Archive for the ‘Holocaust Remembrance Day’ Category

International Holocaust Remembrance Day – ushmm.org

Theme Select a Theme Aftermath Artists Asset Restitution Auschwitz Book Burning Camps Children Collaboration Complicity Congo Diaries Displaced Persons Documentation and Evidence Film Genocide Germany Ghettos Greece Hiding Legacy Liberation Music Persecution Persecution of Homosexuals Poland Propaganda Refugees Remembrance and Commemoration Rescue Rescuing the Evidence Resistance Spiritual Resistance Survivors United States War Crimes Trials Women World Responses World War I World War II

Title Select a feature for Aftermath A Changed World: The Continuing Impact of the Holocaust Liberation Life after the Holocaust: Stories of Holocaust Survivors after the War Life Reborn: Jewish Displaced Persons 19451951 Personal Histories The Diary of Lajos Ornstein: An Extraordinary Journey The Nuremberg Trials and Their Legacy

Title Select a feature for Artists Remembering D-Day 70 Years Later Szpilmans Warsaw: The History behind The Pianist The Art and Politics of Arthur Szyk

Title Select a feature for Asset Restitution Offenbach Archival Depot: Antithesis to Nazi Plunder

Title Select a feature for Auschwitz Auschwitz through the Lens of the SS: Photos of Nazi Leadership at the Camp International Holocaust Remembrance Day The Liberation of Auschwitz

Title Select a feature for Book Burning Fighting the Fires of Hate: America and the Nazi Book Burning Nazi Book Burning

Title Select a feature for Camps Auschwitz through the Lens of the SS: Photos of Nazi Leadership at the Camp Liberation Music of the Holocaust: Highlights from the Collection Oskar Schindler: An Unlikely Hero Personal Histories The Holocaust Era in Croatia 19411945: Jasenovac The Liberation of Auschwitz Theresienstadt: Spiritual Resistance and Historical Context

Title Select a feature for Children Give Me Your Children: Voices from the Lodz Ghetto Anne Frank the Writer: An Unfinished Story Life in Shadows: Hidden Children and the Holocaust Personal Histories Silent Witness: The Story of Lola Rein and Her Dress

Title Select a feature for Collaboration Some Were Neighbors: Collaboration & Complicity in the Holocaust

Title Select a feature for Complicity Auschwitz through the Lens of the SS: Photos of Nazi Leadership at the Camp Some Were Neighbors: Collaboration & Complicity in the Holocaust

Title Select a feature for Congo Ripples of Genocide: Journey through Eastern Congo

Title Select a feature for Diaries Anne Frank the Writer: An Unfinished Story Auschwitz through the Lens of the SS: Photos of Nazi Leadership at the Camp Do You Remember, When Remembering D-Day 70 Years Later Ripples of Genocide: Journey through Eastern Congo The Alfred Rosenberg Diary The Diary of Lajos Ornstein: An Extraordinary Journey

Title Select a feature for Displaced Persons Life Reborn: Jewish Displaced Persons 19451951 Music of the Holocaust: Highlights from the Collection Personal Histories

Title Select a feature for Documentation and Evidence Anne Frank the Writer: An Unfinished Story Auschwitz through the Lens of the SS: Photos of Nazi Leadership at the Camp Commemorating the 70th Anniversary of Liberation Do You Remember, When Hidden History of the Kovno Ghetto Holocaust by Bullets Music of the Holocaust: Highlights from the Collection Offenbach Archival Depot: Antithesis to Nazi Plunder Remembering D-Day 70 Years Later Remnants and Recollections: The Experience of Sephardi Jews during the Holocaust Ripples of Genocide: Journey through Eastern Congo Silent Witness: The Story of Lola Rein and Her Dress The Alfred Rosenberg Diary The Diary of Lajos Ornstein: An Extraordinary Journey The Doctors Trial: The Medical Case of the Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings The German Invasion of Poland and the Beginning of World War II The Holocaust in Ukraine The Legacy of Julien Bryan Theresienstadt: Spiritual Resistance and Historical Context US Justice Department Transfers Copies of Proceedings to the Museum Voyage of the St. Louis Voyage of the St. Louis Who Was This Woman?

Title Select a feature for Film Oskar Schindler: An Unlikely Hero Szpilmans Warsaw: The History behind The Pianist The Legacy of Julien Bryan Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

Title Select a feature for Genocide Ripples of Genocide: Journey through Eastern Congo The Armenian Genocide

Title Select a feature for Germany Do You Remember, When Fighting the Fires of Hate: America and the Nazi Book Burning Nazi Olympics Berlin 1936 Nazi Persecution of Homosexuals 19331945 Nuremberg Race Laws: Defining the Nation State of Deception: The Power of Nazi Propaganda

Title Select a feature for Ghettos Give Me Your Children: Voices from the Lodz Ghetto Hidden History of the Kovno Ghetto Music of the Holocaust: Highlights from the Collection Oskar Schindler: An Unlikely Hero Szpilmans Warsaw: The History behind The Pianist Theresienstadt: Spiritual Resistance and Historical Context Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

Title Select a feature for Greece Remnants and Recollections: The Experience of Sephardi Jews during the Holocaust The Holocaust in Greece

Title Select a feature for Hiding Anne Frank the Writer: An Unfinished Story Life in Shadows: Hidden Children and the Holocaust Personal Histories Silent Witness: The Story of Lola Rein and Her Dress

Title Select a feature for Legacy A Changed World: The Continuing Impact of the Holocaust Commemorating the 70th Anniversary of Liberation The Holocaust in Ukraine The Nuremberg Trials and Their Legacy World War I

Title Select a feature for Liberation Commemorating the 70th Anniversary of Liberation Liberation Personal Histories The Liberation of Auschwitz

Title Select a feature for Music Music of the Holocaust: Highlights from the Collection

Title Select a feature for Persecution Give Me Your Children: Voices from the Lodz Ghetto Black History Month Deadly Medicine: Creating the Master Race Hidden History of the Kovno Ghetto Kristallnacht: The November 1938 Pogroms Life in Shadows: Hidden Children and the Holocaust Nazi Persecution of Homosexuals 19331945 Nazi Persecution of the Disabled: Murder of the Unfit Nuremberg Race Laws: Defining the Nation Personal Histories Szpilmans Warsaw: The History behind The Pianist The Holocaust in Greece Voyage of the St. Louis Who Was This Woman? Womens History Month

Title Select a feature for Persecution of Homosexuals Do You Remember, When Nazi Persecution of Homosexuals

Title Select a feature for Poland Give Me Your Children: Voices from the Lodz Ghetto Oskar Schindler: An Unlikely Hero Remembering the German Invasion of Poland Szpilmans Warsaw: The History behind The Pianist The Art and Politics of Arthur Szyk The Liberation of Auschwitz Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

Title Select a feature for Propaganda Nazi Olympics Berlin 1936 State of Deception: The Power of Nazi Propaganda

Title Select a feature for Refugees Flight and Rescue Voyage of the St. Louis Voyage of the St. Louis

Title Select a feature for Remembrance and Commemoration A Changed World: The Continuing Impact of the Holocaust Commemorating the 70th Anniversary of Liberation International Holocaust Remembrance Day Kristallnacht: The November 1938 Pogroms Remembering the German Invasion of Poland The Liberation of Auschwitz Theresienstadt: Spiritual Resistance and Historical Context World War I

Title Select a feature for Rescue A Forgotten Suitcase: The Mantello Rescue Mission Alerting the World: Jan Karski Among the Righteous: Lost Stories from the Holocaust in Arab Lands Choosing to Act: Raoul Wallenberg Flight and Rescue Memories of Courage Oskar Schindler: An Unlikely Hero Personal Histories Rescue of the Jews of Denmark Some Were Neighbors: Collaboration & Complicity in the Holocaust

Title Select a feature for Rescuing the Evidence Silent Witness: The Story of Lola Rein and Her Dress The Alfred Rosenberg Diary The Diary of Lajos Ornstein: An Extraordinary Journey The Legacy of Julien Bryan

Title Select a feature for Resistance Alerting the World: Jan Karski Choosing to Act: Raoul Wallenberg Dietrich Bonhoeffer Memories of Courage Personal Histories Rescue of the Jews of Denmark Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

Title Select a feature for Spiritual Resistance Music of the Holocaust: Highlights from the Collection Personal Histories Szpilmans Warsaw: The History behind The Pianist Theresienstadt: Spiritual Resistance and Historical Context

Title Select a feature for Survivors Commemorating the 70th Anniversary of Liberation Life after the Holocaust: Stories of Holocaust Survivors after the War Life Reborn: Jewish Displaced Persons 19451951

Title Select a feature for United States American Responses to the Holocaust Black History Month Fighting the Fires of Hate: America and the Nazi Book Burning Life after the Holocaust: Stories of Holocaust Survivors after the War The Art and Politics of Arthur Szyk US Justice Department Transfers Copies of Proceedings to the Museum

Title Select a feature for War Crimes Trials The Alfred Rosenberg Diary The Doctors Trial: The Medical Case of the Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings The Nuremberg Trials and Their Legacy

Title Select a feature for Women Ripples of Genocide: Journey through Eastern Congo Who Was This Woman? Womens History Month

Title Select a feature for World Responses Alerting the World: Jan Karski American Responses to the Holocaust Flight and Rescue Rescue of the Jews of Denmark Voyage of the St. Louis Voyage of the St. Louis

Title Select a feature for World War I The Armenian Genocide World War I

Title Select a feature for World War II Liberation Remembering D-Day 70 Years Later Remembering the German Invasion of Poland The German Invasion of Poland and the Beginning of World War II The Legacy of Julien Bryan The Liberation of Auschwitz World War I

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Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust …

The Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust (DRVH) is an annual 8-day period designated by the United States Congress for civic commemorations and special educational programs that help citizens remember and draw lessons from the Holocaust. The annual DRVH period normally begins on the Sunday before the Jewish observance of Yom HaShoah, Holocaust Memorial Day, and continues through the following Sunday, usually in April or May. A National Civic Commemoration is held in Washington, D.C., with state, city, and local ceremonies and programs held in most of the fifty states, and on U.S. military ships and stations around the world. The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum designates a theme for each year’s programs, and provides materials to help support remembrance efforts.

A House Joint resolution 1014 designated April 28 and 29 of 1979 as “Days of Remembrance of Victims of the Holocaust.” Senator John Danforth of Missouri, had originated the resolution, chose April 28 and 29, because it was on these dates, in 1945, that American troops including at least one ethnically segregated artillery battalion of the U.S. Army, many of whose own relatives were themselves interned during the war on American soil liberated the Dachau concentration camp and a number of its satellite camps, as well as rescuing hundreds of Jewish-ethnicity camp inmates driven southwards from Dachau by the Nazis on a death march only days later.

In 2005, the United Nations established a different date for International Holocaust Remembrance Day,[1] Jan. 27 the day in 1945 when the Soviet Red Army liberated the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp but the Yom HaShoah date of Nisan 27 on the Hebrew calendar continues as the date for the determination of the 8-day DRVH commemoration. This date also links the DRVH to the anniversary of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in 1943.[2]

6/22/1978 – OFFICIAL TITLE AS INTRODUCED: A resolution designating April 28 and 29 of 1979 as “Days of Remembrance of Victims of the Holocaust” Senator John Danforth of Missouri, whom I commend for having originated the resolution, chose April 28 and 29, because it was on these dates, in 1945, that American troops liberated the Dachau concentration camp

H.J.RES.1014 Latest Title: A resolution designating April 28 and 29 of 1979 as “Days of Remembrance of Victims of the Holocaust”. Sponsor: Rep Wright, James C., Jr. [TX-12] (introduced 6/22/1978) Cosponsors (3) Latest Major Action: 9/18/1978 Public Law 95-371.

On November 1, 1978, President Jimmy Carter signed an Executive Order establishing the Presidents Commission on the Holocaust, to be chaired by Holocaust survivor Elie Wiesel. Its mandate was to investigate the creation and maintenance of a memorial to victims of the Holocaust and an appropriate annual commemoration in their memory.

Executive Order 12093, November 1, 1978:

On April 24, 1979, in anticipation of the Commission’s report, the first National Civic Commemoration was held in the Capitol Rotunda, with the address delivered by President Carter:

Although words do pale, yet we must speak. We must strive to understand. We must teach the lessons of the Holocaust. And most of all, we ourselves must remember.

We must learn not only about the vulnerability of life, but of the value of human life. We must remember the terrible price paid for bigotry and hatred and also the terrible price paid for indifference and for silence….

To truly commemorate the victims of the Holocaust, we must harness the outrage of our memories to banish all human oppression from the world. We must recognize that when any fellow human being is stripped of humanity; when any person is turned into an object of repression; tortured or defiled or victimized by terrorism or prejudice or racism, then all human beings are victims, too.

The world’s failure to recognize the moral truth forty years ago permitted the Holocaust to proceed. Our generation–the generation of survivors–will never permit the lesson to be forgotten.

On September 27, 1979, the Commission presented its report to the President, recommending the establishment of a national Holocaust memorial museum in Washington, D.C. with three main components: a national museum/memorial, an educational foundation, and a Committee on Conscience.[3]

The United States Holocaust Memorial Council (USHMC) was established in 1980 by Public Law 96-388 to coordinate an annual, national civic commemoration of the DRVH in Washington, D.C.; to oversee the creation of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum and to provide support for State and local civic ceremonies in each of the fifty states. Since 1984, the United States military has also taken part in DRVH ceremonies.[4]

The first Council-sponsored DRVH national civic commemoration was held on April 30, 1981, in the White House. President Ronald Reagan, making his first public appearance after recovering from an attempted assassination, said:

We remember the suffering and the death of Jews and all those others who were persecuted in World War II…. We commemorate the days of April in 1945 when American and Allied Troops liberated Nazi death camps…. The tragedy…took place…in our life time. We share the wounds of the survivors. We recall the pain only because we must never permit it to come again…. Our spirit is strengthened by remembering and our hope is in our strength.[4]

With some few exceptions, the annual National Civic Commemoration has taken place in the Capitol Rotunda, chosen as the appropriate venue, as described in these words by Senator Robert Byrd, the U.S. Senate Minority Leader, delivered during the 1986 ceremony:

Today the Congress of the United States pauses in its deliberations to take part in the Days of Remembrance of victims of the Holocaust.

As we briefly lay aside the problems and the promises confronting our nation today to memorialize the supreme tragedy of more than forty years ago, there is no more appropriate location in which to do this than here in the Capitol Rotunda. This Rotunda is the symbol of all that the unspeakable crimes of the Holocaust tried to eliminate: human rights, individual liberties, the independence of nations living in freedom.

At the close of the 1987 commemoration, the words of Rabbi Arnold Resnicoff’s prayer expressed the goals of the DRVH in spiritual terms:

So, from the Holocaust, we learn:

when we deny humanity in others, we destroy humanity within ourselves. When we reject the human, and the holy, in any neighbor’s soul, then we unleash the beast, and the barbaric, in our own heart.

And, since the Holocaust, we pray: if the time has not yet dawned when we can all proclaim our faith in God, then let us say, at least, that we admit we are not gods ourselves. If we cannot yet see the face of God in others, then let us see, at least,

In 1979, the President’s Commission on the Holocaust provided the following definition to help guide the Council and its observances:

The Holocaust was the systematic, bureaucratic annihilation of six million Jews by the Nazis and their collaborators as a central act of state during the Second World War; as night descended, millions of other peoples were swept into this net of death. It was a crime unique in the annals of human history, different not only in the quantity of violence — the sheer numbers killed — but in its manner and purpose as a mass criminal enterprise organized by the state against defenseless civilian populations. The decision to kill every Jew everywhere in Europe: the definition of Jew as target for death transcended all boundaries….

The concept of the annihilation of an entire people, as distinguished from their subjugation, was unprecedented; never before in human history had genocide been an all-pervasive government policy unaffected by territorial or economic advantage and unchecked by moral or religious constraints….

The Department of Defense (DOD) used this definition as the foundation of goals for DRVH programs. In its Guide for Annual Commemorative Observances, stressing that remembrance programs must remember the horror of the Holocaust in specific anti-Jewish terms, but not only in those terms: remembrance programs must understand that the lessons of the Holocaust include a rejection of all forms of discrimination, prejudice, bigotry, and hatred:

The Holocaust and Anti-Semitism

The Holocaust was an event contemporaneous in large part with World War II — but separate from it. In fact, the Final Solution often took precedence over the war effort — as trains, personnel, and material needed at the front were not allowed to be diverted from death camp assignments.

On a very basic level, therefore, the Holocaust must be confronted in terms of the specific evil of anti-Semitism — virulent hatred of the Jewish people and the Jewish faith. An immediate response to the Holocaust must be a commitment to combat prejudice wherever it might exist.

The Holocaust and Humanity

From the Holocaust, we begin to understand the dangers of all forms of discrimination, prejudice, and bigotry; hatreds which, in their extreme forms, can lead to mass slaughter and genocide — and, on the personal level, can endanger our ethical being.

From the Holocaust, we can learn the way evil can be commonplace and acceptable — so that no one takes a stand until it is too late.

From the Holocaust we can examine humans as victims and executioners, oppressors and liberators, collaborators and bystanders, rescuers, and witnesses.

From the Holocaust, we are reminded that humans can exhibit both depravity and heroism. The victims of Nazi persecution demonstrated tremendous spiritual fortitude and resistance. There was also the physical and spiritual heroism of those who risked their lives to save others.

On April 18, 2007, in a DRVH ceremony held in the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, President George W. Bush delivered an address that linked definitions and wordsincluding the “new word”, genocide, that had come out of the Holocaust experienceto the challenge to remember:

This is a place devoted to memory. Inside this building are etched the words of the Prophet Isaiah: “You are my witness.” As part of this witness, these walls show how one of the world’s most advanced nations embraced a policy aimed at the annihilation of the Jewish people. These walls help restore the humanity of the millions who were loaded into trains and murdered by men who considered themselves cultured. And these walls remind us that the Holocaust was not inevitable; it was allowed to gather strength and force only because of the world’s weakness and appeasement in the face of evil.

Today, we call what happened “genocide”, but when the Holocaust started, this word did not yet exist. In a 1941 radio address, Churchill spoke of the horrors the Nazis were visiting on innocent civilians in Russia. He said, “We are in the presence of a crime without a name.” It is an apt description of the evil that followed the swastika. Mankind had long experience with savagery and slaughter before. Yet in places such as Auschwitz and Dachau and Buchenwald, the world saw something new and terrible: the state-sanctioned extermination of a people, carried out with the chilling industrial efficiency of a so-called modern nation.

Some may be tempted to ask: Why have a museum dedicated to such a dark subject? The men and women who built this museum will tell you: Because evil is not just a chapter in history; it is a reality in the human heart. So this museum serves as a living reminder of what happens when good and decent people avert their eyes from hatred and murder. It honors those who died by serving as the conscience for those who live. And it reminds us that the words “never again” do not refer to the past; they refer to the future.

You who are survivors know why the Holocaust must be taught to every generation. You who lost your families to the gas chambers of Europe watch as Jewish cemeteries and synagogues across that continent are defaced and defiled. You who bear the tattoos of death camps hear the leader of Iran declare that the Holocaust is a myth. You who have found refuge in a Jewish homeland know that tyrants and terrorists have vowed to wipe it from the map. And you who have survived evil know that the only way to defeat it is to look it in the face and not back down.

In addition to coordinating the National Civic Commemoration, ceremonies and educational programs during the week of the DRVH are regularly held throughout the country, sponsored by Governors, Mayors, veterans groups, religious groups, schools, and military ships and stations throughout the world. In addition, government organizations often sponsor programs of their own, including an annual Federal Interagency Holocaust Remembrance Program, in Washington, D.C..

Each year, the USHMM designates a special theme for DRVH observances, and prepares DRVH materials to support observances and programs throughout the nation. Themes have included:

As an integral part of the commitment to remember, the U.S.Holocaust Memorial Council and the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum have undertaken a number of additional activities over the years to broaden public understanding of the Holocaust, to encourage preservation of artifacts and documents, and to expand scholarship and teaching about the Holocaust. One of the earliest events was the 1981 International Liberators Conference of the Department of State, in Washington, D.C.. Official delegations came from the Jewish Brigade; the countries of Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Polish People’s Republic, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the USSR, and the United Kingdom. In addition, there were World War II veterans from every state in the Union, who had served in divisions that helped liberate Nazi concentration camps.

A book based on this conference, The Liberators of the Nazi Concentration Camps, 1945, was published by the Council in 1987.[4]

In 1984, the long-term efforts of a Navy Jewish chaplain, Rabbi Arnold Resnicoff, to convince the Department of Defense to participate in the national DRVH were successful. For a number of years he had been making the case at many levels of military leadership that General Eisenhower had already initiated a remembrance program when, after U.S. forces liberated Ohrdruf (a sub-camp of Buchenwald), Eisenhower called for reporters from the U.S. and U.K. to document evidence of the Holocaust,[citation needed] so that, Eisenhower said, the time would never come when such atrocities could be denied, and reports about them could be regarded as mere propaganda. Additionally, Eisenhower’s words — that the American GI did not always understand what he was fighting for, so he should see this evidence, to understand, at least, what he was fighting against [4]became, Resnicoff successfully argued, the foundation of an historic military effort to remember and learn from the Holocaust that today’s military had the duty to honor and carry on.

Efforts to drive military involvement took a significant step forward when Colonel Harvey T. Kaplan, U.S. Army, the Executive Director of the Defense Equal Opportunity Council, lent his strong support to the effort, and on April 1, 1984, Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger signed a memorandum to the military services, urging the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and other military commanders to participate in the annual program for the first time.[6] To support military programs, the United States Navy Chaplain Corps created the first military resource materials for programs and observances (Horror and Hope: Americans Remember the Holocaust).[7] Later, the Department of Defense, in cooperation with the United Holocaust Memorial Council, and the Anti-Defamation League of B’nai B’rith, created the official Department of Defense Guide[8] for remembrance ceremonies on all U.S. military ships and stations.[9]

Support for continued military involvement in this effort included the President in his role as Commander-in-Chief, and both the first and second editions of the Department of Defense Guide included signed Presidential letters endorsing the effort. In 1984, the first official year of military involvement, Rabbi Seymour Siegel, Executive Director of the United States Holocaust Memorial Council, met Vice Admiral Edward Martin, Commander, United States Sixth Fleet.[10] As a result of that meeting, the first shipboard Holocaust Days of Remembrance Ceremony was conducted on board USSPuget Sound(AD-38), the Sixth Fleet Flagship, during a port visit to Mlaga, Spain.[11]

The DOD Guide included background information on the history of the DRVH and a sample ceremony for military installations. It also included materials that could be used in remembrance and educational programs and ceremonies, divided into eight sections: (1) The Liberators; (2) The Horror; (3) The Process of Annihilation; (4) Bystanders and Collaborators; (5) The Response; (6) Resistance and Rescue; (7) The Shadow; (8) America Remembers.

The cover of the DOD Guide featured a photograph of the sculpture, Liberation, depicting an American soldier carrying a Holocaust victim. The Guide includes this description of the “cover illustration:

Dedicated on May 301, 1985, the fifteen foot, two-ton bronze sculpture, Liberation, is the creation of the late Nathan Rapoport, the Polish-born artist who died on June 4, 1987. His artistic goal was to embody in bronze a daring vision: in the face of sorrow and tragedies, he asserted that hope can triumph despite atrocity. The sculpture is located in Liberty State Park, New Jersey, which forms a triangle with the Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island.

Liberation depicts an American soldier carrying a survivor out of a concentration camp. The chests of the rescuer and rescued are joined, as if sharing one heart. The way that the survivor’s body is cradled in the arms of his liberator reflects comfort and trust.

In 1989, the year the revised Department of Defense Guide for DRVH observances, was issued, President George H. W. Bush summed up the goal not only for military participation, but for the annual National Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust, as a whole:

Our challenge today is to insist that time will not become the Nazis’ friend, that time will not fade our sense of specificity, the uniqueness of the Holocaust, that time will not lead us to make the Holocaust into an abstraction. Our challenge today is to remember the Holocaust, for if we remember we will, as our soldiers did, look its evil in the face…. For memory is our duty to the past, and memory is our duty to the future.[4]

(federal) = federal holidays, (state) = state holidays, (religious) = religious holidays, (week) = weeklong holidays, (month) = monthlong holidays, (36) = Title 36 Observances and Ceremonies Bolded text indicates major holidays that are commonly celebrated by Americans, which often represent the major celebrations of the month.[1][2]

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Yom HaShoah – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Yom HaZikaron laShoah ve-laG’vurah ( ; “Holocaust and Heroism Remembrance Day”), known colloquially in Israel and abroad as Yom HaShoah ( ) and in English as Holocaust Remembrance Day, or Holocaust Day, is observed as Israel’s day of commemoration for the approximately six million Jews who perished in the Holocaust as a result of the actions carried out by Nazi Germany and its accessories, and for the Jewish resistance in that period. In Israel, it is a national memorial day. It was inaugurated in 1953, anchored by a law signed by the Prime Minister of Israel David Ben-Gurion and the President of Israel Yitzhak Ben-Zvi. It is held on the 27th of Nisan (April/May), unless the 27th would be adjacent to the Jewish Sabbath, in which case the date is shifted by a day.[1]

Some other countries have different commemorative days for the same eventsee Holocaust Memorial Day.

Yom HaShoah was inaugurated in 1953, anchored in a law signed by the Prime Minister of Israel, David Ben-Gurion, and the President of Israel, Yitzhak Ben-Zvi.[2]

The original proposal was to hold Yom HaShoah on the 14th of Nisan, the anniversary of the Warsaw ghetto uprising (April 19, 1943), but this was problematic because the 14th of Nisan is the day immediately before Pesach (Passover). The date was moved to the 27th of Nisan, which is eight days before Yom Ha’atzma’ut, or Israeli Independence Day.

While there are Orthodox Jews who commemorate the Holocaust on Yom HaShoah, others in the Orthodox communityespecially Haredim, including Hasidimremember the victims of the Holocaust on days of mourning declared by the rabbis before the Holocaust, such as Tisha b’Av in the summer,[3] and the Tenth of Tevet, in the winter, because in the Jewish tradition the month of Nisan is considered a joyous month associated with Passover and messianic redemption. Ismar Schorsch, former Chancellor of Conservative Judaism’s Jewish Theological Seminary of America held that Holocaust commemoration should take place on Tisha b’Av.[4]

Most Jewish communities hold a solemn ceremony on this day, but there is no institutionalized ritual accepted by all Jews. Lighting memorial candles and reciting the Kaddishthe prayer for the departedare common. The Masorti (Conservative Judaism) movement in Israel has created Megillat HaShoah, a scroll and liturgical reading for Yom HaShoah, a joint project of Jewish leaders in Israel, the United States and Canada. The booklet was subsequently converted into a kosher scroll by sofer Marc Michaels for reading in the community and then into a tikkuncopyist guide for scribes’Tikkun megillat hashoah’. In 1984, Conservative Rabbi David Golinkin wrote an article in the journal Conservative Judaism suggesting a program of observance for the holiday, including fasting.

Yom HaShoah opens in Israel at sundown[5] in a state ceremony held in Warsaw Ghetto Square at Yad Vashem, the Holocaust Martyrs’ and Heroes Authority, in Jerusalem. During the ceremony the national flag is lowered to half mast, the President and the Prime Minister both deliver speeches, Holocaust survivors light six torches symbolizing the approximately six million Jews who perished in the Holocaust and the Chief Rabbis recite prayers.[6]

On Yom HaShoah, ceremonies and services are held at schools, military bases and by other public and community organizations.

On the eve of Yom HaShoah and the day itself, places of public entertainment are closed by law. Israeli television airs Holocaust documentaries and Holocaust-related talk shows, and low-key songs are played on the radio. Flags on public buildings are flown at half mast. At 10:00a.m., an air raid siren sounds throughout the country and Israelis are expected to observe one minute of solemn reflection. Many people stop what they are doing, including motorists who stop their cars in the middle of the road, standing beside their vehicles in silence as the siren is sounded.[7]

Observance of the day is moved back to the Thursday before, if 27 Nisan falls on a Friday (as in 2008), or forward a day, if 27 Nisan falls on a Sunday (to avoid adjacency with the Jewish Sabbath). The fixed Jewish calendar ensures 27 Nisan does not fall on Saturday.[1]

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Holocaust Remembrance Day – About.com Education

It has been over 60 years since the Holocaust. To survivors, the Holocaust remains real and ever-present, but for some others, sixty years makes the Holocaust seem part of ancient history. Year-round we try to teach and inform others about the horrors of the Holocaust. We confront the questions of what happened? How did it happen? How could it happen? Could it happen again? We attempt to fight against ignorance with education and against disbelief with proof.

But there is one day in the year when we make a special effort to remember (Zachor). Upon this one day, we remember those that suffered, those that fought, and those that died. Six million Jews were murdered. Many families were completely decimated.

Why this day?

Jewish history is long and filled with many stories of slavery and freedom, sorrow and joy, persecution and redemption. For Jews, their history, their family, and their relationship with God have shaped their religion and their identity. The Hebrew calendar is filled with varied holidays that incorporate and reiterate the history and tradition of the Jewish people.

After the horrors of the Holocaust, Jews wanted a day to memorialize this tragedy. But what day? The Holocaust spanned years with suffering and death spread throughout these years of terror. No one day stood out as representative of this destruction.

So various days were suggested.

For two years, the date was debated. Finally, in 1950, compromises and bargaining began. The 27th of Nissan was chosen, which falls beyond Passover but within the time span of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. Orthodox Jews still did not like this date because it was a day of mourning within the traditionally happy month of Nissan. As a final effort to compromise, it was decided that if the 27th of Nissan would affect Shabbat (fall on Friday or Saturday), then it would be moved. If the 27th of Nissan falls on a Friday, Holocaust Remembrance Day is moved to the preceding Thursday. If the 27th of Nissan falls on a Sunday, then Holocaust Remembrance Day is moved to the following Monday.

On April 12, 1951, the Knesset (Israel’s parliament) proclaimed Yom Hashoah U’Mered HaGetaot (Holocaust and Ghetto Revolt Remembrance Day) to be the 27th of Nissan. The name later became known as Yom Hashoah Ve Hagevurah (Devastation and Heroism Day) and even later simplified to Yom Hashoah.

How is it observed?

Since Yom Hashoah is a relatively new holiday, there are no set rules or rituals. What kind of ritual could represent the Holocaust?

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Days of Remembrance – United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

The United States Congress established the Days of Remembrance as the nations annual commemoration of the Holocaust. Each year state and local governments, military bases, workplaces, schools, religious organizations, and civic centers host observances and remembrance activities for their communities. These events can occur during theWeek of Remembrance, whichruns from the Sunday before Holocaust Remembrance Day (Yom Hashoah) through the following Sunday.

Are you interested in organizing an observance? Were pleased to offer a wide selection of resources featuringmany themes and historical anniversaries that will help you find the most appropriate focus for your community.

Watch this video to learn about Days of Remembrance and why we as a nation commemorate the Holocaust. You may also want to use the video in your event.

Explore a variety of resourcesfrom videos and program templates to poster sets and PowerPoint presentationsdesigned to help you plan your event.

See a comprehensive listing of all our resources organized by type.

Days of Remembrance programs take many forms. Be a part of this nationwide effort to remember the Holocaust, and let us know how youre commemorating the Days of Remembrance.

See the events we have planned in Washington during Days of Remembrance.

Browse Days of Remembrance events in your area, or add your own.

This free DVD features presentation-quality videos you can use in your commemoration or classroom.

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Days of Remembrance – United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

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May 20, 2015   Posted in: Holocaust Remembrance Day  Comments Closed

Holocaust Memorial Day – Jewish Virtual Library

Establishment of the Holiday

The full name of the day commemorating the victims of the Holocaust is Yom Hashoah Ve-Hagevurah in Hebrew literally translated as the “Day of (remembrance of) the Holocaust and the Heroism.” It is marked on the 27th day in the month of Nisan a week after the end of the Passover holiday and a week before Yom Hazikaron (Memorial Day for Israel’s fallen soldiers). It marks the anniversary of the Warsaw Ghetto uprising.

The date was selected in a resolution passed by Israel’s Parliament, the Knesset, on April 12, 1951. Although the date was established by the Israeli government, it has become a day commemorated by Jewish communities and individuals worldwide. The day’s official name – Holocaust and Heorism Remembrance Day – was made formal in a law enacted by the Knesset on August 19, 1953; on March 4, 1959, the Knesset passed another law which determined that tribute to victims of the Holocaust and ghetto uprisings be paid in public observances.

In the early 1950s, Israeli education about the Holocaust (Hebrew: Ha-Shoah, The Catastrophe) emphasized the suffering inflicted on millions of European Jews by the Nazis. Surveys conducted in the late 1950s indicated that young Israelis did not sympathize with the victims of the Holocaust, since they believed that European Jews were “led like sheep for slaughter.” The Israeli educational curriculum began to shift the emphasis to documenting how Jews resisted their Nazi tormentors through “passive resistance” retaining their human dignity in the most unbearable conditions and by “active resistance,” fighting the Nazis in the ghettos and joining underground partisans who fought the Third Reich in its occupied countries.

Since the early 1960’s, the sound of a siren on Yom Hashoah stops traffic and pedestrians throughout the State of Israel for two minutes of silent devotion. The siren blows at sundown and once again at 11:00 A.M. on this date. All radio and television programs during this day are connected in one way or another with the Jewish destiny in World War II, including personal interviews with survivors. Even the musical programs are adapted to the atmosphere of Yom Hashoah. There is no public entertainment on Yom Hashoah, as theaters, cinemas, pubs, and other public venues are closed throughout Israel.

Many ultra-Orthodox rabbis do not endorse this memorial day, though most of them have not formally rejected it either. There is no change in the daily religious services in some Orthodox synagogues on Yom Hashoah though the Orthodox Rabbinate of Israel attempted to promote the Tenth of Tevet a traditional fast day commemorating the beginning of the siege of Jerusalem in ancient times as the “General Kaddish Day” in which Jews should recite the memorial prayer and light candles in memory of those who perished in the Holocaust. Several ultra-Orthodox rabbis have recommended adding piyyutim (religious poems) that were written by contemporary rabbis to the liturgy of the Ninth of Av, and many communities follow this custom. Ismar Schorsch, the chancellor of the Conservative movement’s Jewish Theological Seminary, has also suggested moving Holocaust commemorations to Tisha b’Av, because that is the day in which Judaism ritualizes its most horrible destructions.

Jews in North America observe Yom Hashoah within the synagogue as well as in the broader Jewish community. Commemorations range from synagogue services to communal vigils and educational programs. A few congregations find it more practical to hold commemorative ceremonies on the closest Sunday to Yom Hashoah while others celebrate the day on April 19, the anniversary of the Warsaw Ghetto uprising.

Many Yom Hashoah programs feature a talk by a Holocaust survivor, recitation of appropriate songs and readings, or viewing of a Holocaust-themed film. Some communities choose to emphasize the depth of loss that Jews experienced in the Holocaust by reading the names of Holocaust victims one after another dramatizing the unfathomable notion of six million deaths. Many Jewish schools also hold Holocaust-related educational programs on or near Yom Hashoah.

Rituals associated with Yom Hashoah are still being created and vary widely among synagogues. Attempts have also been made to observe this memorial day at home. One suggestion is that every Jewish home should light a yahrzeit (memorial) candle on this day.

There have been numerous attempts to compose special liturgy (text and music) for Yom Hashoah. In 1988 the Reform movement published Six Days of Destruction. This book, co-authored by Elie Wiesel and Rabbi Albert Friedlander, was meant to be viewed as a “sixth scroll,” a modern addition to the five scrolls that are read on specific holidays. Six narratives from Holocaust survivors are juxtaposed to the six days of creation found in Genesis.

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Holocaust Memorial Day – Jewish Virtual Library

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International Holocaust Remembrance Day – Wikipedia, the …

International Holocaust Remembrance Day

A commemoration ceremony in Sweden

International Holocaust Remembrance Day, is an international memorial day on 27 January commemorating the victims of the Holocaust. It commemorates the genocide that resulted in the death of an estimated 6 million Jews, 1 million Roma, 250,000 mentally and physically disabled people, and 9,000 homosexual men by the Nazi regime and its collaborators. It was designated by the United Nations General Assembly resolution 60/7 on 1 November 2005 during the 42nd plenary session.[1] The resolution came after a special session was held earlier that year on 24 January 2005 during which the United Nations General Assembly marked the 60th anniversary of the liberation of the Nazi concentration camps and the end of the Holocaust.[2]

On 27 January 1945, Auschwitz-Birkenau, the largest Nazi death camp, was liberated by Soviet troops.

Prior to the 60/7 resolution, there had been national days of commemoration, such as Germany’s Tag des Gedenkens an die Opfer des Nationalsozialismus (The Day of remembrance for the victims of National Socialism), established in a proclamation issued by Federal President Roman Herzog on 3 January 1996; and the Holocaust memorial day observed every 27 January since 2001 in the UK.

The Holocaust Remembrance Day is also a national event in the United Kingdom and in Italy.

Resolution 60/7 establishing 27 January as International Holocaust Remembrance Day urges every member nation of the U.N. to honor the memory of Holocaust victims, and encourages the development of educational programs about Holocaust history to help prevent future acts of genocide. It rejects any denial of the Holocaust as an event and condemns all manifestations of religious intolerance, incitement, harassment or violence against persons or communities based on ethnic origin or religious belief. It also calls for actively preserving the Holocaust sites that served as Nazi death camps, concentration camps, forced labor camps and prisons, as well as for establishing a U.N. programme of outreach and mobilization of society for Holocaust remembrance and education.

Resolution 60/7 and the International Holocaust Day was an initiative of the State of Israel. Minister of Foreign Affairs of the State of Israel, Silvan Shalom, was the head of the delegation of Israel to the United Nations.

The essence of the text lies in its twofold approach: one that deals with the memory and remembrance of those who were massacred during the Holocaust, and the other with educating future generations of its horrors.

The International Day in memory of the victims of the Holocaust is thus a day on which we must reassert our commitment to human rights. […]

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International Holocaust Remembrance Day – Wikipedia, the …

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International Holocaust Remembrance Day – ushmm.org

Theme Select a Theme Aftermath Artists Asset Restitution Auschwitz Book Burning Camps Children Collaboration Complicity Congo Diaries Displaced Persons Documentation and Evidence Film Genocide Germany Ghettos Greece Hiding Legacy Liberation Music Persecution Persecution of Homosexuals Poland Propaganda Refugees Remembrance and Commemoration Rescue Rescuing the Evidence Resistance Spiritual Resistance Survivors United States War Crimes Trials Women World Responses World War I World War II Title Select a feature for Aftermath A Changed World: The Continuing Impact of the Holocaust Liberation Life after the Holocaust: Stories of Holocaust Survivors after the War Life Reborn: Jewish Displaced Persons 19451951 Personal Histories The Diary of Lajos Ornstein: An Extraordinary Journey The Nuremberg Trials and Their Legacy Title Select a feature for Artists Remembering D-Day 70 Years Later Szpilmans Warsaw: The History behind The Pianist The Art and Politics of Arthur Szyk Title Select a feature for Asset Restitution Offenbach Archival Depot: Antithesis to Nazi Plunder Title Select a feature for Auschwitz Auschwitz through the Lens of the SS: Photos of Nazi Leadership at the Camp International Holocaust Remembrance Day The Liberation of Auschwitz Title Select a feature for Book Burning Fighting the Fires of Hate: America and the Nazi Book Burning Nazi Book Burning Title Select a feature for Camps Auschwitz through the Lens of the SS: Photos of Nazi Leadership at the Camp Liberation Music of the Holocaust: Highlights from the Collection Oskar Schindler: An Unlikely Hero Personal Histories The Holocaust Era in Croatia 19411945: Jasenovac The Liberation of Auschwitz Theresienstadt: Spiritual Resistance and Historical Context Title Select a feature for Children Give Me Your Children: Voices from the Lodz Ghetto Anne Frank the Writer: An Unfinished Story Life in Shadows: Hidden Children and the Holocaust Personal Histories Silent Witness: The Story of Lola Rein and Her Dress Title Select a feature for Collaboration Some Were Neighbors: Collaboration & Complicity in the Holocaust Title Select a feature for Complicity Auschwitz through the Lens of the SS: Photos of Nazi Leadership at the Camp Some Were Neighbors: Collaboration & Complicity in the Holocaust Title Select a feature for Congo Ripples of Genocide: Journey through Eastern Congo Title Select a feature for Diaries Anne Frank the Writer: An Unfinished Story Auschwitz through the Lens of the SS: Photos of Nazi Leadership at the Camp Do You Remember, When Remembering D-Day 70 Years Later Ripples of Genocide: Journey through Eastern Congo The Alfred Rosenberg Diary The Diary of Lajos Ornstein: An Extraordinary Journey Title Select a feature for Displaced Persons Life Reborn: Jewish Displaced Persons 19451951 Music of the Holocaust: Highlights from the Collection Personal Histories Title Select a feature for Documentation and Evidence Anne Frank the Writer: An Unfinished Story Auschwitz through the Lens of the SS: Photos of Nazi Leadership at the Camp Commemorating the 70th Anniversary of Liberation Do You Remember, When Hidden History of the Kovno Ghetto Holocaust by Bullets Music of the Holocaust: Highlights from the Collection Offenbach Archival Depot: Antithesis to Nazi Plunder Remembering D-Day 70 Years Later Remnants and Recollections: The Experience of Sephardi Jews during the Holocaust Ripples of Genocide: Journey through Eastern Congo Silent Witness: The Story of Lola Rein and Her Dress The Alfred Rosenberg Diary The Diary of Lajos Ornstein: An Extraordinary Journey The Doctors Trial: The Medical Case of the Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings The German Invasion of Poland and the Beginning of World War II The Holocaust in Ukraine The Legacy of Julien Bryan Theresienstadt: Spiritual Resistance and Historical Context US Justice Department Transfers Copies of Proceedings to the Museum Voyage of the St. Louis Voyage of the St. Louis Who Was This Woman? Title Select a feature for Film Oskar Schindler: An Unlikely Hero Szpilmans Warsaw: The History behind The Pianist The Legacy of Julien Bryan Warsaw Ghetto Uprising Title Select a feature for Genocide Ripples of Genocide: Journey through Eastern Congo The Armenian Genocide Title Select a feature for Germany Do You Remember, When Fighting the Fires of Hate: America and the Nazi Book Burning Nazi Olympics Berlin 1936 Nazi Persecution of Homosexuals 19331945 Nuremberg Race Laws: Defining the Nation State of Deception: The Power of Nazi Propaganda Title Select a feature for Ghettos Give Me Your Children: Voices from the Lodz Ghetto Hidden History of the Kovno Ghetto Music of the Holocaust: Highlights from the Collection Oskar Schindler: An Unlikely Hero Szpilmans Warsaw: The History behind The Pianist Theresienstadt: Spiritual Resistance and Historical Context Warsaw Ghetto Uprising Title Select a feature for Greece Remnants and Recollections: The Experience of Sephardi Jews during the Holocaust The Holocaust in Greece Title Select a feature for Hiding Anne Frank the Writer: An Unfinished Story Life in Shadows: Hidden Children and the Holocaust Personal Histories Silent Witness: The Story of Lola Rein and Her Dress Title Select a feature for Legacy A Changed World: The Continuing Impact of the Holocaust Commemorating the 70th Anniversary of Liberation The Holocaust in Ukraine The Nuremberg Trials and Their Legacy World War I Title Select a feature for Liberation Commemorating the 70th Anniversary of Liberation Liberation Personal Histories The Liberation of Auschwitz Title Select a feature for Music Music of the Holocaust: Highlights from the Collection Title Select a feature for Persecution Give Me Your Children: Voices from the Lodz Ghetto Black History Month Deadly Medicine: Creating the Master Race Hidden History of the Kovno Ghetto Kristallnacht: The November 1938 Pogroms Life in Shadows: Hidden Children and the Holocaust Nazi Persecution of Homosexuals 19331945 Nazi Persecution of the Disabled: Murder of the Unfit Nuremberg Race Laws: Defining the Nation Personal Histories Szpilmans Warsaw: The History behind The Pianist The Holocaust in Greece Voyage of the St. Louis Who Was This Woman? Womens History Month Title Select a feature for Persecution of Homosexuals Do You Remember, When Nazi Persecution of Homosexuals Title Select a feature for Poland Give Me Your Children: Voices from the Lodz Ghetto Oskar Schindler: An Unlikely Hero Remembering the German Invasion of Poland Szpilmans Warsaw: The History behind The Pianist The Art and Politics of Arthur Szyk The Liberation of Auschwitz Warsaw Ghetto Uprising Title Select a feature for Propaganda Nazi Olympics Berlin 1936 State of Deception: The Power of Nazi Propaganda Title Select a feature for Refugees Flight and Rescue Voyage of the St. Louis Voyage of the St. Louis Title Select a feature for Remembrance and Commemoration A Changed World: The Continuing Impact of the Holocaust Commemorating the 70th Anniversary of Liberation International Holocaust Remembrance Day Kristallnacht: The November 1938 Pogroms Remembering the German Invasion of Poland The Liberation of Auschwitz Theresienstadt: Spiritual Resistance and Historical Context World War I Title Select a feature for Rescue A Forgotten Suitcase: The Mantello Rescue Mission Alerting the World: Jan Karski Among the Righteous: Lost Stories from the Holocaust in Arab Lands Choosing to Act: Raoul Wallenberg Flight and Rescue Memories of Courage Oskar Schindler: An Unlikely Hero Personal Histories Rescue of the Jews of Denmark Some Were Neighbors: Collaboration & Complicity in the Holocaust Title Select a feature for Rescuing the Evidence Silent Witness: The Story of Lola Rein and Her Dress The Alfred Rosenberg Diary The Diary of Lajos Ornstein: An Extraordinary Journey The Legacy of Julien Bryan Title Select a feature for Resistance Alerting the World: Jan Karski Choosing to Act: Raoul Wallenberg Dietrich Bonhoeffer Memories of Courage Personal Histories Rescue of the Jews of Denmark Warsaw Ghetto Uprising Title Select a feature for Spiritual Resistance Music of the Holocaust: Highlights from the Collection Personal Histories Szpilmans Warsaw: The History behind The Pianist Theresienstadt: Spiritual Resistance and Historical Context Title Select a feature for Survivors Commemorating the 70th Anniversary of Liberation Life after the Holocaust: Stories of Holocaust Survivors after the War Life Reborn: Jewish Displaced Persons 19451951 Title Select a feature for United States American Responses to the Holocaust Black History Month Fighting the Fires of Hate: America and the Nazi Book Burning Life after the Holocaust: Stories of Holocaust Survivors after the War The Art and Politics of Arthur Szyk US Justice Department Transfers Copies of Proceedings to the Museum Title Select a feature for War Crimes Trials The Alfred Rosenberg Diary The Doctors Trial: The Medical Case of the Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings The Nuremberg Trials and Their Legacy Title Select a feature for Women Ripples of Genocide: Journey through Eastern Congo Who Was This Woman? Womens History Month Title Select a feature for World Responses Alerting the World: Jan Karski American Responses to the Holocaust Flight and Rescue Rescue of the Jews of Denmark Voyage of the St. Louis Voyage of the St. Louis Title Select a feature for World War I The Armenian Genocide World War I Title Select a feature for World War II Liberation Remembering D-Day 70 Years Later Remembering the German Invasion of Poland The German Invasion of Poland and the Beginning of World War II The Legacy of Julien Bryan The Liberation of Auschwitz World War I

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June 20, 2016   Posted in: Holocaust Remembrance Day  Comments Closed

Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust …

The Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust (DRVH) is an annual 8-day period designated by the United States Congress for civic commemorations and special educational programs that help citizens remember and draw lessons from the Holocaust. The annual DRVH period normally begins on the Sunday before the Jewish observance of Yom HaShoah, Holocaust Memorial Day, and continues through the following Sunday, usually in April or May. A National Civic Commemoration is held in Washington, D.C., with state, city, and local ceremonies and programs held in most of the fifty states, and on U.S. military ships and stations around the world. The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum designates a theme for each year’s programs, and provides materials to help support remembrance efforts. A House Joint resolution 1014 designated April 28 and 29 of 1979 as “Days of Remembrance of Victims of the Holocaust.” Senator John Danforth of Missouri, had originated the resolution, chose April 28 and 29, because it was on these dates, in 1945, that American troops including at least one ethnically segregated artillery battalion of the U.S. Army, many of whose own relatives were themselves interned during the war on American soil liberated the Dachau concentration camp and a number of its satellite camps, as well as rescuing hundreds of Jewish-ethnicity camp inmates driven southwards from Dachau by the Nazis on a death march only days later. In 2005, the United Nations established a different date for International Holocaust Remembrance Day,[1] Jan. 27 the day in 1945 when the Soviet Red Army liberated the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp but the Yom HaShoah date of Nisan 27 on the Hebrew calendar continues as the date for the determination of the 8-day DRVH commemoration. This date also links the DRVH to the anniversary of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in 1943.[2] 6/22/1978 – OFFICIAL TITLE AS INTRODUCED: A resolution designating April 28 and 29 of 1979 as “Days of Remembrance of Victims of the Holocaust” Senator John Danforth of Missouri, whom I commend for having originated the resolution, chose April 28 and 29, because it was on these dates, in 1945, that American troops liberated the Dachau concentration camp H.J.RES.1014 Latest Title: A resolution designating April 28 and 29 of 1979 as “Days of Remembrance of Victims of the Holocaust”. Sponsor: Rep Wright, James C., Jr. [TX-12] (introduced 6/22/1978) Cosponsors (3) Latest Major Action: 9/18/1978 Public Law 95-371. On November 1, 1978, President Jimmy Carter signed an Executive Order establishing the Presidents Commission on the Holocaust, to be chaired by Holocaust survivor Elie Wiesel. Its mandate was to investigate the creation and maintenance of a memorial to victims of the Holocaust and an appropriate annual commemoration in their memory. Executive Order 12093, November 1, 1978: On April 24, 1979, in anticipation of the Commission’s report, the first National Civic Commemoration was held in the Capitol Rotunda, with the address delivered by President Carter: Although words do pale, yet we must speak. We must strive to understand. We must teach the lessons of the Holocaust. And most of all, we ourselves must remember. We must learn not only about the vulnerability of life, but of the value of human life. We must remember the terrible price paid for bigotry and hatred and also the terrible price paid for indifference and for silence…. To truly commemorate the victims of the Holocaust, we must harness the outrage of our memories to banish all human oppression from the world. We must recognize that when any fellow human being is stripped of humanity; when any person is turned into an object of repression; tortured or defiled or victimized by terrorism or prejudice or racism, then all human beings are victims, too. The world’s failure to recognize the moral truth forty years ago permitted the Holocaust to proceed. Our generation–the generation of survivors–will never permit the lesson to be forgotten. On September 27, 1979, the Commission presented its report to the President, recommending the establishment of a national Holocaust memorial museum in Washington, D.C. with three main components: a national museum/memorial, an educational foundation, and a Committee on Conscience.[3] The United States Holocaust Memorial Council (USHMC) was established in 1980 by Public Law 96-388 to coordinate an annual, national civic commemoration of the DRVH in Washington, D.C.; to oversee the creation of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum and to provide support for State and local civic ceremonies in each of the fifty states. Since 1984, the United States military has also taken part in DRVH ceremonies.[4] The first Council-sponsored DRVH national civic commemoration was held on April 30, 1981, in the White House. President Ronald Reagan, making his first public appearance after recovering from an attempted assassination, said: We remember the suffering and the death of Jews and all those others who were persecuted in World War II…. We commemorate the days of April in 1945 when American and Allied Troops liberated Nazi death camps…. The tragedy…took place…in our life time. We share the wounds of the survivors. We recall the pain only because we must never permit it to come again…. Our spirit is strengthened by remembering and our hope is in our strength.[4] With some few exceptions, the annual National Civic Commemoration has taken place in the Capitol Rotunda, chosen as the appropriate venue, as described in these words by Senator Robert Byrd, the U.S. Senate Minority Leader, delivered during the 1986 ceremony: Today the Congress of the United States pauses in its deliberations to take part in the Days of Remembrance of victims of the Holocaust. As we briefly lay aside the problems and the promises confronting our nation today to memorialize the supreme tragedy of more than forty years ago, there is no more appropriate location in which to do this than here in the Capitol Rotunda. This Rotunda is the symbol of all that the unspeakable crimes of the Holocaust tried to eliminate: human rights, individual liberties, the independence of nations living in freedom. At the close of the 1987 commemoration, the words of Rabbi Arnold Resnicoff’s prayer expressed the goals of the DRVH in spiritual terms: So, from the Holocaust, we learn: when we deny humanity in others, we destroy humanity within ourselves. When we reject the human, and the holy, in any neighbor’s soul, then we unleash the beast, and the barbaric, in our own heart. And, since the Holocaust, we pray: if the time has not yet dawned when we can all proclaim our faith in God, then let us say, at least, that we admit we are not gods ourselves. If we cannot yet see the face of God in others, then let us see, at least, In 1979, the President’s Commission on the Holocaust provided the following definition to help guide the Council and its observances: The Holocaust was the systematic, bureaucratic annihilation of six million Jews by the Nazis and their collaborators as a central act of state during the Second World War; as night descended, millions of other peoples were swept into this net of death. It was a crime unique in the annals of human history, different not only in the quantity of violence — the sheer numbers killed — but in its manner and purpose as a mass criminal enterprise organized by the state against defenseless civilian populations. The decision to kill every Jew everywhere in Europe: the definition of Jew as target for death transcended all boundaries…. The concept of the annihilation of an entire people, as distinguished from their subjugation, was unprecedented; never before in human history had genocide been an all-pervasive government policy unaffected by territorial or economic advantage and unchecked by moral or religious constraints…. The Department of Defense (DOD) used this definition as the foundation of goals for DRVH programs. In its Guide for Annual Commemorative Observances, stressing that remembrance programs must remember the horror of the Holocaust in specific anti-Jewish terms, but not only in those terms: remembrance programs must understand that the lessons of the Holocaust include a rejection of all forms of discrimination, prejudice, bigotry, and hatred: The Holocaust and Anti-Semitism The Holocaust was an event contemporaneous in large part with World War II — but separate from it. In fact, the Final Solution often took precedence over the war effort — as trains, personnel, and material needed at the front were not allowed to be diverted from death camp assignments. On a very basic level, therefore, the Holocaust must be confronted in terms of the specific evil of anti-Semitism — virulent hatred of the Jewish people and the Jewish faith. An immediate response to the Holocaust must be a commitment to combat prejudice wherever it might exist. The Holocaust and Humanity From the Holocaust, we begin to understand the dangers of all forms of discrimination, prejudice, and bigotry; hatreds which, in their extreme forms, can lead to mass slaughter and genocide — and, on the personal level, can endanger our ethical being. From the Holocaust, we can learn the way evil can be commonplace and acceptable — so that no one takes a stand until it is too late. From the Holocaust we can examine humans as victims and executioners, oppressors and liberators, collaborators and bystanders, rescuers, and witnesses. From the Holocaust, we are reminded that humans can exhibit both depravity and heroism. The victims of Nazi persecution demonstrated tremendous spiritual fortitude and resistance. There was also the physical and spiritual heroism of those who risked their lives to save others. On April 18, 2007, in a DRVH ceremony held in the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, President George W. Bush delivered an address that linked definitions and wordsincluding the “new word”, genocide, that had come out of the Holocaust experienceto the challenge to remember: This is a place devoted to memory. Inside this building are etched the words of the Prophet Isaiah: “You are my witness.” As part of this witness, these walls show how one of the world’s most advanced nations embraced a policy aimed at the annihilation of the Jewish people. These walls help restore the humanity of the millions who were loaded into trains and murdered by men who considered themselves cultured. And these walls remind us that the Holocaust was not inevitable; it was allowed to gather strength and force only because of the world’s weakness and appeasement in the face of evil. Today, we call what happened “genocide”, but when the Holocaust started, this word did not yet exist. In a 1941 radio address, Churchill spoke of the horrors the Nazis were visiting on innocent civilians in Russia. He said, “We are in the presence of a crime without a name.” It is an apt description of the evil that followed the swastika. Mankind had long experience with savagery and slaughter before. Yet in places such as Auschwitz and Dachau and Buchenwald, the world saw something new and terrible: the state-sanctioned extermination of a people, carried out with the chilling industrial efficiency of a so-called modern nation. Some may be tempted to ask: Why have a museum dedicated to such a dark subject? The men and women who built this museum will tell you: Because evil is not just a chapter in history; it is a reality in the human heart. So this museum serves as a living reminder of what happens when good and decent people avert their eyes from hatred and murder. It honors those who died by serving as the conscience for those who live. And it reminds us that the words “never again” do not refer to the past; they refer to the future. You who are survivors know why the Holocaust must be taught to every generation. You who lost your families to the gas chambers of Europe watch as Jewish cemeteries and synagogues across that continent are defaced and defiled. You who bear the tattoos of death camps hear the leader of Iran declare that the Holocaust is a myth. You who have found refuge in a Jewish homeland know that tyrants and terrorists have vowed to wipe it from the map. And you who have survived evil know that the only way to defeat it is to look it in the face and not back down. In addition to coordinating the National Civic Commemoration, ceremonies and educational programs during the week of the DRVH are regularly held throughout the country, sponsored by Governors, Mayors, veterans groups, religious groups, schools, and military ships and stations throughout the world. In addition, government organizations often sponsor programs of their own, including an annual Federal Interagency Holocaust Remembrance Program, in Washington, D.C.. Each year, the USHMM designates a special theme for DRVH observances, and prepares DRVH materials to support observances and programs throughout the nation. Themes have included: As an integral part of the commitment to remember, the U.S.Holocaust Memorial Council and the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum have undertaken a number of additional activities over the years to broaden public understanding of the Holocaust, to encourage preservation of artifacts and documents, and to expand scholarship and teaching about the Holocaust. One of the earliest events was the 1981 International Liberators Conference of the Department of State, in Washington, D.C.. Official delegations came from the Jewish Brigade; the countries of Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Polish People’s Republic, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the USSR, and the United Kingdom. In addition, there were World War II veterans from every state in the Union, who had served in divisions that helped liberate Nazi concentration camps. A book based on this conference, The Liberators of the Nazi Concentration Camps, 1945, was published by the Council in 1987.[4] In 1984, the long-term efforts of a Navy Jewish chaplain, Rabbi Arnold Resnicoff, to convince the Department of Defense to participate in the national DRVH were successful. For a number of years he had been making the case at many levels of military leadership that General Eisenhower had already initiated a remembrance program when, after U.S. forces liberated Ohrdruf (a sub-camp of Buchenwald), Eisenhower called for reporters from the U.S. and U.K. to document evidence of the Holocaust,[citation needed] so that, Eisenhower said, the time would never come when such atrocities could be denied, and reports about them could be regarded as mere propaganda. Additionally, Eisenhower’s words — that the American GI did not always understand what he was fighting for, so he should see this evidence, to understand, at least, what he was fighting against [4]became, Resnicoff successfully argued, the foundation of an historic military effort to remember and learn from the Holocaust that today’s military had the duty to honor and carry on. Efforts to drive military involvement took a significant step forward when Colonel Harvey T. Kaplan, U.S. Army, the Executive Director of the Defense Equal Opportunity Council, lent his strong support to the effort, and on April 1, 1984, Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger signed a memorandum to the military services, urging the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and other military commanders to participate in the annual program for the first time.[6] To support military programs, the United States Navy Chaplain Corps created the first military resource materials for programs and observances (Horror and Hope: Americans Remember the Holocaust).[7] Later, the Department of Defense, in cooperation with the United Holocaust Memorial Council, and the Anti-Defamation League of B’nai B’rith, created the official Department of Defense Guide[8] for remembrance ceremonies on all U.S. military ships and stations.[9] Support for continued military involvement in this effort included the President in his role as Commander-in-Chief, and both the first and second editions of the Department of Defense Guide included signed Presidential letters endorsing the effort. In 1984, the first official year of military involvement, Rabbi Seymour Siegel, Executive Director of the United States Holocaust Memorial Council, met Vice Admiral Edward Martin, Commander, United States Sixth Fleet.[10] As a result of that meeting, the first shipboard Holocaust Days of Remembrance Ceremony was conducted on board USSPuget Sound(AD-38), the Sixth Fleet Flagship, during a port visit to Mlaga, Spain.[11] The DOD Guide included background information on the history of the DRVH and a sample ceremony for military installations. It also included materials that could be used in remembrance and educational programs and ceremonies, divided into eight sections: (1) The Liberators; (2) The Horror; (3) The Process of Annihilation; (4) Bystanders and Collaborators; (5) The Response; (6) Resistance and Rescue; (7) The Shadow; (8) America Remembers. The cover of the DOD Guide featured a photograph of the sculpture, Liberation, depicting an American soldier carrying a Holocaust victim. The Guide includes this description of the “cover illustration: Dedicated on May 301, 1985, the fifteen foot, two-ton bronze sculpture, Liberation, is the creation of the late Nathan Rapoport, the Polish-born artist who died on June 4, 1987. His artistic goal was to embody in bronze a daring vision: in the face of sorrow and tragedies, he asserted that hope can triumph despite atrocity. The sculpture is located in Liberty State Park, New Jersey, which forms a triangle with the Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island. Liberation depicts an American soldier carrying a survivor out of a concentration camp. The chests of the rescuer and rescued are joined, as if sharing one heart. The way that the survivor’s body is cradled in the arms of his liberator reflects comfort and trust. In 1989, the year the revised Department of Defense Guide for DRVH observances, was issued, President George H. W. Bush summed up the goal not only for military participation, but for the annual National Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust, as a whole: Our challenge today is to insist that time will not become the Nazis’ friend, that time will not fade our sense of specificity, the uniqueness of the Holocaust, that time will not lead us to make the Holocaust into an abstraction. Our challenge today is to remember the Holocaust, for if we remember we will, as our soldiers did, look its evil in the face…. For memory is our duty to the past, and memory is our duty to the future.[4] (federal) = federal holidays, (state) = state holidays, (religious) = religious holidays, (week) = weeklong holidays, (month) = monthlong holidays, (36) = Title 36 Observances and Ceremonies Bolded text indicates major holidays that are commonly celebrated by Americans, which often represent the major celebrations of the month.[1][2]

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Yom HaShoah – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Yom HaZikaron laShoah ve-laG’vurah ( ; “Holocaust and Heroism Remembrance Day”), known colloquially in Israel and abroad as Yom HaShoah ( ) and in English as Holocaust Remembrance Day, or Holocaust Day, is observed as Israel’s day of commemoration for the approximately six million Jews who perished in the Holocaust as a result of the actions carried out by Nazi Germany and its accessories, and for the Jewish resistance in that period. In Israel, it is a national memorial day. It was inaugurated in 1953, anchored by a law signed by the Prime Minister of Israel David Ben-Gurion and the President of Israel Yitzhak Ben-Zvi. It is held on the 27th of Nisan (April/May), unless the 27th would be adjacent to the Jewish Sabbath, in which case the date is shifted by a day.[1] Some other countries have different commemorative days for the same eventsee Holocaust Memorial Day. Yom HaShoah was inaugurated in 1953, anchored in a law signed by the Prime Minister of Israel, David Ben-Gurion, and the President of Israel, Yitzhak Ben-Zvi.[2] The original proposal was to hold Yom HaShoah on the 14th of Nisan, the anniversary of the Warsaw ghetto uprising (April 19, 1943), but this was problematic because the 14th of Nisan is the day immediately before Pesach (Passover). The date was moved to the 27th of Nisan, which is eight days before Yom Ha’atzma’ut, or Israeli Independence Day. While there are Orthodox Jews who commemorate the Holocaust on Yom HaShoah, others in the Orthodox communityespecially Haredim, including Hasidimremember the victims of the Holocaust on days of mourning declared by the rabbis before the Holocaust, such as Tisha b’Av in the summer,[3] and the Tenth of Tevet, in the winter, because in the Jewish tradition the month of Nisan is considered a joyous month associated with Passover and messianic redemption. Ismar Schorsch, former Chancellor of Conservative Judaism’s Jewish Theological Seminary of America held that Holocaust commemoration should take place on Tisha b’Av.[4] Most Jewish communities hold a solemn ceremony on this day, but there is no institutionalized ritual accepted by all Jews. Lighting memorial candles and reciting the Kaddishthe prayer for the departedare common. The Masorti (Conservative Judaism) movement in Israel has created Megillat HaShoah, a scroll and liturgical reading for Yom HaShoah, a joint project of Jewish leaders in Israel, the United States and Canada. The booklet was subsequently converted into a kosher scroll by sofer Marc Michaels for reading in the community and then into a tikkuncopyist guide for scribes’Tikkun megillat hashoah’. In 1984, Conservative Rabbi David Golinkin wrote an article in the journal Conservative Judaism suggesting a program of observance for the holiday, including fasting. Yom HaShoah opens in Israel at sundown[5] in a state ceremony held in Warsaw Ghetto Square at Yad Vashem, the Holocaust Martyrs’ and Heroes Authority, in Jerusalem. During the ceremony the national flag is lowered to half mast, the President and the Prime Minister both deliver speeches, Holocaust survivors light six torches symbolizing the approximately six million Jews who perished in the Holocaust and the Chief Rabbis recite prayers.[6] On Yom HaShoah, ceremonies and services are held at schools, military bases and by other public and community organizations. On the eve of Yom HaShoah and the day itself, places of public entertainment are closed by law. Israeli television airs Holocaust documentaries and Holocaust-related talk shows, and low-key songs are played on the radio. Flags on public buildings are flown at half mast. At 10:00a.m., an air raid siren sounds throughout the country and Israelis are expected to observe one minute of solemn reflection. Many people stop what they are doing, including motorists who stop their cars in the middle of the road, standing beside their vehicles in silence as the siren is sounded.[7] Observance of the day is moved back to the Thursday before, if 27 Nisan falls on a Friday (as in 2008), or forward a day, if 27 Nisan falls on a Sunday (to avoid adjacency with the Jewish Sabbath). The fixed Jewish calendar ensures 27 Nisan does not fall on Saturday.[1]

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Holocaust Remembrance Day – About.com Education

It has been over 60 years since the Holocaust. To survivors, the Holocaust remains real and ever-present, but for some others, sixty years makes the Holocaust seem part of ancient history. Year-round we try to teach and inform others about the horrors of the Holocaust. We confront the questions of what happened? How did it happen? How could it happen? Could it happen again? We attempt to fight against ignorance with education and against disbelief with proof. But there is one day in the year when we make a special effort to remember (Zachor). Upon this one day, we remember those that suffered, those that fought, and those that died. Six million Jews were murdered. Many families were completely decimated. Why this day? Jewish history is long and filled with many stories of slavery and freedom, sorrow and joy, persecution and redemption. For Jews, their history, their family, and their relationship with God have shaped their religion and their identity. The Hebrew calendar is filled with varied holidays that incorporate and reiterate the history and tradition of the Jewish people. After the horrors of the Holocaust, Jews wanted a day to memorialize this tragedy. But what day? The Holocaust spanned years with suffering and death spread throughout these years of terror. No one day stood out as representative of this destruction. So various days were suggested. For two years, the date was debated. Finally, in 1950, compromises and bargaining began. The 27th of Nissan was chosen, which falls beyond Passover but within the time span of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. Orthodox Jews still did not like this date because it was a day of mourning within the traditionally happy month of Nissan. As a final effort to compromise, it was decided that if the 27th of Nissan would affect Shabbat (fall on Friday or Saturday), then it would be moved. If the 27th of Nissan falls on a Friday, Holocaust Remembrance Day is moved to the preceding Thursday. If the 27th of Nissan falls on a Sunday, then Holocaust Remembrance Day is moved to the following Monday. On April 12, 1951, the Knesset (Israel’s parliament) proclaimed Yom Hashoah U’Mered HaGetaot (Holocaust and Ghetto Revolt Remembrance Day) to be the 27th of Nissan. The name later became known as Yom Hashoah Ve Hagevurah (Devastation and Heroism Day) and even later simplified to Yom Hashoah. How is it observed? Since Yom Hashoah is a relatively new holiday, there are no set rules or rituals. What kind of ritual could represent the Holocaust?

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Days of Remembrance – United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

The United States Congress established the Days of Remembrance as the nations annual commemoration of the Holocaust. Each year state and local governments, military bases, workplaces, schools, religious organizations, and civic centers host observances and remembrance activities for their communities. These events can occur during theWeek of Remembrance, whichruns from the Sunday before Holocaust Remembrance Day (Yom Hashoah) through the following Sunday. Are you interested in organizing an observance? Were pleased to offer a wide selection of resources featuringmany themes and historical anniversaries that will help you find the most appropriate focus for your community. Watch this video to learn about Days of Remembrance and why we as a nation commemorate the Holocaust. You may also want to use the video in your event. Explore a variety of resourcesfrom videos and program templates to poster sets and PowerPoint presentationsdesigned to help you plan your event. See a comprehensive listing of all our resources organized by type. Days of Remembrance programs take many forms. Be a part of this nationwide effort to remember the Holocaust, and let us know how youre commemorating the Days of Remembrance. See the events we have planned in Washington during Days of Remembrance. Browse Days of Remembrance events in your area, or add your own. This free DVD features presentation-quality videos you can use in your commemoration or classroom.

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Holocaust Memorial Day – Jewish Virtual Library

Establishment of the Holiday The full name of the day commemorating the victims of the Holocaust is Yom Hashoah Ve-Hagevurah in Hebrew literally translated as the “Day of (remembrance of) the Holocaust and the Heroism.” It is marked on the 27th day in the month of Nisan a week after the end of the Passover holiday and a week before Yom Hazikaron (Memorial Day for Israel’s fallen soldiers). It marks the anniversary of the Warsaw Ghetto uprising. The date was selected in a resolution passed by Israel’s Parliament, the Knesset, on April 12, 1951. Although the date was established by the Israeli government, it has become a day commemorated by Jewish communities and individuals worldwide. The day’s official name – Holocaust and Heorism Remembrance Day – was made formal in a law enacted by the Knesset on August 19, 1953; on March 4, 1959, the Knesset passed another law which determined that tribute to victims of the Holocaust and ghetto uprisings be paid in public observances. In the early 1950s, Israeli education about the Holocaust (Hebrew: Ha-Shoah, The Catastrophe) emphasized the suffering inflicted on millions of European Jews by the Nazis. Surveys conducted in the late 1950s indicated that young Israelis did not sympathize with the victims of the Holocaust, since they believed that European Jews were “led like sheep for slaughter.” The Israeli educational curriculum began to shift the emphasis to documenting how Jews resisted their Nazi tormentors through “passive resistance” retaining their human dignity in the most unbearable conditions and by “active resistance,” fighting the Nazis in the ghettos and joining underground partisans who fought the Third Reich in its occupied countries. Since the early 1960’s, the sound of a siren on Yom Hashoah stops traffic and pedestrians throughout the State of Israel for two minutes of silent devotion. The siren blows at sundown and once again at 11:00 A.M. on this date. All radio and television programs during this day are connected in one way or another with the Jewish destiny in World War II, including personal interviews with survivors. Even the musical programs are adapted to the atmosphere of Yom Hashoah. There is no public entertainment on Yom Hashoah, as theaters, cinemas, pubs, and other public venues are closed throughout Israel. Many ultra-Orthodox rabbis do not endorse this memorial day, though most of them have not formally rejected it either. There is no change in the daily religious services in some Orthodox synagogues on Yom Hashoah though the Orthodox Rabbinate of Israel attempted to promote the Tenth of Tevet a traditional fast day commemorating the beginning of the siege of Jerusalem in ancient times as the “General Kaddish Day” in which Jews should recite the memorial prayer and light candles in memory of those who perished in the Holocaust. Several ultra-Orthodox rabbis have recommended adding piyyutim (religious poems) that were written by contemporary rabbis to the liturgy of the Ninth of Av, and many communities follow this custom. Ismar Schorsch, the chancellor of the Conservative movement’s Jewish Theological Seminary, has also suggested moving Holocaust commemorations to Tisha b’Av, because that is the day in which Judaism ritualizes its most horrible destructions. Jews in North America observe Yom Hashoah within the synagogue as well as in the broader Jewish community. Commemorations range from synagogue services to communal vigils and educational programs. A few congregations find it more practical to hold commemorative ceremonies on the closest Sunday to Yom Hashoah while others celebrate the day on April 19, the anniversary of the Warsaw Ghetto uprising. Many Yom Hashoah programs feature a talk by a Holocaust survivor, recitation of appropriate songs and readings, or viewing of a Holocaust-themed film. Some communities choose to emphasize the depth of loss that Jews experienced in the Holocaust by reading the names of Holocaust victims one after another dramatizing the unfathomable notion of six million deaths. Many Jewish schools also hold Holocaust-related educational programs on or near Yom Hashoah. Rituals associated with Yom Hashoah are still being created and vary widely among synagogues. Attempts have also been made to observe this memorial day at home. One suggestion is that every Jewish home should light a yahrzeit (memorial) candle on this day. There have been numerous attempts to compose special liturgy (text and music) for Yom Hashoah. In 1988 the Reform movement published Six Days of Destruction. This book, co-authored by Elie Wiesel and Rabbi Albert Friedlander, was meant to be viewed as a “sixth scroll,” a modern addition to the five scrolls that are read on specific holidays. Six narratives from Holocaust survivors are juxtaposed to the six days of creation found in Genesis.

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International Holocaust Remembrance Day – Wikipedia, the …

International Holocaust Remembrance Day A commemoration ceremony in Sweden International Holocaust Remembrance Day, is an international memorial day on 27 January commemorating the victims of the Holocaust. It commemorates the genocide that resulted in the death of an estimated 6 million Jews, 1 million Roma, 250,000 mentally and physically disabled people, and 9,000 homosexual men by the Nazi regime and its collaborators. It was designated by the United Nations General Assembly resolution 60/7 on 1 November 2005 during the 42nd plenary session.[1] The resolution came after a special session was held earlier that year on 24 January 2005 during which the United Nations General Assembly marked the 60th anniversary of the liberation of the Nazi concentration camps and the end of the Holocaust.[2] On 27 January 1945, Auschwitz-Birkenau, the largest Nazi death camp, was liberated by Soviet troops. Prior to the 60/7 resolution, there had been national days of commemoration, such as Germany’s Tag des Gedenkens an die Opfer des Nationalsozialismus (The Day of remembrance for the victims of National Socialism), established in a proclamation issued by Federal President Roman Herzog on 3 January 1996; and the Holocaust memorial day observed every 27 January since 2001 in the UK. The Holocaust Remembrance Day is also a national event in the United Kingdom and in Italy. Resolution 60/7 establishing 27 January as International Holocaust Remembrance Day urges every member nation of the U.N. to honor the memory of Holocaust victims, and encourages the development of educational programs about Holocaust history to help prevent future acts of genocide. It rejects any denial of the Holocaust as an event and condemns all manifestations of religious intolerance, incitement, harassment or violence against persons or communities based on ethnic origin or religious belief. It also calls for actively preserving the Holocaust sites that served as Nazi death camps, concentration camps, forced labor camps and prisons, as well as for establishing a U.N. programme of outreach and mobilization of society for Holocaust remembrance and education. Resolution 60/7 and the International Holocaust Day was an initiative of the State of Israel. Minister of Foreign Affairs of the State of Israel, Silvan Shalom, was the head of the delegation of Israel to the United Nations. The essence of the text lies in its twofold approach: one that deals with the memory and remembrance of those who were massacred during the Holocaust, and the other with educating future generations of its horrors. The International Day in memory of the victims of the Holocaust is thus a day on which we must reassert our commitment to human rights.

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