Archive for the ‘Jews’ Category

Jews | Encyclopedia.com

The half-century between 1870 and 1920 was the most dynamic period in history for the growth and development of American Jewry. By that time Sephardic and Ashkenazic Jews had already established a solid population base in the United States, the Sephardim originally from Spain and Portugal, the Ashkenazim, or “German Jews” as popularly designated, then mostly from central Europe.

In 1880, as the promise of America was being fulfilled for many Jewish entrepreneurs and professionals already in the United States, the period of mass Jewish immigration from eastern Europe was soon to commence. Since 1791 a vast number of Jews from much of this region between the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea had been confined to the Pale of Jewish Settlement under Russian control. From 1880 on for most of nearly forty-five years, almost unbearable poverty sustained by burdensome Russian restrictions and anti-Semitic pogroms drove these East European Jews from their homelands and across the Atlantic by the tens of thousands annually, seeking a better life. Not all of them found one, but many did, and of them all, few returned.

Many of these Ashkenazic East European immigrants tried to follow the scriptural laws, Talmudic rules, and ancient traditions familiar to them from birth. But adverse circumstances usually made such steadfastness difficult, and families were soon divided by generation regarding their adherence to the Hebraic laws and rituals. Generally the older immigrants were more faithful, the younger more interested in “making it” and becoming Americanized.

Similarly the older generation found it difficult to learn and use English, whereas the younger, especially children in the public schools, shifted to English from their native Yiddish much more quickly and easily, often becoming teachers of their parents, an anomalous and discomfiting reversal for the elders. Abraham Cahan’s (18601951) most famous novel, The Rise of David Levinsky (1917), describes an emotional conflict between mother and daughter that develops in their home over this issue and helps drive them apart. From wherever in eastern Europe the Jews emigrated, they spoke Yiddish, a form of High German printed in Hebrew letters; it is a colloquial tongue rich in imagery and heavily mixed with Hebrew words and variants from the diverse countries and areas these Jews originally had called home. The culture they brought with them from eastern Europe, called yidishkayt, is based heavily on the language itself, and it evolved with the Jewish way of life in the shtetlach of the homeland, combining the religious and the secular, although with the passing of years in America it was increasingly secularized. Most Jewish men had as boys learned Hebrew to read scripture and Yiddish for daily usage; most women who could readand many could notunderstood Yiddish only. Instead of Yiddish, Jews from the Near East spoke Ladino, a Judaeo-Spanish tongue, or some form of Arabic.

Because life was so different in America, means were devised relatively early in the nineteenth century to liberalize Judaism from European rabbinical dictates yet allow Jews to remain faithful in the New World if they wished, as most did at least to some degree. Within Reform Judaism, established in the United States in the 1840s, the extent of liberalization varied. Amongthe prominent theorists behind Reform were Isaac Mayer Wise, Samuel Adler (whose son, Felix, founded the Ethical Culture movement in the 1870s), David Einhorn, and the more restrained Isaac Leeser. Late in the century, Conservative Judaism was instituted to provide a middle ground between the rigorous practice of Orthodoxy and the decidedly assimilative policies of Reform, but it did not take root until early in the twentieth century under the leadership of Solomon Schechter.

Before 1880 relatively few Jews entered the United States annually, so the difficulties they faced were usually limited; by then about 280,000 Jews lived in the country. The next year, however, would witness the beginning of a dramatic increase in numbers at the reception area in New York City’s Castle Garden. Between the end of the Civil War and the outbreak of World War I, over two million Jews entered the United States. Moses Rischin has estimated that during this period a third of East European Jewry left home; some 90 percent of them sailed to the United States, and the vast majority of those settled at least temporarily in New York. By 1915 approximately 3.5 million Jews lived in the United States.

Part of the reason for this new influx may be found in Cahan’s historical novel of 1905, The White Terror and the Red, in which he graphically describes adreadful anti-Semitic pogrom in Russia. The novel is set in the early 1880s, around the time that Tsar Alexander II was assassinated, but Cahan had been motivated to begin writing it immediately on learning of the massacre that occurred in Kishinev during Easter Week 1903, leaving forty-nine Jews dead and hundreds more wounded.

Although such violent pogroms as this helped influence the Russian and Polish Jews to flee, escape from their hopeless poverty provided an even stronger motive. Aboard ships from Germany and England they sailed in steerage and after a harrowing voyage of ten days to two weeks arrived at Castle Garden through 1892 and Ellis Island afterward. Although immigrants were treated decently at the crowded processing stations, their experiences nevertheless were often distressing, even frightening because, knowing little or no English, most could not understand what was happening to them. Moreover, names were often changed in processing because they were incomprehensible as pronounced to the officials.

Most of the incoming Jews who remained in New York settled in one of the city’s ghettos, mainly in the tenement district of the Lower East Side, not far from Castle Garden. In 1900 the population density of that area’s tenth ward was approximately seven hundred per acreone of the highest in the worldyet the death rate was the lowest in the city. By 1910 the population of the Lower East Side was over half a million, but by then inhabitants were moving either to ghettos elsewhere in the city or to other parts of the country.

The heavy influx of immigrants caused a dramatic increase in urban populations across the United States. In 1878 New York had a population of sixty thousand Jews, and in 1907 it was ten times that number. According to Lee Shai Weissbach, the Jewish population of other cities in the United States underwent similar or greater dynamic growth.

Not all Americans were happy with these changing Jewish demographics, including the Jews already established in the United States. Those whose businesses and professions had thrived after the Civil War eagerly sought respectability in their new homeland, that is, favorable recognition from Gentile society; not wishing to appear different as Jews, they yearned to be true Americans themselves. If these “uptown Jews” were uncomfortable with all the devout “greenhorns” (newcomers) pressing into “downtown” tenements, however, they did not turn away from their landsleit (landsman) in need but contributed heavily toward assisting them. From the time the first Jews arrived in the United States, they insisted that they would provide for their own and not leave their poor to be cared for by public charities.

On the other hand, most of the resentment toward the immigrants was attributable not to Jews but to Gentiles willing to accommodate the Sephardic and German Jews who sought to assimilate but not the hordes of destitute East Europeans living in squalor in Lower East Side tenements.

The tenement buildings were newly designed in 1879 to replace earlier types. The more recent structures of six or seven stories were called dumbbell tenements, with every floor holding four apartments of three or four rooms each. Shaped like dumbbells, the contiguous buildings narrowed at the center to provide for wholly inadequate airshafts between them, allowing no other space for light and ventilation. Moses Rischin describes these buildings in which every room often housed several people and served as both living and working quarters. Couples or families renting an apartment for $10 to $20 per month typically let one room to a boarder; under the worst economic circumstances, two boarders alternately used the same bed at different hours of the day and night. The excruciating summer heat drove the occupants outside to sleep on fire escapes and roofs; in winter the air inside was fetid and heavy with fumes emanating from heating units.

Outside the tenements, pushcarts and horse wagons maneuvered amid crowds of peddlers, while shoppers, hagglers, and children ferrying large bundles of piece-work, among others going about their business, jammed such noisy, bustling East Side thoroughfares as Hester and Delancey Streets. Rischin’s The Promised City, Irving Howe’s World of Our Fathers (1976), Howe and Kenneth Libo’s How We Lived (1979), and Stanley Feldstein’s The Land That I Show You (1978) as well as Jacob Riis’s early groundbreaking expos How the Other Half Lives (1890) exhibit eye-opening photographs of the overcrowded, noisome conditions under which immigrants struggled for life in the tenement districts during these decades. Moreover, as bad as the New York tenements were, those in Chicago were allegedly worse.

Not all immigrant husbands could cope with either the constant pressure or the burdensome responsibility of keeping their families alive under such circumstances. Consequently the number of husbands deserting wives and children was high, especially in the cities. According to Arthur Hertzberg, as many as 25 percent of Jewish fathers deserted their wives during the years of mass immigration, some never sending them money in Europe for tickets to America and others abandoning them in the United States after fruitlessly attempting to earn enough to stay together. In 1911 a National Desertion Bureau was established when urban Jewishcharities that could not cover the cost independently joined forces to assist deserted families.

Not all the immigrant Jews settled in the cities. Othersalthough many fewertraveled into rural New England, the South, the Midwest, and the far Northwest. Am Olam (Eternal People) groups that developed in major Russian cities promoted agricultural colonies among the emigrating Jews that led them to attempt to establish farm communities in the Dakotas, Oregon, and elsewhere in rural and wilderness areas of the United States (as well as Palestine). Few of these communities endured because not many Jews in Europe had acquired farming experience; those in the Pale could not own land at all.

Because Jews who settled in the United States after 1880 had emigrated largely from shtetlach and other restrictive communities in eastern Europe, the ways they knew of earning a living were extremely limited. Like earlier Jewish immigrants who had “made it” in business and finance by beginning as peddlers and small shop owners in different parts of the country, many East Europeans also began with backpacks and pushcarts. Countless others knew how to sew, and those who did not quickly learned. This endeavor eased when Singer sewing machines were brought into Russia in the 1870s; prospective immigrants who became accomplished on them found work soon after entering the United States.

Sewing was fundamental to the East Side Jews, who generally worked under the sweatshop system, a method already in effect when they arrived. As Ronald Sanders and Irving Howe describe the system, typically a contractor agreed to provide a set number of suits or cloaks to a merchant at a certain price. By then the merchant had purchased the requisite amount of cloth and cut it into sections for the contractor to distribute among workers he or she had hired, each of whom had a specific task to perform. Manufacturing ready-made clothes was seasonal work, and workers had little chance to earn sufficient money during the off-seasons, so when jobs were available, six-day work weeks often required seventy-two to eighty-four hours of labor.

On the Lower East Side during these years thousands of sweatshops were in existence simultaneously, but most were small operations employing but a handful of people. By 1880, even before their heyday, about half the Jewish businesses in the United States were in some aspect of the garment trade, and Arthur Hertzberg estimates that Jews already controlled as much as three-fourths of the American clothing industry. Extending this point, Irving Howe states that altogether the production of the sweatshops was so great that by 1900 some 90 percent of the garment industry was under Jewish control, and by then the east Europeans were squeezing out the Germans, who had previously dominated the industry.

In addition to businesses, the professions attracted a disproportionate number of Jewish immigrants. Among the most distinguished American jurists during this period, for example, were Louis Brandeis, Benjamin Cardozo, and Louis Marshall, all three of whom contributed significantly to the nation’s legal as well as Jewish history; both Brandeis and Cardozo became Supreme Court justices. Moreover, as Hertzberg indicates, by 1910 about a quarter of the students in American medical schools were Jewish (p. 200).

With the good came the bad. Arnold Rothstein (18821928), born of East European parents in New York, became the notorious gambler who masterminded the infamous Black Sox scandal and gained a fortune by bribing leading players on the Chicago White Sox to throw the World Series in 1919. A stylish, well-groomed wheeler-dealer among the politicians of Tammany Hall, he allegedly bribed his way to success through police stations and courtrooms alike. Although F. Scott Fitzgerald based Meyer Wolfsheim in The Great Gatsby (1925) on Rothstein, he transformed the dapper gambler from a brilliant gangster into a repulsive anti-Semitic Jewish stereotype.

On the Lower East Side many less-conspicuous Jewish figures were loose with the law as well, typically thwarting it by chicanery and manipulation rather than violence. Prostitution too was difficult to control in that section partly because it was on the edge of the red-light district and partly because it was supported by dance halls that abounded in the area to provide entertainment for men and women alike. In Yekl, A Tale of the New York Ghetto (1896), Cahan describes a dance hall but implies nothing about prostitution. Juvenile delinquency was also commonplace; parents tried to control their offspring, but peer pressure often overcame their influence. Children were no longer under the religious restrictions of the shtetlach, traditional discipline in the home had deteriorated, youngsters spoke better English than their parents, and much of their time was spent on the streets. If their fathers had deserted them, they had no place else to go.

In the miasmic atmosphere of the ghettos, advocates of socialist theory and practicewhich by no means always correspondedwere prominent, especiallyfrom the 1880s until after the Bolshevik revolution in 1917. The east European Jews brought socialism from the old country, where those who expressed radical ideas toward reform were either harassed or subject to arrest and imprisonment, depending on their assumed degree of implication with the revolutionaries. Abraham Cahan, who arrived in America from Russia in 1882, became one of the strongest and most effective spokespersons for socialism on the East Side, partly by speaking to the workers in Yiddish rather than one of their native European languages but mostly through his strong voice in the Yiddish press. After editing and writing for the Socialist Labor Party’s weekly, Arbeter tsaytung, through the mid-1890s, Cahan in 1897 founded the Jewish daily Forverts, popularly known as the Forward, which ultimately became the most widely read, distributed, and influential Yiddish newspaper in the world. One cannot overstate the importance of the Forward to Jewish economic and social progress during that crucial period in American Jewish history.

But the Forward was only one of many Yiddish newspapers published on the East Side; each of the leftist dailies and weeklies propagated its own brand of socialism, often more theoretical than practical, and each had its own coterie of adherents. The more theoretical socialists attempted to promote economic as well as social equality by ending all forms of labor exploitation, an impossibility in democratic America, where workers could vote freely and reap the benefits of their labor. In contrast, the more liberal papers recommended adapting socialist theories to suit the needs of Jews living in a different world from the tsarist autocracy.

With socialists of every stripe came othersJewish anarchists, communists, Am Olam adherents, and Zionists among themall with various commitments and degrees of loyalty. The Chicago Haymarket riot in 1886 began with an authorized protest by angered workers and anarchists and ended when someone unknown threw a bomb amidst a group of police, who then opened fire on the crowd. Several people were killed or wounded; eight of those at the protest were arrested and tried by a heavily biased court; four were executed and, according to Hertzberg, regarded as martyrs by Jewish socialists and radical workers.

Zionists showed little strength in the United States until the unanticipated support they gained from Louis Brandeis in 1914 rapidly increased their influence among American Jews, particularly those from eastern Europe. Hadassah, the Women’s Zionist Movement, was organized two years earlier by Henrietta Szold, and it has since played a major role in American Zionism. Each group of advocates and theorists attempted to propagate its own social philosophy and practice through lectures, rallies, protests, and the Yiddish press.

Attempts to establish unions in the ghettos focused particularly on the clothing trade. In 1909 and 1910 large strikes in the clothing industry occurred in Chicago as well as New York. Of course Jews were not the only workers in that industry, which drew heavily for labor from other immigrant groups and neighborhoods in Lower Manhattan. Many young Italian and Jewish women died together, for example, in the horrifying Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire of 1911 that shocked the nation. Those on the upper floors were trapped in their workrooms behind locked doors and were among the 146 workers who burned or jumped to their deaths within only a few minutes. Such catastrophes as this exacerbated the misery of the working people and their families on the East Side in particular, and strikes became both larger and more effective. Among the most prominent labor leaders of the period were Cahan; Samuel Gompers, longtime president of the American Federation of Labor; Joseph Barondess, dubbed “King of the Cloak-Makers”; David Dubinsky, the enduring leader of the International Ladies Garment Workers Union; Morris Hillquit (n Hilkowitz), who helped establish the United Hebrew Trades with Cahan in 1888; and Meyer London, a Jewish labor lawyer elected to Congress in 1914. Their political leanings were always to the left.

Reducing anti-Semitism in the United States, always a major issue for Jewish leaders, was particularly evident during the years of mass immigration. Antipathy toward Jews gained strength with the increasing numbers of immigrants. In 1913 Leo Frank, a young Jewish plant manager in Atlanta, was framed and convicted for killing a woman in the factory; without proof that he had committed the crime, a lynch mob hanged him in 1915 as he awaited the result of his appeal in jail. Moreover, that infamous treatise The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, a forgery by the Russian police early in the century, was translated and published in the United States in 1919. Purporting to be a secret plan by international Jewry to take over the world, this ludicrous document, promoted by Henry Ford, gained tremendous influence soon after its publication in English. Among the organizations founded early in the twentieth century in support of Jewish civil rights are the American Jewish Committee (1906) and B’nai B’rith’s Anti-Defamation League (1913).

In The Promised City, Moses Rischin reviews in some detail the surprising success rate of Jewish immigrant children in the East Side public schools. The averageabsentee rate of 8 percent was attributable almost entirely to illness, he says, and the pupils, eager to learn, were responsive and quickly Americanized. Rischin also points out that by the end of the century most children in the public schools of New York City were those of east European immigrants. Myra Kelly (18761910), an Irish teacher on the East Side at the end of the century, was so enthusiastic over her experiences with her Jewish pupils that she published numerous stories based on those she knew; her most popular collection was Little Citizens: The Humours of School Life (1904).

Several Jewish organizations assisted in the support of vocational schools, including technical training and English instruction for both girls and boys. As the numbers of incoming children increased toward the end of the century and beyond, the “uptown” Jews of the older, more established German-Jewish community contributed more heavily to the education and welfare of East Europeans in the tenement districts “downtown.” The Hebrew Free School Association, the Young Men’s Hebrew Association, the Baron de Hirsch Fund, and various other agencies were instrumental in helping to provide education for the immigrants, children and adults alike. In 1895 Lillian Wald established the Nurses (Henry Street) Settlement on the Lower East Side to offer nursing services and educate the immigrants about good health and hygiene. Other, more comprehensive charities such as the B’nai B’rith also helped to make education for these children possible among their broader commitments. Hebrew Union College was first established in Cincinnati in 1875 under the leadership of Isaac Mayer Wise; Gratz College, the first specifically for Jewish teachers, dates to 1897, and Dropsie College, the first postgraduate school for Jewish studies, was founded ten years later.

Education went two ways on the Lower East Side: not only were most immigrant Jews eager to learn about American manners and practices, but many Americans were equally interested in the ghetto, that “exotic” district to which the foreign Jews had immigrated. Because American journalists other than Jews did not know Yiddish, those who wished to write about the East Side sought someone there to guide them. Abraham Cahan had been hired by Lincoln Steffens, a philo-Semite (one who admires, praises, and often makes it a point to associate with Jews) (see Howe, p. 398) recently appointed city editor for the New York Commercial Advertiser, to report on the East Side. One outstanding result of Cahan’s warm association with Hutchins Hapgood (18691944), also on the staff, was The Spirit of the Ghetto (1902), a collection of articles on East Side life by Hapgood with superb charcoal drawings by Jacob Epstein. Jacob Riis (18491914), widely known as the author and photographer of How the Other Half Lives (1890) and Children of the Poor (1892), was then reporting for the New York Sun.

As the Gentile journalists publicized immigrant life for outsiders, the Yiddish press brought omnifarious information as well as fiction and poetry to American Jews wherever copies were available. Although the Forward was the most enduring of the Yiddish papers, other Yiddish dailies, weeklies, and monthlies were chiefly political, but some emphasized Jewish achievements, and still others appealed to conservative Jewish readers from a religious perspective. Apart from news and commentaries in the Jewish press, a variety of other features appeared, including tawdry, sentimental, melodramatic, and sensational fiction written quickly and strictly for commercial purposes.

An outstanding novel of the period is Cahan’s The Rise of David Levinsky, which details the life of a hypocritical Russian immigrant from his childhood in a shtetl studying to become a Hebrew scholar through his middle age in New York as a multimillionaire industrialist. As Cahan presents immigrant life in fiction from a male perspective, Anzia Yezierska (1885?1970) reveals it from the viewpoint of a woman. Her first story, “The Fat of the Land,” appeared in 1915 and her first collection, Hungry Hearts, in 1920; her work was so well received that it brought her to Hollywood, a dramatic change from her childhood and adolescence amid poverty as a Polish immigrant from the Pale. On arriving in America she lived on the East Side under the Old World exploitative behavior of her father, who expected women to work and serve him without question as he studied Talmud at home. So Yezierska fled and gained self-fulfillment trying to create a bridge of mutual understanding between the American people and the immigrants. Because much of Yezierska’s fiction is autobiographical, it is comparable with Mary Antin’s (18811949) popular autobiography The Promised Land (1912), in which she reveals the changes that occurred in her life as a Russian Jew who becomes secularized on leaving her family in Boston to gain what she believes is a new nationalistic religion as an American. Another noted female author early in the century was Fanny Hurst (18891968), who brought out two collections of stories before 1920, Just around the Corner (1914) and Humoresque (1919), that show the Jewish immigrants becoming assimilated into American life.

Two other Jewish fiction writers of New York from the period are Herman Bernstein (18761935) and James Oppenheim (18821932). Bernstein’s storiescollected in In the Gates of Israel (1902) are somewhat contrived and sentimental, but they expose the alienation felt by immigrants amid conflicting values of the Old World and the New; Bernstein was also founding editor of the Yiddish daily Tog in 1914. Oppenheim first wrote a series of realistic stories about a character named Dr. Rast, a physician on the East Side (1909), that reveals his profound sympathy with the destitute immigrants. Two years later he brought out a novel, The Nine-Tenths, that strongly supports the labor movement and draws on two recent historical incidents, the massive strike among garment workers in 1909 and the Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire of 1911. Sholem Aleichem (18561916) came to New York from Russia in 1906 but never overcame his misery over what he considered the coarseness of the eastern European immigrants.

Relatively few notable Jewish fictionists existed outside of New York. In the 1890s Emma Wolf (18651932) in San Francisco brought out several novels on middle-class Jewish life on the West Coast, among them Other Things Being Equal (1892) and Heirs of Yesterday (1900). After 1900 Elias Tobenkin (18821963) published Witte Arrives (1916), which portrays an enterprising, educated youth reared by Russian immigrant parents in rural Wisconsin; unhappy there with no possibility of finding a meaningful life, he leaves and gains fulfillment first in Chicago, then New York. A year after Witte Arrives appeared, Sidney L. Nyburg (18801957) brought out The Chosen People, set in contemporary Baltimore. This realistic fiction places many of the serious problems confronting Jewish communities in New York into a smaller arena. Liberal versus conservative, uptown Jews versus downtown Jews, owners versus workers are the crucial conflicts that confront a young rabbi trying to become a moral leader amidst a wealthy community unprepared to make essential changes.

Undoubtedly the best-known poem by a Jewish poet of the period is “The New Colossus,” by Emma Lazarus (18491887), a Sephardic Jew living in New York. Asked to provide a manuscript to help pay for the base of the Statue of Liberty, she wrote her famed sonnet in November 1883; it is now implanted in the pedestal of the statue. Until the early 1880s Lazarus wrote traditional poetry on classical subjects, but when awakened to her Jewish commitment, she devoted herself to it.

Many other Jewish poets also were active, publishing their own collections as well as individual poems in the Yiddish press. Because nearly all their important work was in Yiddish, however, until it was translated they were virtually unknown to non-Yiddish-speaking readers. In the 1880s and 1890s a group called Sweatshop Poets devoted their poetry to the cause of labor on the East Side; perhaps the best known are Morris Winchevsky, David Edelstadt, and especially Morris Rosenfeld. Later more individualistic poets emerged, including such popular writers as Mani Leib, Moshe Leib Halpern, Reuben Iceland, and Zisha Landau. In A Little Love in Big Manhattan (1988), Ruth R. Wisse portrays Leib and Halpern, immigrants from eastern Europe, and discusses their work in the context of trends and patterns in Yiddish poetry of the period. As young poets they became part of a group called Di Yunge (Youth), which formed under the leadership of David Ignatow. Di Yunge separated art from the wretchedness they knew of East Side life by seeking to write as individuals and to emphasize internal truths over external actualities.

Written by Emma Lazarus, a Sephardic Jew from New York, “The New Colossus” is probably the most universally recognized poem by an American poet. She drafted it in November 1883 when asked to submit a manuscript for auction to help acquire funds to provide a base for the Statue of Liberty, a recent gift to the United States from France. The poem received immediate acclaim and was eventually engraved on a plaque mounted within the pedestal.

Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame, With conquering limbs astride from land to land; Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame. “Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!” cries she With silent lips. “Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!”

Lazarus, The Poems of Emma Lazarus, 2:202203.

The Yiddish theater and the song, dance, and comic routines of early vaudeville also became popular during these years. The Yiddish theater was an artform all its own. Its first performance in New York was Abraham Goldfaden’s (18401908) operetta The Sorceress, staged in August 1882 on the Lower East Side. Originally a Yiddish songwriter in Russia and Romania, Goldfaden demanded little from his audience in order to generate popular appeal. In contrast, Jacob Gordin (18531909) tried to educate his audience. He was the first to attempt to bring realism and serious drama to the Yiddish stage. Two of the principal early actors were Boris Thomashevsky, who achieved great popularity as a star of melodrama, and Jacob Adler, reputedly among the best actors on stage. Late in the 1910s and early 1920s, as David S. Lifson ably traces in The Yiddish Theatre in America (1965), a successful effort was finally made to bring artserious drama treated seriouslyinto the Yiddish theater under the influence of the actor Maurice Schwartz, who founded the Yiddish Art Theater in 1918.

Stories abound of the uproarious liberties Yiddish dramatists and actors alike took with Shakespeare’s playsnotably Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, and King Learin the early years. Much of the pleasure, laughter, and weeping over these productions was attributable to ad-libbing by the performers and to changes made in situation and setting to accommodate the interests and limitations of Jewish audiences at the time. People familiar with a play before it began still never knew what to expect from one performance to the next, and sometimes audience members became so engaged that they shouted at the performers to encourage or instruct them. In World of Our Fathers, Irving Howe mentions theatergoers so overjoyed with a performance of Hamlet that they called for the author.

Another form of entertainment reigned over the Catskills as Jewish immigrants in New York saved enough to vacation in the mountains for a few days or a week during the summer. By 1890 East European workers began to escape temporarily from the stifling ghettos and enjoy short stays in the cooler mountain air. Aging farmhouses were purchased by entrepreneurs and converted into boardinghouses; after 1900 more lavish hotels and resorts were created. As Cahan illustrates when David Levinsky spends a weekend at the luxurious Rigi Kulm House, overeating and overdressing were the rule for evenings of dining and dancing. Although the Catskills were at their peak for Jewish summer vacationers after 1920, Cahan shows that entertainers were already appearing in the hotels earlier.

A list of names alone of the singers, dancers, and comedians with roots in Jewish neighborhoods of New York early in the last century, especially the East Side, conveys an idea of their importance in the development of American popular culture in the decades that followed. Eddie Cantor, Al Jolson, the Ritz Brothers, Fanny Brice, Sophie Tucker (“Last of the Red-Hot Mamas”), Jack Benny, Milton Berle, the Marx Brothers, and George Burns are only a few of those named by Irving Howe who went on to become American stars in the media during the first half of the century and after. The fathers of George Gershwin, Eddie Cantor, and Harold Arlen were cantors in the synagogue, and Irving Berlin was already writing popular songs before 1910.

Prominent Jews in the visual arts also emerged from immigrant backgrounds in urban America. For example, Jacob Epstein, William Gropper, Ben Shahn, and Leonard Baskin all excelled in the graphic arts, while Moses and Raphael Soyer, Adolf Gottlieb, and later Mark Rothko achieved reputations as outstanding painters. Several of these artists either taught or studied at the Jewish Educational Alliance, which evolved when three Jewish charities of New York combined in 1893, and it continued to serve for decades after.

All told, American Jewry in the early twenty-first century cannot be understood without considering the five decades between 1870 and 1920. As well as a period of literary realism and naturalism in America, this was a dynamic age of maturation for the millions of Jewish immigrants caught between two worlds before winning the struggle to achieve their own identity as both Jews and Americans.

See alsoAnarchism; Assimilation; Immigration; Labor; Poverty; The Rise of David Levinsky; Socialism

Bernheimer, Charles S., ed. The Russian Jew in the United States: Studies of Social Conditions in New York, Philadelphia, and Chicago, with a Description of Rural Communities. Philadelphia: John C. Winston, 1905.

Hapgood, Hutchins. The Spirit of the Ghetto. 1902. Edited by Moses Rischin. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1967.

Lazarus, Emma. The Poems of Emma Lazarus. 2 vols. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1888.

Riis, Jacob. How the Other Half Lives. New York: Scribners, 1890.

Birmingham, Stephen. The Grandees: America’s Sephardic Elite. New York: Harper and Row, 1971.

Chyet, Stanley F., ed. “Forgotten Fiction: American Jewish Life, 18901920.” American Jewish Archives 37, no. 1 (1985).

Feldstein, Stanley. The Land That I Show You: Three Centuries of Jewish Life in America. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1978.

Fishman, Priscilla, ed. The Jews of the United States: The New York Times Library of Jewish Knowledge. New York: Quadrangle/New York Times, 1973.

Fried, Lewis, ed. Handbook of American-Jewish Literature: An Analytical Guide to Topics, Themes, and Sources. New York: Greenwood, 1988.

Harap, Louis. Creative Awakening: The Jewish Presence in Twentieth-Century American Literature, 19001940s. New York: Greenwood, 1987.

Harap, Louis. The Image of the Jew in American Literature: From Early Republic to Mass Immigration. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1974.

Hertzberg, Arthur. The Jews in America: Four Centuries of an Uneasy Encounter. New York: Touchstone/Simon and Schuster, 1989.

Howe, Irving. World of Our Fathers. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1976.

Howe, Irving, and Kenneth Libo. How We Lived: A Documentary History of Immigrant Jews in America, 18801930. New York: Richard Marek, 1979.

Lifson, David S. The Yiddish Theatre in America. New York: Thomas Yoseloff, 1965.

Marovitz, Sanford E. Abraham Cahan. New York: Twayne/Simon and Schuster Macmillan, 1996.

Rischin, Moses. The Promised City: New York’s Jews, 18701914. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1962.

Sanders, Ronald. The Downtown Jews: Portraits of an Immigrant Generation. New York: Harper and Row, 1969.

Sanders, Ronald. Shores of Refuge: A Hundred Years of Jewish Emigration. New York: Holt, 1988.

Taub, Michael. “Yiddish Newspapers in America: A Selective Overview (on the Occasion of the 105 Anniversary of the Yiddish Forwerts).” Yiddish 13, nos. 23 (2003): 111119.

Weissbach, Lee Shai. “The Jewish Communities of the United States on the Eve of Mass Migration: Some Comments on Geography and Bibliography.” American Jewish History 58, no. 1 (1988): 79108.

Wisse, Ruth R. A Little Love in Big Manhattan. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988.

Sanford E. Marovitz

View post:
Jews | Encyclopedia.com

Fair Usage Law

September 9, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Jews  Comments Closed

Jews Sans Frontieres (@jewssf) | Twitter

Its funny isnt it. When there is abundant evidence of real, live, enduring, recorded Tory support for an actual antisemitic party, the media guns have fallen silent. Barely a peep. This is ludicrous, under the circumstances. This is the proof that the AS smear is party political.

Follow this link:
Jews Sans Frontieres (@jewssf) | Twitter

Fair Usage Law

September 8, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Jews  Comments Closed

Jews | Article about Jews by The Free Dictionary

Jews [from JudahJudah. 1 In the Bible he is the fourth son of Jacob and Leah and the eponymous ancestor of one of the 12 tribes of Israel. In the Book of Genesis, Judah emerges as a leader…… Click the link for more information. ], traditionally, descendants of Judah, the fourth son of Jacob, whose tribe, with that of his half-brother Benjamin, made up the kingdom of Judah; historically, members of the worldwide community of adherents to JudaismJudaism, the religious beliefs and practices and the way of life of the Jews. The term itself was first used by Hellenized Jews to describe their religious practice, but it is of predominantly modern usage; it is not used in the Bible or in Rabbinic literature and only rarely….. Click the link for more information. . The degree to which national and religious elements of Jewish culture interact has varied throughout history and has been a matter of considerable debate. There were approximately 17.8 million Jews in the world in 1990, with 8 million in the Americas (of which about 5.7 million were in the United States), 3.5 million in Israel, and 3.5 million in Europe. Biblical Period

According to the biblical account, much of which is impossible to verify in the archaeological record until late in the monarchial period, Jewish history begins with the patriarchs AbrahamAbraham[according to the Book of Genesis, Heb.,=father of many nations] or Abram[Heb.,=exalted father], in the Bible, progenitor of the Hebrews; in the Qur’an, ancestor of the Arabs…… Click the link for more information. , IsaacIsaac[Heb.,=laughter], according to the patriarchal narratives of the Book of Genesis, Isaac was the only son of Abraham and Sara. He married Rebecca, and their sons were Esau and Jacob. Ishmael was his half-brother…… Click the link for more information. , and JacobJacob, in the Bible, ancestor of the Hebrews, the younger of Isaac and Rebecca’s twin sons; the older was Esau. In exchange for a bowl of lentil soup, Jacob obtained Esau’s birthright and, with his mother’s help, received the blessing that the dying Isaac had intended for his….. Click the link for more information. , who considered Canaan (an area comprising present-day Israel and the West Bank) their home. Their history continues in Goshen, NE Egypt, where they settled as agriculturists many centuries before the Christian era. Under Ramses II the Jews were severely persecuted and, finally, Moses led them out of Egypt; at Mt. Sinai he delivered to them the Ten Commandments.

Many years of wandering in desert wildernesses followed before the Israelites conquered Canaan. SaulSaul,first king of the ancient Hebrews. He was a Benjamite and anointed king by Samuel. Saul’s territory was probably limited to the hill country of Judah and the region to the north, and his proximity to the Philistines brought him into constant conflict with them…… Click the link for more information. became the first king. Initially successful against the Philistines, he was finally defeated at Gilboa. DavidDavid,d. c.970 B.C., king of ancient Israel (c.1010970 B.C.), successor of Saul. The Book of First Samuel introduces him as the youngest of eight sons who is anointed king by Samuel to replace Saul, who had been deemed a failure…… Click the link for more information. , of the tribe of Judah, ruled, conquered the enemies of the Jews, expanded his territory across the Jordan River, and brought prosperity and peace to his people. The reign of his son SolomonSolomon,d. c.930 B.C., king of the ancient Hebrews (c.970c.930 B.C.), son and successor of David. His mother was Bath-sheba. His accession has been dated to c.970 B.C. According to the Bible…… Click the link for more information. , who built the first Templetemple,edifice or sometimes merely an enclosed area dedicated to the worship of a deity and the enshrinement of holy objects connected with such worship. The temple has been employed in most of the world’s religions. Although remains of Egyptian temples of c.2000 B.C…… Click the link for more information. , was the last before a period of disruption. The tribes of the north formed the kingdom of Israel; those of the south formed the smaller but more strongly united kingdom of Judah.

In 722 B.C., Sargon II captured Samaria, capital of Israel, and most of the Israelites (the lost tribeslost tribes,10 Israelite tribes that, according to the Bible, were transported to Assyria by Tiglathpileser III or Shalmaneser after the conquest of Israel in 722 B.C. Numerous conjectures have been advanced as to the fate of these tribes: they have been identified with the….. Click the link for more information. ) were exiled. Judah passed under Assyrian domination, then under Egyptian, and in 586 B.C., under Babylonian, when the Temple was destroyed and the people were exiled until their return was permitted by Cyrus the GreatCyrus the Great, d. 529 B.C., king of Persia, founder of the greatness of the Achaemenids and of the Persian Empire. According to Herodotus, he was the son of an Iranian noble, the elder Cambyses, and a Median princess, daughter of Astyages…… Click the link for more information. (538 B.C.). The rebuilding of the Temple was completed in 516 B.C. The Jews remained a strong religious group during the period of Hellenism, but regained political independence only under the MaccabeesMaccabeesor Machabees, Jewish family of the 2d and 1st cent. B.C. that brought about a restoration of Jewish political and religious life. They are also called Hasmoneans or Asmoneans after their ancestor, Hashmon…… Click the link for more information. . A rebellion, led by Bar KokbaBar Kokba, Simon,or Simon Bar Cochba[Heb.,=son of the star], d. A.D. 135, Hebrew hero and leader of a major revolt against Rome under Hadrian (132135). He may have claimed to be a Messiah; the Talmud relates that Akiba ben Joseph credited him with this title…… Click the link for more information. against the Romans in the 2d cent. A.D., ended in defeat. In 63 B.C. Rome conquered Palestine, and the second Temple was destroyed in A.D. 70.

As political aspirations subsided, the Jewish community was increasingly led by scholars and rabbis. Even during the period of Jewish sovereignty in Palestine, large Jewish communities developed in Egypt and Babylonia. After the fall of the Temple, Babylon’s Jewish community became the most important in world Jewry and its academies the most influential centers of Jewish learning. In 8th-century Iberia, a large Jewish community played an important part in intellectual and economic life. From the 9th to the 12th cent., Spanish Jewry enjoyed a golden age of literary efflorescence marked by a highly creative interaction between Jewish and Islamic culture.

From the time of the CrusadesCrusades, series of wars undertaken by European Christians between the 11th and 14th cent. to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims. First CrusadeOrigins

In the 7th cent., Jerusalem was taken by the caliph Umar…… Click the link for more information. date the persecutions that persisted until the 18th cent. During this period the ownership of land and most occupations other than petty trading and moneylending were forbidden to European Jews; the ghettoghetto, originally, a section of a city in which Jews lived; it has come to mean a section of a city where members of any racial group are segregated. In the early Middle Ages the segregation of Jews in separate streets or localities was voluntary…… Click the link for more information. came into existence. The Jews, who had earlier been an agricultural people, became an urban population. The Jews were expelled from England in 1290 and from France in 1306. In 1391, forced conversions began in Spain; in 1492 all remaining Jews were expelled. Many of the exiles perished; others found asylum in the Netherlands and in the Turkish possessions. The German Jews, who experienced periodic explusions throughout the 15th cent., fled to Poland, where, although subject to persecution, they build a thriving culture.

After 1492, Spanish Jews (see SephardimSephardim, one of the two major geographic divisions of the Jewish people, consisting of those Jews whose forebears in the Middle Ages resided in the Iberian Peninsula, as distinguished from those who lived in Germanic lands, who came to be known as the Ashkenazim (see….. Click the link for more information. ) spread throughout the Mediterranean world, often absorbing smaller Jewish communities they encountered. In some places they continued to speak a Judeo-Spanish language known as Judezmo or Ladino into the 20th cent. Some Sephardim also migrated to Western Europe. The other large branch of the Jewish people, known as Ashkenazim, formed in the 9th cent. with the settlement of Jews in the Rhine valley. Marked by their use of Yiddish, a German-Jewish language, the Ashkenazim also migrated east into Poland. The Polish-Lithuanian community became a major center of world Jewry in the 16th cent., distinguished by its high level of Talmudic scholarship. The political vulnerability and religious faith of the Jews led to the rise of several messianic movements; one of the most important was led by Sabbatai ZeviSabbatai Zevi, 162676, Jewish mystic and pseudo-Messiah, founder of the Sabbatean sect, b. Smyrna. After a period of study of Lurianic kabbalah (see Luria, Isaac ben Solomon), he became deeply influenced by its ideas of imminent national redemption…… Click the link for more information. . In the 18th cent. HasidismHasidismor Chassidism[Heb.,=the pious], Jewish religious movement founded in Poland in the 18th cent. by Baal-Shem-Tov. Its name derives from Hasidim. Hasidism, which stressed the mercy of God and encouraged joyous religious expression through music and dance, spread….. Click the link for more information. arose among the Jews of Eastern Europe.

Modern political emancipation of the Jews began with the American and French revolutions. In Germany and Austria emancipation of the Jews was proclaimed after the Revolution of 1848. Simultaneously, the HaskalahHaskalah, [Heb.,=enlightenment] Jewish movement in Europe active from the 1770s to the 1880s. Beginning in Germany in the circle of the German Jewish philosopher Moses Mendelssohn and spreading to Galicia and Russia, the Haskalah called for increased secularization of Jewish….. Click the link for more information. encouraged the secularization of Jewish life, and the integration of the Jews into the societies in which they lived. Especially in Western Europe, this led to considerable acculturation, and even assimilation, of Jewish communities. The religious Reform movement advocated a form of Judaism shorn of its national elements and emphasizing ethical content rather than adherence to traditional Jewish law.

In Eastern Europe in the late 1800s, new secular movements arose, particularly after a wave of pogromspogrom, Russian term, originally meaning “riot,” that came to be applied to a series of violent attacks on Jews in Russia in the late 19th and early 20th cent. Pogroms were few before the assassination of Alexander II in 1881; after that, with the connivance of, or at least….. Click the link for more information. in 1881. These movements sought to ameliorate the Jewish condition and establish Jewish life on a new national basis. ZionismZionism,modern political movement for reconstituting a Jewish national state in Palestine. Early Years

The rise of the Zionist movement in the late 19th cent…… Click the link for more information. advocated the return of the Jews to Palestine. The Zionist movement was formally established in Basel in 1897. During the 19th and early 20th cent., there was a mass migration of Jews westward from Eastern and Central Europe and the Ottoman Empire. During the period 1880 to 1924 some 2.5 million Jews emigrated to the United States, which after 1939 was home to the largest Jewish community in the world. Smaller numbers, under the influence of Zionism, settled in Palestine.

Between 1933, when the Nazis rose to power in Germany, and 1945, when Germany was defeated in World War II, the Jews faced persecution of unprecedented scope and violence; thousands were driven into exile and close to 6 million were systematically slaughtered (see anti-Semitismanti-Semitism, form of prejudice against Jews, ranging from antipathy to violent hatred. Before the 19th cent., anti-Semitism was largely religious and was expressed in the later Middle Ages by sporadic persecutions and expulsionsnotably the expulsion from Spain under….. Click the link for more information. ; HolocaustHolocaust, name given to the period of persecution and extermination of European Jews by Nazi Germany. Romani (Gypsies), homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses, the disabled, and others were also victims of the Holocaust…… Click the link for more information. ). After the war, great numbers of Jews sought refuge in Palestine. The Jewish state of IsraelIsrael, officially State of Israel, republic (2005 est. pop. 6,277,000, including Israelis in occupied Arab territories), 7,992 sq mi (20,700 sq km), SW Asia, on the Mediterranean Sea…… Click the link for more information. was established in 1948 from portions of Palestine, and in succeeding years absorbed many Jews from the Middle East and North Africa. Arab-Jewish relations have been complicated by the hostilities that have resulted in and from the Arab-Israeli WarsArab-Israeli Wars,conflicts in 194849, 1956, 1967, 197374, and 1982 between Israel and the Arab states. Tensions between Israel and the Arabs have been complicated and heightened by the political, strategic, and economic interests in the area of the great powers…… Click the link for more information. of 1956, 1967, 1973, and 1982.

See H. Graetz, History of the Jews (6 vol., tr. 1926; repr. 1956); A. L. Sachar, A History of the Jews (5th ed. 1965); C. Roth, The Jewish Contribution to Civilization (3d ed. 1956) and A Short History of the Jewish People (rev. ed. 1969); H. Feingold, Zion in America (1974); R. Seltzer, Jewish People, Jewish Thought (1981); S. W. Baron, A Social and Religious History of the Jews (27 vol., 195283); N. de Lange, ed., The Illustrated History of the Jewish People (1997); S. Friedlnder, Nazi Germany and the Jews (2 vol., 19972007); A. Hertzberg and A. Hirt-Manheimer, Jews (1998); D. Vital, A People Apart (1999); M. Konner, Unsettled: An Anthropology of the Jews (2003); J. R. Baskin and K. Seeskin, The Cambridge Guide to Jewish History, Religion, and Culture (2010); S. Schama, The Story of the Jews (2 vol., 201417).

the common ethnic name of the national groups historically derived from the ancient Hebrews. Jews live in different countries and share the same economic, social, political, and cultural life with the basic population of these countries. The overwhelming majority of Jewish believers practice Judaism.

Two ancient Jewish states existed in the first millennium B.C.: the kingdom of Israel and the kingdom of Judea. The conquest of Israel by Assyria in 722 B.C. and of Judea by Babylon in 586 B.C. set the beginning of the dispersion of the Jews throughout the countries of the world, which was intensified after the conquest of Judea by Rome in 63 B.C. Large groups of Jews settled in the countries of the Near East, North Africa, and southern Europe.

During the Middle Ages, Jews also settled in many other countries of Europe and Asia. The development of trade in the European countries also contributed to the migration of the Jews. They adopted the language and culture of the local population but retained their religion and some elements of their culture and mores, which set them apart from the surrounding population. Many European countries had laws imposing on Jews legal and occupational restrictions, particularly with respect to the right of the possession and use of land. As a rule Jews settled in cities, where they usually lived in closed communities in special quarters called ghettoes and engaged primarily in trade and crafts. The richer Jews practiced money lending. The dogmas of the Jewish religion provided for separate Jewish communities, a development that was furthered by the policy of the ruling classes and the Christian church. Jews were not admitted to shops and guilds. The competition of the Jews with the local merchants and artisans contributed to the spread of anti-Semitism.

The bourgeois revolutions of the 17th through the 19th century removed the restrictions on the rights of Jews in a number of European countries, and Jews were drawn into the general economic and cultural life of their countries of residence; a process of assimilation with the local population began. However, under the conditions of the bourgeois system the rights of Jews, as of other national minorities, remained curtailed. In addition to national oppression, poor Jews were also subject to the class oppression of the capitalist and clerical elite (rabbis) of the Jewish community. In a number of countries of Eastern Europe, including Russia, there were legislative restrictions on Jewish residence (the so-called pale of settlement), as well as legal and economic restrictions. In the late 19th and the early 20th centuries the tsarist government organized a number of mass pogroms of Jews through the Black Hundreds. Many Jews, especially those from Central and Eastern Europe, emigrated to the United States and other countries of America. In the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century the Jewish working masses actively participated in the revolutionary movement in Russia and Western Europe.

In the late 19th century a reactionary nationalist movement, Zionism, arose among the Jewish bourgeoisie of several countries. Zionism proclaimed as its aim the re-settlement of all Jews to Palestine and preached the idea of the class cooperation of all Jews, an idea that was profoundly inimical to the labor movement. Jewish nationalists tried to split the Jewish proletariat from the general revolutionary struggle by setting up separate nationalist parties such as the Bund. The Bolsheviks, headed by V. I. Lenin, vigorously opposed the separatism of the Bund and called on the Jewish working people to unite in the all-Russian social democratic movement.

The Great October Socialist Revolution opened a new era in the history of all the peoples of Russia, including the Jews. The legislation of the Soviet government abolished all restrictions on the rights of Jews and proclaimed a vigorous struggle against anti-Semitism. In 1934 the Jewish Autonomous Oblast was set up as part of Khabarovsk Krai. United by common economic, political, and ideological interests and the principles of proletarian internationalism, Jews participated with all the peoples of the USSR in the building of a new society. All restrictions on Jews have also been fully abolished in the other socialist countries.

In the capitalist countries anti-Semitism continues to exist; this found its most extreme expression in fascist Germany. The Nazis carried out a policy of mass extermination of the Jews; about 6 million Jews were murdered in World War II (193945).

After World War II, chauvinist tendencies and Zionist ideology, with its antiscientific assertion of the messianic role of the Jews and the idea of the chosen people, were artificially revived among Jews in the developed capitalist countries. Zionism has become an ideology of militant chauvinism and anticommunism, acting in the interests of international imperialism.

The Jewish state of Israel, which was created in 1948 on the basis of a decision of the United Nations General Assembly, has proclaimed Zionism its official ideology.

In 1967 there were about 13.5 million Jews in the world, of whom 5.7 million live in the United States, over 2,5 million in Israel (1970 estimate), 2.151 million in the USSR (1970 census), over 500,000 in France, about 480,000 in Great Britain, about 450,000 in Argentina, about 270,000 in Canada, about 130,000 in Brazil, about 110,000 in the Republic of South Africa, and about 110,000 in Rumania. Most Jews speak the language of their country of residence. Some Jews in Europe and America also speak Yiddish, a language in which there is a literature; in the USSR, according to 1970 census, 17.7 percent of Jews declared Yiddish as their native language. The official language of the Jews of Israel is Hebrew, which developed on the basis of the ancient Hebrew of the scriptures and which Jews in other countries use only in religious worship. Some Jews in the Mediterranean coun-tries (the so-called Sephardim) speak Ladino, a language that is similar to Spanish.

REFERENCESMarx, K. K evreiskomu voprosu. K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 1.Marx, K., and F. Engels. Sviatoe semeistvo, ill Kritika kriticheskii kritiki. Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 2.Lenin, V. I. Polozhenie Bunda v partii. Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 8.Lenin, V. I. K evreiskim rabochim. Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 10.Lenin, V. I. Kriticheskie zametki po natsionalnomu voprosu. Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 24.Lenin, V. I. Zakonnoproekt o natsionalnom ravnopravii. Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 25.Lenin, V. I. O pogromnoi travle evreev. Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 38.Tiumenev, A. Evrei v drevnosti i v srednie veka. Petrograd, 1922.Gessen, lu. l.Istoriia evreiskogo naroda v Rossii, vols. 12. Leningrad, 192527.Margulis, U. Geshikhte fun idn Rusland, vol. 1 (17721861). Moscow, 1930.Kolar, F. J. Sionizm i antisemitizm. Moscow, 1971. (Translated from Czech.)

Go here to read the rest:
Jews | Article about Jews by The Free Dictionary

Fair Usage Law

August 4, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Jews  Comments Closed

Pope Benedict accused of anti-Semitism over Christians, Jews …

Tom Heneghan, Religion News Service Published 3:53 p.m. ET Aug. 3, 2018

Pope emeritus Benedict XVI arrives, aided by a cain, for the Mass.(Photo: Filippo Monteforte, AFP/Getty Images)

PARIS Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI, head of the Roman Catholic Church from 2005 to 2013, is being accused of fostering anti-Semitism after publishing a controversial essay in a German-language theological journal.

Both Jewish and Catholic leaders say that the retired pontiffs essay on Jewish-Catholic relationssuggests he harbors anti-Semitic views despite his visits to synagogues and cordial relations with Jews during his papacy. Articles both criticizing and defending the essay have appeared in German, Austrian and Swiss media in recent weeks.

The central point of debate is Benedicts denial the Catholic Church ever adopted supersessionism, the theological belief that Gods covenant through Christ replaced the covenant God made with the Jewish people, and his insistence at the same time that the Christian lens for reading the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) is the only valid one.

Whoever describes the role of Judaism like this is building the foundation for a new anti-Semitism on a Christian basis, said Rabbi Walter Homolka, executive director of the School of Jewish Theology at Potsdam University in Germany.

Benedicts suggestion that Christians should teach Jews how to read selected parts of the Hebrew Bible in a Christological way is very problematic, said the Rev. Christian Rutishauser, head of the Jesuit order in Switzerland and an expert on Jewish-Christian relations.

Benedict pledged at his surprise 2013 resignation that he would remain hidden from the world and not get involved in church debates. He wrote his essay as a private text last fall and passed it on to Cardinal Kurt Koch, president of the Pontifical Commission for Religious Relations with the Jews, who read it and convinced him to publish it.

Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI attends a Mass prior to the opening of the Holy Door of St. Peter’s Basilica, formally starting the Jubilee of Mercy, at the Vatican on Dec. 8, 2015.(Photo: Gregorio Borgia, AP)

Critics say the recent essay seems to walk back efforts in the past half-century to undo the Catholic Churchs long history of anti-Semitism. After nearly two millennia of hostility, the Catholic Churchs Second Vatican Council (1962-1965) acknowledged Christianitys close historical ties with Judaism and absolved Jews of the stereotype of being Christ killers.

Benedicts essay in Communio, an international theological quarterly he helped found in 1972, seemed to walk some of that back to almost pre-Vatican II views. It has not yet been translated into English.

In the essay, Benedict notes that the term supersessionism a sensitive issue for Jews who reject this view as Christian arrogance was not listed in leadingChristiantheological lexicons.Building on this point, he argues that Christianity had never seen itself as completely overtaking Judaism, butjustas replacing some Jewish rituals such as animal sacrifice with the Eucharist.

An association of Christian-Jewish dialogue groups said Benedicts essay undermines Vatican teaching since the 1960s and even contradicts declarations he had made as pope.

The future of Christian-Jewish dialogue could falter in the face of this thoroughly critical questioning of its theological foundations,the German Coordinating Council of Societies for Christian-Jewish Cooperationsaid in a statement.

Some Catholic theologians have come to Benedicts defense. Bochum University theologian Thomas Sding said the essay was not an irritation, but an inspiration for Jewish-Christian dialogue.

In this Sept. 28, 2014, file photo, Pope Francis, right, hugs Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI before a meeting with elderly faithful in St. Peter’s Square at the Vatican.(Photo: Gregorio Borgia, AP)

Likewise, Vienna University theologian Jan-Heiner Tck said the essay aimed not to roll back some Catholic positions but to further dialogue between the two religious traditions. Tck said that Benedicts essay left open the difficult question of what role in salvation Catholicism saw for Judaism since it viewed the Jewish covenant with God as unbroken but the Christian covenant as the true bond. A Vatican document in 2015 said both covenants were paths to salvation, but how this worked was an unfathomable divine mystery.

That should have been made clearer, Tck said. Benedict was not trying to roll back progress in Christian-Jewish dialogue, he said, but maybe theres a certain gap in the description of the positive meaning of Judaism for salvation.

Critics saidBenedicts essay could help explain why he rewrote the Latin text of the Good Friday prayer for the Jews in 2008. Until the late 1950s, the prayer had worshippers praying that the perfidious Jewswould open their hearts and accept Jesus as their Lord. The revised 1970prayer was softened, simply saying the Jews should grow in their love for God.

But in 2008, Benedict changed the wording so that Catholics would pray that our God and Lord may illuminate their hearts,that they acknowledge Jesus Christ is the Savior of all men.

Read or Share this story: https://usat.ly/2KqSNUK

See more here:
Pope Benedict accused of anti-Semitism over Christians, Jews …

Fair Usage Law

August 3, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Jews  Comments Closed

Jews

Texas Jews Are Hiding From Neo-Nazis

Public display of swastikas and anti-Semitic chants are protected by the First Amendment, and in some states it is lawful to bring firearms to celebrations of Nazi nostalgia. All of this is lawful, but there are consequences.

Go here to read the rest:
Jews

Fair Usage Law

July 12, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Jews  Comments Closed

Jews Are NOT Exactly HumanWHAT?!?! | Subverted Nation

Yes, Im telling you right now that the jew is NOT human in the sense that most gentiles like myself, or people with a soul and a conscience are, and they have ONCE AGAIN told you this plain as day repeatedly in their published works and oral histories. All one must do is scratch the surface or look closely at the things that have been presented to us in order to find the truths that I present here on this blog.

The jew is hiding some MAJOR truths about the origin of mankind, and it is when these truths are fully revealed that we will INDEED see that the jew is NOT human like those of us called gentiles. There is just too much evidence pointing to this fact all across the globe. Some interesting and noteworthy ones are the disappearance of the skull of peking man or homo erectus, which was in transit to be kept at the American Museum of Natural History until after WWII. The only thing left of this ALL IMPORTANT piece of evolutionary history is a plaster cast or reconstructions, and guess what? Its a sloped forehead, heavy brow ridge, and big fat jewish looking grin that looks like it should have a fat lower lip as is typical of many jews.The November 2007 issue of Scientific American had an excerpt from a work called The Jesuit and the Skull: Teilhard De Chardin, Evolution, and the Search For Peking Man by Amir D. Aczel, Riverhead Books/Penguin, 2007. Funny its about JESUITS and the skull, and not JEWS and the skull. (NOTE: Author and subject are also possibly jewish personalities, but I have not independently verified this.) We all know that the jesuits are a controlled front by the jew, meant to HIDE the jew just like freemasonry, the illuminati, the new world order, and any other secret societies with elusive and mysterious leaders some truthers can never seem to nail down. The excerpt reads Two stories in one, The Jesuit and the Skull recounts the search for the missing link between apes and humans and the dramatic life of one of the principal particpants in this search, a charismatic and mysterious Jesuit who cared passionately about science:

In 1923, Father Pierre Teilhard de Chardin arrived in China as an exile, by the order of his superiors at the Jesuit headquarters in Rome. His transgressions include questioning the doctrine of original sin and supporting Darwins theory of evolutions.And as fate would have it, in 1929, in China Teilhard became a crucial player in one of the most imporant discoveries in modern anthropology, and one that provided us with invaluable evidence for the theory that Charles Darwin had published exactly seventy years earlier. This great discovery was the unearthing of the skeletal remains of Peking Man [Homo erectus].And then, seemingly overnight, everything was lost.[In 1941] the finds were cladestinely packed in two crates, and readied for shipment by sea to the American Museum of Natural History in New York, to be kept there until the end of the war. But when the crates left Peking Union Medical College to be brought to the ship that was to take them to America, they vanished without a trace. Not a shred of evidence has surfaced over the intervening six and a half decades to point to what actually happened to this collection.

(emphasis added here because these are TYPICAL markers of JEWISH CRIMINALS, and you have GOT to wonder what happened to the skull and the DNA evidence we may have been able to garner from it)

After literally YEARS of research into the machinations of the jew I stumbled upon this quote by famed holohoax survivor Elie Wiesel which confirms 100% that the jew is hiding something about OUR origins AND theirs.

Holocaust activist Elie Wiesel, whose lies about his holocaust experiences seem to be legion, also claims that Jews are a superior race. Everything about us is different, Wiesel boasts. Jews are ontologically exceptional.

WHAT is significant about this? People dont use terms like ontologically exceptional without first understanding the meaning of such big words. Read the wikipedia definition of ontology here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ontology

In philosophy, ontology (from the Greek , genitive : of beingand -: science, study, theory) is the study of the nature of being, existence or reality in general, as well as of the basic categories of being and their relations. Traditionally listed as a part of the major branch of philosophy known as metaphysics, ontology deals with questions concerning what entities exist or can be said to exist, and how such entities can be grouped, related within a hierarchy, and subdivided according to similarities and differences.

(again, emphasis added)

There is even more, of course that underlies what it is Im talking about. Take for instance this quote:

Our race is the Master Race. We are divine gods on this planet. We are as different from the inferior races as they are from insects. In fact, compared to our race, other races are beasts and animals, cattle at best. Other races are considered as human excrement. Our destiny is to rule over the inferior races. Our earthly kingdom will be ruled by our leader with a rod of iron. The masses will lick our feet and serve us as our slaves. Menachem Begin Israeli Prime Minister 1977-1983

Menachem is almost a perfect match for Peking Man.

Or maybe this quote found here at Rense.com or many other sources for that matter:

Rabbi Mendel Schneerson, the late Jewish Lubavitcher and friend of the senior George Bush, also believed the Jews are a superior Master Race. Many Jews today agree with the late Rabbi. Some even believe that Schneerson will himself someday be resurrected and return as the Jewish World Messiah. Schneerson once explained his theory of Jewish racial superiority this way. He said, We have a case of the Jewa totally different species.

The body of a Jewish person, Schneerson bragged, is of a totally different quality from the body of members of all other nations of the world. Bodies of the Gentiles are in vain. An even greater difference is in regard to the soulA non-Jewish soul comes from three satanic spheres, while the Jewish soul stems from holiness.

Here, as in many cases we see more of the jews penchant for projecting THEIR ills onto other peoples. The difference between human souls and jewish souls is jews dont have a soul.

Or even THIS quote by Rabbi Yitzhak Ginsburg:

Jewish blood is not the same as the blood of a (Gentile) goy.

Then there are things like JEW specific diseases such as tay sachs and bloom syndrome. In fact, there are NINE different diseases (a number of which ARE indeed found in other races) that can be found here. However, many of these diseases include things like AN ENLARGED HEAD, hook noses, sloped foreheads, heavy brow ridges, (ok the hook nose, sloped head, and heavy brow ridges arent diseases or symptoms of disease, but specific jewish traits) DEPLETED MOTOR SKILLS (jews are famous for), and others that are specific and/or MUCH MORE COMMON in jewish people than in others.

Indeed there are MANY things the jews are hiding from us about the origins of man AND the INHERENT differences between us gentiles and those whom we call jews. They are the synagogue of satan whom grow into monster faces as they age, many with the crooked evil eye which is discussed in one of my previous articles, and neanderthal like features as noted by Eric Hufschmid and linked in to in that same Evil Eye article. The growth of the monster faced features of the jews as they age has been WELL outlined in this article HERE as well.In conclusion, there is a good reason why I spend a lot of time DEHUMANIZING the jew, and talking in such a vulgar manner about them calling them sloped head, hook nosed, demons, and things of this nature. Dehumanization is an important part of psy-ops the jew uses frequently AGAINST US gentiles and in the present against muslims and arabs as a whole. There is no need to source this because all one must do is watch or read the daily news, or even watch a hollywood movie or two from the past 30 years to see evidence of this. Its not a racist thing, its an important and FACTUAL observation of a technique that I willfuly employ against these monsterous cretins, which has been done both past and present as witnessed by the caricatures shown here.

See the original post:
Jews Are NOT Exactly HumanWHAT?!?! | Subverted Nation

Fair Usage Law

June 23, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Jews  Comments Closed

Jews in Government | Subverted Nation

BACK TO INDEXCABINET MEMBERS AND SENIOR OFFICIALS

Judah Benjamin Confederate States of America: Attorney General (1861), Secretary of War (1861), Secretary of State (186265)

Oscar Straus Secretary of Commerce and Labor (190609)

Henry Morgenthau Jr., Secretary of the Treasury (193445)

Arthur J. Goldberg Secretary of Labor (19611962)

Abraham A. Ribicoff Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare (196162)

Walter W. Rostow National Security Advisor (196669)

Wilbur J. Cohen Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare (196869)

James Schlesinger CIA Director (1973), Secretary of Defense (197375) (convert to Lutheranism)

Henry Kissinger National Security Advisor (196975); Secretary of State (197377)

Ron Nessen White House Press Secretary (197477)

Edward Levi Attorney General (19751977)

W. Michael Blumenthal Secretary of the Treasury (197779)

Harold Brown Secretary of Defense (197781)

Neil Goldschmidt Secretary of Transportation (19791981)

Philip Morris Klutznick Secretary of Commerce (19801981)

Caspar Weinberger Secretary of Defense (198187) (Episcopalian; paternal descendant of Czech Jews)

Richard Perle U.S. Assistant Secretary of Defense (19811987),

Kenneth Duberstein White House Chief of Staff (19881989)

Richard Darman Director of the Office of Management and Budget (198993)

Robert Reich Secretary of Labor (199397)

Alice M. Rivlin Director of Office of Management and Budget (199496)

John M. Deutch Belgian-born CIA director (199596)

Robert Rubin Secretary of the Treasury (199599)

Dan Glickman Secretary of Agriculture (19952001)

Mickey Kantor Secretary of Commerce (199697)

Madeleine Albright Secretary of State (199701) (raised Catholic by adoptive parents)

William S. Cohen Secretary of Defense (1997-01) (Jewish father; lists self as Unitarian Universalist)

Sandy Berger National Security Advisor (199701)

Larry Summers Secretary of the Treasury (199901)

Jacob Lew Director of Office of Management and Budget (19992001)

Leon Fuerth National Security Advisor to Vice President Al Gore (19932001)

Ari Fleischer White House Press Secretary (200103)

Elliott Abrams Special Assistant to the President (20012005), Deputy National Security Advisor for Global Democracy Strategy (20052008)

Paul Dundes Wolfowitz U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense (20012005)

Douglas J. Feith Under Secretary of Defense for Policy (20012005)

Lewis Libby (Irve Lewis Scooter Libby) Assistant to the former President of the United States, George W. Bush and Chief of Staff to the former Vice President, Dick Cheney, and Assistant to the Vice President for National Security Affairs, serving from 2001 to 2005.

Victoria Nuland U.S. Permanent Representative to NATO (20052008)

Michael Chertoff Secretary for Homeland Security (20052009)

Joshua Bolten Director of Office of Management and Budget (200306); White House Chief of Staff (20062009)

Michael Mukasey Attorney General (20072009)

Rahm Emanuel White House Chief of Staff (2009-)

Carl Levin Democrat, Michigan since 1979

Arlen Specter Democrat, Pennsylvania since 1981 Formerly a Republican; switched parties on April 28, 2009.

Frank Lautenberg Democrat, New Jersey 2003 Previously served 19822001

Herb Kohl Democrat, Wisconsin since 1989

Joe Lieberman Independent Democrat, Connecticut since 1989 Formerly a Democrat, but lost 2006 party primary; reelected on the Connecticut for Lieberman ticket, he currently serves as an Independent Democrat and caucuses with Senate Democrats but endorsed Republican John McCain for president in 2008.

Dianne Feinstein Democrat, California since 1992

Barbara Boxer Democrat, California since 1993

Russ Feingold Democrat, Wisconsin since 1993

Ron Wyden Democrat, Oregon 1996

Charles Schumer Democrat, New York 1999

Ben Cardin Democrat, Maryland 2007

Bernie Sanders Independent, Vermont 2007 Sanders is a self-described democratic socialist and is a member of the Democratic Socialists of America, but because he does not belong to a formal political party he appears as an Independent on the ballot. Sanders caucuses with the Democratic Party and is counted as a Democrat for the purposes of committee assignments.

Ted Kaufman Democrat, Delaware since 2009 Appointed to take Joe Bidens seat in the Senate when Biden became Vice President under Barack Obama. Jewish father.

Michael Bennet Democrat, Colorado 2009 Appointed. Jewish mother.

Al Franken Democrat, Minnesota 2009

David Levy Yulee senator (D-FL: 184551, 185561)

Judah P. Benjamin senator (Whig-LA: 185359; D-LA: 185961; resigned to become a cabinet official for the Confederacy, 186165)

Benjamin F. Jonas senator (D-LA: 187985)

Joseph Simon senator (R-OR: 189803)

Isidor Rayner senator (D-MD: 190512)

Simon Guggenheim senator (R-CO: 190713)

Herbert Lehman senator (D-NY: 194957)

Barry M. Goldwater senator (R-AZ: 19531965, 19691987), (Jewish father)

Richard L. Neuberger senator (D-OR: 195560)

Jacob Javits senator (R-NY: 195781)

Ernest Gruening senator (D-AK: 195969)

Abraham Ribicoff senator (D-CT: 196381)

Pierre Salinger senator (D-CA: 1964)

Howard Metzenbaum senator (D-OH: 1974, 197695)

Richard B. Stone senator (D-FL: 197580)

Edward Zorinsky senator (D-NE: 197687)

Rudy Boschwitz senator (R-MN: 197891)

William Cohen senator (R-ME: 197997) (Jewish father)

Warren Rudman senator (R-NH: 198093)

Jacob Hecht senator (R-NV: 198389)

Paul Wellstone senator (D-MN: 199102)

George Allen senator (R-VA: 20012007) (Allens mother is Jewish)

Norm Coleman senator (R-MN: 2003-2009)

Henry Waxman

Barney Frank

Gary Ackerman Currently heads the International Council of Jewish Parliamentarians (ICJP)

Howard Berman

Sander M. Levin

Eliot L. Engel

Nita Lowey First female chairwoman of the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee, which she chaired from 1991 to 1992

Bob Filner

Jane Harman Served 19931999 and 2001Present

Jerrold Nadler

Steve Rothman

Shelley Berkley First Jewish congresswoman from Nevada

Jan Schakowsky

Brad Sherman

Anthony D. Weiner

Eric Cantor House Minority Whip

Susan Davis

Steve Israel

Adam Schiff

Allyson Schwartz

Read the original post:
Jews in Government | Subverted Nation

Fair Usage Law

June 1, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Jews  Comments Closed

Jimmy Kimmel Tweets CNN’s Inflated School Shooting Stats

Late-night Jimmy Kimmel tweeted CNN’s inflated school shooting stats on Monday, which claim school shootings occur “57 times” more often in the U.S. than other “industrialized nations combined.”

Continued here:
Jimmy Kimmel Tweets CNN’s Inflated School Shooting Stats

Fair Usage Law

May 22, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Jews  Comments Closed

North Korea Charges $10,000 to Cover Nuclear Site Closure; Bans South Koreans

North Korea reportedly charged international reporters $10,000 each for flight visas to cover the shutdown of the Punggye-ri Nuclear Test Site, scheduled to occur sometime between May 23 and 25

Read more here:
North Korea Charges $10,000 to Cover Nuclear Site Closure; Bans South Koreans

Fair Usage Law

May 22, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Jews  Comments Closed

Jews | Encyclopedia.com

The half-century between 1870 and 1920 was the most dynamic period in history for the growth and development of American Jewry. By that time Sephardic and Ashkenazic Jews had already established a solid population base in the United States, the Sephardim originally from Spain and Portugal, the Ashkenazim, or “German Jews” as popularly designated, then mostly from central Europe. In 1880, as the promise of America was being fulfilled for many Jewish entrepreneurs and professionals already in the United States, the period of mass Jewish immigration from eastern Europe was soon to commence. Since 1791 a vast number of Jews from much of this region between the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea had been confined to the Pale of Jewish Settlement under Russian control. From 1880 on for most of nearly forty-five years, almost unbearable poverty sustained by burdensome Russian restrictions and anti-Semitic pogroms drove these East European Jews from their homelands and across the Atlantic by the tens of thousands annually, seeking a better life. Not all of them found one, but many did, and of them all, few returned. Many of these Ashkenazic East European immigrants tried to follow the scriptural laws, Talmudic rules, and ancient traditions familiar to them from birth. But adverse circumstances usually made such steadfastness difficult, and families were soon divided by generation regarding their adherence to the Hebraic laws and rituals. Generally the older immigrants were more faithful, the younger more interested in “making it” and becoming Americanized. Similarly the older generation found it difficult to learn and use English, whereas the younger, especially children in the public schools, shifted to English from their native Yiddish much more quickly and easily, often becoming teachers of their parents, an anomalous and discomfiting reversal for the elders. Abraham Cahan’s (18601951) most famous novel, The Rise of David Levinsky (1917), describes an emotional conflict between mother and daughter that develops in their home over this issue and helps drive them apart. From wherever in eastern Europe the Jews emigrated, they spoke Yiddish, a form of High German printed in Hebrew letters; it is a colloquial tongue rich in imagery and heavily mixed with Hebrew words and variants from the diverse countries and areas these Jews originally had called home. The culture they brought with them from eastern Europe, called yidishkayt, is based heavily on the language itself, and it evolved with the Jewish way of life in the shtetlach of the homeland, combining the religious and the secular, although with the passing of years in America it was increasingly secularized. Most Jewish men had as boys learned Hebrew to read scripture and Yiddish for daily usage; most women who could readand many could notunderstood Yiddish only. Instead of Yiddish, Jews from the Near East spoke Ladino, a Judaeo-Spanish tongue, or some form of Arabic. Because life was so different in America, means were devised relatively early in the nineteenth century to liberalize Judaism from European rabbinical dictates yet allow Jews to remain faithful in the New World if they wished, as most did at least to some degree. Within Reform Judaism, established in the United States in the 1840s, the extent of liberalization varied. Amongthe prominent theorists behind Reform were Isaac Mayer Wise, Samuel Adler (whose son, Felix, founded the Ethical Culture movement in the 1870s), David Einhorn, and the more restrained Isaac Leeser. Late in the century, Conservative Judaism was instituted to provide a middle ground between the rigorous practice of Orthodoxy and the decidedly assimilative policies of Reform, but it did not take root until early in the twentieth century under the leadership of Solomon Schechter. Before 1880 relatively few Jews entered the United States annually, so the difficulties they faced were usually limited; by then about 280,000 Jews lived in the country. The next year, however, would witness the beginning of a dramatic increase in numbers at the reception area in New York City’s Castle Garden. Between the end of the Civil War and the outbreak of World War I, over two million Jews entered the United States. Moses Rischin has estimated that during this period a third of East European Jewry left home; some 90 percent of them sailed to the United States, and the vast majority of those settled at least temporarily in New York. By 1915 approximately 3.5 million Jews lived in the United States. Part of the reason for this new influx may be found in Cahan’s historical novel of 1905, The White Terror and the Red, in which he graphically describes adreadful anti-Semitic pogrom in Russia. The novel is set in the early 1880s, around the time that Tsar Alexander II was assassinated, but Cahan had been motivated to begin writing it immediately on learning of the massacre that occurred in Kishinev during Easter Week 1903, leaving forty-nine Jews dead and hundreds more wounded. Although such violent pogroms as this helped influence the Russian and Polish Jews to flee, escape from their hopeless poverty provided an even stronger motive. Aboard ships from Germany and England they sailed in steerage and after a harrowing voyage of ten days to two weeks arrived at Castle Garden through 1892 and Ellis Island afterward. Although immigrants were treated decently at the crowded processing stations, their experiences nevertheless were often distressing, even frightening because, knowing little or no English, most could not understand what was happening to them. Moreover, names were often changed in processing because they were incomprehensible as pronounced to the officials. Most of the incoming Jews who remained in New York settled in one of the city’s ghettos, mainly in the tenement district of the Lower East Side, not far from Castle Garden. In 1900 the population density of that area’s tenth ward was approximately seven hundred per acreone of the highest in the worldyet the death rate was the lowest in the city. By 1910 the population of the Lower East Side was over half a million, but by then inhabitants were moving either to ghettos elsewhere in the city or to other parts of the country. The heavy influx of immigrants caused a dramatic increase in urban populations across the United States. In 1878 New York had a population of sixty thousand Jews, and in 1907 it was ten times that number. According to Lee Shai Weissbach, the Jewish population of other cities in the United States underwent similar or greater dynamic growth. Not all Americans were happy with these changing Jewish demographics, including the Jews already established in the United States. Those whose businesses and professions had thrived after the Civil War eagerly sought respectability in their new homeland, that is, favorable recognition from Gentile society; not wishing to appear different as Jews, they yearned to be true Americans themselves. If these “uptown Jews” were uncomfortable with all the devout “greenhorns” (newcomers) pressing into “downtown” tenements, however, they did not turn away from their landsleit (landsman) in need but contributed heavily toward assisting them. From the time the first Jews arrived in the United States, they insisted that they would provide for their own and not leave their poor to be cared for by public charities. On the other hand, most of the resentment toward the immigrants was attributable not to Jews but to Gentiles willing to accommodate the Sephardic and German Jews who sought to assimilate but not the hordes of destitute East Europeans living in squalor in Lower East Side tenements. The tenement buildings were newly designed in 1879 to replace earlier types. The more recent structures of six or seven stories were called dumbbell tenements, with every floor holding four apartments of three or four rooms each. Shaped like dumbbells, the contiguous buildings narrowed at the center to provide for wholly inadequate airshafts between them, allowing no other space for light and ventilation. Moses Rischin describes these buildings in which every room often housed several people and served as both living and working quarters. Couples or families renting an apartment for $10 to $20 per month typically let one room to a boarder; under the worst economic circumstances, two boarders alternately used the same bed at different hours of the day and night. The excruciating summer heat drove the occupants outside to sleep on fire escapes and roofs; in winter the air inside was fetid and heavy with fumes emanating from heating units. Outside the tenements, pushcarts and horse wagons maneuvered amid crowds of peddlers, while shoppers, hagglers, and children ferrying large bundles of piece-work, among others going about their business, jammed such noisy, bustling East Side thoroughfares as Hester and Delancey Streets. Rischin’s The Promised City, Irving Howe’s World of Our Fathers (1976), Howe and Kenneth Libo’s How We Lived (1979), and Stanley Feldstein’s The Land That I Show You (1978) as well as Jacob Riis’s early groundbreaking expos How the Other Half Lives (1890) exhibit eye-opening photographs of the overcrowded, noisome conditions under which immigrants struggled for life in the tenement districts during these decades. Moreover, as bad as the New York tenements were, those in Chicago were allegedly worse. Not all immigrant husbands could cope with either the constant pressure or the burdensome responsibility of keeping their families alive under such circumstances. Consequently the number of husbands deserting wives and children was high, especially in the cities. According to Arthur Hertzberg, as many as 25 percent of Jewish fathers deserted their wives during the years of mass immigration, some never sending them money in Europe for tickets to America and others abandoning them in the United States after fruitlessly attempting to earn enough to stay together. In 1911 a National Desertion Bureau was established when urban Jewishcharities that could not cover the cost independently joined forces to assist deserted families. Not all the immigrant Jews settled in the cities. Othersalthough many fewertraveled into rural New England, the South, the Midwest, and the far Northwest. Am Olam (Eternal People) groups that developed in major Russian cities promoted agricultural colonies among the emigrating Jews that led them to attempt to establish farm communities in the Dakotas, Oregon, and elsewhere in rural and wilderness areas of the United States (as well as Palestine). Few of these communities endured because not many Jews in Europe had acquired farming experience; those in the Pale could not own land at all. Because Jews who settled in the United States after 1880 had emigrated largely from shtetlach and other restrictive communities in eastern Europe, the ways they knew of earning a living were extremely limited. Like earlier Jewish immigrants who had “made it” in business and finance by beginning as peddlers and small shop owners in different parts of the country, many East Europeans also began with backpacks and pushcarts. Countless others knew how to sew, and those who did not quickly learned. This endeavor eased when Singer sewing machines were brought into Russia in the 1870s; prospective immigrants who became accomplished on them found work soon after entering the United States. Sewing was fundamental to the East Side Jews, who generally worked under the sweatshop system, a method already in effect when they arrived. As Ronald Sanders and Irving Howe describe the system, typically a contractor agreed to provide a set number of suits or cloaks to a merchant at a certain price. By then the merchant had purchased the requisite amount of cloth and cut it into sections for the contractor to distribute among workers he or she had hired, each of whom had a specific task to perform. Manufacturing ready-made clothes was seasonal work, and workers had little chance to earn sufficient money during the off-seasons, so when jobs were available, six-day work weeks often required seventy-two to eighty-four hours of labor. On the Lower East Side during these years thousands of sweatshops were in existence simultaneously, but most were small operations employing but a handful of people. By 1880, even before their heyday, about half the Jewish businesses in the United States were in some aspect of the garment trade, and Arthur Hertzberg estimates that Jews already controlled as much as three-fourths of the American clothing industry. Extending this point, Irving Howe states that altogether the production of the sweatshops was so great that by 1900 some 90 percent of the garment industry was under Jewish control, and by then the east Europeans were squeezing out the Germans, who had previously dominated the industry. In addition to businesses, the professions attracted a disproportionate number of Jewish immigrants. Among the most distinguished American jurists during this period, for example, were Louis Brandeis, Benjamin Cardozo, and Louis Marshall, all three of whom contributed significantly to the nation’s legal as well as Jewish history; both Brandeis and Cardozo became Supreme Court justices. Moreover, as Hertzberg indicates, by 1910 about a quarter of the students in American medical schools were Jewish (p. 200). With the good came the bad. Arnold Rothstein (18821928), born of East European parents in New York, became the notorious gambler who masterminded the infamous Black Sox scandal and gained a fortune by bribing leading players on the Chicago White Sox to throw the World Series in 1919. A stylish, well-groomed wheeler-dealer among the politicians of Tammany Hall, he allegedly bribed his way to success through police stations and courtrooms alike. Although F. Scott Fitzgerald based Meyer Wolfsheim in The Great Gatsby (1925) on Rothstein, he transformed the dapper gambler from a brilliant gangster into a repulsive anti-Semitic Jewish stereotype. On the Lower East Side many less-conspicuous Jewish figures were loose with the law as well, typically thwarting it by chicanery and manipulation rather than violence. Prostitution too was difficult to control in that section partly because it was on the edge of the red-light district and partly because it was supported by dance halls that abounded in the area to provide entertainment for men and women alike. In Yekl, A Tale of the New York Ghetto (1896), Cahan describes a dance hall but implies nothing about prostitution. Juvenile delinquency was also commonplace; parents tried to control their offspring, but peer pressure often overcame their influence. Children were no longer under the religious restrictions of the shtetlach, traditional discipline in the home had deteriorated, youngsters spoke better English than their parents, and much of their time was spent on the streets. If their fathers had deserted them, they had no place else to go. In the miasmic atmosphere of the ghettos, advocates of socialist theory and practicewhich by no means always correspondedwere prominent, especiallyfrom the 1880s until after the Bolshevik revolution in 1917. The east European Jews brought socialism from the old country, where those who expressed radical ideas toward reform were either harassed or subject to arrest and imprisonment, depending on their assumed degree of implication with the revolutionaries. Abraham Cahan, who arrived in America from Russia in 1882, became one of the strongest and most effective spokespersons for socialism on the East Side, partly by speaking to the workers in Yiddish rather than one of their native European languages but mostly through his strong voice in the Yiddish press. After editing and writing for the Socialist Labor Party’s weekly, Arbeter tsaytung, through the mid-1890s, Cahan in 1897 founded the Jewish daily Forverts, popularly known as the Forward, which ultimately became the most widely read, distributed, and influential Yiddish newspaper in the world. One cannot overstate the importance of the Forward to Jewish economic and social progress during that crucial period in American Jewish history. But the Forward was only one of many Yiddish newspapers published on the East Side; each of the leftist dailies and weeklies propagated its own brand of socialism, often more theoretical than practical, and each had its own coterie of adherents. The more theoretical socialists attempted to promote economic as well as social equality by ending all forms of labor exploitation, an impossibility in democratic America, where workers could vote freely and reap the benefits of their labor. In contrast, the more liberal papers recommended adapting socialist theories to suit the needs of Jews living in a different world from the tsarist autocracy. With socialists of every stripe came othersJewish anarchists, communists, Am Olam adherents, and Zionists among themall with various commitments and degrees of loyalty. The Chicago Haymarket riot in 1886 began with an authorized protest by angered workers and anarchists and ended when someone unknown threw a bomb amidst a group of police, who then opened fire on the crowd. Several people were killed or wounded; eight of those at the protest were arrested and tried by a heavily biased court; four were executed and, according to Hertzberg, regarded as martyrs by Jewish socialists and radical workers. Zionists showed little strength in the United States until the unanticipated support they gained from Louis Brandeis in 1914 rapidly increased their influence among American Jews, particularly those from eastern Europe. Hadassah, the Women’s Zionist Movement, was organized two years earlier by Henrietta Szold, and it has since played a major role in American Zionism. Each group of advocates and theorists attempted to propagate its own social philosophy and practice through lectures, rallies, protests, and the Yiddish press. Attempts to establish unions in the ghettos focused particularly on the clothing trade. In 1909 and 1910 large strikes in the clothing industry occurred in Chicago as well as New York. Of course Jews were not the only workers in that industry, which drew heavily for labor from other immigrant groups and neighborhoods in Lower Manhattan. Many young Italian and Jewish women died together, for example, in the horrifying Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire of 1911 that shocked the nation. Those on the upper floors were trapped in their workrooms behind locked doors and were among the 146 workers who burned or jumped to their deaths within only a few minutes. Such catastrophes as this exacerbated the misery of the working people and their families on the East Side in particular, and strikes became both larger and more effective. Among the most prominent labor leaders of the period were Cahan; Samuel Gompers, longtime president of the American Federation of Labor; Joseph Barondess, dubbed “King of the Cloak-Makers”; David Dubinsky, the enduring leader of the International Ladies Garment Workers Union; Morris Hillquit (n Hilkowitz), who helped establish the United Hebrew Trades with Cahan in 1888; and Meyer London, a Jewish labor lawyer elected to Congress in 1914. Their political leanings were always to the left. Reducing anti-Semitism in the United States, always a major issue for Jewish leaders, was particularly evident during the years of mass immigration. Antipathy toward Jews gained strength with the increasing numbers of immigrants. In 1913 Leo Frank, a young Jewish plant manager in Atlanta, was framed and convicted for killing a woman in the factory; without proof that he had committed the crime, a lynch mob hanged him in 1915 as he awaited the result of his appeal in jail. Moreover, that infamous treatise The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, a forgery by the Russian police early in the century, was translated and published in the United States in 1919. Purporting to be a secret plan by international Jewry to take over the world, this ludicrous document, promoted by Henry Ford, gained tremendous influence soon after its publication in English. Among the organizations founded early in the twentieth century in support of Jewish civil rights are the American Jewish Committee (1906) and B’nai B’rith’s Anti-Defamation League (1913). In The Promised City, Moses Rischin reviews in some detail the surprising success rate of Jewish immigrant children in the East Side public schools. The averageabsentee rate of 8 percent was attributable almost entirely to illness, he says, and the pupils, eager to learn, were responsive and quickly Americanized. Rischin also points out that by the end of the century most children in the public schools of New York City were those of east European immigrants. Myra Kelly (18761910), an Irish teacher on the East Side at the end of the century, was so enthusiastic over her experiences with her Jewish pupils that she published numerous stories based on those she knew; her most popular collection was Little Citizens: The Humours of School Life (1904). Several Jewish organizations assisted in the support of vocational schools, including technical training and English instruction for both girls and boys. As the numbers of incoming children increased toward the end of the century and beyond, the “uptown” Jews of the older, more established German-Jewish community contributed more heavily to the education and welfare of East Europeans in the tenement districts “downtown.” The Hebrew Free School Association, the Young Men’s Hebrew Association, the Baron de Hirsch Fund, and various other agencies were instrumental in helping to provide education for the immigrants, children and adults alike. In 1895 Lillian Wald established the Nurses (Henry Street) Settlement on the Lower East Side to offer nursing services and educate the immigrants about good health and hygiene. Other, more comprehensive charities such as the B’nai B’rith also helped to make education for these children possible among their broader commitments. Hebrew Union College was first established in Cincinnati in 1875 under the leadership of Isaac Mayer Wise; Gratz College, the first specifically for Jewish teachers, dates to 1897, and Dropsie College, the first postgraduate school for Jewish studies, was founded ten years later. Education went two ways on the Lower East Side: not only were most immigrant Jews eager to learn about American manners and practices, but many Americans were equally interested in the ghetto, that “exotic” district to which the foreign Jews had immigrated. Because American journalists other than Jews did not know Yiddish, those who wished to write about the East Side sought someone there to guide them. Abraham Cahan had been hired by Lincoln Steffens, a philo-Semite (one who admires, praises, and often makes it a point to associate with Jews) (see Howe, p. 398) recently appointed city editor for the New York Commercial Advertiser, to report on the East Side. One outstanding result of Cahan’s warm association with Hutchins Hapgood (18691944), also on the staff, was The Spirit of the Ghetto (1902), a collection of articles on East Side life by Hapgood with superb charcoal drawings by Jacob Epstein. Jacob Riis (18491914), widely known as the author and photographer of How the Other Half Lives (1890) and Children of the Poor (1892), was then reporting for the New York Sun. As the Gentile journalists publicized immigrant life for outsiders, the Yiddish press brought omnifarious information as well as fiction and poetry to American Jews wherever copies were available. Although the Forward was the most enduring of the Yiddish papers, other Yiddish dailies, weeklies, and monthlies were chiefly political, but some emphasized Jewish achievements, and still others appealed to conservative Jewish readers from a religious perspective. Apart from news and commentaries in the Jewish press, a variety of other features appeared, including tawdry, sentimental, melodramatic, and sensational fiction written quickly and strictly for commercial purposes. An outstanding novel of the period is Cahan’s The Rise of David Levinsky, which details the life of a hypocritical Russian immigrant from his childhood in a shtetl studying to become a Hebrew scholar through his middle age in New York as a multimillionaire industrialist. As Cahan presents immigrant life in fiction from a male perspective, Anzia Yezierska (1885?1970) reveals it from the viewpoint of a woman. Her first story, “The Fat of the Land,” appeared in 1915 and her first collection, Hungry Hearts, in 1920; her work was so well received that it brought her to Hollywood, a dramatic change from her childhood and adolescence amid poverty as a Polish immigrant from the Pale. On arriving in America she lived on the East Side under the Old World exploitative behavior of her father, who expected women to work and serve him without question as he studied Talmud at home. So Yezierska fled and gained self-fulfillment trying to create a bridge of mutual understanding between the American people and the immigrants. Because much of Yezierska’s fiction is autobiographical, it is comparable with Mary Antin’s (18811949) popular autobiography The Promised Land (1912), in which she reveals the changes that occurred in her life as a Russian Jew who becomes secularized on leaving her family in Boston to gain what she believes is a new nationalistic religion as an American. Another noted female author early in the century was Fanny Hurst (18891968), who brought out two collections of stories before 1920, Just around the Corner (1914) and Humoresque (1919), that show the Jewish immigrants becoming assimilated into American life. Two other Jewish fiction writers of New York from the period are Herman Bernstein (18761935) and James Oppenheim (18821932). Bernstein’s storiescollected in In the Gates of Israel (1902) are somewhat contrived and sentimental, but they expose the alienation felt by immigrants amid conflicting values of the Old World and the New; Bernstein was also founding editor of the Yiddish daily Tog in 1914. Oppenheim first wrote a series of realistic stories about a character named Dr. Rast, a physician on the East Side (1909), that reveals his profound sympathy with the destitute immigrants. Two years later he brought out a novel, The Nine-Tenths, that strongly supports the labor movement and draws on two recent historical incidents, the massive strike among garment workers in 1909 and the Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire of 1911. Sholem Aleichem (18561916) came to New York from Russia in 1906 but never overcame his misery over what he considered the coarseness of the eastern European immigrants. Relatively few notable Jewish fictionists existed outside of New York. In the 1890s Emma Wolf (18651932) in San Francisco brought out several novels on middle-class Jewish life on the West Coast, among them Other Things Being Equal (1892) and Heirs of Yesterday (1900). After 1900 Elias Tobenkin (18821963) published Witte Arrives (1916), which portrays an enterprising, educated youth reared by Russian immigrant parents in rural Wisconsin; unhappy there with no possibility of finding a meaningful life, he leaves and gains fulfillment first in Chicago, then New York. A year after Witte Arrives appeared, Sidney L. Nyburg (18801957) brought out The Chosen People, set in contemporary Baltimore. This realistic fiction places many of the serious problems confronting Jewish communities in New York into a smaller arena. Liberal versus conservative, uptown Jews versus downtown Jews, owners versus workers are the crucial conflicts that confront a young rabbi trying to become a moral leader amidst a wealthy community unprepared to make essential changes. Undoubtedly the best-known poem by a Jewish poet of the period is “The New Colossus,” by Emma Lazarus (18491887), a Sephardic Jew living in New York. Asked to provide a manuscript to help pay for the base of the Statue of Liberty, she wrote her famed sonnet in November 1883; it is now implanted in the pedestal of the statue. Until the early 1880s Lazarus wrote traditional poetry on classical subjects, but when awakened to her Jewish commitment, she devoted herself to it. Many other Jewish poets also were active, publishing their own collections as well as individual poems in the Yiddish press. Because nearly all their important work was in Yiddish, however, until it was translated they were virtually unknown to non-Yiddish-speaking readers. In the 1880s and 1890s a group called Sweatshop Poets devoted their poetry to the cause of labor on the East Side; perhaps the best known are Morris Winchevsky, David Edelstadt, and especially Morris Rosenfeld. Later more individualistic poets emerged, including such popular writers as Mani Leib, Moshe Leib Halpern, Reuben Iceland, and Zisha Landau. In A Little Love in Big Manhattan (1988), Ruth R. Wisse portrays Leib and Halpern, immigrants from eastern Europe, and discusses their work in the context of trends and patterns in Yiddish poetry of the period. As young poets they became part of a group called Di Yunge (Youth), which formed under the leadership of David Ignatow. Di Yunge separated art from the wretchedness they knew of East Side life by seeking to write as individuals and to emphasize internal truths over external actualities. Written by Emma Lazarus, a Sephardic Jew from New York, “The New Colossus” is probably the most universally recognized poem by an American poet. She drafted it in November 1883 when asked to submit a manuscript for auction to help acquire funds to provide a base for the Statue of Liberty, a recent gift to the United States from France. The poem received immediate acclaim and was eventually engraved on a plaque mounted within the pedestal. Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame, With conquering limbs astride from land to land; Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame. “Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!” cries she With silent lips. “Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!” Lazarus, The Poems of Emma Lazarus, 2:202203. The Yiddish theater and the song, dance, and comic routines of early vaudeville also became popular during these years. The Yiddish theater was an artform all its own. Its first performance in New York was Abraham Goldfaden’s (18401908) operetta The Sorceress, staged in August 1882 on the Lower East Side. Originally a Yiddish songwriter in Russia and Romania, Goldfaden demanded little from his audience in order to generate popular appeal. In contrast, Jacob Gordin (18531909) tried to educate his audience. He was the first to attempt to bring realism and serious drama to the Yiddish stage. Two of the principal early actors were Boris Thomashevsky, who achieved great popularity as a star of melodrama, and Jacob Adler, reputedly among the best actors on stage. Late in the 1910s and early 1920s, as David S. Lifson ably traces in The Yiddish Theatre in America (1965), a successful effort was finally made to bring artserious drama treated seriouslyinto the Yiddish theater under the influence of the actor Maurice Schwartz, who founded the Yiddish Art Theater in 1918. Stories abound of the uproarious liberties Yiddish dramatists and actors alike took with Shakespeare’s playsnotably Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, and King Learin the early years. Much of the pleasure, laughter, and weeping over these productions was attributable to ad-libbing by the performers and to changes made in situation and setting to accommodate the interests and limitations of Jewish audiences at the time. People familiar with a play before it began still never knew what to expect from one performance to the next, and sometimes audience members became so engaged that they shouted at the performers to encourage or instruct them. In World of Our Fathers, Irving Howe mentions theatergoers so overjoyed with a performance of Hamlet that they called for the author. Another form of entertainment reigned over the Catskills as Jewish immigrants in New York saved enough to vacation in the mountains for a few days or a week during the summer. By 1890 East European workers began to escape temporarily from the stifling ghettos and enjoy short stays in the cooler mountain air. Aging farmhouses were purchased by entrepreneurs and converted into boardinghouses; after 1900 more lavish hotels and resorts were created. As Cahan illustrates when David Levinsky spends a weekend at the luxurious Rigi Kulm House, overeating and overdressing were the rule for evenings of dining and dancing. Although the Catskills were at their peak for Jewish summer vacationers after 1920, Cahan shows that entertainers were already appearing in the hotels earlier. A list of names alone of the singers, dancers, and comedians with roots in Jewish neighborhoods of New York early in the last century, especially the East Side, conveys an idea of their importance in the development of American popular culture in the decades that followed. Eddie Cantor, Al Jolson, the Ritz Brothers, Fanny Brice, Sophie Tucker (“Last of the Red-Hot Mamas”), Jack Benny, Milton Berle, the Marx Brothers, and George Burns are only a few of those named by Irving Howe who went on to become American stars in the media during the first half of the century and after. The fathers of George Gershwin, Eddie Cantor, and Harold Arlen were cantors in the synagogue, and Irving Berlin was already writing popular songs before 1910. Prominent Jews in the visual arts also emerged from immigrant backgrounds in urban America. For example, Jacob Epstein, William Gropper, Ben Shahn, and Leonard Baskin all excelled in the graphic arts, while Moses and Raphael Soyer, Adolf Gottlieb, and later Mark Rothko achieved reputations as outstanding painters. Several of these artists either taught or studied at the Jewish Educational Alliance, which evolved when three Jewish charities of New York combined in 1893, and it continued to serve for decades after. All told, American Jewry in the early twenty-first century cannot be understood without considering the five decades between 1870 and 1920. As well as a period of literary realism and naturalism in America, this was a dynamic age of maturation for the millions of Jewish immigrants caught between two worlds before winning the struggle to achieve their own identity as both Jews and Americans. See alsoAnarchism; Assimilation; Immigration; Labor; Poverty; The Rise of David Levinsky; Socialism Bernheimer, Charles S., ed. The Russian Jew in the United States: Studies of Social Conditions in New York, Philadelphia, and Chicago, with a Description of Rural Communities. Philadelphia: John C. Winston, 1905. Hapgood, Hutchins. The Spirit of the Ghetto. 1902. Edited by Moses Rischin. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1967. Lazarus, Emma. The Poems of Emma Lazarus. 2 vols. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1888. Riis, Jacob. How the Other Half Lives. New York: Scribners, 1890. Birmingham, Stephen. The Grandees: America’s Sephardic Elite. New York: Harper and Row, 1971. Chyet, Stanley F., ed. “Forgotten Fiction: American Jewish Life, 18901920.” American Jewish Archives 37, no. 1 (1985). Feldstein, Stanley. The Land That I Show You: Three Centuries of Jewish Life in America. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1978. Fishman, Priscilla, ed. The Jews of the United States: The New York Times Library of Jewish Knowledge. New York: Quadrangle/New York Times, 1973. Fried, Lewis, ed. Handbook of American-Jewish Literature: An Analytical Guide to Topics, Themes, and Sources. New York: Greenwood, 1988. Harap, Louis. Creative Awakening: The Jewish Presence in Twentieth-Century American Literature, 19001940s. New York: Greenwood, 1987. Harap, Louis. The Image of the Jew in American Literature: From Early Republic to Mass Immigration. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1974. Hertzberg, Arthur. The Jews in America: Four Centuries of an Uneasy Encounter. New York: Touchstone/Simon and Schuster, 1989. Howe, Irving. World of Our Fathers. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1976. Howe, Irving, and Kenneth Libo. How We Lived: A Documentary History of Immigrant Jews in America, 18801930. New York: Richard Marek, 1979. Lifson, David S. The Yiddish Theatre in America. New York: Thomas Yoseloff, 1965. Marovitz, Sanford E. Abraham Cahan. New York: Twayne/Simon and Schuster Macmillan, 1996. Rischin, Moses. The Promised City: New York’s Jews, 18701914. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1962. Sanders, Ronald. The Downtown Jews: Portraits of an Immigrant Generation. New York: Harper and Row, 1969. Sanders, Ronald. Shores of Refuge: A Hundred Years of Jewish Emigration. New York: Holt, 1988. Taub, Michael. “Yiddish Newspapers in America: A Selective Overview (on the Occasion of the 105 Anniversary of the Yiddish Forwerts).” Yiddish 13, nos. 23 (2003): 111119. Weissbach, Lee Shai. “The Jewish Communities of the United States on the Eve of Mass Migration: Some Comments on Geography and Bibliography.” American Jewish History 58, no. 1 (1988): 79108. Wisse, Ruth R. A Little Love in Big Manhattan. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988. Sanford E. Marovitz

Fair Usage Law

September 9, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Jews  Comments Closed

Jews Sans Frontieres (@jewssf) | Twitter

Its funny isnt it. When there is abundant evidence of real, live, enduring, recorded Tory support for an actual antisemitic party, the media guns have fallen silent. Barely a peep. This is ludicrous, under the circumstances. This is the proof that the AS smear is party political.

Fair Usage Law

September 8, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Jews  Comments Closed

Jews | Article about Jews by The Free Dictionary

Jews [from JudahJudah. 1 In the Bible he is the fourth son of Jacob and Leah and the eponymous ancestor of one of the 12 tribes of Israel. In the Book of Genesis, Judah emerges as a leader…… Click the link for more information. ], traditionally, descendants of Judah, the fourth son of Jacob, whose tribe, with that of his half-brother Benjamin, made up the kingdom of Judah; historically, members of the worldwide community of adherents to JudaismJudaism, the religious beliefs and practices and the way of life of the Jews. The term itself was first used by Hellenized Jews to describe their religious practice, but it is of predominantly modern usage; it is not used in the Bible or in Rabbinic literature and only rarely….. Click the link for more information. . The degree to which national and religious elements of Jewish culture interact has varied throughout history and has been a matter of considerable debate. There were approximately 17.8 million Jews in the world in 1990, with 8 million in the Americas (of which about 5.7 million were in the United States), 3.5 million in Israel, and 3.5 million in Europe. Biblical Period According to the biblical account, much of which is impossible to verify in the archaeological record until late in the monarchial period, Jewish history begins with the patriarchs AbrahamAbraham[according to the Book of Genesis, Heb.,=father of many nations] or Abram[Heb.,=exalted father], in the Bible, progenitor of the Hebrews; in the Qur’an, ancestor of the Arabs…… Click the link for more information. , IsaacIsaac[Heb.,=laughter], according to the patriarchal narratives of the Book of Genesis, Isaac was the only son of Abraham and Sara. He married Rebecca, and their sons were Esau and Jacob. Ishmael was his half-brother…… Click the link for more information. , and JacobJacob, in the Bible, ancestor of the Hebrews, the younger of Isaac and Rebecca’s twin sons; the older was Esau. In exchange for a bowl of lentil soup, Jacob obtained Esau’s birthright and, with his mother’s help, received the blessing that the dying Isaac had intended for his….. Click the link for more information. , who considered Canaan (an area comprising present-day Israel and the West Bank) their home. Their history continues in Goshen, NE Egypt, where they settled as agriculturists many centuries before the Christian era. Under Ramses II the Jews were severely persecuted and, finally, Moses led them out of Egypt; at Mt. Sinai he delivered to them the Ten Commandments. Many years of wandering in desert wildernesses followed before the Israelites conquered Canaan. SaulSaul,first king of the ancient Hebrews. He was a Benjamite and anointed king by Samuel. Saul’s territory was probably limited to the hill country of Judah and the region to the north, and his proximity to the Philistines brought him into constant conflict with them…… Click the link for more information. became the first king. Initially successful against the Philistines, he was finally defeated at Gilboa. DavidDavid,d. c.970 B.C., king of ancient Israel (c.1010970 B.C.), successor of Saul. The Book of First Samuel introduces him as the youngest of eight sons who is anointed king by Samuel to replace Saul, who had been deemed a failure…… Click the link for more information. , of the tribe of Judah, ruled, conquered the enemies of the Jews, expanded his territory across the Jordan River, and brought prosperity and peace to his people. The reign of his son SolomonSolomon,d. c.930 B.C., king of the ancient Hebrews (c.970c.930 B.C.), son and successor of David. His mother was Bath-sheba. His accession has been dated to c.970 B.C. According to the Bible…… Click the link for more information. , who built the first Templetemple,edifice or sometimes merely an enclosed area dedicated to the worship of a deity and the enshrinement of holy objects connected with such worship. The temple has been employed in most of the world’s religions. Although remains of Egyptian temples of c.2000 B.C…… Click the link for more information. , was the last before a period of disruption. The tribes of the north formed the kingdom of Israel; those of the south formed the smaller but more strongly united kingdom of Judah. In 722 B.C., Sargon II captured Samaria, capital of Israel, and most of the Israelites (the lost tribeslost tribes,10 Israelite tribes that, according to the Bible, were transported to Assyria by Tiglathpileser III or Shalmaneser after the conquest of Israel in 722 B.C. Numerous conjectures have been advanced as to the fate of these tribes: they have been identified with the….. Click the link for more information. ) were exiled. Judah passed under Assyrian domination, then under Egyptian, and in 586 B.C., under Babylonian, when the Temple was destroyed and the people were exiled until their return was permitted by Cyrus the GreatCyrus the Great, d. 529 B.C., king of Persia, founder of the greatness of the Achaemenids and of the Persian Empire. According to Herodotus, he was the son of an Iranian noble, the elder Cambyses, and a Median princess, daughter of Astyages…… Click the link for more information. (538 B.C.). The rebuilding of the Temple was completed in 516 B.C. The Jews remained a strong religious group during the period of Hellenism, but regained political independence only under the MaccabeesMaccabeesor Machabees, Jewish family of the 2d and 1st cent. B.C. that brought about a restoration of Jewish political and religious life. They are also called Hasmoneans or Asmoneans after their ancestor, Hashmon…… Click the link for more information. . A rebellion, led by Bar KokbaBar Kokba, Simon,or Simon Bar Cochba[Heb.,=son of the star], d. A.D. 135, Hebrew hero and leader of a major revolt against Rome under Hadrian (132135). He may have claimed to be a Messiah; the Talmud relates that Akiba ben Joseph credited him with this title…… Click the link for more information. against the Romans in the 2d cent. A.D., ended in defeat. In 63 B.C. Rome conquered Palestine, and the second Temple was destroyed in A.D. 70. As political aspirations subsided, the Jewish community was increasingly led by scholars and rabbis. Even during the period of Jewish sovereignty in Palestine, large Jewish communities developed in Egypt and Babylonia. After the fall of the Temple, Babylon’s Jewish community became the most important in world Jewry and its academies the most influential centers of Jewish learning. In 8th-century Iberia, a large Jewish community played an important part in intellectual and economic life. From the 9th to the 12th cent., Spanish Jewry enjoyed a golden age of literary efflorescence marked by a highly creative interaction between Jewish and Islamic culture. From the time of the CrusadesCrusades, series of wars undertaken by European Christians between the 11th and 14th cent. to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims. First CrusadeOrigins In the 7th cent., Jerusalem was taken by the caliph Umar…… Click the link for more information. date the persecutions that persisted until the 18th cent. During this period the ownership of land and most occupations other than petty trading and moneylending were forbidden to European Jews; the ghettoghetto, originally, a section of a city in which Jews lived; it has come to mean a section of a city where members of any racial group are segregated. In the early Middle Ages the segregation of Jews in separate streets or localities was voluntary…… Click the link for more information. came into existence. The Jews, who had earlier been an agricultural people, became an urban population. The Jews were expelled from England in 1290 and from France in 1306. In 1391, forced conversions began in Spain; in 1492 all remaining Jews were expelled. Many of the exiles perished; others found asylum in the Netherlands and in the Turkish possessions. The German Jews, who experienced periodic explusions throughout the 15th cent., fled to Poland, where, although subject to persecution, they build a thriving culture. After 1492, Spanish Jews (see SephardimSephardim, one of the two major geographic divisions of the Jewish people, consisting of those Jews whose forebears in the Middle Ages resided in the Iberian Peninsula, as distinguished from those who lived in Germanic lands, who came to be known as the Ashkenazim (see….. Click the link for more information. ) spread throughout the Mediterranean world, often absorbing smaller Jewish communities they encountered. In some places they continued to speak a Judeo-Spanish language known as Judezmo or Ladino into the 20th cent. Some Sephardim also migrated to Western Europe. The other large branch of the Jewish people, known as Ashkenazim, formed in the 9th cent. with the settlement of Jews in the Rhine valley. Marked by their use of Yiddish, a German-Jewish language, the Ashkenazim also migrated east into Poland. The Polish-Lithuanian community became a major center of world Jewry in the 16th cent., distinguished by its high level of Talmudic scholarship. The political vulnerability and religious faith of the Jews led to the rise of several messianic movements; one of the most important was led by Sabbatai ZeviSabbatai Zevi, 162676, Jewish mystic and pseudo-Messiah, founder of the Sabbatean sect, b. Smyrna. After a period of study of Lurianic kabbalah (see Luria, Isaac ben Solomon), he became deeply influenced by its ideas of imminent national redemption…… Click the link for more information. . In the 18th cent. HasidismHasidismor Chassidism[Heb.,=the pious], Jewish religious movement founded in Poland in the 18th cent. by Baal-Shem-Tov. Its name derives from Hasidim. Hasidism, which stressed the mercy of God and encouraged joyous religious expression through music and dance, spread….. Click the link for more information. arose among the Jews of Eastern Europe. Modern political emancipation of the Jews began with the American and French revolutions. In Germany and Austria emancipation of the Jews was proclaimed after the Revolution of 1848. Simultaneously, the HaskalahHaskalah, [Heb.,=enlightenment] Jewish movement in Europe active from the 1770s to the 1880s. Beginning in Germany in the circle of the German Jewish philosopher Moses Mendelssohn and spreading to Galicia and Russia, the Haskalah called for increased secularization of Jewish….. Click the link for more information. encouraged the secularization of Jewish life, and the integration of the Jews into the societies in which they lived. Especially in Western Europe, this led to considerable acculturation, and even assimilation, of Jewish communities. The religious Reform movement advocated a form of Judaism shorn of its national elements and emphasizing ethical content rather than adherence to traditional Jewish law. In Eastern Europe in the late 1800s, new secular movements arose, particularly after a wave of pogromspogrom, Russian term, originally meaning “riot,” that came to be applied to a series of violent attacks on Jews in Russia in the late 19th and early 20th cent. Pogroms were few before the assassination of Alexander II in 1881; after that, with the connivance of, or at least….. Click the link for more information. in 1881. These movements sought to ameliorate the Jewish condition and establish Jewish life on a new national basis. ZionismZionism,modern political movement for reconstituting a Jewish national state in Palestine. Early Years The rise of the Zionist movement in the late 19th cent…… Click the link for more information. advocated the return of the Jews to Palestine. The Zionist movement was formally established in Basel in 1897. During the 19th and early 20th cent., there was a mass migration of Jews westward from Eastern and Central Europe and the Ottoman Empire. During the period 1880 to 1924 some 2.5 million Jews emigrated to the United States, which after 1939 was home to the largest Jewish community in the world. Smaller numbers, under the influence of Zionism, settled in Palestine. Between 1933, when the Nazis rose to power in Germany, and 1945, when Germany was defeated in World War II, the Jews faced persecution of unprecedented scope and violence; thousands were driven into exile and close to 6 million were systematically slaughtered (see anti-Semitismanti-Semitism, form of prejudice against Jews, ranging from antipathy to violent hatred. Before the 19th cent., anti-Semitism was largely religious and was expressed in the later Middle Ages by sporadic persecutions and expulsionsnotably the expulsion from Spain under….. Click the link for more information. ; HolocaustHolocaust, name given to the period of persecution and extermination of European Jews by Nazi Germany. Romani (Gypsies), homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses, the disabled, and others were also victims of the Holocaust…… Click the link for more information. ). After the war, great numbers of Jews sought refuge in Palestine. The Jewish state of IsraelIsrael, officially State of Israel, republic (2005 est. pop. 6,277,000, including Israelis in occupied Arab territories), 7,992 sq mi (20,700 sq km), SW Asia, on the Mediterranean Sea…… Click the link for more information. was established in 1948 from portions of Palestine, and in succeeding years absorbed many Jews from the Middle East and North Africa. Arab-Jewish relations have been complicated by the hostilities that have resulted in and from the Arab-Israeli WarsArab-Israeli Wars,conflicts in 194849, 1956, 1967, 197374, and 1982 between Israel and the Arab states. Tensions between Israel and the Arabs have been complicated and heightened by the political, strategic, and economic interests in the area of the great powers…… Click the link for more information. of 1956, 1967, 1973, and 1982. See H. Graetz, History of the Jews (6 vol., tr. 1926; repr. 1956); A. L. Sachar, A History of the Jews (5th ed. 1965); C. Roth, The Jewish Contribution to Civilization (3d ed. 1956) and A Short History of the Jewish People (rev. ed. 1969); H. Feingold, Zion in America (1974); R. Seltzer, Jewish People, Jewish Thought (1981); S. W. Baron, A Social and Religious History of the Jews (27 vol., 195283); N. de Lange, ed., The Illustrated History of the Jewish People (1997); S. Friedlnder, Nazi Germany and the Jews (2 vol., 19972007); A. Hertzberg and A. Hirt-Manheimer, Jews (1998); D. Vital, A People Apart (1999); M. Konner, Unsettled: An Anthropology of the Jews (2003); J. R. Baskin and K. Seeskin, The Cambridge Guide to Jewish History, Religion, and Culture (2010); S. Schama, The Story of the Jews (2 vol., 201417). the common ethnic name of the national groups historically derived from the ancient Hebrews. Jews live in different countries and share the same economic, social, political, and cultural life with the basic population of these countries. The overwhelming majority of Jewish believers practice Judaism. Two ancient Jewish states existed in the first millennium B.C.: the kingdom of Israel and the kingdom of Judea. The conquest of Israel by Assyria in 722 B.C. and of Judea by Babylon in 586 B.C. set the beginning of the dispersion of the Jews throughout the countries of the world, which was intensified after the conquest of Judea by Rome in 63 B.C. Large groups of Jews settled in the countries of the Near East, North Africa, and southern Europe. During the Middle Ages, Jews also settled in many other countries of Europe and Asia. The development of trade in the European countries also contributed to the migration of the Jews. They adopted the language and culture of the local population but retained their religion and some elements of their culture and mores, which set them apart from the surrounding population. Many European countries had laws imposing on Jews legal and occupational restrictions, particularly with respect to the right of the possession and use of land. As a rule Jews settled in cities, where they usually lived in closed communities in special quarters called ghettoes and engaged primarily in trade and crafts. The richer Jews practiced money lending. The dogmas of the Jewish religion provided for separate Jewish communities, a development that was furthered by the policy of the ruling classes and the Christian church. Jews were not admitted to shops and guilds. The competition of the Jews with the local merchants and artisans contributed to the spread of anti-Semitism. The bourgeois revolutions of the 17th through the 19th century removed the restrictions on the rights of Jews in a number of European countries, and Jews were drawn into the general economic and cultural life of their countries of residence; a process of assimilation with the local population began. However, under the conditions of the bourgeois system the rights of Jews, as of other national minorities, remained curtailed. In addition to national oppression, poor Jews were also subject to the class oppression of the capitalist and clerical elite (rabbis) of the Jewish community. In a number of countries of Eastern Europe, including Russia, there were legislative restrictions on Jewish residence (the so-called pale of settlement), as well as legal and economic restrictions. In the late 19th and the early 20th centuries the tsarist government organized a number of mass pogroms of Jews through the Black Hundreds. Many Jews, especially those from Central and Eastern Europe, emigrated to the United States and other countries of America. In the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century the Jewish working masses actively participated in the revolutionary movement in Russia and Western Europe. In the late 19th century a reactionary nationalist movement, Zionism, arose among the Jewish bourgeoisie of several countries. Zionism proclaimed as its aim the re-settlement of all Jews to Palestine and preached the idea of the class cooperation of all Jews, an idea that was profoundly inimical to the labor movement. Jewish nationalists tried to split the Jewish proletariat from the general revolutionary struggle by setting up separate nationalist parties such as the Bund. The Bolsheviks, headed by V. I. Lenin, vigorously opposed the separatism of the Bund and called on the Jewish working people to unite in the all-Russian social democratic movement. The Great October Socialist Revolution opened a new era in the history of all the peoples of Russia, including the Jews. The legislation of the Soviet government abolished all restrictions on the rights of Jews and proclaimed a vigorous struggle against anti-Semitism. In 1934 the Jewish Autonomous Oblast was set up as part of Khabarovsk Krai. United by common economic, political, and ideological interests and the principles of proletarian internationalism, Jews participated with all the peoples of the USSR in the building of a new society. All restrictions on Jews have also been fully abolished in the other socialist countries. In the capitalist countries anti-Semitism continues to exist; this found its most extreme expression in fascist Germany. The Nazis carried out a policy of mass extermination of the Jews; about 6 million Jews were murdered in World War II (193945). After World War II, chauvinist tendencies and Zionist ideology, with its antiscientific assertion of the messianic role of the Jews and the idea of the chosen people, were artificially revived among Jews in the developed capitalist countries. Zionism has become an ideology of militant chauvinism and anticommunism, acting in the interests of international imperialism. The Jewish state of Israel, which was created in 1948 on the basis of a decision of the United Nations General Assembly, has proclaimed Zionism its official ideology. In 1967 there were about 13.5 million Jews in the world, of whom 5.7 million live in the United States, over 2,5 million in Israel (1970 estimate), 2.151 million in the USSR (1970 census), over 500,000 in France, about 480,000 in Great Britain, about 450,000 in Argentina, about 270,000 in Canada, about 130,000 in Brazil, about 110,000 in the Republic of South Africa, and about 110,000 in Rumania. Most Jews speak the language of their country of residence. Some Jews in Europe and America also speak Yiddish, a language in which there is a literature; in the USSR, according to 1970 census, 17.7 percent of Jews declared Yiddish as their native language. The official language of the Jews of Israel is Hebrew, which developed on the basis of the ancient Hebrew of the scriptures and which Jews in other countries use only in religious worship. Some Jews in the Mediterranean coun-tries (the so-called Sephardim) speak Ladino, a language that is similar to Spanish. REFERENCESMarx, K. K evreiskomu voprosu. K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 1.Marx, K., and F. Engels. Sviatoe semeistvo, ill Kritika kriticheskii kritiki. Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 2.Lenin, V. I. Polozhenie Bunda v partii. Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 8.Lenin, V. I. K evreiskim rabochim. Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 10.Lenin, V. I. Kriticheskie zametki po natsionalnomu voprosu. Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 24.Lenin, V. I. Zakonnoproekt o natsionalnom ravnopravii. Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 25.Lenin, V. I. O pogromnoi travle evreev. Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 38.Tiumenev, A. Evrei v drevnosti i v srednie veka. Petrograd, 1922.Gessen, lu. l.Istoriia evreiskogo naroda v Rossii, vols. 12. Leningrad, 192527.Margulis, U. Geshikhte fun idn Rusland, vol. 1 (17721861). Moscow, 1930.Kolar, F. J. Sionizm i antisemitizm. Moscow, 1971. (Translated from Czech.)

Fair Usage Law

August 4, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Jews  Comments Closed

Pope Benedict accused of anti-Semitism over Christians, Jews …

Tom Heneghan, Religion News Service Published 3:53 p.m. ET Aug. 3, 2018 Pope emeritus Benedict XVI arrives, aided by a cain, for the Mass.(Photo: Filippo Monteforte, AFP/Getty Images) PARIS Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI, head of the Roman Catholic Church from 2005 to 2013, is being accused of fostering anti-Semitism after publishing a controversial essay in a German-language theological journal. Both Jewish and Catholic leaders say that the retired pontiffs essay on Jewish-Catholic relationssuggests he harbors anti-Semitic views despite his visits to synagogues and cordial relations with Jews during his papacy. Articles both criticizing and defending the essay have appeared in German, Austrian and Swiss media in recent weeks. The central point of debate is Benedicts denial the Catholic Church ever adopted supersessionism, the theological belief that Gods covenant through Christ replaced the covenant God made with the Jewish people, and his insistence at the same time that the Christian lens for reading the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) is the only valid one. Whoever describes the role of Judaism like this is building the foundation for a new anti-Semitism on a Christian basis, said Rabbi Walter Homolka, executive director of the School of Jewish Theology at Potsdam University in Germany. Benedicts suggestion that Christians should teach Jews how to read selected parts of the Hebrew Bible in a Christological way is very problematic, said the Rev. Christian Rutishauser, head of the Jesuit order in Switzerland and an expert on Jewish-Christian relations. Benedict pledged at his surprise 2013 resignation that he would remain hidden from the world and not get involved in church debates. He wrote his essay as a private text last fall and passed it on to Cardinal Kurt Koch, president of the Pontifical Commission for Religious Relations with the Jews, who read it and convinced him to publish it. Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI attends a Mass prior to the opening of the Holy Door of St. Peter’s Basilica, formally starting the Jubilee of Mercy, at the Vatican on Dec. 8, 2015.(Photo: Gregorio Borgia, AP) Critics say the recent essay seems to walk back efforts in the past half-century to undo the Catholic Churchs long history of anti-Semitism. After nearly two millennia of hostility, the Catholic Churchs Second Vatican Council (1962-1965) acknowledged Christianitys close historical ties with Judaism and absolved Jews of the stereotype of being Christ killers. Benedicts essay in Communio, an international theological quarterly he helped found in 1972, seemed to walk some of that back to almost pre-Vatican II views. It has not yet been translated into English. In the essay, Benedict notes that the term supersessionism a sensitive issue for Jews who reject this view as Christian arrogance was not listed in leadingChristiantheological lexicons.Building on this point, he argues that Christianity had never seen itself as completely overtaking Judaism, butjustas replacing some Jewish rituals such as animal sacrifice with the Eucharist. An association of Christian-Jewish dialogue groups said Benedicts essay undermines Vatican teaching since the 1960s and even contradicts declarations he had made as pope. The future of Christian-Jewish dialogue could falter in the face of this thoroughly critical questioning of its theological foundations,the German Coordinating Council of Societies for Christian-Jewish Cooperationsaid in a statement. Some Catholic theologians have come to Benedicts defense. Bochum University theologian Thomas Sding said the essay was not an irritation, but an inspiration for Jewish-Christian dialogue. In this Sept. 28, 2014, file photo, Pope Francis, right, hugs Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI before a meeting with elderly faithful in St. Peter’s Square at the Vatican.(Photo: Gregorio Borgia, AP) Likewise, Vienna University theologian Jan-Heiner Tck said the essay aimed not to roll back some Catholic positions but to further dialogue between the two religious traditions. Tck said that Benedicts essay left open the difficult question of what role in salvation Catholicism saw for Judaism since it viewed the Jewish covenant with God as unbroken but the Christian covenant as the true bond. A Vatican document in 2015 said both covenants were paths to salvation, but how this worked was an unfathomable divine mystery. That should have been made clearer, Tck said. Benedict was not trying to roll back progress in Christian-Jewish dialogue, he said, but maybe theres a certain gap in the description of the positive meaning of Judaism for salvation. Critics saidBenedicts essay could help explain why he rewrote the Latin text of the Good Friday prayer for the Jews in 2008. Until the late 1950s, the prayer had worshippers praying that the perfidious Jewswould open their hearts and accept Jesus as their Lord. The revised 1970prayer was softened, simply saying the Jews should grow in their love for God. But in 2008, Benedict changed the wording so that Catholics would pray that our God and Lord may illuminate their hearts,that they acknowledge Jesus Christ is the Savior of all men. Read or Share this story: https://usat.ly/2KqSNUK

Fair Usage Law

August 3, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Jews  Comments Closed

Jews

Texas Jews Are Hiding From Neo-Nazis Public display of swastikas and anti-Semitic chants are protected by the First Amendment, and in some states it is lawful to bring firearms to celebrations of Nazi nostalgia. All of this is lawful, but there are consequences.

Fair Usage Law

July 12, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Jews  Comments Closed

Jews Are NOT Exactly HumanWHAT?!?! | Subverted Nation

Yes, Im telling you right now that the jew is NOT human in the sense that most gentiles like myself, or people with a soul and a conscience are, and they have ONCE AGAIN told you this plain as day repeatedly in their published works and oral histories. All one must do is scratch the surface or look closely at the things that have been presented to us in order to find the truths that I present here on this blog. The jew is hiding some MAJOR truths about the origin of mankind, and it is when these truths are fully revealed that we will INDEED see that the jew is NOT human like those of us called gentiles. There is just too much evidence pointing to this fact all across the globe. Some interesting and noteworthy ones are the disappearance of the skull of peking man or homo erectus, which was in transit to be kept at the American Museum of Natural History until after WWII. The only thing left of this ALL IMPORTANT piece of evolutionary history is a plaster cast or reconstructions, and guess what? Its a sloped forehead, heavy brow ridge, and big fat jewish looking grin that looks like it should have a fat lower lip as is typical of many jews.The November 2007 issue of Scientific American had an excerpt from a work called The Jesuit and the Skull: Teilhard De Chardin, Evolution, and the Search For Peking Man by Amir D. Aczel, Riverhead Books/Penguin, 2007. Funny its about JESUITS and the skull, and not JEWS and the skull. (NOTE: Author and subject are also possibly jewish personalities, but I have not independently verified this.) We all know that the jesuits are a controlled front by the jew, meant to HIDE the jew just like freemasonry, the illuminati, the new world order, and any other secret societies with elusive and mysterious leaders some truthers can never seem to nail down. The excerpt reads Two stories in one, The Jesuit and the Skull recounts the search for the missing link between apes and humans and the dramatic life of one of the principal particpants in this search, a charismatic and mysterious Jesuit who cared passionately about science: In 1923, Father Pierre Teilhard de Chardin arrived in China as an exile, by the order of his superiors at the Jesuit headquarters in Rome. His transgressions include questioning the doctrine of original sin and supporting Darwins theory of evolutions.And as fate would have it, in 1929, in China Teilhard became a crucial player in one of the most imporant discoveries in modern anthropology, and one that provided us with invaluable evidence for the theory that Charles Darwin had published exactly seventy years earlier. This great discovery was the unearthing of the skeletal remains of Peking Man [Homo erectus].And then, seemingly overnight, everything was lost.[In 1941] the finds were cladestinely packed in two crates, and readied for shipment by sea to the American Museum of Natural History in New York, to be kept there until the end of the war. But when the crates left Peking Union Medical College to be brought to the ship that was to take them to America, they vanished without a trace. Not a shred of evidence has surfaced over the intervening six and a half decades to point to what actually happened to this collection. (emphasis added here because these are TYPICAL markers of JEWISH CRIMINALS, and you have GOT to wonder what happened to the skull and the DNA evidence we may have been able to garner from it) After literally YEARS of research into the machinations of the jew I stumbled upon this quote by famed holohoax survivor Elie Wiesel which confirms 100% that the jew is hiding something about OUR origins AND theirs. Holocaust activist Elie Wiesel, whose lies about his holocaust experiences seem to be legion, also claims that Jews are a superior race. Everything about us is different, Wiesel boasts. Jews are ontologically exceptional. WHAT is significant about this? People dont use terms like ontologically exceptional without first understanding the meaning of such big words. Read the wikipedia definition of ontology here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ontology In philosophy, ontology (from the Greek , genitive : of beingand -: science, study, theory) is the study of the nature of being, existence or reality in general, as well as of the basic categories of being and their relations. Traditionally listed as a part of the major branch of philosophy known as metaphysics, ontology deals with questions concerning what entities exist or can be said to exist, and how such entities can be grouped, related within a hierarchy, and subdivided according to similarities and differences. (again, emphasis added) There is even more, of course that underlies what it is Im talking about. Take for instance this quote: Our race is the Master Race. We are divine gods on this planet. We are as different from the inferior races as they are from insects. In fact, compared to our race, other races are beasts and animals, cattle at best. Other races are considered as human excrement. Our destiny is to rule over the inferior races. Our earthly kingdom will be ruled by our leader with a rod of iron. The masses will lick our feet and serve us as our slaves. Menachem Begin Israeli Prime Minister 1977-1983 Menachem is almost a perfect match for Peking Man. Or maybe this quote found here at Rense.com or many other sources for that matter: Rabbi Mendel Schneerson, the late Jewish Lubavitcher and friend of the senior George Bush, also believed the Jews are a superior Master Race. Many Jews today agree with the late Rabbi. Some even believe that Schneerson will himself someday be resurrected and return as the Jewish World Messiah. Schneerson once explained his theory of Jewish racial superiority this way. He said, We have a case of the Jewa totally different species. The body of a Jewish person, Schneerson bragged, is of a totally different quality from the body of members of all other nations of the world. Bodies of the Gentiles are in vain. An even greater difference is in regard to the soulA non-Jewish soul comes from three satanic spheres, while the Jewish soul stems from holiness. Here, as in many cases we see more of the jews penchant for projecting THEIR ills onto other peoples. The difference between human souls and jewish souls is jews dont have a soul. Or even THIS quote by Rabbi Yitzhak Ginsburg: Jewish blood is not the same as the blood of a (Gentile) goy. Then there are things like JEW specific diseases such as tay sachs and bloom syndrome. In fact, there are NINE different diseases (a number of which ARE indeed found in other races) that can be found here. However, many of these diseases include things like AN ENLARGED HEAD, hook noses, sloped foreheads, heavy brow ridges, (ok the hook nose, sloped head, and heavy brow ridges arent diseases or symptoms of disease, but specific jewish traits) DEPLETED MOTOR SKILLS (jews are famous for), and others that are specific and/or MUCH MORE COMMON in jewish people than in others. Indeed there are MANY things the jews are hiding from us about the origins of man AND the INHERENT differences between us gentiles and those whom we call jews. They are the synagogue of satan whom grow into monster faces as they age, many with the crooked evil eye which is discussed in one of my previous articles, and neanderthal like features as noted by Eric Hufschmid and linked in to in that same Evil Eye article. The growth of the monster faced features of the jews as they age has been WELL outlined in this article HERE as well.In conclusion, there is a good reason why I spend a lot of time DEHUMANIZING the jew, and talking in such a vulgar manner about them calling them sloped head, hook nosed, demons, and things of this nature. Dehumanization is an important part of psy-ops the jew uses frequently AGAINST US gentiles and in the present against muslims and arabs as a whole. There is no need to source this because all one must do is watch or read the daily news, or even watch a hollywood movie or two from the past 30 years to see evidence of this. Its not a racist thing, its an important and FACTUAL observation of a technique that I willfuly employ against these monsterous cretins, which has been done both past and present as witnessed by the caricatures shown here.

Fair Usage Law

June 23, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Jews  Comments Closed

Jews in Government | Subverted Nation

BACK TO INDEXCABINET MEMBERS AND SENIOR OFFICIALS Judah Benjamin Confederate States of America: Attorney General (1861), Secretary of War (1861), Secretary of State (186265) Oscar Straus Secretary of Commerce and Labor (190609) Henry Morgenthau Jr., Secretary of the Treasury (193445) Arthur J. Goldberg Secretary of Labor (19611962) Abraham A. Ribicoff Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare (196162) Walter W. Rostow National Security Advisor (196669) Wilbur J. Cohen Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare (196869) James Schlesinger CIA Director (1973), Secretary of Defense (197375) (convert to Lutheranism) Henry Kissinger National Security Advisor (196975); Secretary of State (197377) Ron Nessen White House Press Secretary (197477) Edward Levi Attorney General (19751977) W. Michael Blumenthal Secretary of the Treasury (197779) Harold Brown Secretary of Defense (197781) Neil Goldschmidt Secretary of Transportation (19791981) Philip Morris Klutznick Secretary of Commerce (19801981) Caspar Weinberger Secretary of Defense (198187) (Episcopalian; paternal descendant of Czech Jews) Richard Perle U.S. Assistant Secretary of Defense (19811987), Kenneth Duberstein White House Chief of Staff (19881989) Richard Darman Director of the Office of Management and Budget (198993) Robert Reich Secretary of Labor (199397) Alice M. Rivlin Director of Office of Management and Budget (199496) John M. Deutch Belgian-born CIA director (199596) Robert Rubin Secretary of the Treasury (199599) Dan Glickman Secretary of Agriculture (19952001) Mickey Kantor Secretary of Commerce (199697) Madeleine Albright Secretary of State (199701) (raised Catholic by adoptive parents) William S. Cohen Secretary of Defense (1997-01) (Jewish father; lists self as Unitarian Universalist) Sandy Berger National Security Advisor (199701) Larry Summers Secretary of the Treasury (199901) Jacob Lew Director of Office of Management and Budget (19992001) Leon Fuerth National Security Advisor to Vice President Al Gore (19932001) Ari Fleischer White House Press Secretary (200103) Elliott Abrams Special Assistant to the President (20012005), Deputy National Security Advisor for Global Democracy Strategy (20052008) Paul Dundes Wolfowitz U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense (20012005) Douglas J. Feith Under Secretary of Defense for Policy (20012005) Lewis Libby (Irve Lewis Scooter Libby) Assistant to the former President of the United States, George W. Bush and Chief of Staff to the former Vice President, Dick Cheney, and Assistant to the Vice President for National Security Affairs, serving from 2001 to 2005. Victoria Nuland U.S. Permanent Representative to NATO (20052008) Michael Chertoff Secretary for Homeland Security (20052009) Joshua Bolten Director of Office of Management and Budget (200306); White House Chief of Staff (20062009) Michael Mukasey Attorney General (20072009) Rahm Emanuel White House Chief of Staff (2009-) Carl Levin Democrat, Michigan since 1979 Arlen Specter Democrat, Pennsylvania since 1981 Formerly a Republican; switched parties on April 28, 2009. Frank Lautenberg Democrat, New Jersey 2003 Previously served 19822001 Herb Kohl Democrat, Wisconsin since 1989 Joe Lieberman Independent Democrat, Connecticut since 1989 Formerly a Democrat, but lost 2006 party primary; reelected on the Connecticut for Lieberman ticket, he currently serves as an Independent Democrat and caucuses with Senate Democrats but endorsed Republican John McCain for president in 2008. Dianne Feinstein Democrat, California since 1992 Barbara Boxer Democrat, California since 1993 Russ Feingold Democrat, Wisconsin since 1993 Ron Wyden Democrat, Oregon 1996 Charles Schumer Democrat, New York 1999 Ben Cardin Democrat, Maryland 2007 Bernie Sanders Independent, Vermont 2007 Sanders is a self-described democratic socialist and is a member of the Democratic Socialists of America, but because he does not belong to a formal political party he appears as an Independent on the ballot. Sanders caucuses with the Democratic Party and is counted as a Democrat for the purposes of committee assignments. Ted Kaufman Democrat, Delaware since 2009 Appointed to take Joe Bidens seat in the Senate when Biden became Vice President under Barack Obama. Jewish father. Michael Bennet Democrat, Colorado 2009 Appointed. Jewish mother. Al Franken Democrat, Minnesota 2009 David Levy Yulee senator (D-FL: 184551, 185561) Judah P. Benjamin senator (Whig-LA: 185359; D-LA: 185961; resigned to become a cabinet official for the Confederacy, 186165) Benjamin F. Jonas senator (D-LA: 187985) Joseph Simon senator (R-OR: 189803) Isidor Rayner senator (D-MD: 190512) Simon Guggenheim senator (R-CO: 190713) Herbert Lehman senator (D-NY: 194957) Barry M. Goldwater senator (R-AZ: 19531965, 19691987), (Jewish father) Richard L. Neuberger senator (D-OR: 195560) Jacob Javits senator (R-NY: 195781) Ernest Gruening senator (D-AK: 195969) Abraham Ribicoff senator (D-CT: 196381) Pierre Salinger senator (D-CA: 1964) Howard Metzenbaum senator (D-OH: 1974, 197695) Richard B. Stone senator (D-FL: 197580) Edward Zorinsky senator (D-NE: 197687) Rudy Boschwitz senator (R-MN: 197891) William Cohen senator (R-ME: 197997) (Jewish father) Warren Rudman senator (R-NH: 198093) Jacob Hecht senator (R-NV: 198389) Paul Wellstone senator (D-MN: 199102) George Allen senator (R-VA: 20012007) (Allens mother is Jewish) Norm Coleman senator (R-MN: 2003-2009) Henry Waxman Barney Frank Gary Ackerman Currently heads the International Council of Jewish Parliamentarians (ICJP) Howard Berman Sander M. Levin Eliot L. Engel Nita Lowey First female chairwoman of the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee, which she chaired from 1991 to 1992 Bob Filner Jane Harman Served 19931999 and 2001Present Jerrold Nadler Steve Rothman Shelley Berkley First Jewish congresswoman from Nevada Jan Schakowsky Brad Sherman Anthony D. Weiner Eric Cantor House Minority Whip Susan Davis Steve Israel Adam Schiff Allyson Schwartz

Fair Usage Law

June 1, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Jews  Comments Closed

Jimmy Kimmel Tweets CNN’s Inflated School Shooting Stats

Late-night Jimmy Kimmel tweeted CNN’s inflated school shooting stats on Monday, which claim school shootings occur “57 times” more often in the U.S. than other “industrialized nations combined.”

Fair Usage Law

May 22, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Jews  Comments Closed

North Korea Charges $10,000 to Cover Nuclear Site Closure; Bans South Koreans

North Korea reportedly charged international reporters $10,000 each for flight visas to cover the shutdown of the Punggye-ri Nuclear Test Site, scheduled to occur sometime between May 23 and 25

Fair Usage Law

May 22, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Jews  Comments Closed


Fair Use Disclaimer

"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances."

Under the 'fair use' rule of copyright law, an author may make limited use of another author's work without asking permission. Fair use is based on the belief that the public is entitled to freely use portions of copyrighted materials for purposes of commentary and criticism. The fair use privilege is perhaps the most significant limitation on a copyright owner's exclusive rights.

Fair use as described at 17 U.S.C. Section 107:

"Notwithstanding the provisions of section 106 and 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phono-records or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright.

In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include:

  • (1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for or nonprofit educational purposes,
  • (2) the nature of the copyrighted work,
  • (3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole, and
  • (4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work."