Archive for the ‘Holocaust’ Category

Handicapped Holocaust Teacher Resource Center

The text of this web page was originally published by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum as a pamphlet titled Handicapped. It is used here with permission.

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum,100 Raoul Walenberg Place SW,Washington D.C. 20024-2150.

This brochure describes the Nazi treatment of handicaped people from 1933-1945. You may link to the contents by selecting either the title above or the cover in the left hand margin.

Soon after Hiltler took power, the Nazis formulated policy based on their vision of biologically pure population, to create an Aryan master race. The Law for the Prevention of Progeny with Hereditary Diseases, proclaimed July 14, 1933, forced the sterilization of all persons who suffered from diseases considered hereditary, such as mental illness (schizophfrenia and manic depression), retardation (congenital feeble-mindedness), physical deformithy, epilepsy, blindness, deafness, and severe alcolholism.

THE MENTALLY AND PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED: VICTIMS OF THE NAZI ERA

FORCED STERILIZATIONS

The sterilization Law explained the importance of weeding out socalled genetic defects from the total German gene pool:

Since the National Revolution public opinion has become increasingly preoccupied with questions of demographic policy and the continuing decline in the birthrate. However, it is not only the decline in population which is a cause for serious concern but equally the increasingly evident genetic composition of our people. Whereas the hereditarily healthy families have for the most part adopted a policy of having only one or two children, countless numbers of inferiors and those suffering from hereditary conditions are reproducing unrestrainedly while their sick and asocial offspring burden the community.

Some scientists and physicians opposed the involuntary aspect of the law while others pointed to possible flaws. But the designation of specific conditions as inherited, and the desire to eliminate such illnesses or handicaps from the population, generally reflected the scientific and medical thinking of the day in Germany and elsewhere.

Nazi Germany was not the first or only country to sterilize people considered abnormal. Before Hitler, the United States led the world in forced sterilizations. Between 1907 and 1939, more than 30,000 people in twentynine states were sterilized, many of them unknowingly or against their will, while they were incarcerated in prisons or institutions for the mentally ill. Nearly half the operations were carried out in California. Advocates of sterilization policies in both Germany and the United States were influenced by eugenics. This sociobiological theory took Charles Darwins principle of natural selection and applied it to society. Eugenicists believed the human race could be improved by controlled breeding.

Still, no nation carried sterilization as far as Hitlers Germany. The forced sterilizations began in January 1934, and altogether an estimated 300,000 to 400,000 people were sterilized under the law. A diagnosis of feeblemindedness provided the grounds in the majority of cases, followed by schizophrenia and epilepsy. The usual method of sterilization was vasectomy and ligation of ovarian tubes of women. Irradiation (xrays or radium) was used in a small number of cases. Several thousand people died as a result of the operations, women disproportionately because of the greater risks of tubal ligation.

Most of the persons targeted by the law were patients in mental hospitals and other institutions. The majority of those sterilized were between the ages of twenty and forty, about equally divided between men and women. Most were Aryan Germans. The Sterilization Law did not target socalled racial groups, such as Jews and Gypsies, although Gypsies were sterilized as deviant asocials, as were some homosexuals. Also, about 500 teenagers of mixed African and German parentage (the offspring of French colonial troops stationed in the Rhineland in the early 1920s) were sterilized because of their race, by secret order, outside the provisions of the law.

Although the Sterilization Law sometimes functioned arbitrarily, the semblance of legality underpinning it was important to the Nazi regime. More than 200 Hereditary Health Courts were set up across Germany and later, annexed territories. Each was made up of two physicians and one district judge. Doctors were required to register with these courts every known case of hereditary illness. Appeals courts were also established, but few decisions were ever reversed. Exemptions were sometimes given artists or other talented persons afflicted with mental illnesses. The Sterilization Law was followed by the Marriage Law of 1935, which required for all marriages proof that any offspring from the union would not be afflicted with a disabling hereditary disease.

Only the Roman Catholic Church, for doctrinal reasons, opposed the sterilization program consistently; most German Protestant Churches accepted and often cooperated with the policy. Popular films such as Das Erbe (Inheritance) helped build public support for government policies by stigmatizing the mentally ill and the handicapped and highlighting the costs of care. School mathematics books posed such questions as: The construction of a lunatic asylum costs 6 million marks. How many houses at 15,000 marks each could have been built for that amount?

In 1934 this 19 year old shop clerk, identified only as Gerda D, was diagnosed schizophrenic and sterilized at the Moabite Hospital. 1939 she was repeatedly refused a mar riage certificate because of her sterilization.(Select to view image)

EUTHANASIA KILLINGS

Forced sterilization in Germany was the forerunner of the systematic killing of the mentally ill and the handicapped. In October 1939, Hitler himself initiated a decree which empowered physicians to grant a mercy death to patients considered incurable according to the best available human judgment of their state of health. The intent of the socalled euthanasia program, however, was not to relieve the suffering of the chronically ill. The Nazi regime used the term as a euphemism: its aim was to exterminate the mentally ill and the handicapped, thus cleansing the Aryan race of persons considered genetically defective and a financial burden to society.

The idea of killing the incurably ill was posed well before 1939. In the 1920s, debate on this issue centered on a book coauthored by Alfred Hoche, a noted psychiatrist, and Karl Binding, a prominent scholar of criminal law. They argued that economic savings justified the killing of useless lives (idiots and congenitally crippled). Economic deprivation during World War I provided the context for this idea. During the war, patients in asylums had ranked low on the list for rationing of food and medical supplies, and as a result, many died from starvation or disease. More generally, the war undermined the value attached to individual life and, combined with Germanys humiliating defeat, led many nationalists to consider ways to regenerate the nation as a whole at the expense of individual rights.

In 1935 Hitler stated privately that in the event of war, [he] would take up the question of euthanasia and enforce it because such a problem would be more easily solved during wartime. War would provide both a cover for killing and a pretexthospital beds and medical personnel would be freed up for the war effort. The upheaval of war and the diminished value of human life during wartime would also, Hitler believed, mute expected opposition. To make the connection to the war explicit, Hitlers decree was backdated to September 1,1939, the day Germany invaded Poland.

Fearful of public reaction, the Nazi regime never proposed a formal euthanasia law. Unlike the forced sterilizations, the killing of patients in mental asylums and other institutions was carried out in secrecy. The code name was Operation T4, a reference to Tiergartenstrasse 4, the address of the Berlin Chancellery offices where the program was headquartered. Physicians, the most highly Nazified professional group in Germany, were key to the success of T4, since they organized and carried out nearly, all aspects of the operation. One of Hitlers personal physicians, Dr. Karl Brandt, headed the program, along with Hitlers Chancellery chief, Philip Bouhler. T4 targeted adult patients in all government or church-run sanatoria and nursing homes. These institutions were instructed by the Interior Ministry to collect questionnaires about the state of health and capacity for work of all their patients, ostensibly as part of a statistical survey.

The completed forms were, in turn, sent to expert assessors physicians, usually psychiatrists, who made up review commissions. They marked each name with a +, in red pencil, meaning death, or a in blue pencil, meaning life, or ? for cases needing additional assessment. These medical experts rarely examined any of the patients and made their decisions from the questionnaires alone. At every step, the medical authorities involved were usually expected to quickly process large numbers of forms.

The doomed were bused to killing centers in Germany and Austria walled-in fortresses, mostly former psychiatric hospitals, castles and a former prison at Hartheim, Sonnenstein, Grafeneck, Bernburg, Hadamar, and Brandenburg. In the beginning, patients were killed by lethal injection. But by 1940, Hitler, on the advice of Dr. Werner Heyde, suggested that carbon monoxide gas be used as the preferred method of killing. Experimental gassings had first been carried out at Brandenburg Prison in 1939. There, gas chambers were disguised as showers complete with fake nozzles in order to deceive victims prototypes of the killing centers facilities built in occupied Poland later in the war.

Dr. Eduard Brandt, a T4 statistician, worked out the savings in foodstuffs and money realized from the quot;disinfection (murder) of 70,273 useless mouths (persons) in the T-4 program(Select to view program).

Again, following procedures that would later be instituted in the extermination camps, workers removed the corpses from the chambers, extracted gold teeth, then burned large numbers of bodies together in crematoria. Urns filled with ashes were prepared in the event the family of the deceased requested the remains. Physicians using fake names prepared death certificates falsifying the cause of death, and sent letters of condolences to relatives.

Meticulous records discovered after the war documented 70,273 deaths by gassing at the six euthanasia centers between January 1940 and August 1941. (This total included up to 5,000 Jews; all Jewish mental patients were killed regardless of their ability to work or the seriousness of their illness.) A detailed report also recorded the estimated savings from the killing of institutionalized patients.

The secrecy surrounding the T4 program broke down quickly. Some staff members were indiscreet while drinking in local pubs after work. Despite precautions, errors were made: hairpins turned up in urns sent to relatives of male victims; the cause of death was listed as appendicitis when the patient had the appendix removed years before. The town of Hadamar school pupils called the gray transport buses killing crates and threatened each other with the taunt, Youll end up in the Hadamar ovens! The thick smoke from the incinerator was said to be visible every day over Hadamar (where, in midsummer 1941, the staff celebrated the cremation of their 10,000th patient with beer and wine served in the crematorium).

Completed by physicians, this questionnaire (left) was used by other assessor physicians to select patients who were killed in the euthanasia program.(Select to viewquestionnaire)

A handful of church leaders, notably the Bishop of Mnster, Clemens August Count von Galen, local judges, and parents of victims protested the killings. One judge, Lothar Kreyssig, instituted criminal proceedings against Bouhler for murder; Kreyssig was prematurely retired. A few physicians protested. Karl Bonhffer, a leading psychiatrist, and his son Dietrich, a Protestant minister who actively opposed the regime, urged church groups to pressure church-run institutions not to release their patients to T4 authorities.

In response to such pressures, Hitler ordered a halt to Operation T4 on August 24, 1941. Gas chambers from some of the euthanasia killing centers were dismantled and shipped to extermination camps in occupied Poland. In late 1941 and 1942, they were rebuilt and used for the final solution to the Jewish question. Similarly redeployed from T4 were future extermination camp commandants Christian Wirth, Franz Stangl, Franz Reichleitner, the doctor Irmfried Eberl, as well as about 100 others doctors, male nurses, and clerks, who applied their skills in Treblinka, Belzec, and Sobibor.

A physician displaying a patient at the Karl Bonhoeffer psychiatric clinic in Berlin, Germany.(Select to view image)

The euthanasia killings continued, however, under a different, decentralized form. Hitlers regime continued to send to physicians and the general public the message that mental patients were useless eaters and life unworthy of life. In 1941, the film Ich klage an (I accuse) in which a professor kills his incurably ill wife, was viewed by 18 million people. Doctors were encouraged to decide on their own who should live or die, Killing became part of hospital routine as infants, children, and adults were put to death by starvation, poisoning, and injections. Killings even continued in some of Germanys mental asylums, such as Kaufbeuren, weeks after Allied troops had occupied surrounding areas.

This story is told on one of the Museum ID cards distributed to visitors enter ing the permanent exhibition.(Select to view supporting story)

Between the middle of 1941 and the winter of 1944-45, in a program known under code 14f13, experienced psychiatrists from the T4 operation were sent to concentration camps to weed out prisoners too ill to work. After superficial medical screenings, designated inmates Jews, Gypsies, Russians, Poles, Germans, and others were sent to those euthanasia centers where gas chambers still had not been dismantled, at Bernburg and Hartheim, where they were gassed. At least 20,000 people are believed to have died under the 14f13 program.

Outside of Germany, thousands of mental patients in the occupied territories of Poland, Russia, and East Prussia were also killed by the Einsatzgruppen squads (SS and special police units) that followed in the wake of the invading German army. Between September 29 and November 1, 1939, these units shot about 3,700 mental patients in asylums in the region of Bromberg, Poland. In December 1939 and January 1940, SS units gassed 1,558 patients from Polish asylums in specially adapted gas vans, in order to make room for military and SS barracks. Although regular army units did not officially participate in such cleansing actions as general policy, some instances of their involvement have been documented.

In all, between 200,000 and 250,000 mentally and physically handicapped persons were murdered from 1939 to 1945 under the T4 and other euthanasia programs. The magnitude of these crimes and the extent to which they prefigured the final solution continue to be studied. Further, in an age of genetic engineering and renewed controversy over mercy killings of the incurably ill, ethical and moral issues of concern to physicians, scientists, and lay persons alike remain vital.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION

Bishop of Mnster, Clemens August Count von Galen, protested the T4 killings in a sermon August 13, 1941. Thousands of copies were printed and circulated. Galen was not punished because Hitler did not want to clash openly with the Catholic Church.(Select to view supportingarticle)

VISIT THE PERMANENT EXHIBITION

The Science of Race (4th floor): eleven eugenics books; slides used to depict racial types and physical deformities; anthropologists tools for measuring skulls and noses from Ulm, Germany

The Murder of the Handicapped (4th floor); body, hand, and wrist restraints and leather gloves used in the Bernburg Psychiatric Hospital in Germany; a hospital bed and blanket, doctors coat, syringes, and other medical instruments used in the Psychiatric Asylum and Hospital in Schwerin, Germany

The Killers (2nd floor): photos of medical trials on video monitor

Information below is pertinent to the Wexner Learning Center.

VISIT THE WEXNER LEARNING CENTER (2nd floor)

From the MENU choose TOPIC LIST. From the alphabetical list of topics choose Racism: The Use of Nazi Racial Theory. Touch Nazi Euthanasia Program to learn more about the euthanasia program.

From the MENU choose ID CARD. Type in the following numbers to read stories of victims of the euthanasia program: 6187, 1823.

RESEARCH INSTITUTE HOLDINGS

LIBRARY

Many scholarly works published in the last ten years on race hygiene, forced sterilization, and the euthanasia program.

ARCHIVES

A number of documents related to forced sterilizations.

ORAL HISTORY ARCHIVES

Audiotape of the sister of a euthanasia victim. Videotape of an individual rescued by his mother.

PHOTO ARCHIVES

Photographs depicting the handicapped in medical custody and of some of the euthanasia institutes and T-4 staff.

RECOMMENDED READING

Burleigh, Michael, and Wolfgang Wipperman. The Racial State: Germany, 1933-1945 (London, 1991).

Gallagher, Hugh C. By Trust Betrayed: Patients, Physicians, and the License to Kill in the Third Reich (New York, 1990).

Lifton, Robert J. The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide (New York, 1986).

Mller-Hill, Benno. Murderous Science: Elimination by Scientific Selection of Jews, Gypsies and Others; Germany 1933-1945 (Oxford, 1988).

Proctor, Robert. Racial Hygiene: Medicine under the Nazis (Cambridge, MA, 1988).

Pross, Christian, and Gtz Aly. The Value of the Human Being: Medicine in Germany, 1918-1945 (Berlin, 1991).

Weindling, Paul. Health, Race and German Politics between National Unification and Nazism 1870-1945 (Cambridge, England, 1989).

Follow this link:
Handicapped Holocaust Teacher Resource Center

Fair Usage Law

July 19, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Holocaust  Comments Closed

Holocaust (TV Mini-Series 1978 ) – IMDb

Edit Storyline

“Holocaust” follows each member of the Jewish Family Weiss throughout Hitler’s reign in Germany. One by one, the family members suffer the horrible fate of extermination under Anti-Semetic Nazi Law until only one son remains at the end of World War II. A sub-plot follows the story of Eric Dorf, a young German lawyer with a good heart who is changed into a mass murderer by membership in the SS. Written byAnthony Hughes

Taglines:The story of man’s inhumanity to man.

Runtime: 475 min | 420 min (DVD) (2008) | 448 min (DVD) (2008)

Aspect Ratio: 1.33 : 1

See the original post:
Holocaust (TV Mini-Series 1978 ) – IMDb

Fair Usage Law

June 9, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Holocaust  Comments Closed

Holocaust – definition of holocaust by The Free Dictionary

holocaust (hl-kst, hl-)n.

1. Great destruction resulting in the extensive loss of life, especially by fire.

a. Holocaust The genocide of European Jews and other groups by the Nazis during World War II: “Israel emerged from the Holocaust and is defined in relation to that catastrophe” (Emanuel Litvinoff).

b. A massive slaughter: “an important document in the so-far sketchy annals of the Cambodian holocaust” (Rod Nordland).

3. A sacrificial offering that is consumed entirely by flames.

[Middle English, burnt offering, from Old French holocauste, from Latin holocaustum, from Greek holokauston, from neuter of holokaustos, burnt whole : holo-, holo- + kaustos, burnt (from kaiein, to burn).]

holocaustal, holocaustic adj.

Usage Note: Holocaust has a secure place in the language when it refers to the massive destruction of humans by other humans. In our 1987 survey 99 percent of the Usage Panel accepted the use of holocaust in the phrase nuclear holocaust. Sixty percent accepted the sentence As many as two million people may have died in the holocaust that followed the Khmer Rouge takeover in Cambodia. But because of its associations with genocide, people may object to extended applications of holocaust. The percentage of the Panel’s acceptance drops sharply when people use the word to refer to death brought about by natural causes. In our 1999 survey 47 percent approved the sentence In East Africa five years of drought have brought about a holocaust in which millions have died. Just 16 percent approved The press gives little coverage to the holocaust of malaria that goes on, year after year, in tropical countries, where there is no mention of widespread mortality. The Panel has little enthusiasm for more figurative usages of holocaust. In 1999, only 7 percent accepted Numerous small investors lost their stakes in the holocaust that followed the precipitous drop in stocks. This suggests that these extended uses of the word may be viewed as overblown or in poor taste.

Word History: Totality of destruction has been central to the meaning of holocaust since it first appeared in Middle English in the 1300s, used in reference to the biblical sacrifice in which a male animal was wholly burnt on the altar in worship of God. Holocaust comes from Greek holokauston, “that which is completely burnt,” which was a translation of Hebrew ‘l (literally “that which goes up,” that is, in smoke). In this sense of “burnt sacrifice,” holocaust is still used in some versions of the Bible. In the 1600s, the meaning of holocaust broadened to “something totally consumed by fire,” and the word eventually was applied to fires of extreme destructiveness. In the 1900s, holocaust took on a variety of figurative meanings, summarizing the effects of war, rioting, storms, epidemic diseases, and even economic failures. Most of these usages arose after World War II, but it is unclear whether they permitted or resulted from the use of holocaust in reference to the mass murder of European Jews and others by the Nazis. This application of the word occurred as early as 1942, but the phrase the Holocaust did not become established until the late 1950s. Here it parallels and may have been influenced by another Hebrew word, ‘, “catastrophe” (in English, Shoah). In the Bible ‘ has a range of meanings including “personal ruin or devastation” and “a wasteland or desert.” ‘ was first used to refer to the Nazi slaughter of Jews in 1939, but the phrase ha-‘, “the catastrophe,” became established only after World War II. Holocaust has also been used to translate urbn, “destruction,” another Hebrew word used as a name for the genocide of Jews by the Nazis.

1. great destruction or loss of life or the source of such destruction, esp fire

2. (Historical Terms) (usually capital) Also called: the Churban or the Shoah the mass murder of Jews and members of many other ethnic, social, and political groups in continental Europe between 1940 and 1945 by the Nazi regime

[C13: from Late Latin holocaustum whole burnt offering, from Greek holokauston, from holo- + kaustos, from kaiein to burn]

holocaustal, holocaustic adj

n.

1. a great or complete devastation or destruction, esp. by fire.

2. a sacrifice consumed by fire.

3. the Holocaust, the systematic mass slaughter of European Jews in Nazi concentration camps during World War II.

4. any reckless destruction of life.

[120050; Middle English

Go here to read the rest:
Holocaust – definition of holocaust by The Free Dictionary

Fair Usage Law

April 20, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Holocaust  Comments Closed

Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center

Karkomi Holocaust ExhibitionThe experience of Pre-war Germany, the Holocaust, liberation and beyond is brought to life through the memories of those who lived it. Explore more than 200 artifacts including personal items and photos, films, and a German rail car from the era.Learn More >

Go here to read the rest:
Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center

Fair Usage Law

February 23, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Holocaust  Comments Closed

Holocaust bill: Why Poland’s president Andrzej Duda signed it …

Poland’s President Andrzej Duda said Feb. 6 he will sign a bill he claims protects his nation’s “dignity” and “historical truth.” Critics say it bans true statements about the role that some Poles played in the Holocaust. (Reuters)

BERLIN Polish President Andrzej Dudasigneda lawTuesdaybanning people from accusingPoland of Holocaust atrocities committed by the Nazis and from referring to concentration camps as “Polish death camps” — heightening tensions with the United States and Israel, which have criticized the measure.

U.S.Secretary of State Rex Tillerson said Tuesday that he was disappointed in Duda’s decision.Enactment of this law adversely affects freedom of speech and academic inquiry … We believe that open debate, scholarship, and education are the best means of countering misleading speech, Tillersonsaid.

Duda also announced Tuesday that he would ask the countrys Constitutional Tribunal to review the bill to check whether it complies withPolands fundamental rights, such as freedom of speech, potentially opening the door to amendments.

Responding to the news of Duda’sdecision, Israel’s Foreign Ministry expressed hope that the constitutional reviewwouldprompt changes and corrections. But the law is expected to take effect before the tribunal would be able to issue any clarifications, and the independence ofthejudgesthemselves.

[Poland wants to outlaw blaming Poles for Nazi atrocities. But what about the Jedwabne massacre?]

The constitutional tribunal in its current composition serves the goals of the ruling party … It isdefinitely not independent, saidPiotr Buras, head of the Warsaw office of the European Council on Foreign Relations. But referring the bill to the tribunal was probably still the best available option to the Polish president.

Buras added: To the international audience, especially the U.S. and Israel, it signals that the Polish side sees the seriousness of the case and is perhaps ready for some changes. But it also signals to the ruling partys most conservative domestic supporters that the government is not ready to back down.

By refusing to veto the bill, Duda dashedthe possibility ofpoliticalnegotiations, which Israel and the United Stateshadstill hoped for in recent days. Instead, the bill is to take effect within the next two weeks. The tribunal is now the only institution that could still reverse thelaw in its entirety or in parts.

Under a new law passed in Poland on Feb. 1, any suggestion the country was complicit in the Holocaust could land offenders in jail. Israel and the U.S. accused Poland of stifling discussion about the Nazi death camps built there. (Reuters)

The bills international critics argue that it violates freedom of expression.Once in effect, it willessentially ban accusations that some Poles were complicit in Nazi crimes committed on Polish soil, including in the Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp, where more than 1.1millionpeople died. Germany operated six camps in Poland where Jews and others whom the Nazis considered enemies were killed. Anyone convicted under the lawwill face fines or up to three years in jail.

Polish officials have emphasized that artistic and historical research work will not be affected by the ban. But there is too muchroom for interpretation, saidAgnieszka Markiewicz, the director ofthe American Jewish Committee’scentral Europe office. Who is going to determine what artistic or academic expression means? A scholarassociated with a universitymight be excluded, but what about a schoolteacher who shares some of the horrible stories that happened in Poland?

Markiewicz said that theAmerican Jewish Committee agreed that those crimes were committed by individuals rather than the Polish state and that the term Polish death camps, was unjust and untrue, but she cautioned that an extensive ban on freedom of speech was the wrong way forward.

The State Departmentagreed in a statement last week that the phrase Polish death camps was inaccurate, misleading, and hurtful. But it alsocautioned that thebill could undermine free speech and academic discourse.The department warned that if the legislation is signed, it could have repercussions for Polands strategic interests and relationships.

In Israel, the reaction was also fierce.One cannot change history, and the Holocaust cannot be denied, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said in a statement last week.

On Tuesday,the executive vice chairman of the Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations,Malcolm Hoenlein,argued that Poland’s decision to pursue the law was a denial of facts. It is not credible to engage in the denial, Hoenlein said, according to the Associated Press.

Netanyahu and Polish Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki spoke on the phone10 days ago, but despite appearing to agree to a diplomatic dialogue, thePolish government stood by the billlast week and pursued Senateapproval.

Polish Deputy Justice Minister Patryk Jaki later referred to Israeli reactions as proof of how necessary this bill is.

Inaspeech on Tuesday, Dudaused less provocative rhetoric. [We] do not deny that there were cases of huge wickednesson the part of some Poles toward Jews, he said,according to the AP. But Duda stressed that there was no systemic way in which Poles took part in Nazi crimes.

Poland was invaded and occupied by Nazi Germany in 1939, but unlike in other European countries, there was no collaborationist Polish government.About 6million Polish citizens were killed during World War II, about half of them Jews.

Throughout years of Nazi occupation between 1939 and 1945, a number of Polish underground movements resisted the Nazis. It is that chapter of history that the Law and Justice Party wants to emphasize.

But historians have long argued that it is not the full story: Some Poles, they say, were complicit in the Nazi crimes.Historians have pointed to incidents, including a 1941 atrocity in the town of Jedwabne, in which Poles rounded up and killed their Jewish neighbors.

Criticssay that the legislation is mainly intended to fuel nationalistic sentiments in the country. This is all about nationalism really, and about the imposition ofa nationalist historic narrative, said political scientist Rafal Pankowski in an interview last week.The Law and Justice partys emphasis on Polands heroicpast has proved an effective electoral strategy, even asithas faced a damaging international backlash.

The debate about the bill has alsotriggered anintense focus on the very questions of complicity that nationalist Poles were hoping to sweep aside once and for all.The government’s attempt absolutely backfired, said Markiewicz, the director ofthe American Jewish Committee’s central Europe office.

Of course, Poland has the right to[demand people to tell] thewhole truth. This country suffered immensely. It had the biggest resistance movement in Europe andhelpedthe Allies in fighting the Nazis.It was on the right side of history, she said.But in the past few days, the term ‘Polish death camp’ has probably been used more than everinthe past years.

More on WorldViews:

Trumps nuclear policy is taking us back to the Cold War

As Germans celebrate the absence of the Berlin Wall, a new piece of it is discovered

An American spent decades exposing the ivory trade. He was just found dead in his home.

The rest is here:
Holocaust bill: Why Poland’s president Andrzej Duda signed it …

Fair Usage Law

February 6, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Holocaust  Comments Closed

Holocaust denier Arthur Jones has no opponents in GOP primary …

Arthur Jones, known for his racist and anti-Semitic views, is running to represent Illinois’s 3rd District. (Elyse Samuels/The Washington Post)

Like most candidates running for Congress, Arthur Jones has a campaign website.

It outlines the Republican candidates educational background, stance on issues and how to donate to his campaign to represent Illinois 3rd Congressional District.

It also lays out Joness unapologetically racist and anti-Semitic views.

In a section called Holocaust? Jones describes the atrocities as a racket and the biggest, blackest, lie in history. Under another tab titled Flags of Conflict, he lists the Confederate flag first and describes it as a symbol of White pride and White resistance and the flag of a White counter revolution.

And in his most recent blog post dated Aug. 24 Jones rails against Radical Leftists and blames them for starting racial violence that had roiledCharlottesville about two weeks earlier. Heather Heyer, 32, a protester at a white supremacist rally,died after a driver rammed a car into a crowd of demonstrators. Aself-professed neo-Nazihas been charged with first-degree murder in the incident. Jones painted the death as an accident.

Despite his views, Jones is all but certain to become the GOP nominee in one of Illinoiss most prominent congressional districts one that includes parts of Chicago andseveral suburbs to the west and southwest. Jones is running unopposed in the Republican primary; the deadline for candidates to file was in early December.

His chances of winning the seat are extremely slim. The district is rated safely Democratic, according to Ballotpedia, and two Democrats are facing off: Marie Newman and incumbent Daniel Lipinski.An independent candidate,Mat Tomkowiak, withdrew from the race.

Still, even getting this far in the race is a new milestone for Jones. Over three decades, he has unsuccessfully thrown his hat into the ring for the 3rd District seat seven times,according to the Chicago Sun-Times.

WhenSun-Times reporter Frank Main drove to Lyons, Ill., to track down Jones, the candidate was no less vocal about his extreme views.

Well first of all, Im running for Congress not the chancellor of Germany, all right? Jones told Main. To me, the Holocaust is what I said it is: Its an international extortion racket.

Jones also told the newspaper that he was once a leader in the American Nazi Party and now leads the America First Committee an organization whose membership is open to any white American citizen of European, non-Jewish descent.

Jones did not immediately respond to interview requests Sunday afternoon. Its unclear how he arrived at the opinion that the Holocaust, a systematic genocide in which an estimated 6 million Jews were killed by the Nazi regime, was a sham.

Jones has been involved with at least half a dozen racist groups stretching back to the 1970s, according to the Anti-Defamation League, which has a page devoted to Jones on its website. From 2008 and 2011, Jones was known to have participated in events celebrating the birthday of Nazi leader Adolf Hitler, the ADL page states. He was also among those who protested the 2009 opening of the Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center in Skokie, Ill., according to Haaretz.

In 2016, the state election board tossed Jones from the ballot for the 3rd District for flagrant disregard of the election code, the Chicago Tribune reported, although a lawyer for the board did not specify why Joness signatures were not valid.

The newspaper that year also highlighted Joness former membership in the American National Socialist Workers Party, which the Southern Poverty Law Center lists as a relatively recent offshoot of the National Socialist Movement, one of the largest and most prominent neo-Nazi groups in the United States.

Representatives from the Illinois Republican Party did not respond to questions sent by email Sunday. But Tim Schneider, the chairman of the Illinois GOP, told the Sun-Times that the party denounced Jones.

The Illinois Republican Party and our country have no place for Nazis like Arthur Jones, Schneider told the newspaper. We strongly oppose his racist views and his candidacy for any public office, including the 3rd Congressional District.

The National Republican Congressional Committee, which supports conservative candidates, balked at questions about Jones.

This guy is a fringe candidate who has been doing this for over a decade with no real connection to the GOP, NRCC spokesman Jesse Hunt said in a Sunday-night email.

Writing about Jones, Hunt said, gives him exactly what he wants: a platform. And quite frankly I find it shameful.

Joness candidacy comes at a time when far-right groups have had new clout in the national discussion: Some hate groups haveramped up recruitmenton college campuses and, for a time,some far-right leadersimagined they had an ally in the White Housein Stephen K. Bannon, who served as an adviser to President Trump before departing his post in August.

Last week,Rep. Matt Gaetz (R-Fla.) was criticizedfor bringinganaccused Holocaust denieras his guest to the State of the Union address. Gaetz later defended himself, saying he didnt know who Chuck Johnson was when he invited him to the speech.

Avi Selk contributed to this post, which has been updated.

Read more:

A neo-Nazi converted to Islam and killed 2 roommates for disrespecting his faith, police say

Behind a bookcase, a secret passageway leads to a trove of Nazi artifacts in Argentina

An American tourist gave the Nazi salute in Germany so a stranger beat him up, police say

Go here to see the original:
Holocaust denier Arthur Jones has no opponents in GOP primary …

Fair Usage Law

February 5, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Holocaust  Comments Closed

Polish Senate backs controversial legislation that will …

By Monika ScislowskaThe Associated Press

Thu., Feb. 1, 2018

WARSAW, POLANDPolands Senate has backed legislation that will regulate Holocaust speech, a move that has already strained relations with both Israel and the United States.

The bill proposed by Polands ruling conservative Law and Justice party and voted for early Thursday could see individuals facing up to three years in prison for intentionally attempting to falsely attribute the crimes of Nazi Germany to the Polish nation as a whole.

It was approved by the lower house last week. The bill has yet to become law as it requires the approval from President Andrzej Duda, who has supported it.

Although the bill exempts artistic and research work, it has raised concerns that the Polish state will decide itself what it considers to be historic facts. The bill has already sparked a diplomatic dispute with Israel and drawn calls from the United States for a reconsideration.

Though Deputy Justice Minister Patryk Jaki suggested Israel had been consulted on the bill and voiced no objections, many in Israel have argued that the move is an attempt to whitewash the role some Poles played in the killing of Jews during World War II.

Israels Foreign Ministry said Israel opposes categorically the vote by Polands senators.

Israel views with utmost gravity any attempt to challenge historical truth, the ministry said in a statement. No law will change the facts.

Halina Birenbaum, a Holocaust survivor and acclaimed Israeli author, called the new law madness, telling Israels Army Radio it was ludicrous and disproportionate to what actually happened to Jews there.

Expressing surprise at the storm the legislation has unleashed, the Polish government said it planned to issue an explanatory statement later Thursday.

Polands Deputy Prime Minister Jaroslaw Gowin said the government had acted in good faith and the countrys foreign ministry said the legislation is intended to protect historic truth and fight all forms of denying and distorting the truth about the Holocaust as well as belittling the responsibility of its actual perpetrators.

Polands government argues that it is fighting against the use of phrases like Polish death camps to refer to camps operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II. Poland was among the hardest-hit victims of Nazi Germany, losing some six million citizens, half of them Jews, and is preserving Holocaust memorials.

The government has expressed hope that adoption of the law will not affect Polands strategic partnership with the U.S.

Working groups in Poland and Israel are to start discussing the issue this week, although it was not clear what effect it could have on the bill.

Before the Senates vote, the U.S. asked Poland to rethink the proposed legislation saying it could undermine free speech and academic discourse and affect ties with the U.S. and Israel.

Israels Holocaust memorial, Yad Vashem, issued a statement saying it was most unfortunate that Poland was proceeding with a law liable to blur historical truths that jeopardized the free and open discussion of the part of the Polish people in the persecution of the Jews at the time.

Israeli Intelligence Minister who also looks after transport matters, Yisrael Katz said the law constituted a denial of Polands part in the Holocaust of the Jews. He called on Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu to immediately recall Israels ambassador from Warsaw for consultation.

In the balance between diplomatic considerations and moral considerations, there must be a clear decision: perpetuating the memory of the victims of the Holocaust above any other consideration.

Go here to read the rest:
Polish Senate backs controversial legislation that will …

Fair Usage Law

February 2, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Holocaust  Comments Closed

The Holocaust in popular culture – Wikipedia

There is a wide range of ways in which people have represented the Holocaust in popular culture.

The subject of the Holocaust has been dealt with in modern dance.[1]

The Holocaust has been the subject of many films, such as Night and Fog (1955), The Pawnbroker (1964), The Sorrow and the Pity (1969), Voyage of the Damned (1976), Sophie’s Choice (1982), Shoah (1985), Korczak (1990), Schindler’s List (1993), Life Is Beautiful (1997), and The Pianist (2002). A list of hundreds of Holocaust movies is available at the University of South Florida,[7] and the most comprehensive Holocaust-related film database, comprising thousands of films, is available at the Yad Vashem visual center.[8]

Arguably, the Holocaust film most highly acclaimed by critics and historians alike is Alain Resnais Night and Fog (1955), which is harrowingly brutal in its graphic depiction of the events at the camps. (One of the more notable scenes shows Jewish fat being carved into soap.) Many historians and critics have noted its realistic portrayal of the camps and its lack of histrionics present in so many other Holocaust films.[citation needed] Renowned film historian Peter Cowie states: “It’s a tribute to the clarity and cogency of Night and Fog that Resnais masterpiece has not been diminished by time, or displaced by longer and more ambitious films on the Holocaust, such as Shoah and Schindler’s List.”[9]

With the aging population of Holocaust survivors, there has also been increasing attention in recent years to preserving the memory of the Holocaust through documentaries. Among the most influential of these[citation needed] is Claude Lanzmann’s Shoah, which attempts to tell the story in as literal a manner as possible, without dramatization of any kind. Reaching the young population (especially in countries where the Holocaust is not part of education programs) is a challenge, as shown in Mumin Shakirov’s documentary The Holocaust – Glue for Wallpaper?.

The Holocaust has been a particularly important theme in cinema in the Central and Eastern European countries, particularly the cinemas of Poland, both the Czech and Slovak halves of Czechoslovakia, and Hungary. These nations hosted concentration camps and/or lost substantial portions of their Jewish populations to the gas chambers and, consequently, the Holocaust and the fate of Central Europe’s Jews has haunted the work of many film directors, although certain periods have lent themselves more easily to exploring the subject.[which?][citation needed] Although some directors were inspired by their Jewish roots, other directors, such as Hungary’s Mikls Jancs, have no personal connection to Judaism or the Holocaust and yet have repeatedly returned to explore the topic in their works.[which?][citation needed]

Early films about the Holocaust include Auschwitz survivor Wanda Jakubowska’s semi-documentary The Last Stage (Ostatni etap, Poland, 1947) and Alfrd Radok’s hallucinogenic The Long Journey (Dalek cesta, Czechoslovakia, 1948). As Central Europe fell under the grip of Stalinism and state control over the film industry increased, works about the Holocaust ceased to be made until the end of the 1950s (although films about the World War II generally continued to be produced). Among the first films to reintroduce the topic were Ji Weiss’ Sweet Light in a Dark Room (Romeo, Juliet a tma, Czechoslovakia, 1959) and Andrzej Wajda’s Samson (Poland, 1961).[citation needed]

In the 1960s, a number of Central European films that dealt with the Holocaust, either directly or indirectly, had critical successes internationally. In 1966, the Slovak-language Holocaust drama The Shop on Main Street (Obchod na korze, Czechoslovakia, 1965) by Jn Kadr and Elmer Klos won a special mention at the Cannes Film Festival in 1965 and the Oscar for Best Foreign Language Film the following year.[citation needed] Another sophisticated Holocaust film from Czechoslovakia is Dita Saxova (Antonn Moskalyk, 1967). [10]

While some of these films, such as Shop on the Main Street, used a conventional filmmaking style,[citation needed] a significant body of films were bold stylistically and used innovative techniques to dramatise the terror of the period. This included nonlinear narratives and narrative ambiguity, as for example in Andrzej Munk’s Passenger (Pasaerka, Poland, 1963) and Jan Nmec’s Diamonds of the Night (Dmanty noci, Czechoslovakia, 1964); expressionist lighting and staging, as in Zbynk Brynych’s The Fifth Horseman is Fear (…a paty jezdec je Strach, Czechoslovakia, 1964); and grotesquely black humour, as in Juraj Herz’s The Cremator (Spalova mrtvol, Czechoslovakia, 1968).

Literature was an important influence on these films, and almost all of the film examples cited in this section were based on novels or short stories. In Czechoslovakia, five stories by Arnot Lustig were adapted for the screen in the 1960s, including Nmec’s Diamonds of the Night.[citation needed]

Although some works, such as Munk’s The Passenger,[when?] had disturbing and graphic sequences of the camps,[citation needed] generally these films depicted the moral dilemmas the Holocaust placed ordinary people in and the dehumanising effects it had on society as a whole, rather than the physical tribulations of individuals actually in the camps. As a result, a body of these Holocaust films were interested in those who collaborated in the Holocaust, either by direct action, as for example in The Passenger and Andrs Kovcs’s Cold Days (Hideg Napok, Hungary, 1966), or through passive inaction, as in The Fifth Horseman is Fear.[citation needed]

The 1970s and 1980s were less fruitful times for Central European film generally,[citation needed] and Czechoslovak cinema particularly suffered after the 1968 Soviet-led invasion.[citation needed] Nevertheless, interesting works on the Holocaust, and more generally the Jewish experience in Central Europe, were sporadically produced in this period, particularly in Hungary. Holocaust films from this time include Imre Gyngyssy and Barna Kabay’s The Revolt of Job (Jb lzadsa, Hungary, 1983), Leszek Wosiewicz’s Kornblumenblau (Poland, 1988), and Ravensbrck survivor Juraj Herz’s Night Caught Up With Me (Zastihla m noc, Czechoslovakia, 1986), whose shower scene is thought to be the basis of Spielberg’s similar sequence in Schindler’s List.[citation needed]

Directors such as Istvn Szab (Hungary) and Agnieszka Holland (Poland) were able to make films that touched on the Holocaust by working internationally, Szab with his Oscar-winning Mephisto (Germany/Hungary/Austria, 1981) and Holland with her more directly Holocaust-themed Angry Harvest (Bittere Ernte, Germany, 1984). Also worth noting is the East German-Czechoslovak coproduction Jacob the Liar (Jakob, der Lgner, 1975) in German and directed by German director Frank Beyer, but starring the acclaimed Czech actor Vlastimil Brodsk. The film was remade in an English-language version in 1999 but did not achieve the scholarly acceptance of the East German version by Beyer.[citation needed]

A resurgence of interest in Central Europe’s Jewish heritage in the post-Communist era has led to a number of more recent features about the Holocaust, such as Wajda’s Korczak (Poland, 1990), Szab’s Sunshine (Germany/Austria/Canada/Hungary, 1999), and Jan Hebejk’s Divided We Fall (Musme si pomhat, Czech Republic, 2001). Both Sunshine and Divided We Fall are typical of a trend of recent films from Central Europe that asks questions about integration and how national identity can incorporate minorities.[citation needed]

Generally speaking, these recent films have been far less stylised and subjectivised than their 1960s counterparts. For example, Polish director Roman Polanski’s The Pianist (France/Germany/UK/Poland, 2002) was noted for its emotional economy and restraint, which somewhat surprised some critics given the overwrought style of some of Polanski’s previous films[citation needed] and Polanski’s personal history as a Holocaust survivor.[citation needed]

There is a substantial body of literature and art in many languages. Perhaps one of the most difficult part of studying Holocaust literature is the language often used in stories or essays; survivor Primo Levi notes in an interview for the International School for Holocaust Studies, housed at the Yad Vashem:

This type of language is present in many, if not most, of the words by authors presented here.

These authors published fictional works as their memoirs and claimed to be holocaust survivors:

The Holocaust has been a common subject in American literature, with authors ranging from Saul Bellow to Sylvia Plath addressing it in their works.

German philosopher Theodor Adorno famously commented that “writing poetry after Auschwitz is barbaric”, but he later retracted this statement. There are some substantial works dealing with the Holocaust and its aftermath, including the work of survivor Paul Celan, which uses inverted syntax and vocabulary in an attempt to express the inexpressible. Celan considered the German language tainted by the Nazis, although it is interesting to note his friendship with Nazi sympathizer and philosopher Martin Heidegger.

Poet Charles Reznikoff, in his 1975 book Holocaust,[23] created a work intrinsically respectful of the pitfalls implied by Adorno’s statement; in itself both a “defense of poetry” and an acknowledgment of the obscenity of poetical rhetoric relative to atrocity, this book utilizes none of the author’s own words, coinages, flourishes, interpretations and judgments: it is a creation solely based on U.S. government records of the Nuremberg Trials and English-translated transcripts of the Adolf Eichmann trial in Jerusalem. Through selection and arrangement of these source materials (the personal testimonies of both survivor victims and perpetrators), and severe editing down to essentials, Reznikoff fulfills a truth-telling function of poetry by laying bare human realities, and horrors, without embellishment, achieving the “poetic” through ordering the immediacy of documented testimony.

In 1998, Northwestern University Press published an anthology, edited by Marguerite M. Striar, entitled Beyond Lament: Poets of the World Bearing Witness to the Holocaust,[24] which, in poetry, defends the sentiments of the statement of Adorno, in a section entitled “In Defense of Poetry,” and reinforces the need to document for future generations what occurred in those times so as to never forget. The book collects, in poetry by survivors, witnesses, and many other poetswell known and notremembrances of, and reflections on, the Holocaust, dealing with the subject in other sections chronologically, the poems organized in further sections by topics: “The Beginning: Premonitions and Prophecies,” “The Liberation,” and “The Aftermath.”

Aside from Adorno’s opinion, a great deal of poetry has been written about the Holocaust by poets from various backgroundssurvivors (for example, Sonia Schrieber Weitz[25]) and countless others, including well-known poet, William Heyen (author of Erika: Poems of the Holocaust, The Swastika Poems,and The Shoah Train), himself a nephew of two men who fought for the Nazis in World War II.

I Never Saw Another Butterfly, by Hana Volavkova, is a collection of works of art and poetry by Jewish children who lived in the concentration camp Theresienstadt.

Pinaki Roy offered a comparative study of the different Holocaust novels written in or translated into English.[26] Roy also reread different Holocaust victims’ poems translated into English for the elements of suffering and protestations ingrained in them.[27] Elsewhere, Roy explored different aspects of Anne Frank’s memoir of the Nazi atrocities, one of the more poignant remembrances of the excesses of World War II.[28] Moreover, in his “Damit wir nicht vergessen!: a very brief Survey of Select Holocaust Plays”, published in English Forum(4, 2015: 121-41, ISSN2279-0446), Roy offers a survey and critical estimate of different plays (in Yiddish, German, and English translation), which deal with the theme of the Holocaust.

Ernestine Schlant has analyzed the Holocaust literature by West German authors.[29] She discussed literary works by Heinrich Bll, Wolfgang Koeppen, Alexander Kluge, Gert Hofmann, W.G. Sebald and others. The so-called Vterliteratur (novels about fathers) from around 1975 reflected the new generation’s exploration of their fathers’ (and occasionally mothers’) involvement in the Nazi atrocities, and the older generation’s generally successful endeavour to pass it under silence.[30] This was often accompanied by a critical portrayal of the new generation’s upbringing by authoritarian parents. Jews are usually absent from these narratives, and the new generation tends to appropriate from unmentioned Jews the status of victimhood.[31] One exception, where the absence of the Jew was addressed through the gradual ostracism and disappearance of an elderly Jew in a small town, is Gert Hofmann’s Veilchenfeld (1986).[32]

White Wolf, Inc. put out Charnal Houses of Europe: The Shoah in 1997 under its adult Black Dog Game Factory label. It is a carefully researched, respectful, and horrifically detailed supplement on the ghosts of the victims of the Holocaust for the Wraith: The Oblivion.

The songs that were created during the Holocaust in ghettos, camps, and partisan groups tell the stories of individuals, groups and communities in the Holocaust period and were a source of unity and comfort, and later, of documentation and remembrance.[33]

Terezn: The Music 194144 is a set of CDs of music composed by inmates at Terezn concentration camp.[34][35][36] It contains chamber music by Gideon Klein, Viktor Ullmann, and Hans Krsa, the children’s opera Brundibr by Krsa, and songs by Ullmann and Pavel Haas. The music was composed in 1943 and 1944, and all the composers died in concentration camps in 1944 and 1945.[37] The CDs were released in 1991.

The massacre of Jews at Babi Yar inspired a poem written by a Russian poet Yevgeny Yevtushenko which was set to music by Dmitri Shostakovich in his Symphony No. 13 in B-Flat Minor, first performed in 1962.

In 1966, the Greek composer Mikis Theodorakis released the Ballad of Mauthausen, a cycle of four arias with lyrics based on poems written by Greek poet Iakovos Kambanellis, a Mauthausen concentration camp survivor.

In Pink Floyd’s album The Wall (1979), one of the record’s tracks is titled “Waiting for the Worms”. This song is set in the middle of the time the main character, Pink, has become a neo-nazi, and the head of a fascist group. The song seems to be set in a march down a main street in Brixton, England, with Pink singing/saying the lyrics through a megaphone. One of the lyrics from the song is, “Waiting! For the final solution to strengthen the strain!”

In 1984, Canadian rock band Rush recorded the song “Red Sector A” on the album Grace Under Pressure. The song is particularly notable for its allusions to The Holocaust, inspired by Geddy Lee’s memories of his mother’s stories[38] about the liberation of Bergen-Belsen, where she was held prisoner. One of Lee’s solo songs, “Grace to Grace” on the album My Favourite Headache, was also inspired by his mother’s Holocaust experiences.[38]

In 1988, Steve Reich composed Different Trains, a three-movement piece for string quartet and tape. In the second movement, Europe During the War, three Holocaust survivors (identified by Reich as Paul, Rachel, and Rachella) speak about their experiences in Europe during the war, including their train trips to concentration camps. The third movement, “After the War”, features Holocaust survivors talking about the years immediately following World War II.

Kaddish (1993), by Towering Inferno, and Kaddish, by Israeli band Salem (1994), are concept albums based on the Holocaust.

In 2007, composer Lior Navok composed “And The Trains Kept Coming…” (Slavery Documents no.3) for narrators, soloists, choir and orchestra, based on real documents, correspondence between the allies, train schedules and last letters. It was premiered in Boston, by the Cantata Singers, David Hoose, music director. [1]

The fifth track on Sabaton’s Coat of Arms (2010) album is titled “Final Solution” and contains explicit lyrics describing the trains and the furnaces.

On Disturbed’s album Asylum (2010), the song “Never Again” is about the Holocaust.

There are many plays related to the Holocaust, for example “The Substance of Fire” by Jon Robin Baitz, “The Resistible Rise of Arturo Ui” by Bertolt Brecht, Jeff Cohen’s “The Soap Myth”, Dea Loher’s “Olga’s Room”, “Cabaret”, the stage adaptation of “The Diary of Anne Frank”, “Broken Glass” by Arthur Miller, and “Bent” by Martin Sherman.[39][40] In 2010 the Advisory Board of the National Jewish Theater Foundation launched the Holocaust Theater International Initiative, which has three parts: the Holocaust Theater Catalog, a digital catalog in the form of a website containing plays from 1933 to the present about the Holocaust that has user specific informative entries, the Holocaust Theater Education (HTE), which is the development of curricula, materials, techniques, and workshops for the primary, secondary, and higher education levels, and the Holocaust Theater Production (HTP), which is the promotion and facilitation of an increased number of live domestic and international productions about the Holocaust, that includes theater works to be recorded for digital access.[41] The Holocaust Theater Catalog, which launched in October 2014, is the first comprehensive archive of theater materials related to the Holocaust; it was created by the Sue and Leonard Miller Center for Contemporary Judaic Studies and the George Feldenkreis Program in Judaic Studies both at the University of Miami and the National Jewish Theater Foundation.[40]

Creating artwork inside the Nazi concentration camps and ghettos was punishable; if found, the person who created it could be killed. The Nazis branded art that portrayed their regime poorly as “horror propaganda”.[42] Nonetheless, many people painted and sketched as inhabitants needed a way to bring life into their lives and express their human need to create and be creative. The Nazis found many of the artists’ works before the prisoners could complete them.

From Holocaust Survivors And Remembrance ProjectiSurvived.org:

DEFA Film Library Massachusetts

World ORT Resources:

Excerpt from:
The Holocaust in popular culture – Wikipedia

Fair Usage Law

February 2, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Holocaust  Comments Closed

Polish Senate passes Holocaust bill slammed by Israel – Al …

Polands senate on Thursday passed a controversial Holocaust bill, which was designed to defend the countrys image abroad but has instead sparked a diplomatic row with Israel.

The bill, which sets fines or a maximum three-year jail term for anyone who refers to Nazi German death camps as Polish or accuses Poland of complicity in the Third Reichs crimes, was approved by 57 votes to 23 in the upper house of parliament, with two abstentions.

Israel had earlier called for the bill to be dropped, seeing one of its provisions as an attempt to deny Polish involvement in Nazi Germanys extermination of Jews. We have no tolerance for the distortion of the truth and rewriting history or denying the Holocaust, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said Sunday.

ALSO READ:Skeptical at first, US author writes on progressive Saudi remarks on Holocaust

The lower house of parliament, which like the senate is controlled by the governing right-wing Law and Justice (PiS) party, had passed the bill on Friday — triggering the protest from abroad.

Knesset lawmakers penned a proposed bill of their own Wednesday amending Israels law regarding Holocaust denial, so that diminishing or denying the role of those who aided the Nazis in crimes against Jews would be punishable with jail.

Before the vote on the Polish bill, US State Department spokeswoman Heather Nauert expressed concern that if enacted this draft legislation could undermine free speech and academic discourse.

We are also concerned about the repercussions this draft legislation… could have on Polands strategic interests and relationships — including with the United States and Israel, she added.

To take effect, the legislation still needs to be signed by Polish President Andrzej Duda, who has 21 days to do so. In theory he could veto the bill but on Monday he said: We absolutely cant back down, we have the right to defend the historical truth.

He added that he was flabbergasted by Israels violent and very unfavorable reaction. Poland was attacked and occupied by Nazi Germany in World War II, losing six million of its citizens including three million Jews.

Muslim World League: Holocaust is a crime that no one can deny or undermine

Helping Jews, even offering them a glass of water, was punishable by death in occupied Poland. More than 6,700 Poles — outnumbering any other nationality — have been honored as Righteous Among the Nations, a title given to non-Jews who stood up to the Nazis, by Jerusalems Holocaust memorial Yad Vashem.

Yad Vashem said it opposes the Polish bill, as it is liable to blur the historical truths regarding the assistance the Germans received from the Polish population during the Holocaust.

But it added that to refer to the extermination camps the Nazis built in Poland as Polish is a historical misrepresentation. American Jewish Committee CEO David Harris urged Polish leaders to withdraw the legislation and focus on education, not criminalization, about inaccurate and harmful speech.

Last Update: Thursday, 1 February 2018 KSA 09:53 – GMT 06:53

Go here to see the original:
Polish Senate passes Holocaust bill slammed by Israel – Al …

Fair Usage Law

February 2, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Holocaust  Comments Closed

Handicapped Holocaust Teacher Resource Center

The text of this web page was originally published by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum as a pamphlet titled Handicapped. It is used here with permission. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum,100 Raoul Walenberg Place SW,Washington D.C. 20024-2150. This brochure describes the Nazi treatment of handicaped people from 1933-1945. You may link to the contents by selecting either the title above or the cover in the left hand margin. Soon after Hiltler took power, the Nazis formulated policy based on their vision of biologically pure population, to create an Aryan master race. The Law for the Prevention of Progeny with Hereditary Diseases, proclaimed July 14, 1933, forced the sterilization of all persons who suffered from diseases considered hereditary, such as mental illness (schizophfrenia and manic depression), retardation (congenital feeble-mindedness), physical deformithy, epilepsy, blindness, deafness, and severe alcolholism. THE MENTALLY AND PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED: VICTIMS OF THE NAZI ERA FORCED STERILIZATIONS The sterilization Law explained the importance of weeding out socalled genetic defects from the total German gene pool: Since the National Revolution public opinion has become increasingly preoccupied with questions of demographic policy and the continuing decline in the birthrate. However, it is not only the decline in population which is a cause for serious concern but equally the increasingly evident genetic composition of our people. Whereas the hereditarily healthy families have for the most part adopted a policy of having only one or two children, countless numbers of inferiors and those suffering from hereditary conditions are reproducing unrestrainedly while their sick and asocial offspring burden the community. Some scientists and physicians opposed the involuntary aspect of the law while others pointed to possible flaws. But the designation of specific conditions as inherited, and the desire to eliminate such illnesses or handicaps from the population, generally reflected the scientific and medical thinking of the day in Germany and elsewhere. Nazi Germany was not the first or only country to sterilize people considered abnormal. Before Hitler, the United States led the world in forced sterilizations. Between 1907 and 1939, more than 30,000 people in twentynine states were sterilized, many of them unknowingly or against their will, while they were incarcerated in prisons or institutions for the mentally ill. Nearly half the operations were carried out in California. Advocates of sterilization policies in both Germany and the United States were influenced by eugenics. This sociobiological theory took Charles Darwins principle of natural selection and applied it to society. Eugenicists believed the human race could be improved by controlled breeding. Still, no nation carried sterilization as far as Hitlers Germany. The forced sterilizations began in January 1934, and altogether an estimated 300,000 to 400,000 people were sterilized under the law. A diagnosis of feeblemindedness provided the grounds in the majority of cases, followed by schizophrenia and epilepsy. The usual method of sterilization was vasectomy and ligation of ovarian tubes of women. Irradiation (xrays or radium) was used in a small number of cases. Several thousand people died as a result of the operations, women disproportionately because of the greater risks of tubal ligation. Most of the persons targeted by the law were patients in mental hospitals and other institutions. The majority of those sterilized were between the ages of twenty and forty, about equally divided between men and women. Most were Aryan Germans. The Sterilization Law did not target socalled racial groups, such as Jews and Gypsies, although Gypsies were sterilized as deviant asocials, as were some homosexuals. Also, about 500 teenagers of mixed African and German parentage (the offspring of French colonial troops stationed in the Rhineland in the early 1920s) were sterilized because of their race, by secret order, outside the provisions of the law. Although the Sterilization Law sometimes functioned arbitrarily, the semblance of legality underpinning it was important to the Nazi regime. More than 200 Hereditary Health Courts were set up across Germany and later, annexed territories. Each was made up of two physicians and one district judge. Doctors were required to register with these courts every known case of hereditary illness. Appeals courts were also established, but few decisions were ever reversed. Exemptions were sometimes given artists or other talented persons afflicted with mental illnesses. The Sterilization Law was followed by the Marriage Law of 1935, which required for all marriages proof that any offspring from the union would not be afflicted with a disabling hereditary disease. Only the Roman Catholic Church, for doctrinal reasons, opposed the sterilization program consistently; most German Protestant Churches accepted and often cooperated with the policy. Popular films such as Das Erbe (Inheritance) helped build public support for government policies by stigmatizing the mentally ill and the handicapped and highlighting the costs of care. School mathematics books posed such questions as: The construction of a lunatic asylum costs 6 million marks. How many houses at 15,000 marks each could have been built for that amount? In 1934 this 19 year old shop clerk, identified only as Gerda D, was diagnosed schizophrenic and sterilized at the Moabite Hospital. 1939 she was repeatedly refused a mar riage certificate because of her sterilization.(Select to view image) EUTHANASIA KILLINGS Forced sterilization in Germany was the forerunner of the systematic killing of the mentally ill and the handicapped. In October 1939, Hitler himself initiated a decree which empowered physicians to grant a mercy death to patients considered incurable according to the best available human judgment of their state of health. The intent of the socalled euthanasia program, however, was not to relieve the suffering of the chronically ill. The Nazi regime used the term as a euphemism: its aim was to exterminate the mentally ill and the handicapped, thus cleansing the Aryan race of persons considered genetically defective and a financial burden to society. The idea of killing the incurably ill was posed well before 1939. In the 1920s, debate on this issue centered on a book coauthored by Alfred Hoche, a noted psychiatrist, and Karl Binding, a prominent scholar of criminal law. They argued that economic savings justified the killing of useless lives (idiots and congenitally crippled). Economic deprivation during World War I provided the context for this idea. During the war, patients in asylums had ranked low on the list for rationing of food and medical supplies, and as a result, many died from starvation or disease. More generally, the war undermined the value attached to individual life and, combined with Germanys humiliating defeat, led many nationalists to consider ways to regenerate the nation as a whole at the expense of individual rights. In 1935 Hitler stated privately that in the event of war, [he] would take up the question of euthanasia and enforce it because such a problem would be more easily solved during wartime. War would provide both a cover for killing and a pretexthospital beds and medical personnel would be freed up for the war effort. The upheaval of war and the diminished value of human life during wartime would also, Hitler believed, mute expected opposition. To make the connection to the war explicit, Hitlers decree was backdated to September 1,1939, the day Germany invaded Poland. Fearful of public reaction, the Nazi regime never proposed a formal euthanasia law. Unlike the forced sterilizations, the killing of patients in mental asylums and other institutions was carried out in secrecy. The code name was Operation T4, a reference to Tiergartenstrasse 4, the address of the Berlin Chancellery offices where the program was headquartered. Physicians, the most highly Nazified professional group in Germany, were key to the success of T4, since they organized and carried out nearly, all aspects of the operation. One of Hitlers personal physicians, Dr. Karl Brandt, headed the program, along with Hitlers Chancellery chief, Philip Bouhler. T4 targeted adult patients in all government or church-run sanatoria and nursing homes. These institutions were instructed by the Interior Ministry to collect questionnaires about the state of health and capacity for work of all their patients, ostensibly as part of a statistical survey. The completed forms were, in turn, sent to expert assessors physicians, usually psychiatrists, who made up review commissions. They marked each name with a +, in red pencil, meaning death, or a in blue pencil, meaning life, or ? for cases needing additional assessment. These medical experts rarely examined any of the patients and made their decisions from the questionnaires alone. At every step, the medical authorities involved were usually expected to quickly process large numbers of forms. The doomed were bused to killing centers in Germany and Austria walled-in fortresses, mostly former psychiatric hospitals, castles and a former prison at Hartheim, Sonnenstein, Grafeneck, Bernburg, Hadamar, and Brandenburg. In the beginning, patients were killed by lethal injection. But by 1940, Hitler, on the advice of Dr. Werner Heyde, suggested that carbon monoxide gas be used as the preferred method of killing. Experimental gassings had first been carried out at Brandenburg Prison in 1939. There, gas chambers were disguised as showers complete with fake nozzles in order to deceive victims prototypes of the killing centers facilities built in occupied Poland later in the war. Dr. Eduard Brandt, a T4 statistician, worked out the savings in foodstuffs and money realized from the quot;disinfection (murder) of 70,273 useless mouths (persons) in the T-4 program(Select to view program). Again, following procedures that would later be instituted in the extermination camps, workers removed the corpses from the chambers, extracted gold teeth, then burned large numbers of bodies together in crematoria. Urns filled with ashes were prepared in the event the family of the deceased requested the remains. Physicians using fake names prepared death certificates falsifying the cause of death, and sent letters of condolences to relatives. Meticulous records discovered after the war documented 70,273 deaths by gassing at the six euthanasia centers between January 1940 and August 1941. (This total included up to 5,000 Jews; all Jewish mental patients were killed regardless of their ability to work or the seriousness of their illness.) A detailed report also recorded the estimated savings from the killing of institutionalized patients. The secrecy surrounding the T4 program broke down quickly. Some staff members were indiscreet while drinking in local pubs after work. Despite precautions, errors were made: hairpins turned up in urns sent to relatives of male victims; the cause of death was listed as appendicitis when the patient had the appendix removed years before. The town of Hadamar school pupils called the gray transport buses killing crates and threatened each other with the taunt, Youll end up in the Hadamar ovens! The thick smoke from the incinerator was said to be visible every day over Hadamar (where, in midsummer 1941, the staff celebrated the cremation of their 10,000th patient with beer and wine served in the crematorium). Completed by physicians, this questionnaire (left) was used by other assessor physicians to select patients who were killed in the euthanasia program.(Select to viewquestionnaire) A handful of church leaders, notably the Bishop of Mnster, Clemens August Count von Galen, local judges, and parents of victims protested the killings. One judge, Lothar Kreyssig, instituted criminal proceedings against Bouhler for murder; Kreyssig was prematurely retired. A few physicians protested. Karl Bonhffer, a leading psychiatrist, and his son Dietrich, a Protestant minister who actively opposed the regime, urged church groups to pressure church-run institutions not to release their patients to T4 authorities. In response to such pressures, Hitler ordered a halt to Operation T4 on August 24, 1941. Gas chambers from some of the euthanasia killing centers were dismantled and shipped to extermination camps in occupied Poland. In late 1941 and 1942, they were rebuilt and used for the final solution to the Jewish question. Similarly redeployed from T4 were future extermination camp commandants Christian Wirth, Franz Stangl, Franz Reichleitner, the doctor Irmfried Eberl, as well as about 100 others doctors, male nurses, and clerks, who applied their skills in Treblinka, Belzec, and Sobibor. A physician displaying a patient at the Karl Bonhoeffer psychiatric clinic in Berlin, Germany.(Select to view image) The euthanasia killings continued, however, under a different, decentralized form. Hitlers regime continued to send to physicians and the general public the message that mental patients were useless eaters and life unworthy of life. In 1941, the film Ich klage an (I accuse) in which a professor kills his incurably ill wife, was viewed by 18 million people. Doctors were encouraged to decide on their own who should live or die, Killing became part of hospital routine as infants, children, and adults were put to death by starvation, poisoning, and injections. Killings even continued in some of Germanys mental asylums, such as Kaufbeuren, weeks after Allied troops had occupied surrounding areas. This story is told on one of the Museum ID cards distributed to visitors enter ing the permanent exhibition.(Select to view supporting story) Between the middle of 1941 and the winter of 1944-45, in a program known under code 14f13, experienced psychiatrists from the T4 operation were sent to concentration camps to weed out prisoners too ill to work. After superficial medical screenings, designated inmates Jews, Gypsies, Russians, Poles, Germans, and others were sent to those euthanasia centers where gas chambers still had not been dismantled, at Bernburg and Hartheim, where they were gassed. At least 20,000 people are believed to have died under the 14f13 program. Outside of Germany, thousands of mental patients in the occupied territories of Poland, Russia, and East Prussia were also killed by the Einsatzgruppen squads (SS and special police units) that followed in the wake of the invading German army. Between September 29 and November 1, 1939, these units shot about 3,700 mental patients in asylums in the region of Bromberg, Poland. In December 1939 and January 1940, SS units gassed 1,558 patients from Polish asylums in specially adapted gas vans, in order to make room for military and SS barracks. Although regular army units did not officially participate in such cleansing actions as general policy, some instances of their involvement have been documented. In all, between 200,000 and 250,000 mentally and physically handicapped persons were murdered from 1939 to 1945 under the T4 and other euthanasia programs. The magnitude of these crimes and the extent to which they prefigured the final solution continue to be studied. Further, in an age of genetic engineering and renewed controversy over mercy killings of the incurably ill, ethical and moral issues of concern to physicians, scientists, and lay persons alike remain vital. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION Bishop of Mnster, Clemens August Count von Galen, protested the T4 killings in a sermon August 13, 1941. Thousands of copies were printed and circulated. Galen was not punished because Hitler did not want to clash openly with the Catholic Church.(Select to view supportingarticle) VISIT THE PERMANENT EXHIBITION The Science of Race (4th floor): eleven eugenics books; slides used to depict racial types and physical deformities; anthropologists tools for measuring skulls and noses from Ulm, Germany The Murder of the Handicapped (4th floor); body, hand, and wrist restraints and leather gloves used in the Bernburg Psychiatric Hospital in Germany; a hospital bed and blanket, doctors coat, syringes, and other medical instruments used in the Psychiatric Asylum and Hospital in Schwerin, Germany The Killers (2nd floor): photos of medical trials on video monitor Information below is pertinent to the Wexner Learning Center. VISIT THE WEXNER LEARNING CENTER (2nd floor) From the MENU choose TOPIC LIST. From the alphabetical list of topics choose Racism: The Use of Nazi Racial Theory. Touch Nazi Euthanasia Program to learn more about the euthanasia program. From the MENU choose ID CARD. Type in the following numbers to read stories of victims of the euthanasia program: 6187, 1823. RESEARCH INSTITUTE HOLDINGS LIBRARY Many scholarly works published in the last ten years on race hygiene, forced sterilization, and the euthanasia program. ARCHIVES A number of documents related to forced sterilizations. ORAL HISTORY ARCHIVES Audiotape of the sister of a euthanasia victim. Videotape of an individual rescued by his mother. PHOTO ARCHIVES Photographs depicting the handicapped in medical custody and of some of the euthanasia institutes and T-4 staff. RECOMMENDED READING Burleigh, Michael, and Wolfgang Wipperman. The Racial State: Germany, 1933-1945 (London, 1991). Gallagher, Hugh C. By Trust Betrayed: Patients, Physicians, and the License to Kill in the Third Reich (New York, 1990). Lifton, Robert J. The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide (New York, 1986). Mller-Hill, Benno. Murderous Science: Elimination by Scientific Selection of Jews, Gypsies and Others; Germany 1933-1945 (Oxford, 1988). Proctor, Robert. Racial Hygiene: Medicine under the Nazis (Cambridge, MA, 1988). Pross, Christian, and Gtz Aly. The Value of the Human Being: Medicine in Germany, 1918-1945 (Berlin, 1991). Weindling, Paul. Health, Race and German Politics between National Unification and Nazism 1870-1945 (Cambridge, England, 1989).

Fair Usage Law

July 19, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Holocaust  Comments Closed

Holocaust (TV Mini-Series 1978 ) – IMDb

Edit Storyline “Holocaust” follows each member of the Jewish Family Weiss throughout Hitler’s reign in Germany. One by one, the family members suffer the horrible fate of extermination under Anti-Semetic Nazi Law until only one son remains at the end of World War II. A sub-plot follows the story of Eric Dorf, a young German lawyer with a good heart who is changed into a mass murderer by membership in the SS. Written byAnthony Hughes Taglines:The story of man’s inhumanity to man. Runtime: 475 min | 420 min (DVD) (2008) | 448 min (DVD) (2008) Aspect Ratio: 1.33 : 1

Fair Usage Law

June 9, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Holocaust  Comments Closed

Holocaust – definition of holocaust by The Free Dictionary

holocaust (hl-kst, hl-)n. 1. Great destruction resulting in the extensive loss of life, especially by fire. a. Holocaust The genocide of European Jews and other groups by the Nazis during World War II: “Israel emerged from the Holocaust and is defined in relation to that catastrophe” (Emanuel Litvinoff). b. A massive slaughter: “an important document in the so-far sketchy annals of the Cambodian holocaust” (Rod Nordland). 3. A sacrificial offering that is consumed entirely by flames. [Middle English, burnt offering, from Old French holocauste, from Latin holocaustum, from Greek holokauston, from neuter of holokaustos, burnt whole : holo-, holo- + kaustos, burnt (from kaiein, to burn).] holocaustal, holocaustic adj. Usage Note: Holocaust has a secure place in the language when it refers to the massive destruction of humans by other humans. In our 1987 survey 99 percent of the Usage Panel accepted the use of holocaust in the phrase nuclear holocaust. Sixty percent accepted the sentence As many as two million people may have died in the holocaust that followed the Khmer Rouge takeover in Cambodia. But because of its associations with genocide, people may object to extended applications of holocaust. The percentage of the Panel’s acceptance drops sharply when people use the word to refer to death brought about by natural causes. In our 1999 survey 47 percent approved the sentence In East Africa five years of drought have brought about a holocaust in which millions have died. Just 16 percent approved The press gives little coverage to the holocaust of malaria that goes on, year after year, in tropical countries, where there is no mention of widespread mortality. The Panel has little enthusiasm for more figurative usages of holocaust. In 1999, only 7 percent accepted Numerous small investors lost their stakes in the holocaust that followed the precipitous drop in stocks. This suggests that these extended uses of the word may be viewed as overblown or in poor taste. Word History: Totality of destruction has been central to the meaning of holocaust since it first appeared in Middle English in the 1300s, used in reference to the biblical sacrifice in which a male animal was wholly burnt on the altar in worship of God. Holocaust comes from Greek holokauston, “that which is completely burnt,” which was a translation of Hebrew ‘l (literally “that which goes up,” that is, in smoke). In this sense of “burnt sacrifice,” holocaust is still used in some versions of the Bible. In the 1600s, the meaning of holocaust broadened to “something totally consumed by fire,” and the word eventually was applied to fires of extreme destructiveness. In the 1900s, holocaust took on a variety of figurative meanings, summarizing the effects of war, rioting, storms, epidemic diseases, and even economic failures. Most of these usages arose after World War II, but it is unclear whether they permitted or resulted from the use of holocaust in reference to the mass murder of European Jews and others by the Nazis. This application of the word occurred as early as 1942, but the phrase the Holocaust did not become established until the late 1950s. Here it parallels and may have been influenced by another Hebrew word, ‘, “catastrophe” (in English, Shoah). In the Bible ‘ has a range of meanings including “personal ruin or devastation” and “a wasteland or desert.” ‘ was first used to refer to the Nazi slaughter of Jews in 1939, but the phrase ha-‘, “the catastrophe,” became established only after World War II. Holocaust has also been used to translate urbn, “destruction,” another Hebrew word used as a name for the genocide of Jews by the Nazis. 1. great destruction or loss of life or the source of such destruction, esp fire 2. (Historical Terms) (usually capital) Also called: the Churban or the Shoah the mass murder of Jews and members of many other ethnic, social, and political groups in continental Europe between 1940 and 1945 by the Nazi regime [C13: from Late Latin holocaustum whole burnt offering, from Greek holokauston, from holo- + kaustos, from kaiein to burn] holocaustal, holocaustic adj n. 1. a great or complete devastation or destruction, esp. by fire. 2. a sacrifice consumed by fire. 3. the Holocaust, the systematic mass slaughter of European Jews in Nazi concentration camps during World War II. 4. any reckless destruction of life. [120050; Middle English

Fair Usage Law

April 20, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Holocaust  Comments Closed

Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center

Karkomi Holocaust ExhibitionThe experience of Pre-war Germany, the Holocaust, liberation and beyond is brought to life through the memories of those who lived it. Explore more than 200 artifacts including personal items and photos, films, and a German rail car from the era.Learn More >

Fair Usage Law

February 23, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Holocaust  Comments Closed

Holocaust bill: Why Poland’s president Andrzej Duda signed it …

Poland’s President Andrzej Duda said Feb. 6 he will sign a bill he claims protects his nation’s “dignity” and “historical truth.” Critics say it bans true statements about the role that some Poles played in the Holocaust. (Reuters) BERLIN Polish President Andrzej Dudasigneda lawTuesdaybanning people from accusingPoland of Holocaust atrocities committed by the Nazis and from referring to concentration camps as “Polish death camps” — heightening tensions with the United States and Israel, which have criticized the measure. U.S.Secretary of State Rex Tillerson said Tuesday that he was disappointed in Duda’s decision.Enactment of this law adversely affects freedom of speech and academic inquiry … We believe that open debate, scholarship, and education are the best means of countering misleading speech, Tillersonsaid. Duda also announced Tuesday that he would ask the countrys Constitutional Tribunal to review the bill to check whether it complies withPolands fundamental rights, such as freedom of speech, potentially opening the door to amendments. Responding to the news of Duda’sdecision, Israel’s Foreign Ministry expressed hope that the constitutional reviewwouldprompt changes and corrections. But the law is expected to take effect before the tribunal would be able to issue any clarifications, and the independence ofthejudgesthemselves. [Poland wants to outlaw blaming Poles for Nazi atrocities. But what about the Jedwabne massacre?] The constitutional tribunal in its current composition serves the goals of the ruling party … It isdefinitely not independent, saidPiotr Buras, head of the Warsaw office of the European Council on Foreign Relations. But referring the bill to the tribunal was probably still the best available option to the Polish president. Buras added: To the international audience, especially the U.S. and Israel, it signals that the Polish side sees the seriousness of the case and is perhaps ready for some changes. But it also signals to the ruling partys most conservative domestic supporters that the government is not ready to back down. By refusing to veto the bill, Duda dashedthe possibility ofpoliticalnegotiations, which Israel and the United Stateshadstill hoped for in recent days. Instead, the bill is to take effect within the next two weeks. The tribunal is now the only institution that could still reverse thelaw in its entirety or in parts. Under a new law passed in Poland on Feb. 1, any suggestion the country was complicit in the Holocaust could land offenders in jail. Israel and the U.S. accused Poland of stifling discussion about the Nazi death camps built there. (Reuters) The bills international critics argue that it violates freedom of expression.Once in effect, it willessentially ban accusations that some Poles were complicit in Nazi crimes committed on Polish soil, including in the Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp, where more than 1.1millionpeople died. Germany operated six camps in Poland where Jews and others whom the Nazis considered enemies were killed. Anyone convicted under the lawwill face fines or up to three years in jail. Polish officials have emphasized that artistic and historical research work will not be affected by the ban. But there is too muchroom for interpretation, saidAgnieszka Markiewicz, the director ofthe American Jewish Committee’scentral Europe office. Who is going to determine what artistic or academic expression means? A scholarassociated with a universitymight be excluded, but what about a schoolteacher who shares some of the horrible stories that happened in Poland? Markiewicz said that theAmerican Jewish Committee agreed that those crimes were committed by individuals rather than the Polish state and that the term Polish death camps, was unjust and untrue, but she cautioned that an extensive ban on freedom of speech was the wrong way forward. The State Departmentagreed in a statement last week that the phrase Polish death camps was inaccurate, misleading, and hurtful. But it alsocautioned that thebill could undermine free speech and academic discourse.The department warned that if the legislation is signed, it could have repercussions for Polands strategic interests and relationships. In Israel, the reaction was also fierce.One cannot change history, and the Holocaust cannot be denied, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said in a statement last week. On Tuesday,the executive vice chairman of the Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations,Malcolm Hoenlein,argued that Poland’s decision to pursue the law was a denial of facts. It is not credible to engage in the denial, Hoenlein said, according to the Associated Press. Netanyahu and Polish Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki spoke on the phone10 days ago, but despite appearing to agree to a diplomatic dialogue, thePolish government stood by the billlast week and pursued Senateapproval. Polish Deputy Justice Minister Patryk Jaki later referred to Israeli reactions as proof of how necessary this bill is. Inaspeech on Tuesday, Dudaused less provocative rhetoric. [We] do not deny that there were cases of huge wickednesson the part of some Poles toward Jews, he said,according to the AP. But Duda stressed that there was no systemic way in which Poles took part in Nazi crimes. Poland was invaded and occupied by Nazi Germany in 1939, but unlike in other European countries, there was no collaborationist Polish government.About 6million Polish citizens were killed during World War II, about half of them Jews. Throughout years of Nazi occupation between 1939 and 1945, a number of Polish underground movements resisted the Nazis. It is that chapter of history that the Law and Justice Party wants to emphasize. But historians have long argued that it is not the full story: Some Poles, they say, were complicit in the Nazi crimes.Historians have pointed to incidents, including a 1941 atrocity in the town of Jedwabne, in which Poles rounded up and killed their Jewish neighbors. Criticssay that the legislation is mainly intended to fuel nationalistic sentiments in the country. This is all about nationalism really, and about the imposition ofa nationalist historic narrative, said political scientist Rafal Pankowski in an interview last week.The Law and Justice partys emphasis on Polands heroicpast has proved an effective electoral strategy, even asithas faced a damaging international backlash. The debate about the bill has alsotriggered anintense focus on the very questions of complicity that nationalist Poles were hoping to sweep aside once and for all.The government’s attempt absolutely backfired, said Markiewicz, the director ofthe American Jewish Committee’s central Europe office. Of course, Poland has the right to[demand people to tell] thewhole truth. This country suffered immensely. It had the biggest resistance movement in Europe andhelpedthe Allies in fighting the Nazis.It was on the right side of history, she said.But in the past few days, the term ‘Polish death camp’ has probably been used more than everinthe past years. More on WorldViews: Trumps nuclear policy is taking us back to the Cold War As Germans celebrate the absence of the Berlin Wall, a new piece of it is discovered An American spent decades exposing the ivory trade. He was just found dead in his home.

Fair Usage Law

February 6, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Holocaust  Comments Closed

Holocaust denier Arthur Jones has no opponents in GOP primary …

Arthur Jones, known for his racist and anti-Semitic views, is running to represent Illinois’s 3rd District. (Elyse Samuels/The Washington Post) Like most candidates running for Congress, Arthur Jones has a campaign website. It outlines the Republican candidates educational background, stance on issues and how to donate to his campaign to represent Illinois 3rd Congressional District. It also lays out Joness unapologetically racist and anti-Semitic views. In a section called Holocaust? Jones describes the atrocities as a racket and the biggest, blackest, lie in history. Under another tab titled Flags of Conflict, he lists the Confederate flag first and describes it as a symbol of White pride and White resistance and the flag of a White counter revolution. And in his most recent blog post dated Aug. 24 Jones rails against Radical Leftists and blames them for starting racial violence that had roiledCharlottesville about two weeks earlier. Heather Heyer, 32, a protester at a white supremacist rally,died after a driver rammed a car into a crowd of demonstrators. Aself-professed neo-Nazihas been charged with first-degree murder in the incident. Jones painted the death as an accident. Despite his views, Jones is all but certain to become the GOP nominee in one of Illinoiss most prominent congressional districts one that includes parts of Chicago andseveral suburbs to the west and southwest. Jones is running unopposed in the Republican primary; the deadline for candidates to file was in early December. His chances of winning the seat are extremely slim. The district is rated safely Democratic, according to Ballotpedia, and two Democrats are facing off: Marie Newman and incumbent Daniel Lipinski.An independent candidate,Mat Tomkowiak, withdrew from the race. Still, even getting this far in the race is a new milestone for Jones. Over three decades, he has unsuccessfully thrown his hat into the ring for the 3rd District seat seven times,according to the Chicago Sun-Times. WhenSun-Times reporter Frank Main drove to Lyons, Ill., to track down Jones, the candidate was no less vocal about his extreme views. Well first of all, Im running for Congress not the chancellor of Germany, all right? Jones told Main. To me, the Holocaust is what I said it is: Its an international extortion racket. Jones also told the newspaper that he was once a leader in the American Nazi Party and now leads the America First Committee an organization whose membership is open to any white American citizen of European, non-Jewish descent. Jones did not immediately respond to interview requests Sunday afternoon. Its unclear how he arrived at the opinion that the Holocaust, a systematic genocide in which an estimated 6 million Jews were killed by the Nazi regime, was a sham. Jones has been involved with at least half a dozen racist groups stretching back to the 1970s, according to the Anti-Defamation League, which has a page devoted to Jones on its website. From 2008 and 2011, Jones was known to have participated in events celebrating the birthday of Nazi leader Adolf Hitler, the ADL page states. He was also among those who protested the 2009 opening of the Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center in Skokie, Ill., according to Haaretz. In 2016, the state election board tossed Jones from the ballot for the 3rd District for flagrant disregard of the election code, the Chicago Tribune reported, although a lawyer for the board did not specify why Joness signatures were not valid. The newspaper that year also highlighted Joness former membership in the American National Socialist Workers Party, which the Southern Poverty Law Center lists as a relatively recent offshoot of the National Socialist Movement, one of the largest and most prominent neo-Nazi groups in the United States. Representatives from the Illinois Republican Party did not respond to questions sent by email Sunday. But Tim Schneider, the chairman of the Illinois GOP, told the Sun-Times that the party denounced Jones. The Illinois Republican Party and our country have no place for Nazis like Arthur Jones, Schneider told the newspaper. We strongly oppose his racist views and his candidacy for any public office, including the 3rd Congressional District. The National Republican Congressional Committee, which supports conservative candidates, balked at questions about Jones. This guy is a fringe candidate who has been doing this for over a decade with no real connection to the GOP, NRCC spokesman Jesse Hunt said in a Sunday-night email. Writing about Jones, Hunt said, gives him exactly what he wants: a platform. And quite frankly I find it shameful. Joness candidacy comes at a time when far-right groups have had new clout in the national discussion: Some hate groups haveramped up recruitmenton college campuses and, for a time,some far-right leadersimagined they had an ally in the White Housein Stephen K. Bannon, who served as an adviser to President Trump before departing his post in August. Last week,Rep. Matt Gaetz (R-Fla.) was criticizedfor bringinganaccused Holocaust denieras his guest to the State of the Union address. Gaetz later defended himself, saying he didnt know who Chuck Johnson was when he invited him to the speech. Avi Selk contributed to this post, which has been updated. Read more: A neo-Nazi converted to Islam and killed 2 roommates for disrespecting his faith, police say Behind a bookcase, a secret passageway leads to a trove of Nazi artifacts in Argentina An American tourist gave the Nazi salute in Germany so a stranger beat him up, police say

Fair Usage Law

February 5, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Holocaust  Comments Closed

Polish Senate backs controversial legislation that will …

By Monika ScislowskaThe Associated Press Thu., Feb. 1, 2018 WARSAW, POLANDPolands Senate has backed legislation that will regulate Holocaust speech, a move that has already strained relations with both Israel and the United States. The bill proposed by Polands ruling conservative Law and Justice party and voted for early Thursday could see individuals facing up to three years in prison for intentionally attempting to falsely attribute the crimes of Nazi Germany to the Polish nation as a whole. It was approved by the lower house last week. The bill has yet to become law as it requires the approval from President Andrzej Duda, who has supported it. Although the bill exempts artistic and research work, it has raised concerns that the Polish state will decide itself what it considers to be historic facts. The bill has already sparked a diplomatic dispute with Israel and drawn calls from the United States for a reconsideration. Though Deputy Justice Minister Patryk Jaki suggested Israel had been consulted on the bill and voiced no objections, many in Israel have argued that the move is an attempt to whitewash the role some Poles played in the killing of Jews during World War II. Israels Foreign Ministry said Israel opposes categorically the vote by Polands senators. Israel views with utmost gravity any attempt to challenge historical truth, the ministry said in a statement. No law will change the facts. Halina Birenbaum, a Holocaust survivor and acclaimed Israeli author, called the new law madness, telling Israels Army Radio it was ludicrous and disproportionate to what actually happened to Jews there. Expressing surprise at the storm the legislation has unleashed, the Polish government said it planned to issue an explanatory statement later Thursday. Polands Deputy Prime Minister Jaroslaw Gowin said the government had acted in good faith and the countrys foreign ministry said the legislation is intended to protect historic truth and fight all forms of denying and distorting the truth about the Holocaust as well as belittling the responsibility of its actual perpetrators. Polands government argues that it is fighting against the use of phrases like Polish death camps to refer to camps operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II. Poland was among the hardest-hit victims of Nazi Germany, losing some six million citizens, half of them Jews, and is preserving Holocaust memorials. The government has expressed hope that adoption of the law will not affect Polands strategic partnership with the U.S. Working groups in Poland and Israel are to start discussing the issue this week, although it was not clear what effect it could have on the bill. Before the Senates vote, the U.S. asked Poland to rethink the proposed legislation saying it could undermine free speech and academic discourse and affect ties with the U.S. and Israel. Israels Holocaust memorial, Yad Vashem, issued a statement saying it was most unfortunate that Poland was proceeding with a law liable to blur historical truths that jeopardized the free and open discussion of the part of the Polish people in the persecution of the Jews at the time. Israeli Intelligence Minister who also looks after transport matters, Yisrael Katz said the law constituted a denial of Polands part in the Holocaust of the Jews. He called on Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu to immediately recall Israels ambassador from Warsaw for consultation. In the balance between diplomatic considerations and moral considerations, there must be a clear decision: perpetuating the memory of the victims of the Holocaust above any other consideration.

Fair Usage Law

February 2, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Holocaust  Comments Closed

The Holocaust in popular culture – Wikipedia

There is a wide range of ways in which people have represented the Holocaust in popular culture. The subject of the Holocaust has been dealt with in modern dance.[1] The Holocaust has been the subject of many films, such as Night and Fog (1955), The Pawnbroker (1964), The Sorrow and the Pity (1969), Voyage of the Damned (1976), Sophie’s Choice (1982), Shoah (1985), Korczak (1990), Schindler’s List (1993), Life Is Beautiful (1997), and The Pianist (2002). A list of hundreds of Holocaust movies is available at the University of South Florida,[7] and the most comprehensive Holocaust-related film database, comprising thousands of films, is available at the Yad Vashem visual center.[8] Arguably, the Holocaust film most highly acclaimed by critics and historians alike is Alain Resnais Night and Fog (1955), which is harrowingly brutal in its graphic depiction of the events at the camps. (One of the more notable scenes shows Jewish fat being carved into soap.) Many historians and critics have noted its realistic portrayal of the camps and its lack of histrionics present in so many other Holocaust films.[citation needed] Renowned film historian Peter Cowie states: “It’s a tribute to the clarity and cogency of Night and Fog that Resnais masterpiece has not been diminished by time, or displaced by longer and more ambitious films on the Holocaust, such as Shoah and Schindler’s List.”[9] With the aging population of Holocaust survivors, there has also been increasing attention in recent years to preserving the memory of the Holocaust through documentaries. Among the most influential of these[citation needed] is Claude Lanzmann’s Shoah, which attempts to tell the story in as literal a manner as possible, without dramatization of any kind. Reaching the young population (especially in countries where the Holocaust is not part of education programs) is a challenge, as shown in Mumin Shakirov’s documentary The Holocaust – Glue for Wallpaper?. The Holocaust has been a particularly important theme in cinema in the Central and Eastern European countries, particularly the cinemas of Poland, both the Czech and Slovak halves of Czechoslovakia, and Hungary. These nations hosted concentration camps and/or lost substantial portions of their Jewish populations to the gas chambers and, consequently, the Holocaust and the fate of Central Europe’s Jews has haunted the work of many film directors, although certain periods have lent themselves more easily to exploring the subject.[which?][citation needed] Although some directors were inspired by their Jewish roots, other directors, such as Hungary’s Mikls Jancs, have no personal connection to Judaism or the Holocaust and yet have repeatedly returned to explore the topic in their works.[which?][citation needed] Early films about the Holocaust include Auschwitz survivor Wanda Jakubowska’s semi-documentary The Last Stage (Ostatni etap, Poland, 1947) and Alfrd Radok’s hallucinogenic The Long Journey (Dalek cesta, Czechoslovakia, 1948). As Central Europe fell under the grip of Stalinism and state control over the film industry increased, works about the Holocaust ceased to be made until the end of the 1950s (although films about the World War II generally continued to be produced). Among the first films to reintroduce the topic were Ji Weiss’ Sweet Light in a Dark Room (Romeo, Juliet a tma, Czechoslovakia, 1959) and Andrzej Wajda’s Samson (Poland, 1961).[citation needed] In the 1960s, a number of Central European films that dealt with the Holocaust, either directly or indirectly, had critical successes internationally. In 1966, the Slovak-language Holocaust drama The Shop on Main Street (Obchod na korze, Czechoslovakia, 1965) by Jn Kadr and Elmer Klos won a special mention at the Cannes Film Festival in 1965 and the Oscar for Best Foreign Language Film the following year.[citation needed] Another sophisticated Holocaust film from Czechoslovakia is Dita Saxova (Antonn Moskalyk, 1967). [10] While some of these films, such as Shop on the Main Street, used a conventional filmmaking style,[citation needed] a significant body of films were bold stylistically and used innovative techniques to dramatise the terror of the period. This included nonlinear narratives and narrative ambiguity, as for example in Andrzej Munk’s Passenger (Pasaerka, Poland, 1963) and Jan Nmec’s Diamonds of the Night (Dmanty noci, Czechoslovakia, 1964); expressionist lighting and staging, as in Zbynk Brynych’s The Fifth Horseman is Fear (…a paty jezdec je Strach, Czechoslovakia, 1964); and grotesquely black humour, as in Juraj Herz’s The Cremator (Spalova mrtvol, Czechoslovakia, 1968). Literature was an important influence on these films, and almost all of the film examples cited in this section were based on novels or short stories. In Czechoslovakia, five stories by Arnot Lustig were adapted for the screen in the 1960s, including Nmec’s Diamonds of the Night.[citation needed] Although some works, such as Munk’s The Passenger,[when?] had disturbing and graphic sequences of the camps,[citation needed] generally these films depicted the moral dilemmas the Holocaust placed ordinary people in and the dehumanising effects it had on society as a whole, rather than the physical tribulations of individuals actually in the camps. As a result, a body of these Holocaust films were interested in those who collaborated in the Holocaust, either by direct action, as for example in The Passenger and Andrs Kovcs’s Cold Days (Hideg Napok, Hungary, 1966), or through passive inaction, as in The Fifth Horseman is Fear.[citation needed] The 1970s and 1980s were less fruitful times for Central European film generally,[citation needed] and Czechoslovak cinema particularly suffered after the 1968 Soviet-led invasion.[citation needed] Nevertheless, interesting works on the Holocaust, and more generally the Jewish experience in Central Europe, were sporadically produced in this period, particularly in Hungary. Holocaust films from this time include Imre Gyngyssy and Barna Kabay’s The Revolt of Job (Jb lzadsa, Hungary, 1983), Leszek Wosiewicz’s Kornblumenblau (Poland, 1988), and Ravensbrck survivor Juraj Herz’s Night Caught Up With Me (Zastihla m noc, Czechoslovakia, 1986), whose shower scene is thought to be the basis of Spielberg’s similar sequence in Schindler’s List.[citation needed] Directors such as Istvn Szab (Hungary) and Agnieszka Holland (Poland) were able to make films that touched on the Holocaust by working internationally, Szab with his Oscar-winning Mephisto (Germany/Hungary/Austria, 1981) and Holland with her more directly Holocaust-themed Angry Harvest (Bittere Ernte, Germany, 1984). Also worth noting is the East German-Czechoslovak coproduction Jacob the Liar (Jakob, der Lgner, 1975) in German and directed by German director Frank Beyer, but starring the acclaimed Czech actor Vlastimil Brodsk. The film was remade in an English-language version in 1999 but did not achieve the scholarly acceptance of the East German version by Beyer.[citation needed] A resurgence of interest in Central Europe’s Jewish heritage in the post-Communist era has led to a number of more recent features about the Holocaust, such as Wajda’s Korczak (Poland, 1990), Szab’s Sunshine (Germany/Austria/Canada/Hungary, 1999), and Jan Hebejk’s Divided We Fall (Musme si pomhat, Czech Republic, 2001). Both Sunshine and Divided We Fall are typical of a trend of recent films from Central Europe that asks questions about integration and how national identity can incorporate minorities.[citation needed] Generally speaking, these recent films have been far less stylised and subjectivised than their 1960s counterparts. For example, Polish director Roman Polanski’s The Pianist (France/Germany/UK/Poland, 2002) was noted for its emotional economy and restraint, which somewhat surprised some critics given the overwrought style of some of Polanski’s previous films[citation needed] and Polanski’s personal history as a Holocaust survivor.[citation needed] There is a substantial body of literature and art in many languages. Perhaps one of the most difficult part of studying Holocaust literature is the language often used in stories or essays; survivor Primo Levi notes in an interview for the International School for Holocaust Studies, housed at the Yad Vashem: This type of language is present in many, if not most, of the words by authors presented here. These authors published fictional works as their memoirs and claimed to be holocaust survivors: The Holocaust has been a common subject in American literature, with authors ranging from Saul Bellow to Sylvia Plath addressing it in their works. German philosopher Theodor Adorno famously commented that “writing poetry after Auschwitz is barbaric”, but he later retracted this statement. There are some substantial works dealing with the Holocaust and its aftermath, including the work of survivor Paul Celan, which uses inverted syntax and vocabulary in an attempt to express the inexpressible. Celan considered the German language tainted by the Nazis, although it is interesting to note his friendship with Nazi sympathizer and philosopher Martin Heidegger. Poet Charles Reznikoff, in his 1975 book Holocaust,[23] created a work intrinsically respectful of the pitfalls implied by Adorno’s statement; in itself both a “defense of poetry” and an acknowledgment of the obscenity of poetical rhetoric relative to atrocity, this book utilizes none of the author’s own words, coinages, flourishes, interpretations and judgments: it is a creation solely based on U.S. government records of the Nuremberg Trials and English-translated transcripts of the Adolf Eichmann trial in Jerusalem. Through selection and arrangement of these source materials (the personal testimonies of both survivor victims and perpetrators), and severe editing down to essentials, Reznikoff fulfills a truth-telling function of poetry by laying bare human realities, and horrors, without embellishment, achieving the “poetic” through ordering the immediacy of documented testimony. In 1998, Northwestern University Press published an anthology, edited by Marguerite M. Striar, entitled Beyond Lament: Poets of the World Bearing Witness to the Holocaust,[24] which, in poetry, defends the sentiments of the statement of Adorno, in a section entitled “In Defense of Poetry,” and reinforces the need to document for future generations what occurred in those times so as to never forget. The book collects, in poetry by survivors, witnesses, and many other poetswell known and notremembrances of, and reflections on, the Holocaust, dealing with the subject in other sections chronologically, the poems organized in further sections by topics: “The Beginning: Premonitions and Prophecies,” “The Liberation,” and “The Aftermath.” Aside from Adorno’s opinion, a great deal of poetry has been written about the Holocaust by poets from various backgroundssurvivors (for example, Sonia Schrieber Weitz[25]) and countless others, including well-known poet, William Heyen (author of Erika: Poems of the Holocaust, The Swastika Poems,and The Shoah Train), himself a nephew of two men who fought for the Nazis in World War II. I Never Saw Another Butterfly, by Hana Volavkova, is a collection of works of art and poetry by Jewish children who lived in the concentration camp Theresienstadt. Pinaki Roy offered a comparative study of the different Holocaust novels written in or translated into English.[26] Roy also reread different Holocaust victims’ poems translated into English for the elements of suffering and protestations ingrained in them.[27] Elsewhere, Roy explored different aspects of Anne Frank’s memoir of the Nazi atrocities, one of the more poignant remembrances of the excesses of World War II.[28] Moreover, in his “Damit wir nicht vergessen!: a very brief Survey of Select Holocaust Plays”, published in English Forum(4, 2015: 121-41, ISSN2279-0446), Roy offers a survey and critical estimate of different plays (in Yiddish, German, and English translation), which deal with the theme of the Holocaust. Ernestine Schlant has analyzed the Holocaust literature by West German authors.[29] She discussed literary works by Heinrich Bll, Wolfgang Koeppen, Alexander Kluge, Gert Hofmann, W.G. Sebald and others. The so-called Vterliteratur (novels about fathers) from around 1975 reflected the new generation’s exploration of their fathers’ (and occasionally mothers’) involvement in the Nazi atrocities, and the older generation’s generally successful endeavour to pass it under silence.[30] This was often accompanied by a critical portrayal of the new generation’s upbringing by authoritarian parents. Jews are usually absent from these narratives, and the new generation tends to appropriate from unmentioned Jews the status of victimhood.[31] One exception, where the absence of the Jew was addressed through the gradual ostracism and disappearance of an elderly Jew in a small town, is Gert Hofmann’s Veilchenfeld (1986).[32] White Wolf, Inc. put out Charnal Houses of Europe: The Shoah in 1997 under its adult Black Dog Game Factory label. It is a carefully researched, respectful, and horrifically detailed supplement on the ghosts of the victims of the Holocaust for the Wraith: The Oblivion. The songs that were created during the Holocaust in ghettos, camps, and partisan groups tell the stories of individuals, groups and communities in the Holocaust period and were a source of unity and comfort, and later, of documentation and remembrance.[33] Terezn: The Music 194144 is a set of CDs of music composed by inmates at Terezn concentration camp.[34][35][36] It contains chamber music by Gideon Klein, Viktor Ullmann, and Hans Krsa, the children’s opera Brundibr by Krsa, and songs by Ullmann and Pavel Haas. The music was composed in 1943 and 1944, and all the composers died in concentration camps in 1944 and 1945.[37] The CDs were released in 1991. The massacre of Jews at Babi Yar inspired a poem written by a Russian poet Yevgeny Yevtushenko which was set to music by Dmitri Shostakovich in his Symphony No. 13 in B-Flat Minor, first performed in 1962. In 1966, the Greek composer Mikis Theodorakis released the Ballad of Mauthausen, a cycle of four arias with lyrics based on poems written by Greek poet Iakovos Kambanellis, a Mauthausen concentration camp survivor. In Pink Floyd’s album The Wall (1979), one of the record’s tracks is titled “Waiting for the Worms”. This song is set in the middle of the time the main character, Pink, has become a neo-nazi, and the head of a fascist group. The song seems to be set in a march down a main street in Brixton, England, with Pink singing/saying the lyrics through a megaphone. One of the lyrics from the song is, “Waiting! For the final solution to strengthen the strain!” In 1984, Canadian rock band Rush recorded the song “Red Sector A” on the album Grace Under Pressure. The song is particularly notable for its allusions to The Holocaust, inspired by Geddy Lee’s memories of his mother’s stories[38] about the liberation of Bergen-Belsen, where she was held prisoner. One of Lee’s solo songs, “Grace to Grace” on the album My Favourite Headache, was also inspired by his mother’s Holocaust experiences.[38] In 1988, Steve Reich composed Different Trains, a three-movement piece for string quartet and tape. In the second movement, Europe During the War, three Holocaust survivors (identified by Reich as Paul, Rachel, and Rachella) speak about their experiences in Europe during the war, including their train trips to concentration camps. The third movement, “After the War”, features Holocaust survivors talking about the years immediately following World War II. Kaddish (1993), by Towering Inferno, and Kaddish, by Israeli band Salem (1994), are concept albums based on the Holocaust. In 2007, composer Lior Navok composed “And The Trains Kept Coming…” (Slavery Documents no.3) for narrators, soloists, choir and orchestra, based on real documents, correspondence between the allies, train schedules and last letters. It was premiered in Boston, by the Cantata Singers, David Hoose, music director. [1] The fifth track on Sabaton’s Coat of Arms (2010) album is titled “Final Solution” and contains explicit lyrics describing the trains and the furnaces. On Disturbed’s album Asylum (2010), the song “Never Again” is about the Holocaust. There are many plays related to the Holocaust, for example “The Substance of Fire” by Jon Robin Baitz, “The Resistible Rise of Arturo Ui” by Bertolt Brecht, Jeff Cohen’s “The Soap Myth”, Dea Loher’s “Olga’s Room”, “Cabaret”, the stage adaptation of “The Diary of Anne Frank”, “Broken Glass” by Arthur Miller, and “Bent” by Martin Sherman.[39][40] In 2010 the Advisory Board of the National Jewish Theater Foundation launched the Holocaust Theater International Initiative, which has three parts: the Holocaust Theater Catalog, a digital catalog in the form of a website containing plays from 1933 to the present about the Holocaust that has user specific informative entries, the Holocaust Theater Education (HTE), which is the development of curricula, materials, techniques, and workshops for the primary, secondary, and higher education levels, and the Holocaust Theater Production (HTP), which is the promotion and facilitation of an increased number of live domestic and international productions about the Holocaust, that includes theater works to be recorded for digital access.[41] The Holocaust Theater Catalog, which launched in October 2014, is the first comprehensive archive of theater materials related to the Holocaust; it was created by the Sue and Leonard Miller Center for Contemporary Judaic Studies and the George Feldenkreis Program in Judaic Studies both at the University of Miami and the National Jewish Theater Foundation.[40] Creating artwork inside the Nazi concentration camps and ghettos was punishable; if found, the person who created it could be killed. The Nazis branded art that portrayed their regime poorly as “horror propaganda”.[42] Nonetheless, many people painted and sketched as inhabitants needed a way to bring life into their lives and express their human need to create and be creative. The Nazis found many of the artists’ works before the prisoners could complete them. From Holocaust Survivors And Remembrance ProjectiSurvived.org: DEFA Film Library Massachusetts World ORT Resources:

Fair Usage Law

February 2, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Holocaust  Comments Closed

Polish Senate passes Holocaust bill slammed by Israel – Al …

Polands senate on Thursday passed a controversial Holocaust bill, which was designed to defend the countrys image abroad but has instead sparked a diplomatic row with Israel. The bill, which sets fines or a maximum three-year jail term for anyone who refers to Nazi German death camps as Polish or accuses Poland of complicity in the Third Reichs crimes, was approved by 57 votes to 23 in the upper house of parliament, with two abstentions. Israel had earlier called for the bill to be dropped, seeing one of its provisions as an attempt to deny Polish involvement in Nazi Germanys extermination of Jews. We have no tolerance for the distortion of the truth and rewriting history or denying the Holocaust, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said Sunday. ALSO READ:Skeptical at first, US author writes on progressive Saudi remarks on Holocaust The lower house of parliament, which like the senate is controlled by the governing right-wing Law and Justice (PiS) party, had passed the bill on Friday — triggering the protest from abroad. Knesset lawmakers penned a proposed bill of their own Wednesday amending Israels law regarding Holocaust denial, so that diminishing or denying the role of those who aided the Nazis in crimes against Jews would be punishable with jail. Before the vote on the Polish bill, US State Department spokeswoman Heather Nauert expressed concern that if enacted this draft legislation could undermine free speech and academic discourse. We are also concerned about the repercussions this draft legislation… could have on Polands strategic interests and relationships — including with the United States and Israel, she added. To take effect, the legislation still needs to be signed by Polish President Andrzej Duda, who has 21 days to do so. In theory he could veto the bill but on Monday he said: We absolutely cant back down, we have the right to defend the historical truth. He added that he was flabbergasted by Israels violent and very unfavorable reaction. Poland was attacked and occupied by Nazi Germany in World War II, losing six million of its citizens including three million Jews. Muslim World League: Holocaust is a crime that no one can deny or undermine Helping Jews, even offering them a glass of water, was punishable by death in occupied Poland. More than 6,700 Poles — outnumbering any other nationality — have been honored as Righteous Among the Nations, a title given to non-Jews who stood up to the Nazis, by Jerusalems Holocaust memorial Yad Vashem. Yad Vashem said it opposes the Polish bill, as it is liable to blur the historical truths regarding the assistance the Germans received from the Polish population during the Holocaust. But it added that to refer to the extermination camps the Nazis built in Poland as Polish is a historical misrepresentation. American Jewish Committee CEO David Harris urged Polish leaders to withdraw the legislation and focus on education, not criminalization, about inaccurate and harmful speech. Last Update: Thursday, 1 February 2018 KSA 09:53 – GMT 06:53

Fair Usage Law

February 2, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Holocaust  Comments Closed


Fair Use Disclaimer

"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances."

Under the 'fair use' rule of copyright law, an author may make limited use of another author's work without asking permission. Fair use is based on the belief that the public is entitled to freely use portions of copyrighted materials for purposes of commentary and criticism. The fair use privilege is perhaps the most significant limitation on a copyright owner's exclusive rights.

Fair use as described at 17 U.S.C. Section 107:

"Notwithstanding the provisions of section 106 and 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phono-records or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright.

In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include:

  • (1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for or nonprofit educational purposes,
  • (2) the nature of the copyrighted work,
  • (3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole, and
  • (4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work."