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For evangelicals, Jerusalem is about prophecy, not politics …

I know that sounds odd. Especially coming from a liberal Episcopalian like me. But there you have it. The President makes a world-important declaration about global politics, and an absurdly apocalyptic thought arises, “Jerusalem? The Last Days must be at hand!”

When I was a teenager in the 1970s, I attended a “Bible church,” a nondenominational congregation that prided itself on a singular devotion to scripture. We read the Bible all the time: in personal Bible study and evening Bible classes. We listened to hourlong Sunday morning sermons. For us, the Bible was not just a guide to piety. It also revealed God’s plan for history. Through it, we learned how God had worked in the past and what God would do in the future.

Central to that plan was Jerusalem, the city of peace, and the dwelling place of God. It was special to the Jews because it was the home of Abraham and David. It was special to us because it was where Jesus had died and risen. We believed that ultimately, Christ would return to Jerusalem to rule as its king. We longed for this outcome — and we prayed that human history would help bring about this biblical conclusion.

Jerusalem was our prophetic bellwether. God’s plan hung on its fate. Whenever Israel gained more political territory, whenever Israel extended its boundaries, it was God’s will, the end-times unfolding on the evening news. Jerusalem, as the spiritual heart of Israel, mattered. Jerusalem was God’s holy city, of the ancient past, in its conflicted present, and for the biblical future.

For many conservative evangelicals, Jerusalem is not about politics. It is not about peace plans or Palestinians or two-state solutions. It is about prophecy. About the Bible. And, most certainly, it is about the end-times.

When I was young, our pastor insisted that Jerusalem had an important role to play in these end-times events. When the Jews rejected Jesus as the messiah, he explained, God chose the church to accomplish his mission. Soon this “church age” would end with the rapture of true believers.

But God still loved the Jews, he told us, and wanted to redeem them. Thus, absent the church, the Jews would experience a great religious rebirth and rebuild their temple in Jerusalem. This would spark a series of cataclysmic events that would culminate in the Battle of Armageddon, the last war of humanity. But it would also cause the Jews to finally accept Jesus as their savior. After all this occurred, Jesus would return in glory and God’s kingdom — a thousand-year reign of peace. And it would begin in Jerusalem.

This theology — a literal belief that all these things must happen before Jesus will return to reign on Earth — is called “dispensational pre-millennialism” and it is not the quirky opinion of some isolated church. Although the majority of Christians do not share these views, versions of dispensational pre-millennialism dominate American evangelicalism.

Other evangelical pastors and teachers also praised the action as “biblical” and likened it to a “fulfilled prophecy.”

While that may sound benign (or perhaps nutty) to the theologically uninitiated, they are referring to the “prophecy” of the conversion of the Jews, the second coming of Jesus, the final judgment, and the end of the world — the events referred to as the biblical apocalypse.

I doubt that President Trump could explain dispensational pre-millennialism. I doubt he knows the term. But his evangelical supporters know it. Some of his advisers are probably whispering these prophecies in his ears. Trump might not really care how they interpret the Bible, but he cares that white evangelicals continue to stand with him. Moving the embassy to Jerusalem is one way to affirm his commitment to these evangelicals — reminding them that he, Donald J. Trump, is pressing biblical history forward to its conclusion and that he is God’s man in the unfolding of these last days.

I may not believe it — anymore, at least. You may not believe it. Donald Trump might not even truly believe it. But millions do. That matters. Not only for American politics, of course. For the peace of Jerusalem. And for peace for the rest of us as well.

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For evangelicals, Jerusalem is about prophecy, not politics …

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July 19, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Jerusalem  Comments Closed

30 Best Jerusalem Hotels, Israel (From $52) – Booking.com

One of the worlds oldest cities, Jerusalem is revered in Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Its focal point is the UNESCO World Heritage-listed Old City where 4 diverse quarters sit side by side, surrounded by 16th-century walls.

The most prominent Muslim Quarter landmark is the Dome of the Rock, a 7th-century shrine on Temple Mount whose gold dome is visible for miles. Nearby is Al-Aqsa Mosque, Islams 3rd holiest site.

In the Jewish Quarter is the Western Wall (or Wailing Wail), remains of ramparts surrounding the ancient Second Jewish Temple, where Jews offer prayers. By the walls in the Armenian Quarter is the Tower of David, a 2nd-century BC citadel overlooking some Jerusalem hotels near Jaffa Gate, one of 8 city gates.

The Christian Quarter houses the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, reportedly on the site of Jesus crucifixion, while the Mount of Olives another Christian site and home to some Jerusalem hotels near the old city is just east of the walls.

Other must-see Jerusalem sights include Israel Museum with the Dead Sea Scrolls, and Yad Vashem, a memorial to Holocaust victims. The Rockefeller Museum was the 1st Middle Eastern archaeology museum, and Jerusalem Biblical Zoo houses wildlife from the Hebrew Bible.

The closest airport to Jerusalem is Ben Gurion Airport, on the Tel Aviv road.

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Jerusalem: US Embassy opens as dozens killed in Gaza clashes …

At least 58 Palestinians were killed and more than 2,700 injured in Gaza as deadly protests took place ahead of, during and after the ceremony in Jerusalem, making it the deadliest day there since the 2014 Gaza war.

The violence could deepen Tuesday, when Palestinians mark what they call the “Nakba,” or Catastrophe, in memory of the more than 700,000 Palestinians who were either driven from or fled their homes during the Arab-Israeli war that accompanied the creation of the state of Israel in 1948.

On Monday, which marked the 70th anniversary of the founding of the state of Israel, US and Israeli leaders hailed the embassy move as a sign of the enduring relationship between the two countries and of US trustworthiness. American officials said it could create an honest foundation for an eventual peace agreement between Israelis and Palestinians.

President Donald Trump did not attend the ceremony in Jerusalem’s Arnona neighborhood, but in a video message broadcast at the event he congratulated Israel, saying the opening had been “a long time coming.”

“Today, Jerusalem is the seat of Israel’s government. It is the home of the Israeli legislature and the Israeli supreme court and Israel’s Prime Minister and President. Israel is a sovereign nation with the right, like every other sovereign nation, to determine its own capital, yet for many years we failed to acknowledge the obvious, the plain reality that Israel’s capital is Jerusalem,” Trump said in the prerecorded remarks.

“As I said in December, our greatest hope is for peace,” he added.

But that hopeful vision made for a jarring juxtaposition with the climbing death toll in Gaza, televised images of Palestinians running from gunfire and the decision by the Pentagon and State Department to boost the Marine Corps presence at US embassies across the Middle East and Africa.

The celebratory air at the official opening ceremony in Jerusalem’s Arnona neighborhood also contrasted sharply with calls from international leaders who expressed alarm at the spike in violence and appealed for calm, with some US allies denouncing the US decision to break with international norms by moving the embassy.

France expressed its official disapproval. South Africa pulled its envoy from Tel Aviv, while Turkey pulled its ambassadors from both Washington and Tel Aviv. President Recep Tayyip Erdogan told an audience in London that the US prefers “to become part of the problem rather than the solution” and that it “has lost its role as mediator in the Middle East peace process.”

Calls for calm

Riyad Mansour, the Palestinian representative to the United Nations, told reporters there is “no chance” that Palestinians will engage in the US-led peace process, while President Mahmoud Abbas called for three days of mourning.

Saudi Arabia, a close ally of the Trump administration, expressed “strong condemnation” of Israel’s use of force against Palestinian civilians, the official Saudi press agency said. Queen Rania of Jordan, another close US ally, tweeted that it was “a dark and sad day in history, marked with more Palestinian sacrifices.”

“When will the world’s conscience mobilize to give Palestinians the rights so many of us take for granted?” the Queen asked. “May God have mercy on those who lost their lives defending Jerusalem’s proud Arab identity.”

The UN secretary-general, Antonio Guterres, was “profoundly alarmed by the sharp escalation of violence in the occupied Palestinian territory and the high number of Palestinians killed and injured in the Gaza protests,” said his deputy spokesman Farhan Haq.

Guterres added that Israeli security forces “must exercise maximum restraint in the use of live fire” and “Hamas and the leaders of the demonstrations have a responsibility to prevent all violent actions and provocations.”

The UK’s Middle East minister, Alistair Burt, said that “we will not waver from our support for Israel’s right to defend its borders. But the large volume of live fire is extremely concerning.” He said, “We continue to implore Israel to show greater restraint.” He also said that “the UK supports the Palestinians’ right to protest, but these protests must be peaceful.”

Those calls diverged from the Trump administration’s insistence that the problem was on the Palestinian side and in particular Hamas’ “cynical” use of the situation.

“The responsibility for these tragic deaths rests squarely with Hamas,” White House deputy press secretary Raj Shah told reporters at the White House. “Hamas is intentionally and cynically provoking this response and as the secretary of state said, Israel has a right to defend itself.”

When asked about the contrast between rock-wielding Palestinians and armed Israel Defense Forces firing on them, Shah said, “This is a propaganda attempt. I think the Israeli government has spent weeks trying to handle this without violence.”

At the State Department, when Secretary of State Mike Pompeo was asked by CNN’s Michelle Kosinksi if he would address the ongoing violence, he simply turned and left the room.

Trump’s decision to declare Jerusalem the capital of Israel and relocate the embassy is contentious for Palestinians, who hope to claim part of the city as their future capital.

The city is also home to deeply holy sites for Jews and Christians. The issue has been so thorny that international negotiators had left the question of Jerusalem to the final stages of any peace deal.

At the ceremony Monday, politicians and dignitaries — including Ivanka Trump and her husband, Jared Kushner, — watched as US Treasury Secretary Steve Mnuchin unveiled the US seal, turning what was formally the consulate building into the embassy.

Kushner, who is also a senior adviser to the US President, called for unity in his address.

“We believe it is possible for both sides to gain more than they give — so that all people can live in peace — safe from danger, free from fear and able to pursue their dreams,” he said.

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu thanked Trump for his support on Twitter hours ahead of the opening ceremony.

“What an amazing day! Thank you, @POTUS Trump,” Netanyahu said while retweeting a Twitter post from Trump.

The opening of the embassy happened a day after Israel celebrated Jerusalem Day, marking what Israelis consider the reunification of the city.

Speaking at the ceremony, Netanyahu hailed the alliance between America and Israel as “stronger than ever.”

“What a glorious day. Remember this moment. This is history,” he said.

“President Trump, by recognizing history, you have made history. All of us are deeply moved; all of us are deeply grateful.”

Outside the embassy, police and protesters clashed as tensions ran high.

Fourteen protesters were arrested for confronting police officers and interrupting public order, Jerusalem police said.

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Why declaring Jerusalem capital of Israel is controversial – CNN

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“},{“title”:”Palestinian refugees indifferent to Trump’s plan”,”duration”:”02:26″,”sourceName”:”CNN”,”sourceLink”:”http://www.cnn.com”,”videoCMSUrl”:”/video/data/3.0/video/world/2017/12/07/jerusalem-world-away-wedeman-pkg.cnn/index.xml”,”videoId”:”world/2017/12/07/jerusalem-world-away-wedeman-pkg.cnn”,”videoImage”:”//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/171207035232-jerusalem-world-away-wedeman-pkg-00015028-large-169.jpg”,”videoUrl”:”/videos/world/2017/12/07/jerusalem-world-away-wedeman-pkg.cnn/video/playlists/donald-trump–israel/”,”description”:”Palestinians living in refugee camps in Lebanon say they hope to return home someday, and tell CNN’s Ben Wedeman that despite whatever Arab leaders say, they are largely indifferent to the symbolism of President Trump’s recognition of Jerusalem as Israel’s capital.”,”descriptionText”:”Palestinians living in refugee camps in Lebanon say they hope to return home someday, and tell CNN’s Ben Wedeman that despite whatever Arab leaders say, they are 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sides.”},{“title”:”Tillerson: Good opportunity for peace”,”duration”:”00:46″,”sourceName”:”CNN”,”sourceLink”:”http://www.cnn.com”,”videoCMSUrl”:”/video/data/3.0/video/world/2017/12/06/jerusalem-tillerson-mideast-peace-sot.cnn/index.xml”,”videoId”:”world/2017/12/06/jerusalem-tillerson-mideast-peace-sot.cnn”,”videoImage”:”//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/171206092959-jerusalem-tillerson-mideast-peace-sot-00000000-large-169.jpg”,”videoUrl”:”/videos/world/2017/12/06/jerusalem-tillerson-mideast-peace-sot.cnn/video/playlists/donald-trump–israel/”,”description”:”US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson says the Trump administration still believes there’s a very good opportunity for peace in the Mideast. “,”descriptionText”:”US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson says the Trump administration still believes there’s a very good opportunity for peace in the Mideast. “},{“title”:”Jerusalem mayor: I applaud Donald 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Why declaring Jerusalem capital of Israel is controversial – CNN

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The Jerusalem Post – Official Site

The Jerusalem Post – Jpost.com Israel News

The Jerusalem Post Is the leading english news source of American jewry. Jpost.com is its online version.It delivers Israel News, Arab and Israeli conflict updates, and news about the Jewish life both in Israel and in the diaspora.

15 Maslavita St.Tel-AvivMerkaz6701026Israel

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Jerusalem: Location and Facts | HISTORY.com

Since Israels independence, clashes between Israelis and Palestinians over key territories in Jerusalem have been ongoing.

Jewish law forbids Jews from praying in the Temple Mount. Yet, Israeli forces allow hundreds of Jewish settlers to enter the area routinely, which some Palestinians fear could lead to an Israeli takeover.

In fact, one key event that led to the Second Palestinian Intifada (a Palestinian uprising against Israel) happened when Jewish leader Ariel Sharon, who would become Israels Prime Minister, visited Jerusalems Temple Mount in 2000.

In recent years, some Israeli groups have even announced a plan to construct a third Jewish Temple on the Temple Mount. This proposal has outraged Palestinians living in the region.

In addition, both Israelis and Palestinians have aimed to make the city their capitals.

In 1980, Israel declared Jerusalem as its capital, but most of the international community doesnt recognize this distinction.

In May 2017, the Palestinian group Hamas presented a document that proposed the formation of a Palestinian state with Jerusalem as its capital. However, the group refused to recognize Israel as a state, and the Israeli government immediately rejected the idea.

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Old City (Jerusalem) – Wikipedia

The Old City (Hebrew: , Ha’Ir Ha’Atiqah, Arabic: , al-Balda al-Qadimah) is a 0.9 square kilometers (0.35sqmi) walled area[2] within the modern city of Jerusalem.

Until 1860, when the Jewish neighborhood Mishkenot Sha’ananim was established, this area constituted the entire city of Jerusalem.

The Old City is home to several sites of key religious importance: the Temple Mount and Western Wall for Jews, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre for Christians and the Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque for Muslims. It was added to the UNESCO World Heritage Site List in 1981.

Traditionally, the Old City has been divided into four uneven quarters, although the current designations were introduced only in the 19th century.[3] Today, the Old City is roughly divided (going counterclockwise from the northeastern corner) into the Muslim Quarter, Christian Quarter, Armenian Quarter and Jewish Quarter. The Old City’s monumental defensive walls and city gates were built in the years 15351542 by the Turkish sultan Suleiman the Magnificent.[4] The current population of the Old City resides mostly in the Muslim and Christian quarters. As of 2007[update] the total population was 36,965; the breakdown of religious groups in 2006 was 27,500 Muslims (up from ca. 17,000 in 1967, with over 30,000 by 2013, tendency: growing); 5,681 Christians (ca. 6,000 in 1967), not including the 790 Armenians (down to ca. 500 by 2011, tendency: decreasing); and 3,089 Jews (starting with none in 1967, as they were evicted after the Old City was captured by Jordan following the 1948 ArabIsraeli War, with almost 3,000 plus some 1,500 yeshiva students by 2013, tendency: growing).[5][6][7]

Following the 1948 ArabIsraeli War, the Old City was captured by Jordan and all its Jewish residents were evicted. During the Six-Day War in 1967, which saw hand-to-hand fighting on the Temple Mount, Israeli forces captured the Old City along with the rest of East Jerusalem, subsequently annexing them as Israeli territory and reuniting them with the western part of the city. Today, the Israeli government controls the entire area, which it considers part of its national capital. However, the Jerusalem Law of 1980, which effectively annexed East Jerusalem to Israel, was declared null and void by United Nations Security Council Resolution 478. East Jerusalem is now regarded by the international community as part of occupied Palestinian territory.[8][9]

In 2010, Jerusalem’s oldest fragment of writing was found outside the Old City’s walls.[10]

According to the Hebrew Bible, before King David’s conquest of Jerusalem in the 11th century BCE the city was home to the Jebusites. The Bible describes the city as heavily fortified with a strong city wall, a fact confirmed by archaeology. The Bible names the city ruled by King David as the City of David, in Hebrew Ir David, which was identified southeast of the Old City walls, outside the Dung Gate. In the Bible, David’s son, King Solomon, extended the city walls to include the Temple and Temple Mount.

The city was largely extended westwards after the Neo-Assyrian destruction of the northern Kingdom of Israel and the resulting influx of refugees. Destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar in 586 BCE, it was rebuilt on a smaller scale in about 440 BCE, during the Persian period, when, according to the Bible, Nehemiah led the Jews who returned from the Babylonian Exile. An additional, so-called Second Wall, was built by King Herod the Great. In 4144 CE, Agrippa, king of Judea, started building the so-called “Third Wall” around the northern suburbs. The entire city was totally destroyed by the Romans in 70 CE.

The northern part of the city was rebuilt by the Emperor Hadrian around 130, under the name Aelia Capitolina. In the Byzantine period Jerusalem was extended southwards and again enclosed by city walls.

Muslims occupied Byzantine Jerusalem in the 7th century (637 CE) under the second caliph, `Umar Ibn al-Khattab who annexed it to the Islamic Arab Empire. He granted its inhabitants an assurance treaty. After the siege of Jerusalem, Sophronius welcomed `Umar, allegedly because, according to biblical prophecies known to the Church in Jerusalem, “a poor, but just and powerful man” would rise to be a protector and ally to the Christians of Jerusalem. Sophronius believed that `Umar, a great warrior who led an austere life, was a fulfillment of this prophecy. In the account by the Patriarch of Alexandria, Eutychius, it is said that `Umar paid a visit to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and sat in its courtyard. When the time for prayer arrived, however, he left the church and prayed outside the compound, in order to avoid having future generations of Muslims use his prayer there as a pretext for converting the church into a mosque. Eutychius adds that `Umar also wrote a decree which he handed to the Patriarch, in which he prohibited Muslims gathering in prayer at the site.[11]

In 1099, Jerusalem was captured by the Western Christian army of the First Crusade and it remained in their hands until recaptured by the Arab Muslims, led by Saladin, on October 2, 1187. He summoned the Jews and permitted them to resettle in the city. In 1219, the walls of the city were razed by Mu’azzim Sultan of Damascus; in 1229, by treaty with Egypt, Jerusalem came into the hands of Frederick II of Germany. In 1239 he began to rebuild the walls, but they were demolished again by Da’ud, the emir of Kerak. In 1243, Jerusalem came again under the control of the Christians, and the walls were repaired. The Kharezmian Tatars took the city in 1244 and Sultan Malik al-Muazzam razed the walls, rendering it again defenseless and dealing a heavy blow to the city’s status.

The current walls of the Old City were built in 153542 by the Ottoman Turkish sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. The walls stretch for approximately 4.5km (2.8 miles), and rise to a height of between 5 and 15 metres (16.449ft), with a thickness of 3 metres (10 feet) at the base of the wall.[4] Altogether, the Old City walls contain 35 towers, most of which (15) are in the more exposed northern wall.[4] Suleiman’s wall had six gates, to which a seventh, the New Gate, was added in 1887; several other, older gates, have been walled up over the centuries. The Golden Gate was at first rebuilt and left open by Suleiman’s architects, only to be walled up a short while later. The New Gate was opened in the wall surrounding the Christian Quarter during the 19th century. Two secondary gates were reopened in recent times on the southeastern side of the city walls as a result of archaeological work.

In 1980, Jordan proposed that the Old City be listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[12] It was added to the List in 1981.[13] In 1982, Jordan requested that it be added to the List of World Heritage in Danger. The United States government opposed the request, noting that the Jordanian government had no standing to make such a nomination and that the consent of the Israeli government would be required since it effectively controlled Jerusalem.[14] In 2011, UNESCO issued a statement reiterating its view that East Jerusalem is “part of the occupied Palestinian territory, and that the status of Jerusalem must be resolved in permanent status negotiations.”[15]

In 2015, archaeologists uncovered the remnants of an impressive fort, built by Greeks in the center of old Jerusalem. It is believed that it is the remnants of the Acra fortress. The team also found coins that date from the time of Antiochus IV to the time of Antiochus VII. In addition, they found Greek arrowheads, slingshots, ballistic stones and amphorae.[16]

In the 1970s, while excavating the remains of the Nea Church (the New Church of the Theotokos), a Greek inscription was found. It reads: “This work too was donated by our most pious Emperor Flavius Justinian, through the provision and care of Constantine, most saintly priest and abbot, in the 13th year of the indiction.”[17][18] A second dedicatory inscription bearing the names of Emperor Justinian and of the same abbot of the Nea Church was discovered in 2017 among the ruins of a pilgrim hostel about a kilometre north of Damascus Gate, which proves the importance of the Nea complex at the time.[19][20]

The Muslim Quarter (Arabic: , Hrat al-Muslimn) is the largest and most populous of the four quarters and is situated in the northeastern corner of the Old City, extending from the Lions’ Gate in the east, along the northern wall of the Temple Mount in the south, to the Western Wall Damascus Gate route in the west. Its population was 22,000 in 2005. Like the other three quarters of the Old City, until the riots of 1929 the Muslim quarter had a mixed population of Muslims, Christians, and also Jews.[21] Today, there are “many Israeli settler homes” and “several yeshivas”, including Yeshivat Ateret Yerushalayim, in the Muslim Quarter.[5]

The Christian Quarter (Arabic: , rat an-Nara) is situated in the northwestern corner of the Old City, extending from the New Gate in the north, along the western wall of the Old City as far as the Jaffa Gate, along the Jaffa Gate Western Wall route in the south, bordering the Jewish and Armenian Quarters, as far as the Damascus Gate in the east, where it borders the Muslim Quarter. The quarter contains the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, viewed by many as Christianity’s holiest place.

The Armenian Quarter (Armenian: , Haygagan T’aamas, Arabic: , rat al-Arman) is the smallest of the four quarters of the Old City. Although the Armenians are Christian, the Armenian Quarter is distinct from the Christian Quarter. Despite the small size and population of this quarter, the Armenians and their Patriarchate remain staunchly independent and form a vigorous presence in the Old City. After the 1948 ArabIsraeli War, the four quarters of the city came under Jordanian control. Jordanian law required Armenians and other Christians to “give equal time to the Bible and Qur’an” in private Christian schools, and restricted the expansion of church assets.[citation needed] The 1967 war is remembered by residents of the quarter as a miracle, after two unexploded bombs were found inside the Armenian monastery. Today, more than 3,000 Armenians live in Jerusalem, 500 of them in the Armenian Quarter.[22][23] Some are temporary residents studying at the seminary or working as church functionaries. The Patriarchate owns the land in this quarter as well as valuable property in West Jerusalem and elsewhere. In 1975, a theological seminary was established in the Armenian Quarter. After the 1967 war, the Israeli government gave compensation for repairing any churches or holy sites damaged in the fighting, regardless of who caused the damage.[citation needed]

The Jewish Quarter (Hebrew: , HaRova HaYehudi, known colloquially to residents as HaRova, Arabic: , rat al-Yahd) lies in the southeastern sector of the walled city, and stretches from the Zion Gate in the south, bordering the Armenian Quarter on the west, along the Cardo to Chain Street in the north and extends east to the Western Wall and the Temple Mount. The quarter has a rich history, with several long periods of Jewish presence covering much of the time[dubious discuss] since the eighth century BCE.[24][25][26][27][28][29] In 1948, its population of about 2,000 Jews was besieged, and forced to leave en masse.[30] The quarter was completely sacked by Arab forces during the Battle for Jerusalem and ancient synagogues were destroyed.

The Jewish quarter remained under Jordanian control until its recapture by Israeli paratroopers in the Six-Day War of 1967. A few days later, Israeli authorities ordered the demolition of the adjacent Moroccan Quarter, forcibly relocating all of its inhabitants, in order to facilitate public access to the Western Wall.

The section of the Jewish quarter destroyed prior to 1967 has since been rebuilt and settled and has a population of 2,348 (as of 2005[update]).[31] Many large educational institutions have taken up residence. Before being rebuilt, the quarter was carefully excavated under the supervision of Hebrew University archaeologist Nahman Avigad. The archaeological remains are on display in a series of museums and outdoor parks, which tourists can visit by descending two or three stories beneath the level of the current city. The former Chief Rabbi is Rabbi Avigdor Nebenzahl, and the current Chief Rabbi is his son Rabbi Chizkiyahu Nebenzahl, who is on the faculty of Yeshivat Netiv Aryeh, which is situated directly across from the Kotel.

The quarter includes the “Karaites’ street” (Hebrew: , Rhehov Ha’karaim), on which the old Anan ben David Kenesa is located.[citation needed][32]

There was previously a small Moroccan quarter in the Old City. Within a week of the Six-Day War’s end, the Moroccan quarter was largely destroyed in order to give visitors better access to the Western Wall by creating the Western Wall plaza. The parts of the Moroccan Quarter that were not destroyed are now part of the Jewish Quarter. Simultaneously with the demolition, a new regulation was set into place by which the only access point for non-Muslims to the Temple Mount is through the Gate of the Moors, which is reached via the so-called Mughrabi Bridge.[33][34]

During different periods, the city walls followed different outlines and had a varying number of gates. During the era of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem for instance, Jerusalem had four gates, one on each side. The current walls were built by Suleiman the Magnificent, who provided them with six gates; several older gates, which had been walled up before the arrival of the Ottomans, were left as they were. As to the previously sealed Golden Gate, Suleiman at first opened and rebuilt it, but then walled it up again as well. The number of operational gates increased to seven after the addition of the New Gate in 1887; a smaller eighth one, the Tanners’ Gate, has been opened for visitors after being discovered and unsealed during excavations in the 1990s. The sealed historic gates comprise four that are at least partially preserved (the double Golden Gate in the eastern wall, and the Single, Triple, and Double Gates in the southern wall), with several other gates discovered by archaeologists of which only traces remain (the Gate of the Essenes on Mount Zion, the gate of Herod’s royal palace south of the citadel, and the vague remains of what 19th-century explorers identified as the Gate of the Funerals (Bab al-Jana’iz) or of al-Buraq (Bab al-Buraq) south of the Golden Gate[35]).

Until 1887, each gate was closed before sunset and opened at sunrise. As indicated by the chart below, these gates have been known by a variety of names used in different historical periods and by different communities.

[36][37]

Coordinates: 314636N 351403E / 31.77667N 35.23417E / 31.77667; 35.23417

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Old City (Jerusalem) – Wikipedia

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Opinion | The Jerusalem Post

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Eichmann in Jerusalem – Wikipedia

Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil is a book by political theorist Hannah Arendt, originally published in 1963.[1] Arendt, a Jew who fled Germany during Adolf Hitler’s rise to power, reported on Adolf Eichmann’s trial for The New Yorker.

Arendt’s subtitle famously introduced the phrase “the banality of evil,” which also serves as the final words of the book. In part, at least, the phrase refers to Eichmann’s deportment at the trial as the man displayed neither guilt for his actions nor hatred for those trying him, claiming he bore no responsibility because he was simply “doing his job” (“He did his duty…; he not only obeyed orders, he also obeyed the law.” p.135).

Arendt takes Eichmann’s court testimony and the historical evidence available, and she makes several observations about Eichmann:

Arendt suggests that this most strikingly discredits the idea that the Nazi criminals were manifestly psychopathic and different from “normal” people. From this document, many concluded that situations such as the Holocaust can make even the most ordinary of people commit horrendous crimes with the proper incentives, but Arendt adamantly disagreed with this interpretation, as Eichmann was voluntarily following the Fhrerprinzip. Arendt insists that moral choice remains even under totalitarianism, and that this choice has political consequences even when the chooser is politically powerless:

[U]nder conditions of terror most people will comply but some people will not, just as the lesson of the countries to which the Final Solution was proposed is that “it could happen” in most places but it did not happen everywhere. Humanly speaking, no more is required, and no more can reasonably be asked, for this planet to remain a place fit for human habitation.

Arendt mentions, as a case in point, Denmark:

One is tempted to recommend the story as required reading in political science for all students who wish to learn something about the enormous power potential inherent in non-violent action and in resistance to an opponent possessing vastly superior means of violence.

It was not just that the people of Denmark refused to assist in implementing the Final Solution, as the peoples of so many other conquered nations had been persuaded to do (or had been eager to do) but also, that when the Reich cracked down and decided to do the job itself it found that its own personnel in Denmark had been infected by this and were unable to overcome their human aversion with the appropriate ruthlessness, as their peers in more cooperative areas had.

On Eichmann’s personality, Arendt concludes:

Despite all the efforts of the prosecution, everybody could see that this man was not a “monster,” but it was difficult indeed not to suspect that he was a clown. And since this suspicion would have been fatal to the entire enterprise [his trial], and was also rather hard to sustain in view of the sufferings he and his like had caused to millions of people, his worst clowneries were hardly noticed and almost never reported (p. 55).

Beyond her discussion of Eichmann himself, Arendt discusses several additional aspects of the trial, its context, and the Holocaust.

Arendt’s book introduced the expression and concept “the banality of evil”.[6] Her thesis is that Eichmann was not a fanatic or sociopath, but an extremely average person who relied on clich defenses rather than thinking for himself and was motivated by professional promotion rather than ideology. Banality, in this sense, is not that Eichmann’s actions were ordinary, or that there is a potential Eichmann in all of us, but that his actions were motivated by a sort of stupidity which was wholly unexceptional.[7] In his 2010 history of the Second World War, Moral Combat, British historian Michael Burleigh calls the expression a “clich” and gives many documented examples of gratuitous acts of cruelty by those involved in the Holocaust, including Eichmann.[8] Arendt certainly did not disagree about the fact of gratuitous cruelty, but “banality of evil” is unrelated to this question. Similarly, the first attempted rebuttal of Arendt’s thesis relied on a misreading of this phrase, claiming Arendt meant that there was nothing exceptional about the Holocaust.[9][10]

Arendt sparked controversy with Eichmann in Jerusalem upon its publishing and the years since.[11][12] Arendt has long been accused of “blaming the victim” in the book.[13]

Stanley Milgram maintains that “Arendt became the object of considerable scorn, even calumny” because she highlighted Eichmann’s “banality” and “normalcy”, and accepted Eichmann’s claim that he did not have evil intents or motives to commit such horrors; nor did he have a thought to the immorality and evil of his actions, or indeed, display, as the prosecution depicted, that he was a sadistic “monster”.[14] (ch.1).

Jacob Robinson published And the Crooked Shall be Made Straight, the first full-length rebuttal of her book.[9] Robinson presented himself as an expert in international law, not saying that he was an assistant to the prosecutor in the case.[10]

In his 2006 book, Becoming Eichmann: Rethinking the Life, Crimes and Trial of a “Desk Murderer”, Holocaust researcher David Cesarani questioned Arendt’s portrait of Eichmann on several grounds. According to his findings, Arendt attended only part of the trial, witnessing Eichmann’s testimony for “at most four days” and basing her writings mostly on recordings and the trial transcript. Cesarani feels that this may have skewed her opinion of him, since it was in the parts of the trial that she missed that the more forceful aspects of his character appeared. Cesarani also presents evidence[citation needed] suggesting that Eichmann was in fact highly anti-Semitic and that these feelings were important motivators of his actions. Thus, he alleges that Arendt’s claims that his motives were “banal” and non-ideological and that he had abdicated his autonomy of choice by obeying Hitler’s orders without question may stand on weak foundations. This is a recurrent[17] criticism of Arendt, though nowhere in her work does Arendt deny that Eichmann was an anti-Semite, and she also did not claim that Eichmann was “simply” following orders, but rather had internalized the clichs of the Nazi regime.[17]

Cesarani suggests that Arendt’s own prejudices influenced the opinions she expressed during the trial. He argues that like many Jews of German origin, she held Ostjuden (Jews from Eastern Europe) in great disdain. This, according to Cesarani, led her to attack the conduct and efficacy of the chief prosecutor, Gideon Hausner, who was of Galician-Jewish origin. In a letter to the noted German philosopher Karl Jaspers she stated that Hausner was “a typical Galician Jew… constantly making mistakes. Probably one of those people who doesn’t know any language.” Cesarani claims that some of her opinions of Jews of Middle Eastern origin verged on racism as she described the Israeli crowds in her letter to Karl Jaspers: “My first impression: On top, the judges, the best of German Jewry. Below them, the prosecuting attorneys, Galicians, but still Europeans. Everything is organized by a police force that gives me the creeps, speaks only Hebrew, and looks Arabic. Some downright brutal types among them. They would obey any order. And outside the doors, the Oriental mob, as if one were in Istanbul or some other half-Asiatic country. In addition, and very visible in Jerusalem, the peies (sidelocks) and caftan Jews, who make life impossible for all reasonable people here.”[19] Cesarani’s book was itself criticized. In a review that appeared in the New York Times Review of Books, Barry Gewen argued that Cesarani’s hostility stemmed from his book standing “in the shadow of one of the great books of the last half-century”, and that Cesarani’s suggestion that both Arendt and Eichmann had much in common in their backgrounds making it easier for her to look down on the proceedings, “reveals a writer in control neither of his material nor of himself.”[20]

Eichmann in Jerusalem, according to Hugh Trevor-Roper, is deeply indebted to Raul Hilberg’s The Destruction of the European Jews, so much so that Hilberg himself spoke of plagiarism.[21][22][23] Ironically, the very points which Arendt borrows from Hilberg, Hilberg himself borrowed from H.G. Adler.

Arendt also received criticism in the form of responses to her article, also published in the New Yorker. One instance of this came mere weeks after the publication of her articles in the form of an article entitled “Man With an Unspotted Conscience”.[24] This work was written by witness for the defense, Michael A. Musmanno. He argued that Arendt fell prey to her own preconceived notions that rendered her work ahistorical. He also directly criticized her for ignoring the facts offered at the trial in stating that “the disparity between what Miss Arendt states, and what the ascertained facts are, occurs with such a disturbing frequency in her book that it can hardly be accepted as an authoritative historical work.”.[24] He further condemned Arendt and her work for her prejudices against Hauser and Ben-Gurion depicted in Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil. Musmanno argued that Arendt revealed “so frequently her own prejudices” that it could not stand as an accurate work.[24]

Arendt relied heavily on the book by H.G. Adler Theresienstadt 1941-1945. The Face of a Coerced Community (Cambridge University Press. 2017), which she had read in manuscript, and subsequently used for her distorted treatment of the Jewish Elders. Adler took her to task on her view of Eichmann in his keynote essay What does Hannah Arendt know about Eichmann and the Final Solution (Allgemeine Zeitung der Juden in Deutschland. 20 November 1960).

In more recent years, Arendt has received further criticism from authors Bettina Stangneth and Deborah Lipstadt. Stangneth argues in her work, Eichmann Before Jerusalem, that Eichmann was, in fact, an insidious antisemite.[25] She utilized the Sassen Papers and accounts of Eichmann while in Argentina to prove that he was proud of his position as a powerful Nazi and the murders that this allowed him to commit. While she acknowledges that the Sassen Papers were not disclosed in the lifetime of Arendt, she argues that the evidence was there at the trial to prove that Eichmann was an antisemitic murderer and that Arendt simply ignored this.[26] Deborah Lipstadt contends in her work, The Eichmann Trial, that Arendt was distracted by her own views of totalitarianism to objectively judge Eichmann.[22] She refers to Arendt’s own work on totalitarianism, The Origins of Totalitarianism, as a basis for Arendt’s seeking to validate her own work by using Eichmann as an example.[22] Lipstadt further contends that Arendt “wanted the trial to explicate how these societies succeeded in getting others to do their atrocious biddings” and so framed her analysis in a way which would agree with this pursuit.[22]

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For evangelicals, Jerusalem is about prophecy, not politics …

I know that sounds odd. Especially coming from a liberal Episcopalian like me. But there you have it. The President makes a world-important declaration about global politics, and an absurdly apocalyptic thought arises, “Jerusalem? The Last Days must be at hand!” When I was a teenager in the 1970s, I attended a “Bible church,” a nondenominational congregation that prided itself on a singular devotion to scripture. We read the Bible all the time: in personal Bible study and evening Bible classes. We listened to hourlong Sunday morning sermons. For us, the Bible was not just a guide to piety. It also revealed God’s plan for history. Through it, we learned how God had worked in the past and what God would do in the future. Central to that plan was Jerusalem, the city of peace, and the dwelling place of God. It was special to the Jews because it was the home of Abraham and David. It was special to us because it was where Jesus had died and risen. We believed that ultimately, Christ would return to Jerusalem to rule as its king. We longed for this outcome — and we prayed that human history would help bring about this biblical conclusion. Jerusalem was our prophetic bellwether. God’s plan hung on its fate. Whenever Israel gained more political territory, whenever Israel extended its boundaries, it was God’s will, the end-times unfolding on the evening news. Jerusalem, as the spiritual heart of Israel, mattered. Jerusalem was God’s holy city, of the ancient past, in its conflicted present, and for the biblical future. For many conservative evangelicals, Jerusalem is not about politics. It is not about peace plans or Palestinians or two-state solutions. It is about prophecy. About the Bible. And, most certainly, it is about the end-times. When I was young, our pastor insisted that Jerusalem had an important role to play in these end-times events. When the Jews rejected Jesus as the messiah, he explained, God chose the church to accomplish his mission. Soon this “church age” would end with the rapture of true believers. But God still loved the Jews, he told us, and wanted to redeem them. Thus, absent the church, the Jews would experience a great religious rebirth and rebuild their temple in Jerusalem. This would spark a series of cataclysmic events that would culminate in the Battle of Armageddon, the last war of humanity. But it would also cause the Jews to finally accept Jesus as their savior. After all this occurred, Jesus would return in glory and God’s kingdom — a thousand-year reign of peace. And it would begin in Jerusalem. This theology — a literal belief that all these things must happen before Jesus will return to reign on Earth — is called “dispensational pre-millennialism” and it is not the quirky opinion of some isolated church. Although the majority of Christians do not share these views, versions of dispensational pre-millennialism dominate American evangelicalism. Other evangelical pastors and teachers also praised the action as “biblical” and likened it to a “fulfilled prophecy.” While that may sound benign (or perhaps nutty) to the theologically uninitiated, they are referring to the “prophecy” of the conversion of the Jews, the second coming of Jesus, the final judgment, and the end of the world — the events referred to as the biblical apocalypse. I doubt that President Trump could explain dispensational pre-millennialism. I doubt he knows the term. But his evangelical supporters know it. Some of his advisers are probably whispering these prophecies in his ears. Trump might not really care how they interpret the Bible, but he cares that white evangelicals continue to stand with him. Moving the embassy to Jerusalem is one way to affirm his commitment to these evangelicals — reminding them that he, Donald J. Trump, is pressing biblical history forward to its conclusion and that he is God’s man in the unfolding of these last days. I may not believe it — anymore, at least. You may not believe it. Donald Trump might not even truly believe it. But millions do. That matters. Not only for American politics, of course. For the peace of Jerusalem. And for peace for the rest of us as well.

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30 Best Jerusalem Hotels, Israel (From $52) – Booking.com

One of the worlds oldest cities, Jerusalem is revered in Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Its focal point is the UNESCO World Heritage-listed Old City where 4 diverse quarters sit side by side, surrounded by 16th-century walls. The most prominent Muslim Quarter landmark is the Dome of the Rock, a 7th-century shrine on Temple Mount whose gold dome is visible for miles. Nearby is Al-Aqsa Mosque, Islams 3rd holiest site. In the Jewish Quarter is the Western Wall (or Wailing Wail), remains of ramparts surrounding the ancient Second Jewish Temple, where Jews offer prayers. By the walls in the Armenian Quarter is the Tower of David, a 2nd-century BC citadel overlooking some Jerusalem hotels near Jaffa Gate, one of 8 city gates. The Christian Quarter houses the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, reportedly on the site of Jesus crucifixion, while the Mount of Olives another Christian site and home to some Jerusalem hotels near the old city is just east of the walls. Other must-see Jerusalem sights include Israel Museum with the Dead Sea Scrolls, and Yad Vashem, a memorial to Holocaust victims. The Rockefeller Museum was the 1st Middle Eastern archaeology museum, and Jerusalem Biblical Zoo houses wildlife from the Hebrew Bible. The closest airport to Jerusalem is Ben Gurion Airport, on the Tel Aviv road.

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Jerusalem: US Embassy opens as dozens killed in Gaza clashes …

At least 58 Palestinians were killed and more than 2,700 injured in Gaza as deadly protests took place ahead of, during and after the ceremony in Jerusalem, making it the deadliest day there since the 2014 Gaza war. The violence could deepen Tuesday, when Palestinians mark what they call the “Nakba,” or Catastrophe, in memory of the more than 700,000 Palestinians who were either driven from or fled their homes during the Arab-Israeli war that accompanied the creation of the state of Israel in 1948. On Monday, which marked the 70th anniversary of the founding of the state of Israel, US and Israeli leaders hailed the embassy move as a sign of the enduring relationship between the two countries and of US trustworthiness. American officials said it could create an honest foundation for an eventual peace agreement between Israelis and Palestinians. President Donald Trump did not attend the ceremony in Jerusalem’s Arnona neighborhood, but in a video message broadcast at the event he congratulated Israel, saying the opening had been “a long time coming.” “Today, Jerusalem is the seat of Israel’s government. It is the home of the Israeli legislature and the Israeli supreme court and Israel’s Prime Minister and President. Israel is a sovereign nation with the right, like every other sovereign nation, to determine its own capital, yet for many years we failed to acknowledge the obvious, the plain reality that Israel’s capital is Jerusalem,” Trump said in the prerecorded remarks. “As I said in December, our greatest hope is for peace,” he added. But that hopeful vision made for a jarring juxtaposition with the climbing death toll in Gaza, televised images of Palestinians running from gunfire and the decision by the Pentagon and State Department to boost the Marine Corps presence at US embassies across the Middle East and Africa. The celebratory air at the official opening ceremony in Jerusalem’s Arnona neighborhood also contrasted sharply with calls from international leaders who expressed alarm at the spike in violence and appealed for calm, with some US allies denouncing the US decision to break with international norms by moving the embassy. France expressed its official disapproval. South Africa pulled its envoy from Tel Aviv, while Turkey pulled its ambassadors from both Washington and Tel Aviv. President Recep Tayyip Erdogan told an audience in London that the US prefers “to become part of the problem rather than the solution” and that it “has lost its role as mediator in the Middle East peace process.” Calls for calm Riyad Mansour, the Palestinian representative to the United Nations, told reporters there is “no chance” that Palestinians will engage in the US-led peace process, while President Mahmoud Abbas called for three days of mourning. Saudi Arabia, a close ally of the Trump administration, expressed “strong condemnation” of Israel’s use of force against Palestinian civilians, the official Saudi press agency said. Queen Rania of Jordan, another close US ally, tweeted that it was “a dark and sad day in history, marked with more Palestinian sacrifices.” “When will the world’s conscience mobilize to give Palestinians the rights so many of us take for granted?” the Queen asked. “May God have mercy on those who lost their lives defending Jerusalem’s proud Arab identity.” The UN secretary-general, Antonio Guterres, was “profoundly alarmed by the sharp escalation of violence in the occupied Palestinian territory and the high number of Palestinians killed and injured in the Gaza protests,” said his deputy spokesman Farhan Haq. Guterres added that Israeli security forces “must exercise maximum restraint in the use of live fire” and “Hamas and the leaders of the demonstrations have a responsibility to prevent all violent actions and provocations.” The UK’s Middle East minister, Alistair Burt, said that “we will not waver from our support for Israel’s right to defend its borders. But the large volume of live fire is extremely concerning.” He said, “We continue to implore Israel to show greater restraint.” He also said that “the UK supports the Palestinians’ right to protest, but these protests must be peaceful.” Those calls diverged from the Trump administration’s insistence that the problem was on the Palestinian side and in particular Hamas’ “cynical” use of the situation. “The responsibility for these tragic deaths rests squarely with Hamas,” White House deputy press secretary Raj Shah told reporters at the White House. “Hamas is intentionally and cynically provoking this response and as the secretary of state said, Israel has a right to defend itself.” When asked about the contrast between rock-wielding Palestinians and armed Israel Defense Forces firing on them, Shah said, “This is a propaganda attempt. I think the Israeli government has spent weeks trying to handle this without violence.” At the State Department, when Secretary of State Mike Pompeo was asked by CNN’s Michelle Kosinksi if he would address the ongoing violence, he simply turned and left the room. Trump’s decision to declare Jerusalem the capital of Israel and relocate the embassy is contentious for Palestinians, who hope to claim part of the city as their future capital. The city is also home to deeply holy sites for Jews and Christians. The issue has been so thorny that international negotiators had left the question of Jerusalem to the final stages of any peace deal. At the ceremony Monday, politicians and dignitaries — including Ivanka Trump and her husband, Jared Kushner, — watched as US Treasury Secretary Steve Mnuchin unveiled the US seal, turning what was formally the consulate building into the embassy. Kushner, who is also a senior adviser to the US President, called for unity in his address. “We believe it is possible for both sides to gain more than they give — so that all people can live in peace — safe from danger, free from fear and able to pursue their dreams,” he said. Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu thanked Trump for his support on Twitter hours ahead of the opening ceremony. “What an amazing day! Thank you, @POTUS Trump,” Netanyahu said while retweeting a Twitter post from Trump. The opening of the embassy happened a day after Israel celebrated Jerusalem Day, marking what Israelis consider the reunification of the city. Speaking at the ceremony, Netanyahu hailed the alliance between America and Israel as “stronger than ever.” “What a glorious day. Remember this moment. This is history,” he said. “President Trump, by recognizing history, you have made history. All of us are deeply moved; all of us are deeply grateful.” Outside the embassy, police and protesters clashed as tensions ran high. Fourteen protesters were arrested for confronting police officers and interrupting public order, Jerusalem police said.

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Why declaring Jerusalem capital of Israel is controversial – CNN

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CNN’s u003ca href=”http://www.cnn.com/profiles/oren-liebermann”> Oren Liebermannu003c/a> has more.”},{“title”:”Protests erupt over Trump’s Jerusalem decision”,”duration”:”01:05″,”sourceName”:”CNN”,”sourceLink”:”http://www.cnn.com”,”videoCMSUrl”:”/video/data/3.0/video/politics/2017/12/07/protest-ramallah-trump-jerusalem-lee.cnn/index.xml”,”videoId”:”politics/2017/12/07/protest-ramallah-trump-jerusalem-lee.cnn”,”videoImage”:”//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/171207072918-ian-lee-large-169.jpg”,”videoUrl”:”/videos/politics/2017/12/07/protest-ramallah-trump-jerusalem-lee.cnn/video/playlists/donald-trump–israel/”,”description”:”CNN’s Ian Lee reports from Ramallah in the West Bank as protesters respond to President Trump’s Jerusalem decision.”,”descriptionText”:”CNN’s Ian Lee reports from Ramallah in the West Bank as protesters respond to President Trump’s Jerusalem decision.”},{“title”:”UN votes to condemn Trump’s Jerusalem 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capital”,”duration”:”00:56″,”sourceName”:”CNN”,”sourceLink”:”http://www.cnn.com/”,”videoCMSUrl”:”/video/data/3.0/video/politics/2017/12/06/trump-jerusalem-announcement-sot.cnn/index.xml”,”videoId”:”politics/2017/12/06/trump-jerusalem-announcement-sot.cnn”,”videoImage”:”//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/171206111105-trump-jerusalem-statement-large-169.jpg”,”videoUrl”:”/videos/politics/2017/12/06/trump-jerusalem-announcement-sot.cnn/video/playlists/donald-trump–israel/”,”description”:”President Trump recognizes Jerusalem as Israel’s capital, reversing decades of US policy and raising fears of a violent backlash.”,”descriptionText”:”President Trump recognizes Jerusalem as Israel’s capital, reversing decades of US policy and raising fears of a violent backlash.”},{“title”:”Haley on Jerusalem: This is about courage”,”duration”:”01:18″,”sourceName”:”CNN”,”sourceLink”:”http://www.cnn.com”,”videoCMSUrl”:”/video/data/3.0/video/politics/2017/12/06/trump-jerusalem-israel-capital-nikki-haley-tsr-sot.cnn/index.xml”,”videoId”:”politics/2017/12/06/trump-jerusalem-israel-capital-nikki-haley-tsr-sot.cnn”,”videoImage”:”//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/171206185509-haley-large-169.jpg”,”videoUrl”:”/videos/politics/2017/12/06/trump-jerusalem-israel-capital-nikki-haley-tsr-sot.cnn/video/playlists/donald-trump–israel/”,”description”:”US Ambassador to the United Nations Nikki Haley gives context to President Trump’s decision to recognize Jerusalem as Israel’s capital.”,”descriptionText”:”US Ambassador to the United Nations Nikki Haley gives context to President Trump’s decision to recognize Jerusalem as Israel’s capital.”},{“title”:”Columnist: Trump gave away the crown jewel”,”duration”:”01:52″,”sourceName”:”CNN”,”sourceLink”:”http://www.cnn.com/”,”videoCMSUrl”:”/video/data/3.0/video/politics/2017/12/06/thomas-friedman-intv-jerusalem-trump-sot-tsr.cnn/index.xml”,”videoId”:”politics/2017/12/06/thomas-friedman-intv-jerusalem-trump-sot-tsr.cnn”,”videoImage”:”//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/171206191828-thomas-friedman-large-169.jpg”,”videoUrl”:”/videos/politics/2017/12/06/thomas-friedman-intv-jerusalem-trump-sot-tsr.cnn/video/playlists/donald-trump–israel/”,”description”:”New York Times columnist Thomas Friedman criticized President Trump’s decision to recognize Jerusalem as Israel’s capital and move the US embassy there, saying Trump “gave away the crown jewel of American foreign policy for free.” “,”descriptionText”:”New York Times columnist Thomas Friedman criticized President Trump’s decision to recognize Jerusalem as Israel’s capital and move the US embassy there, saying Trump “gave away the crown jewel of American foreign policy for free.” “},{“title”:”Palestinian refugees indifferent to Trump’s plan”,”duration”:”02:26″,”sourceName”:”CNN”,”sourceLink”:”http://www.cnn.com”,”videoCMSUrl”:”/video/data/3.0/video/world/2017/12/07/jerusalem-world-away-wedeman-pkg.cnn/index.xml”,”videoId”:”world/2017/12/07/jerusalem-world-away-wedeman-pkg.cnn”,”videoImage”:”//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/171207035232-jerusalem-world-away-wedeman-pkg-00015028-large-169.jpg”,”videoUrl”:”/videos/world/2017/12/07/jerusalem-world-away-wedeman-pkg.cnn/video/playlists/donald-trump–israel/”,”description”:”Palestinians living in refugee camps in Lebanon say they hope to return home someday, and tell CNN’s Ben Wedeman that despite whatever Arab leaders say, they are largely indifferent to the symbolism of President Trump’s recognition of Jerusalem as Israel’s capital.”,”descriptionText”:”Palestinians living in refugee camps in Lebanon say they hope to return home someday, and tell CNN’s Ben Wedeman that despite whatever Arab leaders say, they are largely indifferent to the symbolism of President Trump’s recognition of Jerusalem as Israel’s capital.”},{“title”:”Trump: US will support a 2-state solution”,”duration”:”01:18″,”sourceName”:”CNN”,”sourceLink”:”http://www.cnn.com/”,”videoCMSUrl”:”/video/data/3.0/video/politics/2017/12/06/trump-israeli-palestinian-conflict-two-state-solution-sot.cnn/index.xml”,”videoId”:”politics/2017/12/06/trump-israeli-palestinian-conflict-two-state-solution-sot.cnn”,”videoImage”:”//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/171206132124-03-trump-jerusalem-statement-large-169.jpg”,”videoUrl”:”/videos/politics/2017/12/06/trump-israeli-palestinian-conflict-two-state-solution-sot.cnn/video/playlists/donald-trump–israel/”,”description”:”President Trump says the US will support a two-state solution in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict if it is agreed to by both sides.”,”descriptionText”:”President Trump says the US will support a two-state solution in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict if it is agreed to by both sides.”},{“title”:”Tillerson: Good opportunity for peace”,”duration”:”00:46″,”sourceName”:”CNN”,”sourceLink”:”http://www.cnn.com”,”videoCMSUrl”:”/video/data/3.0/video/world/2017/12/06/jerusalem-tillerson-mideast-peace-sot.cnn/index.xml”,”videoId”:”world/2017/12/06/jerusalem-tillerson-mideast-peace-sot.cnn”,”videoImage”:”//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/171206092959-jerusalem-tillerson-mideast-peace-sot-00000000-large-169.jpg”,”videoUrl”:”/videos/world/2017/12/06/jerusalem-tillerson-mideast-peace-sot.cnn/video/playlists/donald-trump–israel/”,”description”:”US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson says the Trump administration still believes there’s a very good opportunity for peace in the Mideast. “,”descriptionText”:”US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson says the Trump administration still believes there’s a very good opportunity for peace in the Mideast. “},{“title”:”Jerusalem mayor: I applaud Donald Trump”,”duration”:”01:43″,”sourceName”:”CNN”,”sourceLink”:”http://www.cnn.com/”,”videoCMSUrl”:”/video/data/3.0/video/world/2017/12/06/trump-barkat-jerusalem-mayor-embassy-move-sot-newday.cnn/index.xml”,”videoId”:”world/2017/12/06/trump-barkat-jerusalem-mayor-embassy-move-sot-newday.cnn”,”videoImage”:”//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/171206093345-nir-barkat-jerusalem-mayor-large-169.jpg”,”videoUrl”:”/videos/world/2017/12/06/trump-barkat-jerusalem-mayor-embassy-move-sot-newday.cnn/video/playlists/donald-trump–israel/”,”description”:”Jerusalem Mayor Nir Barkat applauds President Trump’s pledge to declare Jerusalem as the capital of Israel and move the US embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem.”,”descriptionText”:”Jerusalem Mayor Nir Barkat applauds President Trump’s pledge to declare Jerusalem as the capital of Israel and move the US embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem.”},{“title”:”Confusion over status of Western Wall”,”duration”:”01:25″,”sourceName”:”CNN”,”sourceLink”:”http://www.cnn.com/”,”videoCMSUrl”:”/video/data/3.0/video/world/2017/05/16/trump-israel-western-wall-liebermann-bpr-brooke-nr.cnn/index.xml”,”videoId”:”world/2017/05/16/trump-israel-western-wall-liebermann-bpr-brooke-nr.cnn”,”videoImage”:”//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/170516140515-western-wall-tease-large-169.jpg”,”videoUrl”:”/videos/world/2017/05/16/trump-israel-western-wall-liebermann-bpr-brooke-nr.cnn/video/playlists/donald-trump–israel/”,”description”:”Trump administration is offering confusing rhetoric as it tries to define the status of the Western Wall, the second most holiest site in Judaism, in US Mideast policy. CNN’s u003ca href=”http://www.cnn.com/profiles/oren-liebermann” target=”_blank”> Oren Liebermannu003c/a> reports.”,”descriptionText”:”Trump administration is offering confusing rhetoric as it tries to define the status of the Western Wall, the second most holiest site in Judaism, in US Mideast policy. CNN’s u003ca href=”http://www.cnn.com/profiles/oren-liebermann” target=”_blank”> Oren Liebermannu003c/a> reports.”}],’js-video_headline-featured-nkhj5′,”,”js-video_source-featured-nkhj5″,true,true,’donald-trump–israel’);if (typeof configObj.context !== ‘string’ || configObj.context.length

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The Jerusalem Post – Official Site

The Jerusalem Post – Jpost.com Israel News The Jerusalem Post Is the leading english news source of American jewry. Jpost.com is its online version.It delivers Israel News, Arab and Israeli conflict updates, and news about the Jewish life both in Israel and in the diaspora. 15 Maslavita St.Tel-AvivMerkaz6701026Israel

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Jerusalem: Location and Facts | HISTORY.com

Since Israels independence, clashes between Israelis and Palestinians over key territories in Jerusalem have been ongoing. Jewish law forbids Jews from praying in the Temple Mount. Yet, Israeli forces allow hundreds of Jewish settlers to enter the area routinely, which some Palestinians fear could lead to an Israeli takeover. In fact, one key event that led to the Second Palestinian Intifada (a Palestinian uprising against Israel) happened when Jewish leader Ariel Sharon, who would become Israels Prime Minister, visited Jerusalems Temple Mount in 2000. In recent years, some Israeli groups have even announced a plan to construct a third Jewish Temple on the Temple Mount. This proposal has outraged Palestinians living in the region. In addition, both Israelis and Palestinians have aimed to make the city their capitals. In 1980, Israel declared Jerusalem as its capital, but most of the international community doesnt recognize this distinction. In May 2017, the Palestinian group Hamas presented a document that proposed the formation of a Palestinian state with Jerusalem as its capital. However, the group refused to recognize Israel as a state, and the Israeli government immediately rejected the idea.

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May 18, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Jerusalem  Comments Closed

Old City (Jerusalem) – Wikipedia

The Old City (Hebrew: , Ha’Ir Ha’Atiqah, Arabic: , al-Balda al-Qadimah) is a 0.9 square kilometers (0.35sqmi) walled area[2] within the modern city of Jerusalem. Until 1860, when the Jewish neighborhood Mishkenot Sha’ananim was established, this area constituted the entire city of Jerusalem. The Old City is home to several sites of key religious importance: the Temple Mount and Western Wall for Jews, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre for Christians and the Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque for Muslims. It was added to the UNESCO World Heritage Site List in 1981. Traditionally, the Old City has been divided into four uneven quarters, although the current designations were introduced only in the 19th century.[3] Today, the Old City is roughly divided (going counterclockwise from the northeastern corner) into the Muslim Quarter, Christian Quarter, Armenian Quarter and Jewish Quarter. The Old City’s monumental defensive walls and city gates were built in the years 15351542 by the Turkish sultan Suleiman the Magnificent.[4] The current population of the Old City resides mostly in the Muslim and Christian quarters. As of 2007[update] the total population was 36,965; the breakdown of religious groups in 2006 was 27,500 Muslims (up from ca. 17,000 in 1967, with over 30,000 by 2013, tendency: growing); 5,681 Christians (ca. 6,000 in 1967), not including the 790 Armenians (down to ca. 500 by 2011, tendency: decreasing); and 3,089 Jews (starting with none in 1967, as they were evicted after the Old City was captured by Jordan following the 1948 ArabIsraeli War, with almost 3,000 plus some 1,500 yeshiva students by 2013, tendency: growing).[5][6][7] Following the 1948 ArabIsraeli War, the Old City was captured by Jordan and all its Jewish residents were evicted. During the Six-Day War in 1967, which saw hand-to-hand fighting on the Temple Mount, Israeli forces captured the Old City along with the rest of East Jerusalem, subsequently annexing them as Israeli territory and reuniting them with the western part of the city. Today, the Israeli government controls the entire area, which it considers part of its national capital. However, the Jerusalem Law of 1980, which effectively annexed East Jerusalem to Israel, was declared null and void by United Nations Security Council Resolution 478. East Jerusalem is now regarded by the international community as part of occupied Palestinian territory.[8][9] In 2010, Jerusalem’s oldest fragment of writing was found outside the Old City’s walls.[10] According to the Hebrew Bible, before King David’s conquest of Jerusalem in the 11th century BCE the city was home to the Jebusites. The Bible describes the city as heavily fortified with a strong city wall, a fact confirmed by archaeology. The Bible names the city ruled by King David as the City of David, in Hebrew Ir David, which was identified southeast of the Old City walls, outside the Dung Gate. In the Bible, David’s son, King Solomon, extended the city walls to include the Temple and Temple Mount. The city was largely extended westwards after the Neo-Assyrian destruction of the northern Kingdom of Israel and the resulting influx of refugees. Destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar in 586 BCE, it was rebuilt on a smaller scale in about 440 BCE, during the Persian period, when, according to the Bible, Nehemiah led the Jews who returned from the Babylonian Exile. An additional, so-called Second Wall, was built by King Herod the Great. In 4144 CE, Agrippa, king of Judea, started building the so-called “Third Wall” around the northern suburbs. The entire city was totally destroyed by the Romans in 70 CE. The northern part of the city was rebuilt by the Emperor Hadrian around 130, under the name Aelia Capitolina. In the Byzantine period Jerusalem was extended southwards and again enclosed by city walls. Muslims occupied Byzantine Jerusalem in the 7th century (637 CE) under the second caliph, `Umar Ibn al-Khattab who annexed it to the Islamic Arab Empire. He granted its inhabitants an assurance treaty. After the siege of Jerusalem, Sophronius welcomed `Umar, allegedly because, according to biblical prophecies known to the Church in Jerusalem, “a poor, but just and powerful man” would rise to be a protector and ally to the Christians of Jerusalem. Sophronius believed that `Umar, a great warrior who led an austere life, was a fulfillment of this prophecy. In the account by the Patriarch of Alexandria, Eutychius, it is said that `Umar paid a visit to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and sat in its courtyard. When the time for prayer arrived, however, he left the church and prayed outside the compound, in order to avoid having future generations of Muslims use his prayer there as a pretext for converting the church into a mosque. Eutychius adds that `Umar also wrote a decree which he handed to the Patriarch, in which he prohibited Muslims gathering in prayer at the site.[11] In 1099, Jerusalem was captured by the Western Christian army of the First Crusade and it remained in their hands until recaptured by the Arab Muslims, led by Saladin, on October 2, 1187. He summoned the Jews and permitted them to resettle in the city. In 1219, the walls of the city were razed by Mu’azzim Sultan of Damascus; in 1229, by treaty with Egypt, Jerusalem came into the hands of Frederick II of Germany. In 1239 he began to rebuild the walls, but they were demolished again by Da’ud, the emir of Kerak. In 1243, Jerusalem came again under the control of the Christians, and the walls were repaired. The Kharezmian Tatars took the city in 1244 and Sultan Malik al-Muazzam razed the walls, rendering it again defenseless and dealing a heavy blow to the city’s status. The current walls of the Old City were built in 153542 by the Ottoman Turkish sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. The walls stretch for approximately 4.5km (2.8 miles), and rise to a height of between 5 and 15 metres (16.449ft), with a thickness of 3 metres (10 feet) at the base of the wall.[4] Altogether, the Old City walls contain 35 towers, most of which (15) are in the more exposed northern wall.[4] Suleiman’s wall had six gates, to which a seventh, the New Gate, was added in 1887; several other, older gates, have been walled up over the centuries. The Golden Gate was at first rebuilt and left open by Suleiman’s architects, only to be walled up a short while later. The New Gate was opened in the wall surrounding the Christian Quarter during the 19th century. Two secondary gates were reopened in recent times on the southeastern side of the city walls as a result of archaeological work. In 1980, Jordan proposed that the Old City be listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[12] It was added to the List in 1981.[13] In 1982, Jordan requested that it be added to the List of World Heritage in Danger. The United States government opposed the request, noting that the Jordanian government had no standing to make such a nomination and that the consent of the Israeli government would be required since it effectively controlled Jerusalem.[14] In 2011, UNESCO issued a statement reiterating its view that East Jerusalem is “part of the occupied Palestinian territory, and that the status of Jerusalem must be resolved in permanent status negotiations.”[15] In 2015, archaeologists uncovered the remnants of an impressive fort, built by Greeks in the center of old Jerusalem. It is believed that it is the remnants of the Acra fortress. The team also found coins that date from the time of Antiochus IV to the time of Antiochus VII. In addition, they found Greek arrowheads, slingshots, ballistic stones and amphorae.[16] In the 1970s, while excavating the remains of the Nea Church (the New Church of the Theotokos), a Greek inscription was found. It reads: “This work too was donated by our most pious Emperor Flavius Justinian, through the provision and care of Constantine, most saintly priest and abbot, in the 13th year of the indiction.”[17][18] A second dedicatory inscription bearing the names of Emperor Justinian and of the same abbot of the Nea Church was discovered in 2017 among the ruins of a pilgrim hostel about a kilometre north of Damascus Gate, which proves the importance of the Nea complex at the time.[19][20] The Muslim Quarter (Arabic: , Hrat al-Muslimn) is the largest and most populous of the four quarters and is situated in the northeastern corner of the Old City, extending from the Lions’ Gate in the east, along the northern wall of the Temple Mount in the south, to the Western Wall Damascus Gate route in the west. Its population was 22,000 in 2005. Like the other three quarters of the Old City, until the riots of 1929 the Muslim quarter had a mixed population of Muslims, Christians, and also Jews.[21] Today, there are “many Israeli settler homes” and “several yeshivas”, including Yeshivat Ateret Yerushalayim, in the Muslim Quarter.[5] The Christian Quarter (Arabic: , rat an-Nara) is situated in the northwestern corner of the Old City, extending from the New Gate in the north, along the western wall of the Old City as far as the Jaffa Gate, along the Jaffa Gate Western Wall route in the south, bordering the Jewish and Armenian Quarters, as far as the Damascus Gate in the east, where it borders the Muslim Quarter. The quarter contains the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, viewed by many as Christianity’s holiest place. The Armenian Quarter (Armenian: , Haygagan T’aamas, Arabic: , rat al-Arman) is the smallest of the four quarters of the Old City. Although the Armenians are Christian, the Armenian Quarter is distinct from the Christian Quarter. Despite the small size and population of this quarter, the Armenians and their Patriarchate remain staunchly independent and form a vigorous presence in the Old City. After the 1948 ArabIsraeli War, the four quarters of the city came under Jordanian control. Jordanian law required Armenians and other Christians to “give equal time to the Bible and Qur’an” in private Christian schools, and restricted the expansion of church assets.[citation needed] The 1967 war is remembered by residents of the quarter as a miracle, after two unexploded bombs were found inside the Armenian monastery. Today, more than 3,000 Armenians live in Jerusalem, 500 of them in the Armenian Quarter.[22][23] Some are temporary residents studying at the seminary or working as church functionaries. The Patriarchate owns the land in this quarter as well as valuable property in West Jerusalem and elsewhere. In 1975, a theological seminary was established in the Armenian Quarter. After the 1967 war, the Israeli government gave compensation for repairing any churches or holy sites damaged in the fighting, regardless of who caused the damage.[citation needed] The Jewish Quarter (Hebrew: , HaRova HaYehudi, known colloquially to residents as HaRova, Arabic: , rat al-Yahd) lies in the southeastern sector of the walled city, and stretches from the Zion Gate in the south, bordering the Armenian Quarter on the west, along the Cardo to Chain Street in the north and extends east to the Western Wall and the Temple Mount. The quarter has a rich history, with several long periods of Jewish presence covering much of the time[dubious discuss] since the eighth century BCE.[24][25][26][27][28][29] In 1948, its population of about 2,000 Jews was besieged, and forced to leave en masse.[30] The quarter was completely sacked by Arab forces during the Battle for Jerusalem and ancient synagogues were destroyed. The Jewish quarter remained under Jordanian control until its recapture by Israeli paratroopers in the Six-Day War of 1967. A few days later, Israeli authorities ordered the demolition of the adjacent Moroccan Quarter, forcibly relocating all of its inhabitants, in order to facilitate public access to the Western Wall. The section of the Jewish quarter destroyed prior to 1967 has since been rebuilt and settled and has a population of 2,348 (as of 2005[update]).[31] Many large educational institutions have taken up residence. Before being rebuilt, the quarter was carefully excavated under the supervision of Hebrew University archaeologist Nahman Avigad. The archaeological remains are on display in a series of museums and outdoor parks, which tourists can visit by descending two or three stories beneath the level of the current city. The former Chief Rabbi is Rabbi Avigdor Nebenzahl, and the current Chief Rabbi is his son Rabbi Chizkiyahu Nebenzahl, who is on the faculty of Yeshivat Netiv Aryeh, which is situated directly across from the Kotel. The quarter includes the “Karaites’ street” (Hebrew: , Rhehov Ha’karaim), on which the old Anan ben David Kenesa is located.[citation needed][32] There was previously a small Moroccan quarter in the Old City. Within a week of the Six-Day War’s end, the Moroccan quarter was largely destroyed in order to give visitors better access to the Western Wall by creating the Western Wall plaza. The parts of the Moroccan Quarter that were not destroyed are now part of the Jewish Quarter. Simultaneously with the demolition, a new regulation was set into place by which the only access point for non-Muslims to the Temple Mount is through the Gate of the Moors, which is reached via the so-called Mughrabi Bridge.[33][34] During different periods, the city walls followed different outlines and had a varying number of gates. During the era of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem for instance, Jerusalem had four gates, one on each side. The current walls were built by Suleiman the Magnificent, who provided them with six gates; several older gates, which had been walled up before the arrival of the Ottomans, were left as they were. As to the previously sealed Golden Gate, Suleiman at first opened and rebuilt it, but then walled it up again as well. The number of operational gates increased to seven after the addition of the New Gate in 1887; a smaller eighth one, the Tanners’ Gate, has been opened for visitors after being discovered and unsealed during excavations in the 1990s. The sealed historic gates comprise four that are at least partially preserved (the double Golden Gate in the eastern wall, and the Single, Triple, and Double Gates in the southern wall), with several other gates discovered by archaeologists of which only traces remain (the Gate of the Essenes on Mount Zion, the gate of Herod’s royal palace south of the citadel, and the vague remains of what 19th-century explorers identified as the Gate of the Funerals (Bab al-Jana’iz) or of al-Buraq (Bab al-Buraq) south of the Golden Gate[35]). Until 1887, each gate was closed before sunset and opened at sunrise. As indicated by the chart below, these gates have been known by a variety of names used in different historical periods and by different communities. [36][37] Coordinates: 314636N 351403E / 31.77667N 35.23417E / 31.77667; 35.23417

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Opinion | The Jerusalem Post

The Jerusalem Post Customer Service Center can be contacted with any questions or requests:Telephone: *2421 * Extension 4 Jerusalem Post or 03-7619056 Fax: 03-5613699E-mail: [emailprotected]The center is staffed and provides answers on Sundays through Thursdays between 07:00 and 14:00 and Fridays only handles distribution requests between 7:00 and13:00For international customers: The center is staffed and provides answers on Sundays through Thursdays between 7AM and 6PMToll Free number in Israel only 1-800-574-574Telephone +972-3-761-9056Fax: 972-3-561-3699E-mail: [emailprotected]

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April 4, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Jerusalem  Comments Closed

Eichmann in Jerusalem – Wikipedia

Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil is a book by political theorist Hannah Arendt, originally published in 1963.[1] Arendt, a Jew who fled Germany during Adolf Hitler’s rise to power, reported on Adolf Eichmann’s trial for The New Yorker. Arendt’s subtitle famously introduced the phrase “the banality of evil,” which also serves as the final words of the book. In part, at least, the phrase refers to Eichmann’s deportment at the trial as the man displayed neither guilt for his actions nor hatred for those trying him, claiming he bore no responsibility because he was simply “doing his job” (“He did his duty…; he not only obeyed orders, he also obeyed the law.” p.135). Arendt takes Eichmann’s court testimony and the historical evidence available, and she makes several observations about Eichmann: Arendt suggests that this most strikingly discredits the idea that the Nazi criminals were manifestly psychopathic and different from “normal” people. From this document, many concluded that situations such as the Holocaust can make even the most ordinary of people commit horrendous crimes with the proper incentives, but Arendt adamantly disagreed with this interpretation, as Eichmann was voluntarily following the Fhrerprinzip. Arendt insists that moral choice remains even under totalitarianism, and that this choice has political consequences even when the chooser is politically powerless: [U]nder conditions of terror most people will comply but some people will not, just as the lesson of the countries to which the Final Solution was proposed is that “it could happen” in most places but it did not happen everywhere. Humanly speaking, no more is required, and no more can reasonably be asked, for this planet to remain a place fit for human habitation. Arendt mentions, as a case in point, Denmark: One is tempted to recommend the story as required reading in political science for all students who wish to learn something about the enormous power potential inherent in non-violent action and in resistance to an opponent possessing vastly superior means of violence. It was not just that the people of Denmark refused to assist in implementing the Final Solution, as the peoples of so many other conquered nations had been persuaded to do (or had been eager to do) but also, that when the Reich cracked down and decided to do the job itself it found that its own personnel in Denmark had been infected by this and were unable to overcome their human aversion with the appropriate ruthlessness, as their peers in more cooperative areas had. On Eichmann’s personality, Arendt concludes: Despite all the efforts of the prosecution, everybody could see that this man was not a “monster,” but it was difficult indeed not to suspect that he was a clown. And since this suspicion would have been fatal to the entire enterprise [his trial], and was also rather hard to sustain in view of the sufferings he and his like had caused to millions of people, his worst clowneries were hardly noticed and almost never reported (p. 55). Beyond her discussion of Eichmann himself, Arendt discusses several additional aspects of the trial, its context, and the Holocaust. Arendt’s book introduced the expression and concept “the banality of evil”.[6] Her thesis is that Eichmann was not a fanatic or sociopath, but an extremely average person who relied on clich defenses rather than thinking for himself and was motivated by professional promotion rather than ideology. Banality, in this sense, is not that Eichmann’s actions were ordinary, or that there is a potential Eichmann in all of us, but that his actions were motivated by a sort of stupidity which was wholly unexceptional.[7] In his 2010 history of the Second World War, Moral Combat, British historian Michael Burleigh calls the expression a “clich” and gives many documented examples of gratuitous acts of cruelty by those involved in the Holocaust, including Eichmann.[8] Arendt certainly did not disagree about the fact of gratuitous cruelty, but “banality of evil” is unrelated to this question. Similarly, the first attempted rebuttal of Arendt’s thesis relied on a misreading of this phrase, claiming Arendt meant that there was nothing exceptional about the Holocaust.[9][10] Arendt sparked controversy with Eichmann in Jerusalem upon its publishing and the years since.[11][12] Arendt has long been accused of “blaming the victim” in the book.[13] Stanley Milgram maintains that “Arendt became the object of considerable scorn, even calumny” because she highlighted Eichmann’s “banality” and “normalcy”, and accepted Eichmann’s claim that he did not have evil intents or motives to commit such horrors; nor did he have a thought to the immorality and evil of his actions, or indeed, display, as the prosecution depicted, that he was a sadistic “monster”.[14] (ch.1). Jacob Robinson published And the Crooked Shall be Made Straight, the first full-length rebuttal of her book.[9] Robinson presented himself as an expert in international law, not saying that he was an assistant to the prosecutor in the case.[10] In his 2006 book, Becoming Eichmann: Rethinking the Life, Crimes and Trial of a “Desk Murderer”, Holocaust researcher David Cesarani questioned Arendt’s portrait of Eichmann on several grounds. According to his findings, Arendt attended only part of the trial, witnessing Eichmann’s testimony for “at most four days” and basing her writings mostly on recordings and the trial transcript. Cesarani feels that this may have skewed her opinion of him, since it was in the parts of the trial that she missed that the more forceful aspects of his character appeared. Cesarani also presents evidence[citation needed] suggesting that Eichmann was in fact highly anti-Semitic and that these feelings were important motivators of his actions. Thus, he alleges that Arendt’s claims that his motives were “banal” and non-ideological and that he had abdicated his autonomy of choice by obeying Hitler’s orders without question may stand on weak foundations. This is a recurrent[17] criticism of Arendt, though nowhere in her work does Arendt deny that Eichmann was an anti-Semite, and she also did not claim that Eichmann was “simply” following orders, but rather had internalized the clichs of the Nazi regime.[17] Cesarani suggests that Arendt’s own prejudices influenced the opinions she expressed during the trial. He argues that like many Jews of German origin, she held Ostjuden (Jews from Eastern Europe) in great disdain. This, according to Cesarani, led her to attack the conduct and efficacy of the chief prosecutor, Gideon Hausner, who was of Galician-Jewish origin. In a letter to the noted German philosopher Karl Jaspers she stated that Hausner was “a typical Galician Jew… constantly making mistakes. Probably one of those people who doesn’t know any language.” Cesarani claims that some of her opinions of Jews of Middle Eastern origin verged on racism as she described the Israeli crowds in her letter to Karl Jaspers: “My first impression: On top, the judges, the best of German Jewry. Below them, the prosecuting attorneys, Galicians, but still Europeans. Everything is organized by a police force that gives me the creeps, speaks only Hebrew, and looks Arabic. Some downright brutal types among them. They would obey any order. And outside the doors, the Oriental mob, as if one were in Istanbul or some other half-Asiatic country. In addition, and very visible in Jerusalem, the peies (sidelocks) and caftan Jews, who make life impossible for all reasonable people here.”[19] Cesarani’s book was itself criticized. In a review that appeared in the New York Times Review of Books, Barry Gewen argued that Cesarani’s hostility stemmed from his book standing “in the shadow of one of the great books of the last half-century”, and that Cesarani’s suggestion that both Arendt and Eichmann had much in common in their backgrounds making it easier for her to look down on the proceedings, “reveals a writer in control neither of his material nor of himself.”[20] Eichmann in Jerusalem, according to Hugh Trevor-Roper, is deeply indebted to Raul Hilberg’s The Destruction of the European Jews, so much so that Hilberg himself spoke of plagiarism.[21][22][23] Ironically, the very points which Arendt borrows from Hilberg, Hilberg himself borrowed from H.G. Adler. Arendt also received criticism in the form of responses to her article, also published in the New Yorker. One instance of this came mere weeks after the publication of her articles in the form of an article entitled “Man With an Unspotted Conscience”.[24] This work was written by witness for the defense, Michael A. Musmanno. He argued that Arendt fell prey to her own preconceived notions that rendered her work ahistorical. He also directly criticized her for ignoring the facts offered at the trial in stating that “the disparity between what Miss Arendt states, and what the ascertained facts are, occurs with such a disturbing frequency in her book that it can hardly be accepted as an authoritative historical work.”.[24] He further condemned Arendt and her work for her prejudices against Hauser and Ben-Gurion depicted in Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil. Musmanno argued that Arendt revealed “so frequently her own prejudices” that it could not stand as an accurate work.[24] Arendt relied heavily on the book by H.G. Adler Theresienstadt 1941-1945. The Face of a Coerced Community (Cambridge University Press. 2017), which she had read in manuscript, and subsequently used for her distorted treatment of the Jewish Elders. Adler took her to task on her view of Eichmann in his keynote essay What does Hannah Arendt know about Eichmann and the Final Solution (Allgemeine Zeitung der Juden in Deutschland. 20 November 1960). In more recent years, Arendt has received further criticism from authors Bettina Stangneth and Deborah Lipstadt. Stangneth argues in her work, Eichmann Before Jerusalem, that Eichmann was, in fact, an insidious antisemite.[25] She utilized the Sassen Papers and accounts of Eichmann while in Argentina to prove that he was proud of his position as a powerful Nazi and the murders that this allowed him to commit. While she acknowledges that the Sassen Papers were not disclosed in the lifetime of Arendt, she argues that the evidence was there at the trial to prove that Eichmann was an antisemitic murderer and that Arendt simply ignored this.[26] Deborah Lipstadt contends in her work, The Eichmann Trial, that Arendt was distracted by her own views of totalitarianism to objectively judge Eichmann.[22] She refers to Arendt’s own work on totalitarianism, The Origins of Totalitarianism, as a basis for Arendt’s seeking to validate her own work by using Eichmann as an example.[22] Lipstadt further contends that Arendt “wanted the trial to explicate how these societies succeeded in getting others to do their atrocious biddings” and so framed her analysis in a way which would agree with this pursuit.[22]

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March 24, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Jerusalem  Comments Closed


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