you arrived. And it just said: Berlin. Done with walls. I think what I like about it is the triumph of its disappearance. Theres hardly a trace of it left, apart from a couple of small stretches they’ve preserved for historical reasons. The city has grown back over the divide and in places it can be hard to work out where the Wall ran. Its even harder to believe it was ever there. I was talking to a German friend about this the other day, and he said you could never get a politician here saying Make Germany great again. Because Hitler already did that. He took that idea to its poisonous limits and made it somewhere no one ever wants to go again. The Wall was a failure. It was supposed to force people to live the way the East German government told them, to fence out the corrupting influence of the West. And now East Germany is gone: the corrupting ideas of democracy and freedom have simply swept it and its Wall away. I interviewed a group of men who built a tunnel under the Wall so people could escape from the East. Theyre all old men now, but they were just students then, kids in West Berlin who didn’t like the Wall and decided to do something about it. They got 57 people out. And I interviewed a man who escaped by swimming across a canal. He had to hide underwater from the East German snipers and got attacked by a swan on the way. After he got out he started going back for his friends, smuggling them out in the boot of his car. I like the story of the Wall because its a tale of the triumph of the human spirit. It goes back to what we were talking about with the rise of the far-right and the desire to keep the Other out. A lot of the arguments put forward for Brexit were about keeping people out of the country. Theres this myth that immigrants are taking jobs away from people, and its simply not true. Britain has almost never had lower unemployment. But theres this tendency to blame everything on the immigrants, and at times it gets uncomfortably close to the way anti-Semitism worked in 1930s Germany, and we all know how that ended. A lot of the pro-Brexit stuff seemed to be about a desire to go back to the good old days, to a sort of idyllic 1950s Britain that never existed, but of course it always remains unspoken that the country was a lot whiter in those days. The trouble is the debate has been argued in the wrong terms in Britain. The only thing that is talked about is the economy, as if thats all the European Union is good for. Theres no discussion of the way the EU has brought 50 years of peace to the bloodiest and most war-torn continent in human history. And worst of all, the British are now setting themselves up against the EU. The Brexiteers, as theyre called, dont just want to leave, they want the rest of the EU to fail, like spoiled children who cant stand to see others enjoying what they have rejected. I think were getting into very dangerous territory with the way the terror attacks in Europe are increasingly portrayed in terms of Islam against the West. Its being talked about as a clash of civilisations when its no such thing: its angry young men committing evil and wicked deeds in the name of God, just as they have throughout the centuries. A clash of civilisations is the way ISIS sees it, and what troubles me is were beginning to speak their language. If you think of some one like Osama bin Laden, when he died six years ago he was a beaten man. But if he were to wake up in 2017, I think hed be pretty happy: his cause is on the march again. Were breathing life back into it by allowing ISIS and its followers to get away with the lie that they speak for Islam. Angry youth have always taken up unworthy causes to win respect, or money, or attention from women. They used to go off to the jungle and become Maoists, today they become jihadis. I fear the news media is playing a part in this. We rush to put their picture on the television, track down their relatives, tell their story. As long as we keep giving them the attention they want, theyll keep killing to get it. The Middle East has plenty of problems of its own making. But its no coincidence that the places exporting violence to the West are Iraq and Afghanistan, which the West invaded, and Syria, where civil war spread from the Iraq invasion. We made these messes, and sooner or later were going to have to clear them up. If the U.S. had spent a fraction of what it did on invading Iraq into building schools and hospitals for the people, who knows where we might be today?

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Adolf Hitler: Austrian Court to Rule On His Birth Home | Time.com – TIME

Hitler’s place of birth in Braunau, AustriaGetty Images The owner of the house Adolf Hitler was born is disputing the right of the Austrian government to seize the property. The property , which is in the town of Braunau am Inn near the Austro-German border, was seized in 2016 after the owner Gerlinde Pommer repeatedly refused to sell the building or allow renovations. Her lawyer Gerhard Lebitsch told reporters on Thursday that his client filed the legal challenge because authorities had used the bill “like a club” after she refused purchase offers from the state that were apparently too low, Associated Press reports . Hitler was born in a rented room on the top floor in 1889 and the Austrian government does not want the building to become a pilgrimage site for neo-Nazis. According to the BBC , the house was turned into a shrine to Hitler during Nazi rule and was shut in 1944 when they began to lose control. The Vienna court decision is due in two weeks.

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How did Hitler rise to power? – Alex Gendler and Anthony …

There were several key dates in Hitlers political rise to power. First and foremost, the way World War I ended had a huge influence on these events. The German government surrendered without being militarily defeated. This caused a great deal of frustration and anger amongst the German people. Hitler exploited this to the fullest extent, and used it to discredit and criticize the new Weimar Republic that was created thereafter. The Great Depression was another key event in the story of how Hitler was able to rise to political power in Germany. He continued feeding the German people lies of government economicconspiracies, and banking corruption (which he alleged were caused by Jews within the country). While this lesson focuses on Hitlers rhetoric and exploitation of Germanys fears in his campaign forpower, more information on his life before politics can be found here. For more information on his background, childhood, and rise to power, seeHitlers Boyhood and political views. It is also interesting to consider the international contemporary perspective on Hitler’s ascension – seeBritish media perspectives on Hitlers Rise, key events and dates for his ascension to the top of German politics. Also, this BBC video is included for visual learners. This is a documentary that takes people through the reasons why the German people grew to think of Hitler as the savior of the country. Propaganda played a core role inconvincingthe German people that democracy and freedom was making the country weak and powerless. For a useful resource for younger learners curious about the rise of Hitler and Nazi Germany, please see Nathaniel Harriss 2004 picture bookThe Rise of Hitler. For older readers, Henry Ashby Turner Jr.’s bookHitlers Thirty Days to Power: January 1933 book explains how government officials and business leaders made certain behind closed doors that Hitler would become chancellor of Germany. These officials underestimated Hitler, and thought he could be used as a government puppet to increase their own power and further their ownagendas. A number of the sound effects for this video were sourced from Free Sound. Special thanks to: Robinhood76, Cell31_Sound_Productions, unchaz, RT759 Full credits for this video: Directed by Owen Gent and Hugh Cowling Produced by Owen Gent and Hugh Cowling Designed by Owen Gent and Hugh Cowling Art Directed by Owen Gent and Hugh Cowing Storyboard Art by Owen Gent and Hugh Cowling Illustration by Owen Gent Animated by Hugh Cowling Edited by Hugh Cowling Composited by Hugh Cowling Sound Design by Hugh Cowling Composed by Hugh Cowling

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Adolf Hitler – Rise to power | dictator of Germany …

Discharged from the hospital amid the social chaos that followed Germanys defeat, Hitler took up political work in Munich in MayJune 1919. As an army political agent, he joined the small German Workers Party in Munich (September 1919). In 1920 he was put in charge of the partys propaganda and left the army to devote himself to improving his position within the party, which in that year was renamed the National-sozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (Nazi). Conditions were ripe for the development of such a party. Resentment at the loss of the war and the severity of the peace terms added to the economic woes and brought widespread discontent. This was especially sharp in Bavaria, due to its traditional separatism and the regions popular dislike of the republican government in Berlin. In March 1920 a coup dtat by a few army officers attempted in vain to establish a right-wing government. Munich was a gathering place for dissatisfied former servicemen and members of the Freikorps, which had been organized in 191819 from units of the German army that were unwilling to return to civilian life, and for political plotters against the republic. Many of these joined the Nazi Party. Foremost among them was Ernst Rhm, a staff member of the district army command, who had joined the German Workers Party before Hitler and who was of great help in furthering Hitlers rise within the party. It was he who recruited the strong arm squads used by Hitler to protect party meetings, to attack socialists and communists, and to exploit violence for the impression of strength it gave. In 1921 these squads were formally organized under Rhm into a private party army, the SA (Sturmabteilung). Rhm was also able to secure protection from the Bavarian government, which depended on the local army command for the maintenance of order and which tacitly accepted some of his terrorist tactics. Conditions were favourable for the growth of the small party, and Hitler was sufficiently astute to take full advantage of them. When he joined the party, he found it ineffective, committed to a program of nationalist and socialist ideas but uncertain of its aims and divided in its leadership. He accepted its program but regarded it as a means to an end. His propaganda and his personal ambition caused friction with the other leaders of the party. Hitler countered their attempts to curb him by threatening resignation, and because the future of the party depended on his power to organize publicity and to acquire funds, his opponents relented. In July 1921 he became their leader with almost unlimited powers. From the first he set out to create a mass movement, whose mystique and power would be sufficient to bind its members in loyalty to him. He engaged in unrelenting propaganda through the party newspaper, the Vlkischer Beobachter (Popular Observer, acquired in 1920), and through meetings whose audiences soon grew from a handful to thousands. With his charismatic personality and dynamic leadership, he attracted a devoted cadre of Nazi leaders, men whose names today live in infamyJohann Dietrich Eckart (who acted as a mentor for Hitler), Alfred Rosenberg, Rudolf Hess, Hermann Gring, and Julius Streicher. The climax of this rapid growth of the Nazi Party in Bavaria came in an attempt to seize power in the Munich (Beer Hall) Putsch of November 1923, when Hitler and General Erich Ludendorff tried to take advantage of the prevailing confusion and opposition to the Weimar Republic to force the leaders of the Bavarian government and the local army commander to proclaim a national revolution. In the melee that resulted, the police and the army fired at the advancing marchers, killing a few of them. Hitler was injured, and four policemen were killed. Placed on trial for treason, he characteristically took advantage of the immense publicity afforded to him. He also drew a vital lesson from the Putschthat the movement must achieve power by legal means. He was sentenced to prison for five years but served only nine months, and those in relative comfort at Landsberg castle. Hitler used the time to dictate the first volume of Mein Kampf, his political autobiography as well as a compendium of his multitudinous ideas. Test Your Knowledge American History and Politics Hitlers ideas included inequality among races, nations, and individuals as part of an unchangeable natural order that exalted the Aryan race as the creative element of mankind. According to Hitler, the natural unit of mankind was the Volk (the people), of which the German people was the greatest. Moreover, he believed that the state existed to serve the Volka mission that to him the Weimar German Republic betrayed. All morality and truth were judged by this criterion: whether it was in accordance with the interest and preservation of the Volk. Parliamentary democratic government stood doubly condemned. It assumed the equality of individuals that for Hitler did not exist and supposed that what was in the interests of the Volk could be decided by parliamentary procedures. Instead, Hitler argued that the unity of the Volk would find its incarnation in the Fhrer, endowed with perfect authority. Below the Fhrer the party was drawn from the Volk and was in turn its safeguard. Britannica Lists & Quizzes History Quiz Literature & Language List History Quiz Arts & Culture List The greatest enemy of Nazism was not, in Hitlers view, liberal democracy in Germany, which was already on the verge of collapse. It was the rival Weltanschauung, Marxism (which for him embraced social democracy as well as communism), with its insistence on internationalism and economic conflict. Beyond Marxism he believed the greatest enemy of all to be the Jew, who was for Hitler the incarnation of evil. There is debate among historians as to when anti-Semitism became Hitlers deepest and strongest conviction. As early as 1919 he wrote, Rational anti-Semitism must lead to systematic legal opposition. Its final objective must be the removal of the Jews altogether. In Mein Kampf, he described the Jew as the destroyer of culture, a parasite within the nation, and a menace. During Hitlers absence in prison, the Nazi Party languished as the result of internal dissension. After his release, Hitler faced difficulties that had not existed before 1923. Economic stability had been achieved by a currency reform and the Dawes Plan had scaled back Germanys World War I reparations. The republic seemed to have become more respectable. Hitler was forbidden to make speeches, first in Bavaria, then in many other German states (these prohibitions remained in force until 192728). Nevertheless, the party grew slowly in numbers, and in 1926 Hitler successfully established his position within it against Gregor Strasser, whose followers were primarily in northern Germany. The advent of the Depression in 1929, however, led to a new period of political instability. In 1930 Hitler made an alliance with the Nationalist Alfred Hugenberg in a campaign against the Young Plan, a second renegotiation of Germanys war reparation payments. With the help of Hugenbergs newspapers, Hitler was able for the first time to reach a nationwide audience. The alliance also enabled him to seek support from many of the magnates of business and industry who controlled political funds and were anxious to use them to establish a strong right-wing, antisocialist government. The subsidies Hitler received from the industrialists placed his party on a secure financial footing and enabled him to make effective his emotional appeal to the lower middle class and the unemployed, based on the proclamation of his faith that Germany would awaken from its sufferings to reassert its natural greatness. Hitlers dealings with Hugenberg and the industrialists exemplify his skill in using those who sought to use him. But his most important achievement was the establishment of a truly national party (with its voters and followers drawn from different classes and religious groups), unique in Germany at the time. Unremitting propaganda, set against the failure of the government to improve conditions during the Depression, produced a steadily mounting electoral strength for the Nazis. The party became the second largest in the country, rising from 2.6 percent of the vote in the national election of 1928 to more than 18 percent in September 1930. In 1932 Hitler opposed Hindenburg in the presidential election, capturing 36.8 percent of the votes on the second ballot. Finding himself in a strong position by virtue of his unprecedented mass following, he entered into a series of intrigues with conservatives such as Franz von Papen, Otto Meissner, and President Hindenburgs son, Oskar. The fear of communism and the rejection of the Social Democrats bound them together. In spite of a decline in the Nazi Partys votes in November 1932, Hitler insisted that the chancellorship was the only office he would accept. On January 30, 1933, Hindenburg offered him the chancellorship of Germany. His cabinet included few Nazis at that point. Hitlers personal life had grown more relaxed and stable with the added comfort that accompanied political success. After his release from prison, he often went to live on the Obersalzberg, near Berchtesgaden. His income at this time was derived from party funds and from writing for nationalist newspapers. He was largely indifferent to clothes and food but did not eat meat and gave up drinking beer (and all other alcohols). His rather irregular working schedule prevailed. He usually rose late, sometimes dawdled at his desk, and retired late at night. At Berchtesgaden, his half sister Angela Raubal and her two daughters accompanied him. Hitler became devoted to one of them, Geli, and it seems that his possessive jealousy drove her to suicide in September 1931. For weeks Hitler was inconsolable. Some time later Eva Braun, a shop assistant from Munich, became his mistress. Hitler rarely allowed her to appear in public with him. He would not consider marriage on the grounds that it would hamper his career. Braun was a simple young woman with few intellectual gifts. Her great virtue in Hitlers eyes was her unquestioning loyalty, and in recognition of this he legally married her at the end of his life.

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Austria: Dispute over who owns house where Hitler was born – ABC News

A lawyer for the owner of the house where Adolf Hitler was born is disputing the government’s right to take possession of the property in Austria’s highest court, saying authorities are using the measure “like a club” because his client refused purchase offers from authorities that were too low. The challenge is in response to a government bill to take the house after owner Gerlinde Pommer refused to sell it. Hitler was born in 1889 in the house in Braunau am Inn, a town on the German border. The government wants to remodel the property’s facade to reduce its draw as a shrine for admirers of the Nazi dictator and to offer it to an agency that runs workshops for disabled people. Ahead of the first day of Constitutional Court hearings Thursday, lawyer Gerhard Lebitsch questioned the timing of the government’s move so long after World War II, noting that “they could have neutralized the site 40-50 years ago.” While the price offered by the state has not been disclosed, Lebitsch suggested it was too low, describing the offer as “half-hearted.” In court, officials for the government argued that the state decided to seize the house after the owner refused to make alternations needed for use for workshops. They also said the state was confronted with unjustified rent increases while leasing the building previously.

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Bleeding at my typewriter: Sleeping with Hitler – Roodepoort Record

During the heydays of Apartheid, I was a little boy. By the late 80s I was a typical carefree, rebellious teenager. By 1994, I was a young adult and hopefully embraced the Rainbow Nation like most South Africans. I was lucky enough to have made this transition with ease. Race and colour never existed for me. Full stop. Fast forward to 2017. Racism seems to be at an all-time high. I find the subject dour, boring and think our country suffers from some kind of schizophrenic immaturity. (I am not exactly sure what I mean by that but it sounded good). Last week, I was forced, screaming and kicking, into a discussion about racism. How intense is the racism in our country? Arent we just a bunch of over-sensitive, chip-on-the-shoulder, politically correct, safe-space-seeking sissies? Are people maybe inherently racist? Does hatred necessarily accompany racism? Has the race card become an excuse to avoid manning up and facing the countrys real problems? These were the questions asked, and I did not know. I did not even know if I cared. But hey, I would buy the ticket and take the ride and in the name of Gonzo journalism hurl myself into the heart of this whore called racism. And then the universe presented the perfect opportunity for me to determine where our little republic lies on the racism scale. An acquaintance gave me a bunch of books. (Mostly nonsense I do not read, like David Baldacci, Dan Patterson, Micheal Connolly, etc.). As I was sifting through the books on my bed, one, face down, caught my eye. I turned it over and my stomach turned. I could not pinpoint my emotions. It was somewhere between discomfort and guilt. There it was Mein Kampf (My Struggle). Adolf Hitlers lunatic ravings that lead to the murder of 6 million people based on their ethnicity. The original blueprint for racism. Yip. I am going to read it. I want to understand what unadulterated racism is. Maybe then I will be able to treat the racism in our country differently. Maybe I will see it for what it is. Yes, for the next week or so you will find the Bible, The Fox and the Flies by Charles van Onselen (which I am currently enjoying) and Mein Kampf on my bedside table. In order to put this demon, who haunts my fellow beloved countrymen and women, into perspective for once and for all, Ill be sleeping with Hitler. Do you perhaps have more information pertaining to this story? Email us atroodepoortrecord@caxton.co.za(remember to include your contact details) or phone us on 011 955 1130. For free daily localnews on the West Rand, also visit our sister newspaper websites Randfontein Herald Krugersdorp News Get It Joburg WestMagazine Remember to visit our Facebook, Twitter and Instagram pages to let your voice be heard!

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Women at war: how did it feel to fly for Hitler or fight in the Red Army? – Telegraph.co.uk

Anne Sebba reviewsThe Women who Flew for Hitler by Clare Mulley (Macmillan) and Avenging Angels: Soviet Women Snipers on the Eastern Front by Lyuba Vinogradova(MacLehose) Should women serve in combat roles? Only last year Britain lifted the last restrictions, making all combat jobs open to women, even those demanding great physical strength. General Sir Peter Wall, former Chief of the General Staff, observed that the reform would make [the Army] look more normal in society but there will always be people who say the close battle is no place for female soldiers. In many other countries, that is exactly what is still said, but the debate is fierce. Does having women on the front create more danger partly because of the sexual tension? On the other hand, does treating female recruits differently, or lowering standards in their training, reinforce age-old cultural myths which in turn…

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