Archive for the ‘Jewish Defense League’ Category

Jewish Defense League – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Jewish Defense League (JDL) is a Jewish religious-political militant organization whose stated goal is to “protect Jews from antisemitism by whatever means necessary”.[1] While the group asserts that it “unequivocally condemns terrorism” and states that it has a “strict no-tolerance policy against terrorism and other felonious acts”,[2] it was classified as “a right-wing terrorist group” by the FBI in 2001.[3][4] According to the FBI, the JDL has been involved in plotting and executing acts of terrorism within the United States.[3]

Founded by Rabbi Meir Kahane in New York City in 1968, JDL’s self-described purpose was to protect Jews from local manifestations of antisemitism.[1][5] Its criticism of the Soviet Union garnered support for the group, transforming it from a “vigilante club” into an organization with stated membership numbering over 15,000 at one point.[6] The group took to bombing Arab and Soviet properties in the United States,[7] and targeting various alleged “enemies of the Jewish people”, ranging from Arab-American political activists to neo-Nazis, for assassination.[8] A number of JDL members have been linked to violent, and sometimes deadly, attacks in the United States and in other countries, including the murder of the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee regional director Alex Odeh in 1985, the Cave of the Patriarchs massacre in 1994, and a plot to assassinate Congressman Darrell Issa in 2001.[9] The National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism’s database of identified terrorist organizations, which is compiled by official contractors and consultants to the United States government and is supported by the Department of Homeland Security, identifies the JDL as a “former terrorist organization”.[10] The JDL’s website states that it rejects terrorism.[11]

According to the Anti-Defamation League, the JDL consists only of “thugs and hooligans”[12] and the group’s founder, Meir Kahane, “preached a radical form of Jewish nationalism which reflected racism, violence and political extremism,”[1] attitudes that were replicated by Irv Rubin, the successor to Kahane.[13] In 2002, the Southern Poverty Law Center added the Jewish Defense League to its list of watched hate groups for the JDL’s “long history of bombing, assaulting and threatening its perceived enemies” such as “the Soviet Union, neo-Nazi activists, Palestinian leaders, prominent black Americans and even Jewish moderates” as well as other Jewish radicals, and stated that the JDL “claims to have 13,000 members, but apparently has a few dozen at best.”[4]

In 1994, the JDL’s sister movements Kach and Kahane Chai were both outlawed in Israel as terrorist organizations posing a threat to state security.[14] They are also banned in the United States, European Union and Canada. However, the French branch of the JDL, the Ligue de Dfense Juive (LDJ), is not illegal in France.[15] Several JDL members and leaders died a violent death, including Kahane himself.[16]

According to the organization’s official list of Chairmen or Highest Ranking Directors:[17]

After Rubin’s death in prison in November 2002, Bill Maniaci was appointed interim chairman by Shelley Rubin. Two years later, the Jewish Defense League became mired in a state of upheaval over legal control of the organization. In October 2004, Maniaci rejected Shelley Rubin’s call for him to resign; as a result, Maniaci was stripped of his title and membership. At that point, the JDL split into two separate factions, each vying for legal control of the associated “intellectual property.” The two operated as separate organizations with the same name while a lengthy legal battle ensued.[19] In April 2005, the original domain name of the organization, jdl.org, was suspended by Network Solutions due to allegation of infringement; the organization went back online soon thereafter at domain name jewishdefenseleague.org. In April 2006, news of a settlement was announced in which signatories agreed to not object to “Shelley Rubin’s titles of permanent chairman and CEO of JDL.”[20] The agreement also confirmed that “the name ‘Jewish Defense League,’ the acronym ‘JDL,’ and the ‘Fist and Star’ logo are the exclusive intellectual property of JDL.” (Opponents of both groups claim that these are Kahanist symbols and not the exclusive property of JDL. At this time, however, the logo is no longer in general use by the Kahanist groups.) The agreement also states: “Domain names registered on behalf of JDL, including but not limited to jdl.org and jewishdefenseleague.org, are owned and operated by JDL.” Meanwhile, the opposing group formed B’nai Elim,[21] which is the latest of many JDL splinter groups to have formed over the years (previous splinter groups included the Jewish Direct Action and the United Jewish Underground that were active during the 1980s).

The JDL upholds five fundamental principles, which as of July 2007 were listed on its website as:

The JDL encourages, per its principle of the “Love of Jewry”, that “…[I]n the end…the Jew can look to no one but another Jew for help and that the true solution to the Jewish problem is the liquidation of the Exile and the return of all Jews to Eretz Yisroel the land of Israel.”[22] The JDL elaborates on this fundamental principle by insisting upon an “immediate need to place Judaism over any other ‘ism’ and ideology and…use of the yardstick: ‘Is it good for Jews?'”[22] The JDL argues that, outside of Jews, there are historically no people corresponding to the Palestinian ethnicity. Writing on its official website, the JDL claims: “[T]he first mention of a “Palestinian people” dates from the aftermath of the 1967 war, when the local Arabic-speaking communities … were retrospectively endowed with a contrived “nationhood” … taken from Jewish history …” and that “Clearly, since Roman times “Palestinian” had meant Jews until the Arab’s recent adoption of this identity in order to claim it as their land.”[23] On this basis, the JDL argues that “Zionism [should be] under no obligation to accommodate a separate “Palestinian” claim, there being no historical evidence or witness for any such Arab category,” and considers Palestinian claims to be “Arab usurpation” of proper Jewish title.[23]

In 2004 congressional testimony, John S. Pistole, Executive Assistant Director for Counterterrorism and Counterintelligence for the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) described the JDL as “a known violent extremist Jewish organization.”[24] FBI statistics show that, from 1980 through 1985, there were 18 officially classified terrorist attacks in the U.S. committed by Jews; 15 of those by members of the JDL.[25] According to the Washington Report on Middle East Affairs,[26]

In a 1986 study of domestic terrorism, the Department of Energy concluded: “For more than a decade, the Jewish Defense League (JDL) has been one of the most active terrorist groups in the United States. […] Since 1968, JDL operations have killed 7 persons and wounded at least 22. Thirty-nine percent of the targets were connected with the Soviet Union; 9 percent were Palestinian; 8 percent were Lebanese; 6 percent, Egyptian; 4 percent, French, Iranian, and Iraqi; 1 percent, Polish and German; and 23 percent were not connected with any states. Sixty-two percent of all JDL actions are directed against property; 30 percent against businesses; 4 percent against academics and academic institutions; and 2 percent against religious targets.” (Department of Energy, Terrorism in the United States and the Potential Threat to Nuclear Facilities, R-3351-DOE, January 1986, pp. 1116)

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Jewish Defense League – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Backgrounder:The Jewish Defense League – Anti-Defamation League

Backgrounder:The Jewish Defense League

About the Jewish Defense League:

The Jewish Defense League, also known as JDL, was established in 1968 for the declared purpose of protecting Jews by whatever means necessary in the face of what was seen by the groups principals as their dire peril. The founder, national chairman and leader of the JDL was a then-38-year-old ordained rabbi from Brooklyn, New York, Meir Kahane, who, in 1990, was assassinated in New York by an Arab extremist.

In Rabbi Kahanes gross distortion of the position of Jews in America, American Jews were living in a fiercely hostile society, facing much the same dangers as the Jews in Nazi Germany or those in Israel surrounded by 100-million Arab enemies. Rabbi Kahane believed that the major Jewish organizations in the United States had failed to protect Americas Jews from anti-Semitism, which he saw as exploding all over the country. “If I have succeeded in instilling fear in you,” Rabbi Kahane said in the closing statement of his standard speech, “I consider this evening a success.”

In fact, Kahane consistently preached a radical form of Jewish nationalism which reflected racism, violence and political extremism.

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In their own words

Irv Rubin — Chairman of the Jewish Defense League

On training camps in the Catskills: “We teach young people to have a sane fist attached to a sane head, not to advocate this nebbish posture people seem to think is so popular.”

“A lot of energy, and ideology classes will create an authentic Jew. A Jew who will know how to act when all Jews are in trouble.” The Times Herald-Record, June, 28, 1998

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Jewish Defense League Chapters – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jewish Defense League Chapters is an article listing official Jewish Defense League chapters as well as national and regional offices of the organization.

In October 2000, after an absence of more than 20 years, the Jewish Defense League once again had an Arizona chapter. Its first event coincided with a solidarity rally for Israel at Temple Chai of Phoenix, held on October 29, 2000, hosted by the Arizona Jewish community. At that time, there were 27 members; 20 in Phoenix, five in Tucson, and two at the University of Northern Arizona in Flagstaff. Irv Rubin, then national JDL chairman, worked closely with Arizona chairman, Ian Rakow, to establish the chapter. Rakow stated, that one of the main goals of the chapter, “is to educate,” and said that, “depending upon their level of comfort,” members can attend meetings, protests, and rallies, or write articles for the website.[1]

Following a string of anti-semitic incidents, including vandalism using anti-semitic graffiti in Prescott, Arizona, JDL of Arizona offered a one-thousand dollar reward for “information leading to the arrest and conviction of those responsible for spray-painting threatening, anti-Semitic graffiti on the headquarters of Prescotts Safe Schools, Safe Students,”[2][3] as well as a free Carrying Concealed Weapons class held in February, 2001 in Prescott, Arizona, in order to obtain Concealed Weapons Permits, “with the goal of empowering the law-abiding citizens against future victimization and escalation of these terrorist acts.” [4][5] The chapter disbanded in January 2002.[6]

The Jewish Defense League of Arizona re-established itself in October 2009 under the leadership of its chairman, Michael Tuber.[7][8][9] It maintains a Facebook group. On December 13, 2009, JDL Arizona held a counter-protest of the picketing of a Jewish Community Center in Scottsdale, Arizona by the Westboro Baptist Church. About ten JDL AZ members attended out of about 40 counter-protesters.

The Jewish Defense League of Los Angeles is also the site of the JDL International Headquarters. They can be contacted at P.O. Box 480370, Los Angeles, CA 90048.[10] The Chairman and National Chairman and CEO is Shelley Rubin, and the Vice-Chairman and National Vice-President is Ari Rubin.[11]

The Jewish Defense League of Chicago[10] is under the leadership of Sholom Ben-David. In 2002, the Chicago JDL had a car as part of its Mobile Response Unit in which they patrolled synagogues.[12][13]

The Florida chapter of the Jewish Defense League was re-established on February 10, 2011 and is run by Chairman David Bar-Lev. Bar-Lev was formerly the Chairman of the now-defunct Jewish Defense League of Tampa Bay from September 1999 to October 2004.[14] The Jewish Defense League of Florida maintains a Twitter page and is currently recruiting new members to join its ranks.[15]

The Jewish Defense League of Louisiana was formed on July 27 of 2008.[7] JDL Louisiana created a now defunct website,[16] www.louisianajdl.org, on July 20 of 2008.[17][18][19][20] It currently operates a new website,Twitter that “tweets” about events and blog posts by the JDL, as well as Jewish and Israeli news, and a Facebook group. Their motto is, “Your Jewish Neighborhood Watch.”[21]

The Jewish Defense League of Michigan was formed in 2009.[10]

The Jewish Defense League of Texas was formed on August 14, 2006[10] under the leadership of Ben Johnson in Waco, Texas. Their expressed goal is, “…to bring unity with those who wish to confront those extremist groups whose sole aim is the destruction of the Jewish People.”[22]

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Jewish Defense League – Wikipedia

Die Jewish Defense League (JDL) ist eine rechtsextreme,[1]jdische Organisation, deren erklrtes Ziel es ist, Juden in der Diaspora mit allen Mitteln vor Antisemitismus zu beschtzen, die von ihr dafr als notwendig betrachtet werden. Sie verurteilt in ihren offiziellen Publikationen jede Form von Terrorismus und Rassismus.[2] Das FBI hingegen bezeichnete die Organisation in seinem Terrorismus-Report 2000/01 als gewaltttige, extremistische jdische Organisation und brachte die JDL-Fhrung zumindest mit einem vereitelten Terroranschlag in Verbindung.[3] FBI-Statistiken zeigen, dass es im Zeitraum von 1980 bis 1985 18 von Juden begangene Terroranschlge in den USA gegeben hat.[4] Davon waren 15 von JDL-Mitgliedern verbt worden.[4]

Ursprngliches Ziel des Grnders Rabbi Meir Kahane war es, chassidische Juden im Brooklyn der 1960er Jahre vor bergriffen und wachsendem Antisemitismus zu schtzen. Seit der Grndung der Organisation, waren Mitglieder der JDL immer wieder in zahlreiche gewaltttige bergriffe auf afroamerikanische Gangs, Neo-Nazis, Reprsentanten der ehemaligen Sowjetunion und Moslems verwickelt. Eine Reihe von versuchten terroristischen Anschlgen werden der JDL zwar zugerechnet, von dieser aber stets zurckgewiesen.[5]

Das Massaker von Hebron wird von der JDL als prventive Manahme gerechtfertigt. Laut der JDL habe der Tter, Baruch Goldstein, mit der Ermordung von 29 betenden Arabern, lediglich vorbeugend gehandelt, da sonst angeblich ein Angriff der einheimischen Araber auf die israelischen Siedler in Hebron bevorgestanden htte. Goldstein war selbst einst Mitglied der JDL.[6] In Hebron finden sich bis heute Graffiti von der JDL, mit denen Araber in die Gaskammern! gefordert wird.[7]

Neben der JDL existiert als politischer Arm die israelische Kach-Partei sowie die dazugehrige Organisation Kahane Chai (Kahane lebt), welche von der israelischen Regierung, nach dem Massaker von Hebron, fr illegal erklrt wurden.

Die JDL wird von der antirassistischen Organisation Southern Poverty Law Center berwacht.[8][9]

Die JDL wurde 1968 von Rabbi Meir Kahane gegrndet, vorrangig um Juden in New York zu schtzen und gegen lokalen Antisemitismus zu protestieren.[10]

19681971 Rabbi Meir Kahane.

19711973 David Fisch, ein religiser Student der Columbia University, welcher spter Artikel fr jdische Zeitungen schrieb und das Buch Jews for Nothing verffentlichte.

19731974 Kein Vorsitzender. Diese Zeit war von Machtkmpfen und Chaos innerhalb der JDL geprgt, bis Rabbi Kahane im August 1974 zurckkehrte und fr Ordnung sorgte.

19741976 Russell Kellner, ursprnglich aus Philadelphia, zog fr den Posten des Vorsitzenden nach New York.

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Jewish Defense League – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Jewish Defense League (JDL) is a Jewish religious-political militant organization whose stated goal is to “protect Jews from antisemitism by whatever means necessary”.[1] While the group asserts that it “unequivocally condemns terrorism” and states that it has a “strict no-tolerance policy against terrorism and other felonious acts”,[2] it was classified as “a right-wing terrorist group” by the FBI in 2001.[3][4] According to the FBI, the JDL has been involved in plotting and executing acts of terrorism within the United States.[3] Founded by Rabbi Meir Kahane in New York City in 1968, JDL’s self-described purpose was to protect Jews from local manifestations of antisemitism.[1][5] Its criticism of the Soviet Union garnered support for the group, transforming it from a “vigilante club” into an organization with stated membership numbering over 15,000 at one point.[6] The group took to bombing Arab and Soviet properties in the United States,[7] and targeting various alleged “enemies of the Jewish people”, ranging from Arab-American political activists to neo-Nazis, for assassination.[8] A number of JDL members have been linked to violent, and sometimes deadly, attacks in the United States and in other countries, including the murder of the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee regional director Alex Odeh in 1985, the Cave of the Patriarchs massacre in 1994, and a plot to assassinate Congressman Darrell Issa in 2001.[9] The National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism’s database of identified terrorist organizations, which is compiled by official contractors and consultants to the United States government and is supported by the Department of Homeland Security, identifies the JDL as a “former terrorist organization”.[10] The JDL’s website states that it rejects terrorism.[11] According to the Anti-Defamation League, the JDL consists only of “thugs and hooligans”[12] and the group’s founder, Meir Kahane, “preached a radical form of Jewish nationalism which reflected racism, violence and political extremism,”[1] attitudes that were replicated by Irv Rubin, the successor to Kahane.[13] In 2002, the Southern Poverty Law Center added the Jewish Defense League to its list of watched hate groups for the JDL’s “long history of bombing, assaulting and threatening its perceived enemies” such as “the Soviet Union, neo-Nazi activists, Palestinian leaders, prominent black Americans and even Jewish moderates” as well as other Jewish radicals, and stated that the JDL “claims to have 13,000 members, but apparently has a few dozen at best.”[4] In 1994, the JDL’s sister movements Kach and Kahane Chai were both outlawed in Israel as terrorist organizations posing a threat to state security.[14] They are also banned in the United States, European Union and Canada. However, the French branch of the JDL, the Ligue de Dfense Juive (LDJ), is not illegal in France.[15] Several JDL members and leaders died a violent death, including Kahane himself.[16] According to the organization’s official list of Chairmen or Highest Ranking Directors:[17] After Rubin’s death in prison in November 2002, Bill Maniaci was appointed interim chairman by Shelley Rubin. Two years later, the Jewish Defense League became mired in a state of upheaval over legal control of the organization. In October 2004, Maniaci rejected Shelley Rubin’s call for him to resign; as a result, Maniaci was stripped of his title and membership. At that point, the JDL split into two separate factions, each vying for legal control of the associated “intellectual property.” The two operated as separate organizations with the same name while a lengthy legal battle ensued.[19] In April 2005, the original domain name of the organization, jdl.org, was suspended by Network Solutions due to allegation of infringement; the organization went back online soon thereafter at domain name jewishdefenseleague.org. In April 2006, news of a settlement was announced in which signatories agreed to not object to “Shelley Rubin’s titles of permanent chairman and CEO of JDL.”[20] The agreement also confirmed that “the name ‘Jewish Defense League,’ the acronym ‘JDL,’ and the ‘Fist and Star’ logo are the exclusive intellectual property of JDL.” (Opponents of both groups claim that these are Kahanist symbols and not the exclusive property of JDL. At this time, however, the logo is no longer in general use by the Kahanist groups.) The agreement also states: “Domain names registered on behalf of JDL, including but not limited to jdl.org and jewishdefenseleague.org, are owned and operated by JDL.” Meanwhile, the opposing group formed B’nai Elim,[21] which is the latest of many JDL splinter groups to have formed over the years (previous splinter groups included the Jewish Direct Action and the United Jewish Underground that were active during the 1980s). The JDL upholds five fundamental principles, which as of July 2007 were listed on its website as: The JDL encourages, per its principle of the “Love of Jewry”, that “…[I]n the end…the Jew can look to no one but another Jew for help and that the true solution to the Jewish problem is the liquidation of the Exile and the return of all Jews to Eretz Yisroel the land of Israel.”[22] The JDL elaborates on this fundamental principle by insisting upon an “immediate need to place Judaism over any other ‘ism’ and ideology and…use of the yardstick: ‘Is it good for Jews?'”[22] The JDL argues that, outside of Jews, there are historically no people corresponding to the Palestinian ethnicity. Writing on its official website, the JDL claims: “[T]he first mention of a “Palestinian people” dates from the aftermath of the 1967 war, when the local Arabic-speaking communities … were retrospectively endowed with a contrived “nationhood” … taken from Jewish history …” and that “Clearly, since Roman times “Palestinian” had meant Jews until the Arab’s recent adoption of this identity in order to claim it as their land.”[23] On this basis, the JDL argues that “Zionism [should be] under no obligation to accommodate a separate “Palestinian” claim, there being no historical evidence or witness for any such Arab category,” and considers Palestinian claims to be “Arab usurpation” of proper Jewish title.[23] In 2004 congressional testimony, John S. Pistole, Executive Assistant Director for Counterterrorism and Counterintelligence for the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) described the JDL as “a known violent extremist Jewish organization.”[24] FBI statistics show that, from 1980 through 1985, there were 18 officially classified terrorist attacks in the U.S. committed by Jews; 15 of those by members of the JDL.[25] According to the Washington Report on Middle East Affairs,[26] In a 1986 study of domestic terrorism, the Department of Energy concluded: “For more than a decade, the Jewish Defense League (JDL) has been one of the most active terrorist groups in the United States. Since 1968, JDL operations have killed 7 persons and wounded at least 22. Thirty-nine percent of the targets were connected with the Soviet Union; 9 percent were Palestinian; 8 percent were Lebanese; 6 percent, Egyptian; 4 percent, French, Iranian, and Iraqi; 1 percent, Polish and German; and 23 percent were not connected with any states. Sixty-two percent of all JDL actions are directed against property; 30 percent against businesses; 4 percent against academics and academic institutions; and 2 percent against religious targets.” (Department of Energy, Terrorism in the United States and the Potential Threat to Nuclear Facilities, R-3351-DOE, January 1986, pp. 1116)

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Backgrounder:The Jewish Defense League – Anti-Defamation League

Backgrounder:The Jewish Defense League About the Jewish Defense League: The Jewish Defense League, also known as JDL, was established in 1968 for the declared purpose of protecting Jews by whatever means necessary in the face of what was seen by the groups principals as their dire peril. The founder, national chairman and leader of the JDL was a then-38-year-old ordained rabbi from Brooklyn, New York, Meir Kahane, who, in 1990, was assassinated in New York by an Arab extremist. In Rabbi Kahanes gross distortion of the position of Jews in America, American Jews were living in a fiercely hostile society, facing much the same dangers as the Jews in Nazi Germany or those in Israel surrounded by 100-million Arab enemies. Rabbi Kahane believed that the major Jewish organizations in the United States had failed to protect Americas Jews from anti-Semitism, which he saw as exploding all over the country. “If I have succeeded in instilling fear in you,” Rabbi Kahane said in the closing statement of his standard speech, “I consider this evening a success.” In fact, Kahane consistently preached a radical form of Jewish nationalism which reflected racism, violence and political extremism. Back to Top In their own words Irv Rubin — Chairman of the Jewish Defense League On training camps in the Catskills: “We teach young people to have a sane fist attached to a sane head, not to advocate this nebbish posture people seem to think is so popular.” “A lot of energy, and ideology classes will create an authentic Jew. A Jew who will know how to act when all Jews are in trouble.” The Times Herald-Record, June, 28, 1998

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Jewish Defense League Chapters – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jewish Defense League Chapters is an article listing official Jewish Defense League chapters as well as national and regional offices of the organization. In October 2000, after an absence of more than 20 years, the Jewish Defense League once again had an Arizona chapter. Its first event coincided with a solidarity rally for Israel at Temple Chai of Phoenix, held on October 29, 2000, hosted by the Arizona Jewish community. At that time, there were 27 members; 20 in Phoenix, five in Tucson, and two at the University of Northern Arizona in Flagstaff. Irv Rubin, then national JDL chairman, worked closely with Arizona chairman, Ian Rakow, to establish the chapter. Rakow stated, that one of the main goals of the chapter, “is to educate,” and said that, “depending upon their level of comfort,” members can attend meetings, protests, and rallies, or write articles for the website.[1] Following a string of anti-semitic incidents, including vandalism using anti-semitic graffiti in Prescott, Arizona, JDL of Arizona offered a one-thousand dollar reward for “information leading to the arrest and conviction of those responsible for spray-painting threatening, anti-Semitic graffiti on the headquarters of Prescotts Safe Schools, Safe Students,”[2][3] as well as a free Carrying Concealed Weapons class held in February, 2001 in Prescott, Arizona, in order to obtain Concealed Weapons Permits, “with the goal of empowering the law-abiding citizens against future victimization and escalation of these terrorist acts.” [4][5] The chapter disbanded in January 2002.[6] The Jewish Defense League of Arizona re-established itself in October 2009 under the leadership of its chairman, Michael Tuber.[7][8][9] It maintains a Facebook group. On December 13, 2009, JDL Arizona held a counter-protest of the picketing of a Jewish Community Center in Scottsdale, Arizona by the Westboro Baptist Church. About ten JDL AZ members attended out of about 40 counter-protesters. The Jewish Defense League of Los Angeles is also the site of the JDL International Headquarters. They can be contacted at P.O. Box 480370, Los Angeles, CA 90048.[10] The Chairman and National Chairman and CEO is Shelley Rubin, and the Vice-Chairman and National Vice-President is Ari Rubin.[11] The Jewish Defense League of Chicago[10] is under the leadership of Sholom Ben-David. In 2002, the Chicago JDL had a car as part of its Mobile Response Unit in which they patrolled synagogues.[12][13] The Florida chapter of the Jewish Defense League was re-established on February 10, 2011 and is run by Chairman David Bar-Lev. Bar-Lev was formerly the Chairman of the now-defunct Jewish Defense League of Tampa Bay from September 1999 to October 2004.[14] The Jewish Defense League of Florida maintains a Twitter page and is currently recruiting new members to join its ranks.[15] The Jewish Defense League of Louisiana was formed on July 27 of 2008.[7] JDL Louisiana created a now defunct website,[16] www.louisianajdl.org, on July 20 of 2008.[17][18][19][20] It currently operates a new website,Twitter that “tweets” about events and blog posts by the JDL, as well as Jewish and Israeli news, and a Facebook group. Their motto is, “Your Jewish Neighborhood Watch.”[21] The Jewish Defense League of Michigan was formed in 2009.[10] The Jewish Defense League of Texas was formed on August 14, 2006[10] under the leadership of Ben Johnson in Waco, Texas. Their expressed goal is, “…to bring unity with those who wish to confront those extremist groups whose sole aim is the destruction of the Jewish People.”[22]

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Jewish Defense League – Wikipedia

Die Jewish Defense League (JDL) ist eine rechtsextreme,[1]jdische Organisation, deren erklrtes Ziel es ist, Juden in der Diaspora mit allen Mitteln vor Antisemitismus zu beschtzen, die von ihr dafr als notwendig betrachtet werden. Sie verurteilt in ihren offiziellen Publikationen jede Form von Terrorismus und Rassismus.[2] Das FBI hingegen bezeichnete die Organisation in seinem Terrorismus-Report 2000/01 als gewaltttige, extremistische jdische Organisation und brachte die JDL-Fhrung zumindest mit einem vereitelten Terroranschlag in Verbindung.[3] FBI-Statistiken zeigen, dass es im Zeitraum von 1980 bis 1985 18 von Juden begangene Terroranschlge in den USA gegeben hat.[4] Davon waren 15 von JDL-Mitgliedern verbt worden.[4] Ursprngliches Ziel des Grnders Rabbi Meir Kahane war es, chassidische Juden im Brooklyn der 1960er Jahre vor bergriffen und wachsendem Antisemitismus zu schtzen. Seit der Grndung der Organisation, waren Mitglieder der JDL immer wieder in zahlreiche gewaltttige bergriffe auf afroamerikanische Gangs, Neo-Nazis, Reprsentanten der ehemaligen Sowjetunion und Moslems verwickelt. Eine Reihe von versuchten terroristischen Anschlgen werden der JDL zwar zugerechnet, von dieser aber stets zurckgewiesen.[5] Das Massaker von Hebron wird von der JDL als prventive Manahme gerechtfertigt. Laut der JDL habe der Tter, Baruch Goldstein, mit der Ermordung von 29 betenden Arabern, lediglich vorbeugend gehandelt, da sonst angeblich ein Angriff der einheimischen Araber auf die israelischen Siedler in Hebron bevorgestanden htte. Goldstein war selbst einst Mitglied der JDL.[6] In Hebron finden sich bis heute Graffiti von der JDL, mit denen Araber in die Gaskammern! gefordert wird.[7] Neben der JDL existiert als politischer Arm die israelische Kach-Partei sowie die dazugehrige Organisation Kahane Chai (Kahane lebt), welche von der israelischen Regierung, nach dem Massaker von Hebron, fr illegal erklrt wurden. Die JDL wird von der antirassistischen Organisation Southern Poverty Law Center berwacht.[8][9] Die JDL wurde 1968 von Rabbi Meir Kahane gegrndet, vorrangig um Juden in New York zu schtzen und gegen lokalen Antisemitismus zu protestieren.[10] 19681971 Rabbi Meir Kahane. 19711973 David Fisch, ein religiser Student der Columbia University, welcher spter Artikel fr jdische Zeitungen schrieb und das Buch Jews for Nothing verffentlichte. 19731974 Kein Vorsitzender. Diese Zeit war von Machtkmpfen und Chaos innerhalb der JDL geprgt, bis Rabbi Kahane im August 1974 zurckkehrte und fr Ordnung sorgte. 19741976 Russell Kellner, ursprnglich aus Philadelphia, zog fr den Posten des Vorsitzenden nach New York.

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  • (1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for or nonprofit educational purposes,
  • (2) the nature of the copyrighted work,
  • (3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole, and
  • (4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work."