Archive for the ‘Holocaust’ Category

Kupferberg Holocaust Center

About The Center

Marisa L. Hollywood Assistant Director

The Kupferberg Holocaust Center (KHC), established in 1983, is an educational resource for Queensborough Community College, the City University of New York, the broader New York City and Long Island communities, and the global community. The KHC uses the lessons of the Holocaust and other mass atrocities to teach and empower citizens to become agents of positive social change in their lives and in their communities. Through its student and community programs and two galleries for original exhibits, library, and archives, the KHC serves approximately 20,000 visitors each year.

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Holocaust Pathfinder – University of Pittsburgh

Holocaust PathfinderHolocaust PathfinderSCOPESince the mid nineteen-seventies there has been a proliferation of interest regarding the Holocaust. The resulting materials, which are interdisciplinary in nature, include works in the fields of history, political science, religion, philosophy, psychology, and literature.

This pathfinder is intended as a guide to Holocaust materials for the beginning researcher. It is not meant to be exhaustive, but, instead should serve as a springboard for deeper coverage of the topic. Unless otherwise indicated, the materials cited here are written in the English language and are housed in Hillman Library.

INTRODUCTIONThe Academic American Encyclopedia provides an introduction to the topic and defines the term in this manner:

SUBJECT HEADINGSThe following SUBJECT HEADINGS can be used to find relevant materials in the card catalog and in Pittcat:

Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945)World War, 1939-1945Genocide–Germany–HistoryHolocaust, Jewish (1939-1945)–CausesHolocaust SurvivorsHolocaust, Jewish (1939-1945), in literatureHolocaust, Jewish (1939-1945)–PolandWorld War, 1939-1945–Concentration Camps

Books in these subject areas are cataloged under the following Library of Congress CALL NUMBERS:

D 804-805D 810DD 247-251DS 11DS 135

MAJOR TEXTSDawidowicz, Lucy S. The War Against the Jews, 1933-1945. 10th Anniversary edition. NY: Bantam Books, 1986. 466 pp. D810 J4D33 1986

Hilberg, Raul. The Destruction of the European Jews. Revised and definitive edition. NY: Holmes and Meier, 1985. 1273 pp. D810 J4H5 1985(Considered by scholars to be the standard work in the field.)

Levin, Nora. The Holocaust: The Destruction of European Jewry. NY: Schocken, 1968. 768 pp. D810 J4 L455

ADDITIONAL TITLES include:Bauer, Yehuda. A History of the Holocaust. NY: Franklin Watts, 1982. 398 pp. D810 J4 B315823 1982

Edelheit, Abraham J. and Hershel Edelheit. History of the Holocaust: A Handbook and Dictionary. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994. 524 pp. Ref D804.3 E33 1994

Gilbert, Martin. Atlas of the Holocaust. NY: Macmillan, 1982. 256 pp. Ref G1797.21.E29 G48 1982

Gilbert, Martin. The Holocaust: A History of the Jews of Europe During the Second World War. NY: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1986. 959 pp. D810.J4 G525 1986

The Holocaust: An 18-Volume Collection of Primary Documents. John Mendelsohn, ed. NY: Garland Publishing, 1982. D810 J4 H655

Levi, Primo. Survival in Auschwitz: The Nazi Assault on Humanity. NY: Collier, 1967. 157 pp. D804 G4L383 1961

Morse, Arthur. While Six Million Died: A Chronicle of American Apathy. NY: Random House, 1986. 420 pp. D810 J4 M59

Reitlinger, Gerald Roberts. The Final Solution: The Attempt to Exterminate the Jews of Europe, 1939-1945. 2nd revised and augmented edition. South Brunswick, NJ: T. Yoseloff, 1968. 667 pp. DS135 E89 R37 1968

Wiesel, Elie. Night. 1st American edition. NY: Hill and Wang, 1960. 116 pp. DS11 W651 1960a

BIBLIOGRAPHIESBloomberg, Marty. The Jewish Holocaust: An Annotated Guide to Books in English. San Bernadino, CA: Borgo Press, 1991. 248 pp. Z6374.H6B58The first volume in a series entitled “Studies in Judaica and the Holocaust,” this title contains the most current materials relating to the study of the Holocaust. It also has the advantage of including references to subjects otherwise overlooked in some of the older bibliographies, such as mail in the concentration camps, historical revisionists, starvation, and the search for missing nazis. Written by a librarian, the book contains a list of core title recommendations for college and university libraries.

Cargas, Harry J. The Holocaust: An Annotated Bibliography. 2nd ed. Chicago: American Library Association, 1985. 293 pp. Z6374 H6C37 1985An updated version of Cargas’ 1977 volume, the second edition is an excellent sourcebook, with helpful annotations. Contains a chapter entitled “Researching the Holocaust: Guidance for Students” which is very well organized. Other sections include: Anti-Semitism and the rise of Nazism, memoirs of the victims, reflections on the Holocaust, and Jewish resistance.

Edelheit, Abraham J. and Hershel Edelheit. Bibliography on Holocaust Literature. Boulder: Westview Press, 1986. 842 pp. Z6374 H6E33 1986Contains a wealth of material, a great deal of which is not covered in other sources. For each major section there is an introductory essay, followed by references to periodicals, books, documents, and eyewitness accounts. The scope of this bibliography is wide, and includes such topics as: Jewish life in pre-war Europe, the free world reaction, the Holocaust and the literary imagination, and distorting the Holocaust. One of the most valuable sections is the list of periodicals used (pp. xxvii-xxxii). It serves as an excellent source for research into the larger field of Jewish Studies. Updated by a 2-volume supplement published in 1990 (Z6374 H6E33 1986 Suppl.)

Muffs, Judith H. The Holocaust in Books and Films: A Selected, Annotated List. 3rd ed. NY: Hippocrene Books, 1986. 158 pp. Z6374 H6M83 1986″Designed primarily as a guide for teachers and librarians in the junior and senior high schools,” this bibliography serves a variety of functions. Though not comprehensive, it contains current references to films, books, filmstrips, booklets, posters, photographs, and other sources which deal with the Holocaust. It contains a list of audio-visual distributors and a section on Holocaust education and resource centers.

Robinson, Jacob, ed. The Holocaust and After: Sources and Literature in English. Jerusalem: Israel Universities Press, 1973. 353 pp. Z6374 H6R6Summaries in English of books, articles, film scripts, and plays about the Holocaust. Because it was published in the early 1970’s, some of the more current scholarship has been omitted, but this is more than made up for by the inclusion of original material from the 1930’s and 1940’s.

Sable, Martin H. Holocaust Studies: A Directory and Bibliography of Bibliographies. Greenwood, FL: Penkevill Publishing Co., 1987. 115 pp. Z6374 H6S22 1987Contains listings (without annotations) of Holocaust bibliographies in a variety of languages. The second half of the work is a directory of associations, councils, foundations, and various types of agencies which are concerned with some aspect of the Destruction. Included in this category is a list of memorials, monuments, sculptures, statues, and museums.

Szonyi, David M. The Holocaust: An Annotated Bibliography and Resource Guide. NY: Ktav, 1985. 396 pp. Z6374 H6H65 1985Covers the standard facets of the topic (resistance, life in the ghettos, war crime trials, children of survivors, etc.), along with literature of the Holocaust, audio-visual materials, research institutes and archival centers, religious services, oral history projects, traveling exhibits, Holocaust curricula, and materials and landmarks in North America. The strength of this guide is in its emphasis on education. In this sense, it is a unique source.

RESEARCH COLLECTIONSAmerican Jewish Archives. Cincinnati. Manuscript Catalog of the American Jewish Archives. 4 volumes. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1964. 1st supplement, 1978. Z6375 H38

Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion. Cincinnati. Dictionary Catalog of the Klau Library. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1964. This catalog is not in the Hillman Library.

New York Public Library. Reference Department. Dictionary Catalog of the Jewish Collection. 14 vols. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1960. 1st supplement, 1975. Z6375 N6

INDEXESAmerican Humanities Index (1975-)Arts and Humanities Citation Index (1976-)Arts and Humanities Citation Index on CD-ROM (1980-)British Humanities Index (1962-)Historical Abstracts on CD-ROM (1982-)Humanities Index (1974-)Index of Articles on Jewish Studies (1966-) Z6367.J62Index to Jewish Periodicals(1963-)Religion Index One (1977-)Religious and Theological Abstracts (1958-)Social Sciences Citation Index (1969-)Social Sciences Citation Index on CD-ROM (1986-)Social Sciences Index (1974-)

JOURNALS that contain articles about the Holocaust include:

Bulletin des Leo Baeck Instituts (1957-) DS135.G3A2618 Holocaust and Genocide Studies. (1986-)Holocaust Studies Annual. (1983-) DS135 E83H66Shoah: A Journal of Resources on the Holocaust (1978-)Simon Wiesenthal Center Annual (1984-) DS810 J4S537Yad Vashem Studies (1963-) DS135 E83Y3YIVO Bleter (1931-) PJ5120.A1Y5

RESOURCE CENTERS AND ARCHIVESLeo Baeck Institute129 E. 73rd StreetNew York, NY 10021(212) 744-6400

Center for Holocaust Studies, Documentation and Research1605 Avenue JBrooklyn, NY 11230(212) 338-6494

International Center for Holocaust StudiesAnti-Defamation League of B’nai Brith823 United Nations PlazaNew York, NY 10017(215) 787-1753

National Institute of the HolocaustP.O. Box 2147Philadelphia, PA 19103(202) 653-9152

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum100 Raoul Wallenberg Pl. S.W.Washington, DC 20024(202) 488-0400

William Weiner Oral History LibraryAmerican Jewish Committee165 E. 56th StreetNew York, NY 10022(212) 751-4000

Simon Wiesenthal Center for Holocaust StudiesYeshiva University9769 W. Pico Blvd.Los Angeles, CA 90035(213) 553-9036

YIVO Institute for Jewish Research1048 Fifth AvenueNew York, NY 10028(212) 535-6700

Compiled & Updated by Laurie Cohen, 9/95

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Annual Holocaust Remembrance Program | Holocaust …

2018 HOLOCAUST REMEMBRANCE PROGRAM DUE TO THE TORNADOES WHICH AFFECTED CAMPUS ON 19 MARCH, THE 2018 HOLOCAUST REMEMBRANCE SCHEDULED FOR APRIL HAS BEEN CANCELLED.

Remembrance Program Archives (1982-2017)Contains information on past remembrance programs, including newspaper articles, photos, program flyers, and more.

Imagining the Holocaust Writing Contest This writing competition is open to Alabama junior high and high school students, and encompasses many kinds of writing, from essays to more creative approaches in poetry and fiction. Entries are due 1 March, and prizes, including U.S. Savings Bonds worth $100, $75, and $50 will be awarded to the top three winners in each category. The top winners will also be invited to participate in JSU’s annual Holocaust Remembrance program in April.

Contact Program PlannersE-mail program planners for information or questions about the annual Holocaust Remembrance program.

National Days of RemembranceThe national Days of Remembrance program observed by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.

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The Holocaust in Russia | Military Wiki | FANDOM powered …

Holocaust in Reichskommissariat Ostland (which included Russia): a map

Russia. Jewish women and children being forced out of their homes. A soldier in Romanian uniform is marching along as a guard, 17 July 1941.

The Holocaust in Russia refers to the Nazi crimes during the occupation of Russia by Nazi Germany.

Beyond longstanding controversies, ranging from the MolotovRibbentrop Pact to anti-Zionism, the Soviet Union did grant official “equality of all citizens regardless of status, sex, race, religion, and nationality.” The years before the Holocaust were an era of rapid change for Soviet Jews, leaving behind the dreadful poverty of the Pale of Settlement. 40% of the population in the former Pale left for large cities within the USSR. Emphasis on education and movement from countryside shtetls to newly industrialized cities allowed many Soviet Jews to enjoy overall advances under Joseph Stalin and to become one of the most educated population groups in the world. Due to Stalinist emphasis on its urban population, interwar migration inadvertently rescued countless Soviet Jews; Nazi Germany penetrated the entire former Jewish Pale but were kilometers short of Leningrad and Moscow. The great wave of deportations from the areas annexed by Soviet Union according to the Nazi-Soviet pact, often seen by victims as genocide, paradoxically also saved lives of a few hundred thousand Jewish deportees. However horrible their conditions, the fate of Jews in Nazi Germany was much worse. The migration of many Jews deeper East from the part of the Jewish Pale that would become occupied by Germany saved at least forty percent of this area’s Jewish population.

Map titled “Jewish Executions Carried Out by Einsatzgruppe A” from Stahlecker’s report. Marked “Secret Reich Matter,” the map shows the number of Jews shot, and reads at the bottom: “the estimated number of Jews still on hand is 128,000”.

On 22 June 1941, Adolf Hitler abruptly broke the nonaggression pact and invaded the Soviet Union. The Soviet territories occupied by early 1942, including all of Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine, and Moldova and most Russian territory west of the line Leningrad-Moscow-Rostov, contained about four million Jews, including hundreds of thousands who had fled Poland in 1939. Despite the chaos of the Soviet retreat, some effort was made to evacuate Jews, who were either employed in the military industries or were family members of servicemen. Of 4 million about a million succeeded in escaping further east. The remaining three million were left at the mercy of the Nazis. Despite the subservience of the Oberkommando des Heeres to Adolf Hitler, Heinrich Himmler did not trust the Army to approve of, let alone carry out, the large-scale killings of Jews in the occupied Soviet territories. This task was assigned to SS formations called Einsatzgruppen (“task groups”), under the overall command of Reinhard Heydrich. These had been used on a limited scale in Poland in 1939, but were now organized on a much larger scale. According to Otto Ohlendorf at his trial, “the Einsatzgruppen had the mission to protect the rear of the troops by killing the Jews, gypsies, Communist functionaries, active Communists, and all persons who would endanger the security.” In practice, their victims were nearly all defenseless Jewish civilians (not a single Einsatzgruppe member was killed in action during these operations). Raul Hilberg writes that the Einsatzgruppe member were ordinary citizens; the great majority were university-educated professionals.[1] They used their skills to become efficient killers, according to Michael Berenbaum.[2] By the end of 1941, however, the Einsatzgruppen had killed only 15 percent of the Jews in the occupied Soviet territories, and it was apparent that these methods could not be used to kill all the Jews of Europe. Even before the invasion of the Soviet Union, experiments with killing Jews in the back of vans using gas from the van’s exhaust had been carried out, and when this proved too slow, more lethal gasses were tried. For large-scale killing by gas, however, fixed sites would be needed, and it was decidedprobably by Heydrich and Eichmannthat the Jews should be brought to camps specifically built for the purpose.

Although the Soviet Union was victorious in World War II, the war resulted in around 2627 million Soviet deaths (estimates vary)[3] and had devastated the Soviet economy in the struggle. Some 1,710 towns and 70 thousand settlements were destroyed.[4] The occupied territories suffered from the ravages of German occupation and deportations of slave labor in Germany.[5] Thirteen million Soviet citizens became victims of a repressive policy of Germans and their allies in occupied territory, where they died because of mass murders, famine, absence of elementary medical aid and slave labor.[6][7][8][9] The Nazi Genocide of the Jews carried by German Einsatzgruppen, along the local collaborators resulted in almost complete annihilation of the Jewish population over the entire territory temporary occupied by Germany and its allies.[10][11][12][13] During occupation, Russia’s Leningrad, now Saint Petersburg, region lost around a quarter of its population.[9] 3.6 million Soviet prisoners of war (of 5.5 million) died in German camps.[14][15][16] British historian Martin Gilbert used a similar approach in his Atlas of the Holocaust, but arrived at a number of 5.75 million Jewish victims, since he estimated higher numbers of Jews killed in Russia and other locations.[17] Lucy S. Dawidowicz used pre-war census figures to estimate that 5.934 million Jews died.[18] In October 1943, 600 Jewish and Russian prisoners attempted an escape at the Sobibr extermination camp. About 60 survived and joined the Belarusian partisans. In Eastern Europe, many Jews joined the ranks of the Soviet partisans: throughout the war, they faced antisemitism and discrimination from the Soviets and some Jewish partisans were killed, but over time, many of the Jewish partisan groups were absorbed into the command structure of the much larger Soviet partisan movement.[19] Soviet partisans were not in a position to ensure protection to the Jews in the Holocaust. The fit Jews were usually welcomed by the partisans (sometimes only if they brought their own weapons); however women, children, and the elderly were mostly unwelcome. Eventually, however, separate Jewish groups, both guerrilla units and mixed family groups of refugees (like the Bielski partisans), were subordinated to the communist partisan leadership and considered as Soviet assets. Even as some assisted the Germans, a significant number of individuals in the territories under German control also helped Jews escape death (see Righteous Among the Nations). During World War II, Lon Poliakov established the Centre de documentation juive contemporaine (1943) and after the war, he assisted Edgar Faure at the Nuremberg Trial. By 1944, the Germans had been pushed out of the Soviet Union onto the banks of the Vistula River, just east of Prussia. With Soviet Marshal Georgy Zhukov attacking from Prussia, and Marshal Konev slicing Germany in half from the south the fate of Nazi Germany was sealed. It is estimated that up to 1.4 million Jews fought in Allied armies; 40% of them in the Red Army.[20] In total, at least 142 500 Soviet soldiers of Jewish nationality lost their lives fighting against the German invadors and their allies[21] Salomon Smolianoff was selected for Operation Bernhard, transferred to the Sachsenhausen concentration camp in 1944, and eventually to the Ebensee site of the Mauthausen camp network,[22] where he was liberated by the US Army on 6 May 1945.[23] Without changing its official anti-Zionist stance, from late 1944 until 1948 Joseph Stalin had adopted a de facto pro-Zionist foreign policy, apparently believing that the new country would be socialist and would speed the decline of British influence in the Middle East.[24]

1946. The official response to an inquiry by the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee about the military decorations of Jews during the war (1.8% of the total number). Some antisemites attempted to accuse Jews of lack of patriotism and of hiding from military service.

In January 1948 Solomon Mikhoels, a popular actor-director of the Moscow State Jewish Theater and the chairman of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee, was killed in a staged car accident.[25] Mass arrests of prominent Jewish intellectuals and suppression of Jewish culture followed under the banners of campaign against “rootless cosmopolitans” and anti-Zionism. On 12 August 1952, in the event known as the Night of the Murdered Poets, thirteen most prominent Yiddish writers, poets, actors and other intellectuals were executed on the orders of Joseph Stalin, among them Peretz Markish, Leib Kvitko, David Hofstein, Itzik Feffer and David Bergelson.[26] In the 1955 UN Assembly’s session a high Soviet official still denied the “rumors” about their disappearance.

In 2012, Yad Vashem began releasing more than a million new testimonial pages about Jews in the Soviet Union that are expected to help researchers measure the scope of persecution and extermination of Jews in the former Soviet Union.[27]

SS-Gruppenfhrer Otto Ohlendorf, November 1943.

14th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS Galicia (1st Ukrainian) somewhere in Russia, with noncombatant women and a child.

Amin el Husseini the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, talking to Azerbaijani Legion volunteers.

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Handicapped Holocaust Teacher Resource Center

The text of this web page was originally published by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum as a pamphlet titled Handicapped. It is used here with permission.

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum,100 Raoul Walenberg Place SW,Washington D.C. 20024-2150.

This brochure describes the Nazi treatment of handicaped people from 1933-1945. You may link to the contents by selecting either the title above or the cover in the left hand margin.

Soon after Hiltler took power, the Nazis formulated policy based on their vision of biologically pure population, to create an Aryan master race. The Law for the Prevention of Progeny with Hereditary Diseases, proclaimed July 14, 1933, forced the sterilization of all persons who suffered from diseases considered hereditary, such as mental illness (schizophfrenia and manic depression), retardation (congenital feeble-mindedness), physical deformithy, epilepsy, blindness, deafness, and severe alcolholism.

THE MENTALLY AND PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED: VICTIMS OF THE NAZI ERA

FORCED STERILIZATIONS

The sterilization Law explained the importance of weeding out socalled genetic defects from the total German gene pool:

Since the National Revolution public opinion has become increasingly preoccupied with questions of demographic policy and the continuing decline in the birthrate. However, it is not only the decline in population which is a cause for serious concern but equally the increasingly evident genetic composition of our people. Whereas the hereditarily healthy families have for the most part adopted a policy of having only one or two children, countless numbers of inferiors and those suffering from hereditary conditions are reproducing unrestrainedly while their sick and asocial offspring burden the community.

Some scientists and physicians opposed the involuntary aspect of the law while others pointed to possible flaws. But the designation of specific conditions as inherited, and the desire to eliminate such illnesses or handicaps from the population, generally reflected the scientific and medical thinking of the day in Germany and elsewhere.

Nazi Germany was not the first or only country to sterilize people considered abnormal. Before Hitler, the United States led the world in forced sterilizations. Between 1907 and 1939, more than 30,000 people in twentynine states were sterilized, many of them unknowingly or against their will, while they were incarcerated in prisons or institutions for the mentally ill. Nearly half the operations were carried out in California. Advocates of sterilization policies in both Germany and the United States were influenced by eugenics. This sociobiological theory took Charles Darwins principle of natural selection and applied it to society. Eugenicists believed the human race could be improved by controlled breeding.

Still, no nation carried sterilization as far as Hitlers Germany. The forced sterilizations began in January 1934, and altogether an estimated 300,000 to 400,000 people were sterilized under the law. A diagnosis of feeblemindedness provided the grounds in the majority of cases, followed by schizophrenia and epilepsy. The usual method of sterilization was vasectomy and ligation of ovarian tubes of women. Irradiation (xrays or radium) was used in a small number of cases. Several thousand people died as a result of the operations, women disproportionately because of the greater risks of tubal ligation.

Most of the persons targeted by the law were patients in mental hospitals and other institutions. The majority of those sterilized were between the ages of twenty and forty, about equally divided between men and women. Most were Aryan Germans. The Sterilization Law did not target socalled racial groups, such as Jews and Gypsies, although Gypsies were sterilized as deviant asocials, as were some homosexuals. Also, about 500 teenagers of mixed African and German parentage (the offspring of French colonial troops stationed in the Rhineland in the early 1920s) were sterilized because of their race, by secret order, outside the provisions of the law.

Although the Sterilization Law sometimes functioned arbitrarily, the semblance of legality underpinning it was important to the Nazi regime. More than 200 Hereditary Health Courts were set up across Germany and later, annexed territories. Each was made up of two physicians and one district judge. Doctors were required to register with these courts every known case of hereditary illness. Appeals courts were also established, but few decisions were ever reversed. Exemptions were sometimes given artists or other talented persons afflicted with mental illnesses. The Sterilization Law was followed by the Marriage Law of 1935, which required for all marriages proof that any offspring from the union would not be afflicted with a disabling hereditary disease.

Only the Roman Catholic Church, for doctrinal reasons, opposed the sterilization program consistently; most German Protestant Churches accepted and often cooperated with the policy. Popular films such as Das Erbe (Inheritance) helped build public support for government policies by stigmatizing the mentally ill and the handicapped and highlighting the costs of care. School mathematics books posed such questions as: The construction of a lunatic asylum costs 6 million marks. How many houses at 15,000 marks each could have been built for that amount?

In 1934 this 19 year old shop clerk, identified only as Gerda D, was diagnosed schizophrenic and sterilized at the Moabite Hospital. 1939 she was repeatedly refused a mar riage certificate because of her sterilization.(Select to view image)

EUTHANASIA KILLINGS

Forced sterilization in Germany was the forerunner of the systematic killing of the mentally ill and the handicapped. In October 1939, Hitler himself initiated a decree which empowered physicians to grant a mercy death to patients considered incurable according to the best available human judgment of their state of health. The intent of the socalled euthanasia program, however, was not to relieve the suffering of the chronically ill. The Nazi regime used the term as a euphemism: its aim was to exterminate the mentally ill and the handicapped, thus cleansing the Aryan race of persons considered genetically defective and a financial burden to society.

The idea of killing the incurably ill was posed well before 1939. In the 1920s, debate on this issue centered on a book coauthored by Alfred Hoche, a noted psychiatrist, and Karl Binding, a prominent scholar of criminal law. They argued that economic savings justified the killing of useless lives (idiots and congenitally crippled). Economic deprivation during World War I provided the context for this idea. During the war, patients in asylums had ranked low on the list for rationing of food and medical supplies, and as a result, many died from starvation or disease. More generally, the war undermined the value attached to individual life and, combined with Germanys humiliating defeat, led many nationalists to consider ways to regenerate the nation as a whole at the expense of individual rights.

In 1935 Hitler stated privately that in the event of war, [he] would take up the question of euthanasia and enforce it because such a problem would be more easily solved during wartime. War would provide both a cover for killing and a pretexthospital beds and medical personnel would be freed up for the war effort. The upheaval of war and the diminished value of human life during wartime would also, Hitler believed, mute expected opposition. To make the connection to the war explicit, Hitlers decree was backdated to September 1,1939, the day Germany invaded Poland.

Fearful of public reaction, the Nazi regime never proposed a formal euthanasia law. Unlike the forced sterilizations, the killing of patients in mental asylums and other institutions was carried out in secrecy. The code name was Operation T4, a reference to Tiergartenstrasse 4, the address of the Berlin Chancellery offices where the program was headquartered. Physicians, the most highly Nazified professional group in Germany, were key to the success of T4, since they organized and carried out nearly, all aspects of the operation. One of Hitlers personal physicians, Dr. Karl Brandt, headed the program, along with Hitlers Chancellery chief, Philip Bouhler. T4 targeted adult patients in all government or church-run sanatoria and nursing homes. These institutions were instructed by the Interior Ministry to collect questionnaires about the state of health and capacity for work of all their patients, ostensibly as part of a statistical survey.

The completed forms were, in turn, sent to expert assessors physicians, usually psychiatrists, who made up review commissions. They marked each name with a +, in red pencil, meaning death, or a in blue pencil, meaning life, or ? for cases needing additional assessment. These medical experts rarely examined any of the patients and made their decisions from the questionnaires alone. At every step, the medical authorities involved were usually expected to quickly process large numbers of forms.

The doomed were bused to killing centers in Germany and Austria walled-in fortresses, mostly former psychiatric hospitals, castles and a former prison at Hartheim, Sonnenstein, Grafeneck, Bernburg, Hadamar, and Brandenburg. In the beginning, patients were killed by lethal injection. But by 1940, Hitler, on the advice of Dr. Werner Heyde, suggested that carbon monoxide gas be used as the preferred method of killing. Experimental gassings had first been carried out at Brandenburg Prison in 1939. There, gas chambers were disguised as showers complete with fake nozzles in order to deceive victims prototypes of the killing centers facilities built in occupied Poland later in the war.

Dr. Eduard Brandt, a T4 statistician, worked out the savings in foodstuffs and money realized from the quot;disinfection (murder) of 70,273 useless mouths (persons) in the T-4 program(Select to view program).

Again, following procedures that would later be instituted in the extermination camps, workers removed the corpses from the chambers, extracted gold teeth, then burned large numbers of bodies together in crematoria. Urns filled with ashes were prepared in the event the family of the deceased requested the remains. Physicians using fake names prepared death certificates falsifying the cause of death, and sent letters of condolences to relatives.

Meticulous records discovered after the war documented 70,273 deaths by gassing at the six euthanasia centers between January 1940 and August 1941. (This total included up to 5,000 Jews; all Jewish mental patients were killed regardless of their ability to work or the seriousness of their illness.) A detailed report also recorded the estimated savings from the killing of institutionalized patients.

The secrecy surrounding the T4 program broke down quickly. Some staff members were indiscreet while drinking in local pubs after work. Despite precautions, errors were made: hairpins turned up in urns sent to relatives of male victims; the cause of death was listed as appendicitis when the patient had the appendix removed years before. The town of Hadamar school pupils called the gray transport buses killing crates and threatened each other with the taunt, Youll end up in the Hadamar ovens! The thick smoke from the incinerator was said to be visible every day over Hadamar (where, in midsummer 1941, the staff celebrated the cremation of their 10,000th patient with beer and wine served in the crematorium).

Completed by physicians, this questionnaire (left) was used by other assessor physicians to select patients who were killed in the euthanasia program.(Select to viewquestionnaire)

A handful of church leaders, notably the Bishop of Mnster, Clemens August Count von Galen, local judges, and parents of victims protested the killings. One judge, Lothar Kreyssig, instituted criminal proceedings against Bouhler for murder; Kreyssig was prematurely retired. A few physicians protested. Karl Bonhffer, a leading psychiatrist, and his son Dietrich, a Protestant minister who actively opposed the regime, urged church groups to pressure church-run institutions not to release their patients to T4 authorities.

In response to such pressures, Hitler ordered a halt to Operation T4 on August 24, 1941. Gas chambers from some of the euthanasia killing centers were dismantled and shipped to extermination camps in occupied Poland. In late 1941 and 1942, they were rebuilt and used for the final solution to the Jewish question. Similarly redeployed from T4 were future extermination camp commandants Christian Wirth, Franz Stangl, Franz Reichleitner, the doctor Irmfried Eberl, as well as about 100 others doctors, male nurses, and clerks, who applied their skills in Treblinka, Belzec, and Sobibor.

A physician displaying a patient at the Karl Bonhoeffer psychiatric clinic in Berlin, Germany.(Select to view image)

The euthanasia killings continued, however, under a different, decentralized form. Hitlers regime continued to send to physicians and the general public the message that mental patients were useless eaters and life unworthy of life. In 1941, the film Ich klage an (I accuse) in which a professor kills his incurably ill wife, was viewed by 18 million people. Doctors were encouraged to decide on their own who should live or die, Killing became part of hospital routine as infants, children, and adults were put to death by starvation, poisoning, and injections. Killings even continued in some of Germanys mental asylums, such as Kaufbeuren, weeks after Allied troops had occupied surrounding areas.

This story is told on one of the Museum ID cards distributed to visitors enter ing the permanent exhibition.(Select to view supporting story)

Between the middle of 1941 and the winter of 1944-45, in a program known under code 14f13, experienced psychiatrists from the T4 operation were sent to concentration camps to weed out prisoners too ill to work. After superficial medical screenings, designated inmates Jews, Gypsies, Russians, Poles, Germans, and others were sent to those euthanasia centers where gas chambers still had not been dismantled, at Bernburg and Hartheim, where they were gassed. At least 20,000 people are believed to have died under the 14f13 program.

Outside of Germany, thousands of mental patients in the occupied territories of Poland, Russia, and East Prussia were also killed by the Einsatzgruppen squads (SS and special police units) that followed in the wake of the invading German army. Between September 29 and November 1, 1939, these units shot about 3,700 mental patients in asylums in the region of Bromberg, Poland. In December 1939 and January 1940, SS units gassed 1,558 patients from Polish asylums in specially adapted gas vans, in order to make room for military and SS barracks. Although regular army units did not officially participate in such cleansing actions as general policy, some instances of their involvement have been documented.

In all, between 200,000 and 250,000 mentally and physically handicapped persons were murdered from 1939 to 1945 under the T4 and other euthanasia programs. The magnitude of these crimes and the extent to which they prefigured the final solution continue to be studied. Further, in an age of genetic engineering and renewed controversy over mercy killings of the incurably ill, ethical and moral issues of concern to physicians, scientists, and lay persons alike remain vital.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION

Bishop of Mnster, Clemens August Count von Galen, protested the T4 killings in a sermon August 13, 1941. Thousands of copies were printed and circulated. Galen was not punished because Hitler did not want to clash openly with the Catholic Church.(Select to view supportingarticle)

VISIT THE PERMANENT EXHIBITION

The Science of Race (4th floor): eleven eugenics books; slides used to depict racial types and physical deformities; anthropologists tools for measuring skulls and noses from Ulm, Germany

The Murder of the Handicapped (4th floor); body, hand, and wrist restraints and leather gloves used in the Bernburg Psychiatric Hospital in Germany; a hospital bed and blanket, doctors coat, syringes, and other medical instruments used in the Psychiatric Asylum and Hospital in Schwerin, Germany

The Killers (2nd floor): photos of medical trials on video monitor

Information below is pertinent to the Wexner Learning Center.

VISIT THE WEXNER LEARNING CENTER (2nd floor)

From the MENU choose TOPIC LIST. From the alphabetical list of topics choose Racism: The Use of Nazi Racial Theory. Touch Nazi Euthanasia Program to learn more about the euthanasia program.

From the MENU choose ID CARD. Type in the following numbers to read stories of victims of the euthanasia program: 6187, 1823.

RESEARCH INSTITUTE HOLDINGS

LIBRARY

Many scholarly works published in the last ten years on race hygiene, forced sterilization, and the euthanasia program.

ARCHIVES

A number of documents related to forced sterilizations.

ORAL HISTORY ARCHIVES

Audiotape of the sister of a euthanasia victim. Videotape of an individual rescued by his mother.

PHOTO ARCHIVES

Photographs depicting the handicapped in medical custody and of some of the euthanasia institutes and T-4 staff.

RECOMMENDED READING

Burleigh, Michael, and Wolfgang Wipperman. The Racial State: Germany, 1933-1945 (London, 1991).

Gallagher, Hugh C. By Trust Betrayed: Patients, Physicians, and the License to Kill in the Third Reich (New York, 1990).

Lifton, Robert J. The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide (New York, 1986).

Mller-Hill, Benno. Murderous Science: Elimination by Scientific Selection of Jews, Gypsies and Others; Germany 1933-1945 (Oxford, 1988).

Proctor, Robert. Racial Hygiene: Medicine under the Nazis (Cambridge, MA, 1988).

Pross, Christian, and Gtz Aly. The Value of the Human Being: Medicine in Germany, 1918-1945 (Berlin, 1991).

Weindling, Paul. Health, Race and German Politics between National Unification and Nazism 1870-1945 (Cambridge, England, 1989).

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Handicapped Holocaust Teacher Resource Center

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Holocaust (TV Mini-Series 1978 ) – IMDb

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“Holocaust” follows each member of the Jewish Family Weiss throughout Hitler’s reign in Germany. One by one, the family members suffer the horrible fate of extermination under Anti-Semetic Nazi Law until only one son remains at the end of World War II. A sub-plot follows the story of Eric Dorf, a young German lawyer with a good heart who is changed into a mass murderer by membership in the SS. Written byAnthony Hughes

Taglines:The story of man’s inhumanity to man.

Runtime: 475 min | 420 min (DVD) (2008) | 448 min (DVD) (2008)

Aspect Ratio: 1.33 : 1

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Holocaust (TV Mini-Series 1978 ) – IMDb

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Holocaust – definition of holocaust by The Free Dictionary

holocaust (hl-kst, hl-)n.

1. Great destruction resulting in the extensive loss of life, especially by fire.

a. Holocaust The genocide of European Jews and other groups by the Nazis during World War II: “Israel emerged from the Holocaust and is defined in relation to that catastrophe” (Emanuel Litvinoff).

b. A massive slaughter: “an important document in the so-far sketchy annals of the Cambodian holocaust” (Rod Nordland).

3. A sacrificial offering that is consumed entirely by flames.

[Middle English, burnt offering, from Old French holocauste, from Latin holocaustum, from Greek holokauston, from neuter of holokaustos, burnt whole : holo-, holo- + kaustos, burnt (from kaiein, to burn).]

holocaustal, holocaustic adj.

Usage Note: Holocaust has a secure place in the language when it refers to the massive destruction of humans by other humans. In our 1987 survey 99 percent of the Usage Panel accepted the use of holocaust in the phrase nuclear holocaust. Sixty percent accepted the sentence As many as two million people may have died in the holocaust that followed the Khmer Rouge takeover in Cambodia. But because of its associations with genocide, people may object to extended applications of holocaust. The percentage of the Panel’s acceptance drops sharply when people use the word to refer to death brought about by natural causes. In our 1999 survey 47 percent approved the sentence In East Africa five years of drought have brought about a holocaust in which millions have died. Just 16 percent approved The press gives little coverage to the holocaust of malaria that goes on, year after year, in tropical countries, where there is no mention of widespread mortality. The Panel has little enthusiasm for more figurative usages of holocaust. In 1999, only 7 percent accepted Numerous small investors lost their stakes in the holocaust that followed the precipitous drop in stocks. This suggests that these extended uses of the word may be viewed as overblown or in poor taste.

Word History: Totality of destruction has been central to the meaning of holocaust since it first appeared in Middle English in the 1300s, used in reference to the biblical sacrifice in which a male animal was wholly burnt on the altar in worship of God. Holocaust comes from Greek holokauston, “that which is completely burnt,” which was a translation of Hebrew ‘l (literally “that which goes up,” that is, in smoke). In this sense of “burnt sacrifice,” holocaust is still used in some versions of the Bible. In the 1600s, the meaning of holocaust broadened to “something totally consumed by fire,” and the word eventually was applied to fires of extreme destructiveness. In the 1900s, holocaust took on a variety of figurative meanings, summarizing the effects of war, rioting, storms, epidemic diseases, and even economic failures. Most of these usages arose after World War II, but it is unclear whether they permitted or resulted from the use of holocaust in reference to the mass murder of European Jews and others by the Nazis. This application of the word occurred as early as 1942, but the phrase the Holocaust did not become established until the late 1950s. Here it parallels and may have been influenced by another Hebrew word, ‘, “catastrophe” (in English, Shoah). In the Bible ‘ has a range of meanings including “personal ruin or devastation” and “a wasteland or desert.” ‘ was first used to refer to the Nazi slaughter of Jews in 1939, but the phrase ha-‘, “the catastrophe,” became established only after World War II. Holocaust has also been used to translate urbn, “destruction,” another Hebrew word used as a name for the genocide of Jews by the Nazis.

1. great destruction or loss of life or the source of such destruction, esp fire

2. (Historical Terms) (usually capital) Also called: the Churban or the Shoah the mass murder of Jews and members of many other ethnic, social, and political groups in continental Europe between 1940 and 1945 by the Nazi regime

[C13: from Late Latin holocaustum whole burnt offering, from Greek holokauston, from holo- + kaustos, from kaiein to burn]

holocaustal, holocaustic adj

n.

1. a great or complete devastation or destruction, esp. by fire.

2. a sacrifice consumed by fire.

3. the Holocaust, the systematic mass slaughter of European Jews in Nazi concentration camps during World War II.

4. any reckless destruction of life.

[120050; Middle English

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Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center

Karkomi Holocaust ExhibitionThe experience of Pre-war Germany, the Holocaust, liberation and beyond is brought to life through the memories of those who lived it. Explore more than 200 artifacts including personal items and photos, films, and a German rail car from the era.Learn More >

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Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center

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Holocaust bill: Why Poland’s president Andrzej Duda signed it …

Poland’s President Andrzej Duda said Feb. 6 he will sign a bill he claims protects his nation’s “dignity” and “historical truth.” Critics say it bans true statements about the role that some Poles played in the Holocaust. (Reuters)

BERLIN Polish President Andrzej Dudasigneda lawTuesdaybanning people from accusingPoland of Holocaust atrocities committed by the Nazis and from referring to concentration camps as “Polish death camps” — heightening tensions with the United States and Israel, which have criticized the measure.

U.S.Secretary of State Rex Tillerson said Tuesday that he was disappointed in Duda’s decision.Enactment of this law adversely affects freedom of speech and academic inquiry … We believe that open debate, scholarship, and education are the best means of countering misleading speech, Tillersonsaid.

Duda also announced Tuesday that he would ask the countrys Constitutional Tribunal to review the bill to check whether it complies withPolands fundamental rights, such as freedom of speech, potentially opening the door to amendments.

Responding to the news of Duda’sdecision, Israel’s Foreign Ministry expressed hope that the constitutional reviewwouldprompt changes and corrections. But the law is expected to take effect before the tribunal would be able to issue any clarifications, and the independence ofthejudgesthemselves.

[Poland wants to outlaw blaming Poles for Nazi atrocities. But what about the Jedwabne massacre?]

The constitutional tribunal in its current composition serves the goals of the ruling party … It isdefinitely not independent, saidPiotr Buras, head of the Warsaw office of the European Council on Foreign Relations. But referring the bill to the tribunal was probably still the best available option to the Polish president.

Buras added: To the international audience, especially the U.S. and Israel, it signals that the Polish side sees the seriousness of the case and is perhaps ready for some changes. But it also signals to the ruling partys most conservative domestic supporters that the government is not ready to back down.

By refusing to veto the bill, Duda dashedthe possibility ofpoliticalnegotiations, which Israel and the United Stateshadstill hoped for in recent days. Instead, the bill is to take effect within the next two weeks. The tribunal is now the only institution that could still reverse thelaw in its entirety or in parts.

Under a new law passed in Poland on Feb. 1, any suggestion the country was complicit in the Holocaust could land offenders in jail. Israel and the U.S. accused Poland of stifling discussion about the Nazi death camps built there. (Reuters)

The bills international critics argue that it violates freedom of expression.Once in effect, it willessentially ban accusations that some Poles were complicit in Nazi crimes committed on Polish soil, including in the Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp, where more than 1.1millionpeople died. Germany operated six camps in Poland where Jews and others whom the Nazis considered enemies were killed. Anyone convicted under the lawwill face fines or up to three years in jail.

Polish officials have emphasized that artistic and historical research work will not be affected by the ban. But there is too muchroom for interpretation, saidAgnieszka Markiewicz, the director ofthe American Jewish Committee’scentral Europe office. Who is going to determine what artistic or academic expression means? A scholarassociated with a universitymight be excluded, but what about a schoolteacher who shares some of the horrible stories that happened in Poland?

Markiewicz said that theAmerican Jewish Committee agreed that those crimes were committed by individuals rather than the Polish state and that the term Polish death camps, was unjust and untrue, but she cautioned that an extensive ban on freedom of speech was the wrong way forward.

The State Departmentagreed in a statement last week that the phrase Polish death camps was inaccurate, misleading, and hurtful. But it alsocautioned that thebill could undermine free speech and academic discourse.The department warned that if the legislation is signed, it could have repercussions for Polands strategic interests and relationships.

In Israel, the reaction was also fierce.One cannot change history, and the Holocaust cannot be denied, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said in a statement last week.

On Tuesday,the executive vice chairman of the Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations,Malcolm Hoenlein,argued that Poland’s decision to pursue the law was a denial of facts. It is not credible to engage in the denial, Hoenlein said, according to the Associated Press.

Netanyahu and Polish Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki spoke on the phone10 days ago, but despite appearing to agree to a diplomatic dialogue, thePolish government stood by the billlast week and pursued Senateapproval.

Polish Deputy Justice Minister Patryk Jaki later referred to Israeli reactions as proof of how necessary this bill is.

Inaspeech on Tuesday, Dudaused less provocative rhetoric. [We] do not deny that there were cases of huge wickednesson the part of some Poles toward Jews, he said,according to the AP. But Duda stressed that there was no systemic way in which Poles took part in Nazi crimes.

Poland was invaded and occupied by Nazi Germany in 1939, but unlike in other European countries, there was no collaborationist Polish government.About 6million Polish citizens were killed during World War II, about half of them Jews.

Throughout years of Nazi occupation between 1939 and 1945, a number of Polish underground movements resisted the Nazis. It is that chapter of history that the Law and Justice Party wants to emphasize.

But historians have long argued that it is not the full story: Some Poles, they say, were complicit in the Nazi crimes.Historians have pointed to incidents, including a 1941 atrocity in the town of Jedwabne, in which Poles rounded up and killed their Jewish neighbors.

Criticssay that the legislation is mainly intended to fuel nationalistic sentiments in the country. This is all about nationalism really, and about the imposition ofa nationalist historic narrative, said political scientist Rafal Pankowski in an interview last week.The Law and Justice partys emphasis on Polands heroicpast has proved an effective electoral strategy, even asithas faced a damaging international backlash.

The debate about the bill has alsotriggered anintense focus on the very questions of complicity that nationalist Poles were hoping to sweep aside once and for all.The government’s attempt absolutely backfired, said Markiewicz, the director ofthe American Jewish Committee’s central Europe office.

Of course, Poland has the right to[demand people to tell] thewhole truth. This country suffered immensely. It had the biggest resistance movement in Europe andhelpedthe Allies in fighting the Nazis.It was on the right side of history, she said.But in the past few days, the term ‘Polish death camp’ has probably been used more than everinthe past years.

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Holocaust bill: Why Poland’s president Andrzej Duda signed it …

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Kupferberg Holocaust Center

About The Center Marisa L. Hollywood Assistant Director The Kupferberg Holocaust Center (KHC), established in 1983, is an educational resource for Queensborough Community College, the City University of New York, the broader New York City and Long Island communities, and the global community. The KHC uses the lessons of the Holocaust and other mass atrocities to teach and empower citizens to become agents of positive social change in their lives and in their communities. Through its student and community programs and two galleries for original exhibits, library, and archives, the KHC serves approximately 20,000 visitors each year.

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Holocaust Pathfinder – University of Pittsburgh

Holocaust PathfinderHolocaust PathfinderSCOPESince the mid nineteen-seventies there has been a proliferation of interest regarding the Holocaust. The resulting materials, which are interdisciplinary in nature, include works in the fields of history, political science, religion, philosophy, psychology, and literature. This pathfinder is intended as a guide to Holocaust materials for the beginning researcher. It is not meant to be exhaustive, but, instead should serve as a springboard for deeper coverage of the topic. Unless otherwise indicated, the materials cited here are written in the English language and are housed in Hillman Library. INTRODUCTIONThe Academic American Encyclopedia provides an introduction to the topic and defines the term in this manner: SUBJECT HEADINGSThe following SUBJECT HEADINGS can be used to find relevant materials in the card catalog and in Pittcat: Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945)World War, 1939-1945Genocide–Germany–HistoryHolocaust, Jewish (1939-1945)–CausesHolocaust SurvivorsHolocaust, Jewish (1939-1945), in literatureHolocaust, Jewish (1939-1945)–PolandWorld War, 1939-1945–Concentration Camps Books in these subject areas are cataloged under the following Library of Congress CALL NUMBERS: D 804-805D 810DD 247-251DS 11DS 135 MAJOR TEXTSDawidowicz, Lucy S. The War Against the Jews, 1933-1945. 10th Anniversary edition. NY: Bantam Books, 1986. 466 pp. D810 J4D33 1986 Hilberg, Raul. The Destruction of the European Jews. Revised and definitive edition. NY: Holmes and Meier, 1985. 1273 pp. D810 J4H5 1985(Considered by scholars to be the standard work in the field.) Levin, Nora. The Holocaust: The Destruction of European Jewry. NY: Schocken, 1968. 768 pp. D810 J4 L455 ADDITIONAL TITLES include:Bauer, Yehuda. A History of the Holocaust. NY: Franklin Watts, 1982. 398 pp. D810 J4 B315823 1982 Edelheit, Abraham J. and Hershel Edelheit. History of the Holocaust: A Handbook and Dictionary. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994. 524 pp. Ref D804.3 E33 1994 Gilbert, Martin. Atlas of the Holocaust. NY: Macmillan, 1982. 256 pp. Ref G1797.21.E29 G48 1982 Gilbert, Martin. The Holocaust: A History of the Jews of Europe During the Second World War. NY: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1986. 959 pp. D810.J4 G525 1986 The Holocaust: An 18-Volume Collection of Primary Documents. John Mendelsohn, ed. NY: Garland Publishing, 1982. D810 J4 H655 Levi, Primo. Survival in Auschwitz: The Nazi Assault on Humanity. NY: Collier, 1967. 157 pp. D804 G4L383 1961 Morse, Arthur. While Six Million Died: A Chronicle of American Apathy. NY: Random House, 1986. 420 pp. D810 J4 M59 Reitlinger, Gerald Roberts. The Final Solution: The Attempt to Exterminate the Jews of Europe, 1939-1945. 2nd revised and augmented edition. South Brunswick, NJ: T. Yoseloff, 1968. 667 pp. DS135 E89 R37 1968 Wiesel, Elie. Night. 1st American edition. NY: Hill and Wang, 1960. 116 pp. DS11 W651 1960a BIBLIOGRAPHIESBloomberg, Marty. The Jewish Holocaust: An Annotated Guide to Books in English. San Bernadino, CA: Borgo Press, 1991. 248 pp. Z6374.H6B58The first volume in a series entitled “Studies in Judaica and the Holocaust,” this title contains the most current materials relating to the study of the Holocaust. It also has the advantage of including references to subjects otherwise overlooked in some of the older bibliographies, such as mail in the concentration camps, historical revisionists, starvation, and the search for missing nazis. Written by a librarian, the book contains a list of core title recommendations for college and university libraries. Cargas, Harry J. The Holocaust: An Annotated Bibliography. 2nd ed. Chicago: American Library Association, 1985. 293 pp. Z6374 H6C37 1985An updated version of Cargas’ 1977 volume, the second edition is an excellent sourcebook, with helpful annotations. Contains a chapter entitled “Researching the Holocaust: Guidance for Students” which is very well organized. Other sections include: Anti-Semitism and the rise of Nazism, memoirs of the victims, reflections on the Holocaust, and Jewish resistance. Edelheit, Abraham J. and Hershel Edelheit. Bibliography on Holocaust Literature. Boulder: Westview Press, 1986. 842 pp. Z6374 H6E33 1986Contains a wealth of material, a great deal of which is not covered in other sources. For each major section there is an introductory essay, followed by references to periodicals, books, documents, and eyewitness accounts. The scope of this bibliography is wide, and includes such topics as: Jewish life in pre-war Europe, the free world reaction, the Holocaust and the literary imagination, and distorting the Holocaust. One of the most valuable sections is the list of periodicals used (pp. xxvii-xxxii). It serves as an excellent source for research into the larger field of Jewish Studies. Updated by a 2-volume supplement published in 1990 (Z6374 H6E33 1986 Suppl.) Muffs, Judith H. The Holocaust in Books and Films: A Selected, Annotated List. 3rd ed. NY: Hippocrene Books, 1986. 158 pp. Z6374 H6M83 1986″Designed primarily as a guide for teachers and librarians in the junior and senior high schools,” this bibliography serves a variety of functions. Though not comprehensive, it contains current references to films, books, filmstrips, booklets, posters, photographs, and other sources which deal with the Holocaust. It contains a list of audio-visual distributors and a section on Holocaust education and resource centers. Robinson, Jacob, ed. The Holocaust and After: Sources and Literature in English. Jerusalem: Israel Universities Press, 1973. 353 pp. Z6374 H6R6Summaries in English of books, articles, film scripts, and plays about the Holocaust. Because it was published in the early 1970’s, some of the more current scholarship has been omitted, but this is more than made up for by the inclusion of original material from the 1930’s and 1940’s. Sable, Martin H. Holocaust Studies: A Directory and Bibliography of Bibliographies. Greenwood, FL: Penkevill Publishing Co., 1987. 115 pp. Z6374 H6S22 1987Contains listings (without annotations) of Holocaust bibliographies in a variety of languages. The second half of the work is a directory of associations, councils, foundations, and various types of agencies which are concerned with some aspect of the Destruction. Included in this category is a list of memorials, monuments, sculptures, statues, and museums. Szonyi, David M. The Holocaust: An Annotated Bibliography and Resource Guide. NY: Ktav, 1985. 396 pp. Z6374 H6H65 1985Covers the standard facets of the topic (resistance, life in the ghettos, war crime trials, children of survivors, etc.), along with literature of the Holocaust, audio-visual materials, research institutes and archival centers, religious services, oral history projects, traveling exhibits, Holocaust curricula, and materials and landmarks in North America. The strength of this guide is in its emphasis on education. In this sense, it is a unique source. RESEARCH COLLECTIONSAmerican Jewish Archives. Cincinnati. Manuscript Catalog of the American Jewish Archives. 4 volumes. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1964. 1st supplement, 1978. Z6375 H38 Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion. Cincinnati. Dictionary Catalog of the Klau Library. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1964. This catalog is not in the Hillman Library. New York Public Library. Reference Department. Dictionary Catalog of the Jewish Collection. 14 vols. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1960. 1st supplement, 1975. Z6375 N6 INDEXESAmerican Humanities Index (1975-)Arts and Humanities Citation Index (1976-)Arts and Humanities Citation Index on CD-ROM (1980-)British Humanities Index (1962-)Historical Abstracts on CD-ROM (1982-)Humanities Index (1974-)Index of Articles on Jewish Studies (1966-) Z6367.J62Index to Jewish Periodicals(1963-)Religion Index One (1977-)Religious and Theological Abstracts (1958-)Social Sciences Citation Index (1969-)Social Sciences Citation Index on CD-ROM (1986-)Social Sciences Index (1974-) JOURNALS that contain articles about the Holocaust include: Bulletin des Leo Baeck Instituts (1957-) DS135.G3A2618 Holocaust and Genocide Studies. (1986-)Holocaust Studies Annual. (1983-) DS135 E83H66Shoah: A Journal of Resources on the Holocaust (1978-)Simon Wiesenthal Center Annual (1984-) DS810 J4S537Yad Vashem Studies (1963-) DS135 E83Y3YIVO Bleter (1931-) PJ5120.A1Y5 RESOURCE CENTERS AND ARCHIVESLeo Baeck Institute129 E. 73rd StreetNew York, NY 10021(212) 744-6400 Center for Holocaust Studies, Documentation and Research1605 Avenue JBrooklyn, NY 11230(212) 338-6494 International Center for Holocaust StudiesAnti-Defamation League of B’nai Brith823 United Nations PlazaNew York, NY 10017(215) 787-1753 National Institute of the HolocaustP.O. Box 2147Philadelphia, PA 19103(202) 653-9152 United States Holocaust Memorial Museum100 Raoul Wallenberg Pl. S.W.Washington, DC 20024(202) 488-0400 William Weiner Oral History LibraryAmerican Jewish Committee165 E. 56th StreetNew York, NY 10022(212) 751-4000 Simon Wiesenthal Center for Holocaust StudiesYeshiva University9769 W. Pico Blvd.Los Angeles, CA 90035(213) 553-9036 YIVO Institute for Jewish Research1048 Fifth AvenueNew York, NY 10028(212) 535-6700 Compiled & Updated by Laurie Cohen, 9/95

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Annual Holocaust Remembrance Program | Holocaust …

2018 HOLOCAUST REMEMBRANCE PROGRAM DUE TO THE TORNADOES WHICH AFFECTED CAMPUS ON 19 MARCH, THE 2018 HOLOCAUST REMEMBRANCE SCHEDULED FOR APRIL HAS BEEN CANCELLED. Remembrance Program Archives (1982-2017)Contains information on past remembrance programs, including newspaper articles, photos, program flyers, and more. Imagining the Holocaust Writing Contest This writing competition is open to Alabama junior high and high school students, and encompasses many kinds of writing, from essays to more creative approaches in poetry and fiction. Entries are due 1 March, and prizes, including U.S. Savings Bonds worth $100, $75, and $50 will be awarded to the top three winners in each category. The top winners will also be invited to participate in JSU’s annual Holocaust Remembrance program in April. Contact Program PlannersE-mail program planners for information or questions about the annual Holocaust Remembrance program. National Days of RemembranceThe national Days of Remembrance program observed by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.

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The Holocaust in Russia | Military Wiki | FANDOM powered …

Holocaust in Reichskommissariat Ostland (which included Russia): a map Russia. Jewish women and children being forced out of their homes. A soldier in Romanian uniform is marching along as a guard, 17 July 1941. The Holocaust in Russia refers to the Nazi crimes during the occupation of Russia by Nazi Germany. Beyond longstanding controversies, ranging from the MolotovRibbentrop Pact to anti-Zionism, the Soviet Union did grant official “equality of all citizens regardless of status, sex, race, religion, and nationality.” The years before the Holocaust were an era of rapid change for Soviet Jews, leaving behind the dreadful poverty of the Pale of Settlement. 40% of the population in the former Pale left for large cities within the USSR. Emphasis on education and movement from countryside shtetls to newly industrialized cities allowed many Soviet Jews to enjoy overall advances under Joseph Stalin and to become one of the most educated population groups in the world. Due to Stalinist emphasis on its urban population, interwar migration inadvertently rescued countless Soviet Jews; Nazi Germany penetrated the entire former Jewish Pale but were kilometers short of Leningrad and Moscow. The great wave of deportations from the areas annexed by Soviet Union according to the Nazi-Soviet pact, often seen by victims as genocide, paradoxically also saved lives of a few hundred thousand Jewish deportees. However horrible their conditions, the fate of Jews in Nazi Germany was much worse. The migration of many Jews deeper East from the part of the Jewish Pale that would become occupied by Germany saved at least forty percent of this area’s Jewish population. Map titled “Jewish Executions Carried Out by Einsatzgruppe A” from Stahlecker’s report. Marked “Secret Reich Matter,” the map shows the number of Jews shot, and reads at the bottom: “the estimated number of Jews still on hand is 128,000”. On 22 June 1941, Adolf Hitler abruptly broke the nonaggression pact and invaded the Soviet Union. The Soviet territories occupied by early 1942, including all of Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine, and Moldova and most Russian territory west of the line Leningrad-Moscow-Rostov, contained about four million Jews, including hundreds of thousands who had fled Poland in 1939. Despite the chaos of the Soviet retreat, some effort was made to evacuate Jews, who were either employed in the military industries or were family members of servicemen. Of 4 million about a million succeeded in escaping further east. The remaining three million were left at the mercy of the Nazis. Despite the subservience of the Oberkommando des Heeres to Adolf Hitler, Heinrich Himmler did not trust the Army to approve of, let alone carry out, the large-scale killings of Jews in the occupied Soviet territories. This task was assigned to SS formations called Einsatzgruppen (“task groups”), under the overall command of Reinhard Heydrich. These had been used on a limited scale in Poland in 1939, but were now organized on a much larger scale. According to Otto Ohlendorf at his trial, “the Einsatzgruppen had the mission to protect the rear of the troops by killing the Jews, gypsies, Communist functionaries, active Communists, and all persons who would endanger the security.” In practice, their victims were nearly all defenseless Jewish civilians (not a single Einsatzgruppe member was killed in action during these operations). Raul Hilberg writes that the Einsatzgruppe member were ordinary citizens; the great majority were university-educated professionals.[1] They used their skills to become efficient killers, according to Michael Berenbaum.[2] By the end of 1941, however, the Einsatzgruppen had killed only 15 percent of the Jews in the occupied Soviet territories, and it was apparent that these methods could not be used to kill all the Jews of Europe. Even before the invasion of the Soviet Union, experiments with killing Jews in the back of vans using gas from the van’s exhaust had been carried out, and when this proved too slow, more lethal gasses were tried. For large-scale killing by gas, however, fixed sites would be needed, and it was decidedprobably by Heydrich and Eichmannthat the Jews should be brought to camps specifically built for the purpose. Although the Soviet Union was victorious in World War II, the war resulted in around 2627 million Soviet deaths (estimates vary)[3] and had devastated the Soviet economy in the struggle. Some 1,710 towns and 70 thousand settlements were destroyed.[4] The occupied territories suffered from the ravages of German occupation and deportations of slave labor in Germany.[5] Thirteen million Soviet citizens became victims of a repressive policy of Germans and their allies in occupied territory, where they died because of mass murders, famine, absence of elementary medical aid and slave labor.[6][7][8][9] The Nazi Genocide of the Jews carried by German Einsatzgruppen, along the local collaborators resulted in almost complete annihilation of the Jewish population over the entire territory temporary occupied by Germany and its allies.[10][11][12][13] During occupation, Russia’s Leningrad, now Saint Petersburg, region lost around a quarter of its population.[9] 3.6 million Soviet prisoners of war (of 5.5 million) died in German camps.[14][15][16] British historian Martin Gilbert used a similar approach in his Atlas of the Holocaust, but arrived at a number of 5.75 million Jewish victims, since he estimated higher numbers of Jews killed in Russia and other locations.[17] Lucy S. Dawidowicz used pre-war census figures to estimate that 5.934 million Jews died.[18] In October 1943, 600 Jewish and Russian prisoners attempted an escape at the Sobibr extermination camp. About 60 survived and joined the Belarusian partisans. In Eastern Europe, many Jews joined the ranks of the Soviet partisans: throughout the war, they faced antisemitism and discrimination from the Soviets and some Jewish partisans were killed, but over time, many of the Jewish partisan groups were absorbed into the command structure of the much larger Soviet partisan movement.[19] Soviet partisans were not in a position to ensure protection to the Jews in the Holocaust. The fit Jews were usually welcomed by the partisans (sometimes only if they brought their own weapons); however women, children, and the elderly were mostly unwelcome. Eventually, however, separate Jewish groups, both guerrilla units and mixed family groups of refugees (like the Bielski partisans), were subordinated to the communist partisan leadership and considered as Soviet assets. Even as some assisted the Germans, a significant number of individuals in the territories under German control also helped Jews escape death (see Righteous Among the Nations). During World War II, Lon Poliakov established the Centre de documentation juive contemporaine (1943) and after the war, he assisted Edgar Faure at the Nuremberg Trial. By 1944, the Germans had been pushed out of the Soviet Union onto the banks of the Vistula River, just east of Prussia. With Soviet Marshal Georgy Zhukov attacking from Prussia, and Marshal Konev slicing Germany in half from the south the fate of Nazi Germany was sealed. It is estimated that up to 1.4 million Jews fought in Allied armies; 40% of them in the Red Army.[20] In total, at least 142 500 Soviet soldiers of Jewish nationality lost their lives fighting against the German invadors and their allies[21] Salomon Smolianoff was selected for Operation Bernhard, transferred to the Sachsenhausen concentration camp in 1944, and eventually to the Ebensee site of the Mauthausen camp network,[22] where he was liberated by the US Army on 6 May 1945.[23] Without changing its official anti-Zionist stance, from late 1944 until 1948 Joseph Stalin had adopted a de facto pro-Zionist foreign policy, apparently believing that the new country would be socialist and would speed the decline of British influence in the Middle East.[24] 1946. The official response to an inquiry by the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee about the military decorations of Jews during the war (1.8% of the total number). Some antisemites attempted to accuse Jews of lack of patriotism and of hiding from military service. In January 1948 Solomon Mikhoels, a popular actor-director of the Moscow State Jewish Theater and the chairman of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee, was killed in a staged car accident.[25] Mass arrests of prominent Jewish intellectuals and suppression of Jewish culture followed under the banners of campaign against “rootless cosmopolitans” and anti-Zionism. On 12 August 1952, in the event known as the Night of the Murdered Poets, thirteen most prominent Yiddish writers, poets, actors and other intellectuals were executed on the orders of Joseph Stalin, among them Peretz Markish, Leib Kvitko, David Hofstein, Itzik Feffer and David Bergelson.[26] In the 1955 UN Assembly’s session a high Soviet official still denied the “rumors” about their disappearance. In 2012, Yad Vashem began releasing more than a million new testimonial pages about Jews in the Soviet Union that are expected to help researchers measure the scope of persecution and extermination of Jews in the former Soviet Union.[27] SS-Gruppenfhrer Otto Ohlendorf, November 1943. 14th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS Galicia (1st Ukrainian) somewhere in Russia, with noncombatant women and a child. Amin el Husseini the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, talking to Azerbaijani Legion volunteers.

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Handicapped Holocaust Teacher Resource Center

The text of this web page was originally published by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum as a pamphlet titled Handicapped. It is used here with permission. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum,100 Raoul Walenberg Place SW,Washington D.C. 20024-2150. This brochure describes the Nazi treatment of handicaped people from 1933-1945. You may link to the contents by selecting either the title above or the cover in the left hand margin. Soon after Hiltler took power, the Nazis formulated policy based on their vision of biologically pure population, to create an Aryan master race. The Law for the Prevention of Progeny with Hereditary Diseases, proclaimed July 14, 1933, forced the sterilization of all persons who suffered from diseases considered hereditary, such as mental illness (schizophfrenia and manic depression), retardation (congenital feeble-mindedness), physical deformithy, epilepsy, blindness, deafness, and severe alcolholism. THE MENTALLY AND PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED: VICTIMS OF THE NAZI ERA FORCED STERILIZATIONS The sterilization Law explained the importance of weeding out socalled genetic defects from the total German gene pool: Since the National Revolution public opinion has become increasingly preoccupied with questions of demographic policy and the continuing decline in the birthrate. However, it is not only the decline in population which is a cause for serious concern but equally the increasingly evident genetic composition of our people. Whereas the hereditarily healthy families have for the most part adopted a policy of having only one or two children, countless numbers of inferiors and those suffering from hereditary conditions are reproducing unrestrainedly while their sick and asocial offspring burden the community. Some scientists and physicians opposed the involuntary aspect of the law while others pointed to possible flaws. But the designation of specific conditions as inherited, and the desire to eliminate such illnesses or handicaps from the population, generally reflected the scientific and medical thinking of the day in Germany and elsewhere. Nazi Germany was not the first or only country to sterilize people considered abnormal. Before Hitler, the United States led the world in forced sterilizations. Between 1907 and 1939, more than 30,000 people in twentynine states were sterilized, many of them unknowingly or against their will, while they were incarcerated in prisons or institutions for the mentally ill. Nearly half the operations were carried out in California. Advocates of sterilization policies in both Germany and the United States were influenced by eugenics. This sociobiological theory took Charles Darwins principle of natural selection and applied it to society. Eugenicists believed the human race could be improved by controlled breeding. Still, no nation carried sterilization as far as Hitlers Germany. The forced sterilizations began in January 1934, and altogether an estimated 300,000 to 400,000 people were sterilized under the law. A diagnosis of feeblemindedness provided the grounds in the majority of cases, followed by schizophrenia and epilepsy. The usual method of sterilization was vasectomy and ligation of ovarian tubes of women. Irradiation (xrays or radium) was used in a small number of cases. Several thousand people died as a result of the operations, women disproportionately because of the greater risks of tubal ligation. Most of the persons targeted by the law were patients in mental hospitals and other institutions. The majority of those sterilized were between the ages of twenty and forty, about equally divided between men and women. Most were Aryan Germans. The Sterilization Law did not target socalled racial groups, such as Jews and Gypsies, although Gypsies were sterilized as deviant asocials, as were some homosexuals. Also, about 500 teenagers of mixed African and German parentage (the offspring of French colonial troops stationed in the Rhineland in the early 1920s) were sterilized because of their race, by secret order, outside the provisions of the law. Although the Sterilization Law sometimes functioned arbitrarily, the semblance of legality underpinning it was important to the Nazi regime. More than 200 Hereditary Health Courts were set up across Germany and later, annexed territories. Each was made up of two physicians and one district judge. Doctors were required to register with these courts every known case of hereditary illness. Appeals courts were also established, but few decisions were ever reversed. Exemptions were sometimes given artists or other talented persons afflicted with mental illnesses. The Sterilization Law was followed by the Marriage Law of 1935, which required for all marriages proof that any offspring from the union would not be afflicted with a disabling hereditary disease. Only the Roman Catholic Church, for doctrinal reasons, opposed the sterilization program consistently; most German Protestant Churches accepted and often cooperated with the policy. Popular films such as Das Erbe (Inheritance) helped build public support for government policies by stigmatizing the mentally ill and the handicapped and highlighting the costs of care. School mathematics books posed such questions as: The construction of a lunatic asylum costs 6 million marks. How many houses at 15,000 marks each could have been built for that amount? In 1934 this 19 year old shop clerk, identified only as Gerda D, was diagnosed schizophrenic and sterilized at the Moabite Hospital. 1939 she was repeatedly refused a mar riage certificate because of her sterilization.(Select to view image) EUTHANASIA KILLINGS Forced sterilization in Germany was the forerunner of the systematic killing of the mentally ill and the handicapped. In October 1939, Hitler himself initiated a decree which empowered physicians to grant a mercy death to patients considered incurable according to the best available human judgment of their state of health. The intent of the socalled euthanasia program, however, was not to relieve the suffering of the chronically ill. The Nazi regime used the term as a euphemism: its aim was to exterminate the mentally ill and the handicapped, thus cleansing the Aryan race of persons considered genetically defective and a financial burden to society. The idea of killing the incurably ill was posed well before 1939. In the 1920s, debate on this issue centered on a book coauthored by Alfred Hoche, a noted psychiatrist, and Karl Binding, a prominent scholar of criminal law. They argued that economic savings justified the killing of useless lives (idiots and congenitally crippled). Economic deprivation during World War I provided the context for this idea. During the war, patients in asylums had ranked low on the list for rationing of food and medical supplies, and as a result, many died from starvation or disease. More generally, the war undermined the value attached to individual life and, combined with Germanys humiliating defeat, led many nationalists to consider ways to regenerate the nation as a whole at the expense of individual rights. In 1935 Hitler stated privately that in the event of war, [he] would take up the question of euthanasia and enforce it because such a problem would be more easily solved during wartime. War would provide both a cover for killing and a pretexthospital beds and medical personnel would be freed up for the war effort. The upheaval of war and the diminished value of human life during wartime would also, Hitler believed, mute expected opposition. To make the connection to the war explicit, Hitlers decree was backdated to September 1,1939, the day Germany invaded Poland. Fearful of public reaction, the Nazi regime never proposed a formal euthanasia law. Unlike the forced sterilizations, the killing of patients in mental asylums and other institutions was carried out in secrecy. The code name was Operation T4, a reference to Tiergartenstrasse 4, the address of the Berlin Chancellery offices where the program was headquartered. Physicians, the most highly Nazified professional group in Germany, were key to the success of T4, since they organized and carried out nearly, all aspects of the operation. One of Hitlers personal physicians, Dr. Karl Brandt, headed the program, along with Hitlers Chancellery chief, Philip Bouhler. T4 targeted adult patients in all government or church-run sanatoria and nursing homes. These institutions were instructed by the Interior Ministry to collect questionnaires about the state of health and capacity for work of all their patients, ostensibly as part of a statistical survey. The completed forms were, in turn, sent to expert assessors physicians, usually psychiatrists, who made up review commissions. They marked each name with a +, in red pencil, meaning death, or a in blue pencil, meaning life, or ? for cases needing additional assessment. These medical experts rarely examined any of the patients and made their decisions from the questionnaires alone. At every step, the medical authorities involved were usually expected to quickly process large numbers of forms. The doomed were bused to killing centers in Germany and Austria walled-in fortresses, mostly former psychiatric hospitals, castles and a former prison at Hartheim, Sonnenstein, Grafeneck, Bernburg, Hadamar, and Brandenburg. In the beginning, patients were killed by lethal injection. But by 1940, Hitler, on the advice of Dr. Werner Heyde, suggested that carbon monoxide gas be used as the preferred method of killing. Experimental gassings had first been carried out at Brandenburg Prison in 1939. There, gas chambers were disguised as showers complete with fake nozzles in order to deceive victims prototypes of the killing centers facilities built in occupied Poland later in the war. Dr. Eduard Brandt, a T4 statistician, worked out the savings in foodstuffs and money realized from the quot;disinfection (murder) of 70,273 useless mouths (persons) in the T-4 program(Select to view program). Again, following procedures that would later be instituted in the extermination camps, workers removed the corpses from the chambers, extracted gold teeth, then burned large numbers of bodies together in crematoria. Urns filled with ashes were prepared in the event the family of the deceased requested the remains. Physicians using fake names prepared death certificates falsifying the cause of death, and sent letters of condolences to relatives. Meticulous records discovered after the war documented 70,273 deaths by gassing at the six euthanasia centers between January 1940 and August 1941. (This total included up to 5,000 Jews; all Jewish mental patients were killed regardless of their ability to work or the seriousness of their illness.) A detailed report also recorded the estimated savings from the killing of institutionalized patients. The secrecy surrounding the T4 program broke down quickly. Some staff members were indiscreet while drinking in local pubs after work. Despite precautions, errors were made: hairpins turned up in urns sent to relatives of male victims; the cause of death was listed as appendicitis when the patient had the appendix removed years before. The town of Hadamar school pupils called the gray transport buses killing crates and threatened each other with the taunt, Youll end up in the Hadamar ovens! The thick smoke from the incinerator was said to be visible every day over Hadamar (where, in midsummer 1941, the staff celebrated the cremation of their 10,000th patient with beer and wine served in the crematorium). Completed by physicians, this questionnaire (left) was used by other assessor physicians to select patients who were killed in the euthanasia program.(Select to viewquestionnaire) A handful of church leaders, notably the Bishop of Mnster, Clemens August Count von Galen, local judges, and parents of victims protested the killings. One judge, Lothar Kreyssig, instituted criminal proceedings against Bouhler for murder; Kreyssig was prematurely retired. A few physicians protested. Karl Bonhffer, a leading psychiatrist, and his son Dietrich, a Protestant minister who actively opposed the regime, urged church groups to pressure church-run institutions not to release their patients to T4 authorities. In response to such pressures, Hitler ordered a halt to Operation T4 on August 24, 1941. Gas chambers from some of the euthanasia killing centers were dismantled and shipped to extermination camps in occupied Poland. In late 1941 and 1942, they were rebuilt and used for the final solution to the Jewish question. Similarly redeployed from T4 were future extermination camp commandants Christian Wirth, Franz Stangl, Franz Reichleitner, the doctor Irmfried Eberl, as well as about 100 others doctors, male nurses, and clerks, who applied their skills in Treblinka, Belzec, and Sobibor. A physician displaying a patient at the Karl Bonhoeffer psychiatric clinic in Berlin, Germany.(Select to view image) The euthanasia killings continued, however, under a different, decentralized form. Hitlers regime continued to send to physicians and the general public the message that mental patients were useless eaters and life unworthy of life. In 1941, the film Ich klage an (I accuse) in which a professor kills his incurably ill wife, was viewed by 18 million people. Doctors were encouraged to decide on their own who should live or die, Killing became part of hospital routine as infants, children, and adults were put to death by starvation, poisoning, and injections. Killings even continued in some of Germanys mental asylums, such as Kaufbeuren, weeks after Allied troops had occupied surrounding areas. This story is told on one of the Museum ID cards distributed to visitors enter ing the permanent exhibition.(Select to view supporting story) Between the middle of 1941 and the winter of 1944-45, in a program known under code 14f13, experienced psychiatrists from the T4 operation were sent to concentration camps to weed out prisoners too ill to work. After superficial medical screenings, designated inmates Jews, Gypsies, Russians, Poles, Germans, and others were sent to those euthanasia centers where gas chambers still had not been dismantled, at Bernburg and Hartheim, where they were gassed. At least 20,000 people are believed to have died under the 14f13 program. Outside of Germany, thousands of mental patients in the occupied territories of Poland, Russia, and East Prussia were also killed by the Einsatzgruppen squads (SS and special police units) that followed in the wake of the invading German army. Between September 29 and November 1, 1939, these units shot about 3,700 mental patients in asylums in the region of Bromberg, Poland. In December 1939 and January 1940, SS units gassed 1,558 patients from Polish asylums in specially adapted gas vans, in order to make room for military and SS barracks. Although regular army units did not officially participate in such cleansing actions as general policy, some instances of their involvement have been documented. In all, between 200,000 and 250,000 mentally and physically handicapped persons were murdered from 1939 to 1945 under the T4 and other euthanasia programs. The magnitude of these crimes and the extent to which they prefigured the final solution continue to be studied. Further, in an age of genetic engineering and renewed controversy over mercy killings of the incurably ill, ethical and moral issues of concern to physicians, scientists, and lay persons alike remain vital. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION Bishop of Mnster, Clemens August Count von Galen, protested the T4 killings in a sermon August 13, 1941. Thousands of copies were printed and circulated. Galen was not punished because Hitler did not want to clash openly with the Catholic Church.(Select to view supportingarticle) VISIT THE PERMANENT EXHIBITION The Science of Race (4th floor): eleven eugenics books; slides used to depict racial types and physical deformities; anthropologists tools for measuring skulls and noses from Ulm, Germany The Murder of the Handicapped (4th floor); body, hand, and wrist restraints and leather gloves used in the Bernburg Psychiatric Hospital in Germany; a hospital bed and blanket, doctors coat, syringes, and other medical instruments used in the Psychiatric Asylum and Hospital in Schwerin, Germany The Killers (2nd floor): photos of medical trials on video monitor Information below is pertinent to the Wexner Learning Center. VISIT THE WEXNER LEARNING CENTER (2nd floor) From the MENU choose TOPIC LIST. From the alphabetical list of topics choose Racism: The Use of Nazi Racial Theory. Touch Nazi Euthanasia Program to learn more about the euthanasia program. From the MENU choose ID CARD. Type in the following numbers to read stories of victims of the euthanasia program: 6187, 1823. RESEARCH INSTITUTE HOLDINGS LIBRARY Many scholarly works published in the last ten years on race hygiene, forced sterilization, and the euthanasia program. ARCHIVES A number of documents related to forced sterilizations. ORAL HISTORY ARCHIVES Audiotape of the sister of a euthanasia victim. Videotape of an individual rescued by his mother. PHOTO ARCHIVES Photographs depicting the handicapped in medical custody and of some of the euthanasia institutes and T-4 staff. RECOMMENDED READING Burleigh, Michael, and Wolfgang Wipperman. The Racial State: Germany, 1933-1945 (London, 1991). Gallagher, Hugh C. By Trust Betrayed: Patients, Physicians, and the License to Kill in the Third Reich (New York, 1990). Lifton, Robert J. The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide (New York, 1986). Mller-Hill, Benno. Murderous Science: Elimination by Scientific Selection of Jews, Gypsies and Others; Germany 1933-1945 (Oxford, 1988). Proctor, Robert. Racial Hygiene: Medicine under the Nazis (Cambridge, MA, 1988). Pross, Christian, and Gtz Aly. The Value of the Human Being: Medicine in Germany, 1918-1945 (Berlin, 1991). Weindling, Paul. Health, Race and German Politics between National Unification and Nazism 1870-1945 (Cambridge, England, 1989).

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July 19, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Holocaust  Comments Closed

Holocaust (TV Mini-Series 1978 ) – IMDb

Edit Storyline “Holocaust” follows each member of the Jewish Family Weiss throughout Hitler’s reign in Germany. One by one, the family members suffer the horrible fate of extermination under Anti-Semetic Nazi Law until only one son remains at the end of World War II. A sub-plot follows the story of Eric Dorf, a young German lawyer with a good heart who is changed into a mass murderer by membership in the SS. Written byAnthony Hughes Taglines:The story of man’s inhumanity to man. Runtime: 475 min | 420 min (DVD) (2008) | 448 min (DVD) (2008) Aspect Ratio: 1.33 : 1

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June 9, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Holocaust  Comments Closed

Holocaust – definition of holocaust by The Free Dictionary

holocaust (hl-kst, hl-)n. 1. Great destruction resulting in the extensive loss of life, especially by fire. a. Holocaust The genocide of European Jews and other groups by the Nazis during World War II: “Israel emerged from the Holocaust and is defined in relation to that catastrophe” (Emanuel Litvinoff). b. A massive slaughter: “an important document in the so-far sketchy annals of the Cambodian holocaust” (Rod Nordland). 3. A sacrificial offering that is consumed entirely by flames. [Middle English, burnt offering, from Old French holocauste, from Latin holocaustum, from Greek holokauston, from neuter of holokaustos, burnt whole : holo-, holo- + kaustos, burnt (from kaiein, to burn).] holocaustal, holocaustic adj. Usage Note: Holocaust has a secure place in the language when it refers to the massive destruction of humans by other humans. In our 1987 survey 99 percent of the Usage Panel accepted the use of holocaust in the phrase nuclear holocaust. Sixty percent accepted the sentence As many as two million people may have died in the holocaust that followed the Khmer Rouge takeover in Cambodia. But because of its associations with genocide, people may object to extended applications of holocaust. The percentage of the Panel’s acceptance drops sharply when people use the word to refer to death brought about by natural causes. In our 1999 survey 47 percent approved the sentence In East Africa five years of drought have brought about a holocaust in which millions have died. Just 16 percent approved The press gives little coverage to the holocaust of malaria that goes on, year after year, in tropical countries, where there is no mention of widespread mortality. The Panel has little enthusiasm for more figurative usages of holocaust. In 1999, only 7 percent accepted Numerous small investors lost their stakes in the holocaust that followed the precipitous drop in stocks. This suggests that these extended uses of the word may be viewed as overblown or in poor taste. Word History: Totality of destruction has been central to the meaning of holocaust since it first appeared in Middle English in the 1300s, used in reference to the biblical sacrifice in which a male animal was wholly burnt on the altar in worship of God. Holocaust comes from Greek holokauston, “that which is completely burnt,” which was a translation of Hebrew ‘l (literally “that which goes up,” that is, in smoke). In this sense of “burnt sacrifice,” holocaust is still used in some versions of the Bible. In the 1600s, the meaning of holocaust broadened to “something totally consumed by fire,” and the word eventually was applied to fires of extreme destructiveness. In the 1900s, holocaust took on a variety of figurative meanings, summarizing the effects of war, rioting, storms, epidemic diseases, and even economic failures. Most of these usages arose after World War II, but it is unclear whether they permitted or resulted from the use of holocaust in reference to the mass murder of European Jews and others by the Nazis. This application of the word occurred as early as 1942, but the phrase the Holocaust did not become established until the late 1950s. Here it parallels and may have been influenced by another Hebrew word, ‘, “catastrophe” (in English, Shoah). In the Bible ‘ has a range of meanings including “personal ruin or devastation” and “a wasteland or desert.” ‘ was first used to refer to the Nazi slaughter of Jews in 1939, but the phrase ha-‘, “the catastrophe,” became established only after World War II. Holocaust has also been used to translate urbn, “destruction,” another Hebrew word used as a name for the genocide of Jews by the Nazis. 1. great destruction or loss of life or the source of such destruction, esp fire 2. (Historical Terms) (usually capital) Also called: the Churban or the Shoah the mass murder of Jews and members of many other ethnic, social, and political groups in continental Europe between 1940 and 1945 by the Nazi regime [C13: from Late Latin holocaustum whole burnt offering, from Greek holokauston, from holo- + kaustos, from kaiein to burn] holocaustal, holocaustic adj n. 1. a great or complete devastation or destruction, esp. by fire. 2. a sacrifice consumed by fire. 3. the Holocaust, the systematic mass slaughter of European Jews in Nazi concentration camps during World War II. 4. any reckless destruction of life. [120050; Middle English

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April 20, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Holocaust  Comments Closed

Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center

Karkomi Holocaust ExhibitionThe experience of Pre-war Germany, the Holocaust, liberation and beyond is brought to life through the memories of those who lived it. Explore more than 200 artifacts including personal items and photos, films, and a German rail car from the era.Learn More >

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February 23, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Holocaust  Comments Closed

Holocaust bill: Why Poland’s president Andrzej Duda signed it …

Poland’s President Andrzej Duda said Feb. 6 he will sign a bill he claims protects his nation’s “dignity” and “historical truth.” Critics say it bans true statements about the role that some Poles played in the Holocaust. (Reuters) BERLIN Polish President Andrzej Dudasigneda lawTuesdaybanning people from accusingPoland of Holocaust atrocities committed by the Nazis and from referring to concentration camps as “Polish death camps” — heightening tensions with the United States and Israel, which have criticized the measure. U.S.Secretary of State Rex Tillerson said Tuesday that he was disappointed in Duda’s decision.Enactment of this law adversely affects freedom of speech and academic inquiry … We believe that open debate, scholarship, and education are the best means of countering misleading speech, Tillersonsaid. Duda also announced Tuesday that he would ask the countrys Constitutional Tribunal to review the bill to check whether it complies withPolands fundamental rights, such as freedom of speech, potentially opening the door to amendments. Responding to the news of Duda’sdecision, Israel’s Foreign Ministry expressed hope that the constitutional reviewwouldprompt changes and corrections. But the law is expected to take effect before the tribunal would be able to issue any clarifications, and the independence ofthejudgesthemselves. [Poland wants to outlaw blaming Poles for Nazi atrocities. But what about the Jedwabne massacre?] The constitutional tribunal in its current composition serves the goals of the ruling party … It isdefinitely not independent, saidPiotr Buras, head of the Warsaw office of the European Council on Foreign Relations. But referring the bill to the tribunal was probably still the best available option to the Polish president. Buras added: To the international audience, especially the U.S. and Israel, it signals that the Polish side sees the seriousness of the case and is perhaps ready for some changes. But it also signals to the ruling partys most conservative domestic supporters that the government is not ready to back down. By refusing to veto the bill, Duda dashedthe possibility ofpoliticalnegotiations, which Israel and the United Stateshadstill hoped for in recent days. Instead, the bill is to take effect within the next two weeks. The tribunal is now the only institution that could still reverse thelaw in its entirety or in parts. Under a new law passed in Poland on Feb. 1, any suggestion the country was complicit in the Holocaust could land offenders in jail. Israel and the U.S. accused Poland of stifling discussion about the Nazi death camps built there. (Reuters) The bills international critics argue that it violates freedom of expression.Once in effect, it willessentially ban accusations that some Poles were complicit in Nazi crimes committed on Polish soil, including in the Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp, where more than 1.1millionpeople died. Germany operated six camps in Poland where Jews and others whom the Nazis considered enemies were killed. Anyone convicted under the lawwill face fines or up to three years in jail. Polish officials have emphasized that artistic and historical research work will not be affected by the ban. But there is too muchroom for interpretation, saidAgnieszka Markiewicz, the director ofthe American Jewish Committee’scentral Europe office. Who is going to determine what artistic or academic expression means? A scholarassociated with a universitymight be excluded, but what about a schoolteacher who shares some of the horrible stories that happened in Poland? Markiewicz said that theAmerican Jewish Committee agreed that those crimes were committed by individuals rather than the Polish state and that the term Polish death camps, was unjust and untrue, but she cautioned that an extensive ban on freedom of speech was the wrong way forward. The State Departmentagreed in a statement last week that the phrase Polish death camps was inaccurate, misleading, and hurtful. But it alsocautioned that thebill could undermine free speech and academic discourse.The department warned that if the legislation is signed, it could have repercussions for Polands strategic interests and relationships. In Israel, the reaction was also fierce.One cannot change history, and the Holocaust cannot be denied, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said in a statement last week. On Tuesday,the executive vice chairman of the Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations,Malcolm Hoenlein,argued that Poland’s decision to pursue the law was a denial of facts. It is not credible to engage in the denial, Hoenlein said, according to the Associated Press. Netanyahu and Polish Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki spoke on the phone10 days ago, but despite appearing to agree to a diplomatic dialogue, thePolish government stood by the billlast week and pursued Senateapproval. Polish Deputy Justice Minister Patryk Jaki later referred to Israeli reactions as proof of how necessary this bill is. Inaspeech on Tuesday, Dudaused less provocative rhetoric. [We] do not deny that there were cases of huge wickednesson the part of some Poles toward Jews, he said,according to the AP. But Duda stressed that there was no systemic way in which Poles took part in Nazi crimes. Poland was invaded and occupied by Nazi Germany in 1939, but unlike in other European countries, there was no collaborationist Polish government.About 6million Polish citizens were killed during World War II, about half of them Jews. Throughout years of Nazi occupation between 1939 and 1945, a number of Polish underground movements resisted the Nazis. It is that chapter of history that the Law and Justice Party wants to emphasize. But historians have long argued that it is not the full story: Some Poles, they say, were complicit in the Nazi crimes.Historians have pointed to incidents, including a 1941 atrocity in the town of Jedwabne, in which Poles rounded up and killed their Jewish neighbors. Criticssay that the legislation is mainly intended to fuel nationalistic sentiments in the country. This is all about nationalism really, and about the imposition ofa nationalist historic narrative, said political scientist Rafal Pankowski in an interview last week.The Law and Justice partys emphasis on Polands heroicpast has proved an effective electoral strategy, even asithas faced a damaging international backlash. The debate about the bill has alsotriggered anintense focus on the very questions of complicity that nationalist Poles were hoping to sweep aside once and for all.The government’s attempt absolutely backfired, said Markiewicz, the director ofthe American Jewish Committee’s central Europe office. Of course, Poland has the right to[demand people to tell] thewhole truth. This country suffered immensely. It had the biggest resistance movement in Europe andhelpedthe Allies in fighting the Nazis.It was on the right side of history, she said.But in the past few days, the term ‘Polish death camp’ has probably been used more than everinthe past years. More on WorldViews: Trumps nuclear policy is taking us back to the Cold War As Germans celebrate the absence of the Berlin Wall, a new piece of it is discovered An American spent decades exposing the ivory trade. He was just found dead in his home.

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February 6, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Holocaust  Comments Closed


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In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include:

  • (1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for or nonprofit educational purposes,
  • (2) the nature of the copyrighted work,
  • (3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole, and
  • (4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work."