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February 11, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Judaism  Comments Closed

Glossary See The Holy Land

Abraham

Acts of the Apostles

Annunciation

Apocrypha

Apostle

Aramaic

Archaeology

Ark of the Covenant

Armageddon

Ascension

Bahai

Barluzzi, Antonio

Basilica

BC and AD, or BCE and CE

Bedouin

Bible

Byzantine

Canaan

Choir

Cistern

Constantine

Crusades

Custody of the Holy Land

Decapolis

Essenes

Eusebius

Exile

Exodus

Franks

Gallicantu

Gate

Gentile

Gospel

Hebrew

Helena

Herod the Great

Hellenism

Icon

Iconostasis

Incarnation

Islam

Jerome

Josephus

Kibbutz

Kosher

Liturgy

Lords Prayer

Martyr

Messiah

Mikvah

Mishnah

Mosaic

Moses

Mosque

Muhammad

New Testament

Old Testament

Orthodox

Ossuary

Ottoman Empire

Palestine

Parable

Passover

Patriarch

Pentecost

Pharisee

Pontius Pilate

Prophet

Promised Land

Quran

Ramadan

Resurrection

Sabbath

Sadducees

Samaritans

Sarcophagus

Souk

Stations of the Cross

Status Quo

Stele

Stoa

Synagogue

Talmud

Tel/Tell

Temple

Torah

Transfiguration

Trinity

Vulgate

Wadi

West Bank

Yahweh

Yom Kippur

Zealot

Abraham

The founding patriarch of the Israelites, Ishmaelites, Midianites and Edomite peoples, he is considered father of the three monotheistic faiths tied to the Holy Land today Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

Genesis 17:5 says God changed his name from Abram (probably meaning the father is exalted) to Abraham (meaning father of many), then sent him from his home in Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq) to Canaan.

Here Abraham entered into a covenant: He would recognise Yahweh as his God, and in return he would be blessed with numerous offspring and the land would belong to his descendants.

Acts of the Apostles

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Names of God in Judaism – Wikipedia

The name of God used in the Hebrew Bible is the Tetragrammaton YHWH (). It is frequently anglicized as Jehovah and Yahweh[1] and written in most English editions of the Bible as “the Lord” owing to the Jewish tradition viewing the divine name as increasingly too sacred to be uttered.It was thus replaced vocally in the synagogue ritual by the Hebrew word Adonai (My Lord), which was translated as Kyrios (Lord) in the Septuagint, the Greek version of the Hebrew Scriptures.[2]

Rabbinic Judaism describes seven names which are so holy that, once written, should not be erased: The Tetragrammaton written as YHWH and six others which can be categorized as titles are El (“God”), Eloah (“God”), Elohim (“Gods”), Shaddai (“God Almighty”), Ehyeh, and Tzevaot (“[of] Hosts”).[3] Other names are considered mere epithets or titles reflecting different aspects of God, but chumrah sometimes dictates special care such as the writing of “G-d” instead of “God” in English or saying t-Vav (, lit.”9-6″) instead of Yd-H (, lit.”10-5″ but also “Jah”) for the number fifteen in Hebrew.[5]

The documentary hypothesis proposes that the Torah was compiled from various original sources, two of which (the Jahwist and the Elohist) are named for their usual names for God (YHWH and Elohim respectively).

The seven names of God that, once written, cannot be erased because of their holiness[6] are the Tetragrammaton, El, Elohim, Eloah, Elohai, El Shaddai, and Tzevaot.[7] In addition, the name Jahbecause it forms part of the Tetragrammatonis similarly protected.[7] Rabbi Jose considered “Tzevaot” a common name[8] and Rabbi Ishmael that “Elohim” was.[9] All other names, such as “Merciful”, “Gracious” and “Faithful”, merely represent attributes that are also common to human beings.[10]

The name of God used most often in the Hebrew Bible is YHWH[n 1] ( ), also known as the Tetragrammaton (Greek for “four-letter [word]”). Hebrew is a right-to-left abjad, so the word’s letters Yd, H, Vav, H are usually taken for consonants and expanded to Yahweh or Jehovah in English.

In modern Jewish culture, it is accepted as forbidden to pronounce the name the way that it is spelled. In prayers it is pronounced Adonai, and in discussion is usually said as HaShem, meaning The Name. The exact pronunciation is uncertain becausealthough there is nothing in the Torah to prohibit the saying of the name[12] and Ruth shows it was being pronounced as late as the 5th centuryBCE[13][n 2]it had ceased to be spoken aloud by at least the 3rdcenturyBCE during Second Temple Judaism[15] and vowel points were not written until the early medieval period. The Masoretic Text uses vowel points of Adonai or Elohim (depending on the context) marking the pronunciation as Yhwh ( , [jhowh](listen)); however, scholarly consensus is that this is not the original pronunciation.[16] (For a discussion of subtle pronunciation changes between what is preserved in the Hebrew Scriptures and what is read, see Qere and Ketiv.)

The Tetragrammaton first appears in Genesis[17] and occurs 6828 times in total in the Stuttgart edition of the Masoretic Text. It is thought to be an archaic third-person singular imperfect tense of the verb “tobe” (i.e., “[He] was being”). This agrees with the passage in Exodus where God names Himself as “I Will Be What I Will Be”[18] using the first-person singular imperfect tense.

Rabbinical Judaism teaches that the name is forbidden to all except the High Priest, who should only speak it in the Holy of Holies of the Temple in Jerusalem on Yom Kippur. He then pronounces the name “just as it is written”.[citation needed][19] As each blessing was made, the people in the courtyard were to prostrate themselves completely as they heard it spoken aloud. As the Temple has been destroyed since CE70, most modern Jews never pronounce YHWH but instead read Adonai (“My Lord”) during prayer and while reading the Torah and as HaShem (“The Name”) at other times.[20][21] Similarly, the Vulgate used Dominus (“The Lord”) and most English translations of the Bible write “the Lord” for YHWH and “the Lord God” for Adonai YHWH instead of transcribing the name. (The Septuagint apparently originally used the Hebrew letters themselves amid its Greek text[22][23] but all surviving editions instead write either Kyrios [, “Lord”) or Theos [, “God”] for occurrences of the name.)

El appears in Ugaritic, Phoenician and other 2nd and 1st millenniumBCE texts both as generic “god” and as the head of the divine pantheon.[24] In the Hebrew Bible El (Hebrew: ) appears very occasionally alone (e.g. Genesis 33:20, el elohe yisrael, “El the God of Israel”,[25] and Genesis 46:3, ha’el elohe abika, “El the God of thy father”),[26] but usually with some epithet or attribute attached (e.g. El Elyon, “Most High El”, El Shaddai, “El of Shaddai”, El `Olam “Everlasting El”, El Hai, “Living El”, El Ro’i “El my Shepherd”, and El Gibbor “El of Strength”), in which cases it can be understood as the generic “god”. In theophoric names such as Gabriel (“Strength of God”), Michael (“Who is like God?”), Raphael (“God’s medicine”), Ariel (“God’s lion”), Daniel (“God’s Judgment”), Israel (“one who has struggled with God”), Immanuel (“God is with us”), and Ishmael (“God Hears”/”God Listens”) it is usually interpreted and translated as “God”, but it is not clear whether these “el”s refer to the deity in general or to the god El in particular.[27]

A common name of God in the Hebrew Bible is Elohim (Hebrew: (helpinfo)). Despite the -im ending common to many plural nouns in Hebrew, the word Elohim when referring to God is grammatically singular, and takes a singular verb in the Hebrew Bible. The word is identical to the usual plural of el meaning gods or magistrates, and is cognate to the ‘lhm found in Ugaritic, where it is used for the pantheon of Canaanite gods, the children of El and conventionally vocalized as “Elohim” although the original Ugaritic vowels are unknown. When the Hebrew Bible uses elohim not in reference to God, it is plural (for example, Exodus 20:2). There are a few other such uses in Hebrew, for example Behemoth. In Modern Hebrew, the singular word ba’alim (“owner”, “lord”, or “husband”) looks plural, but likewise takes a singular verb.

A number of scholars have traced the etymology to the Semitic root *yl, “to be first, powerful”, despite some difficulties with this view.[28] Elohim is thus the plural construct “powers”. Hebrew grammar allows for this form to mean “He is the Power (singular) over powers (plural)”, just as the word Ba’alim means “owner” (see above). “He is lord (singular) even over any of those things that he owns that are lordly (plural).”

Theologians who dispute this claim cite the hypothesis that plurals of majesty came about in more modern times. Richard Toporoski, a classics scholar, asserts that plurals of majesty first appeared in the reign of Diocletian (CE284305).[29] Indeed, Gesenius states in his book Hebrew Grammar the following:[30]

The Jewish grammarians call such plurals plur. virium or virtutum; later grammarians call them plur. excellentiae, magnitudinis, or plur. maiestaticus. This last name may have been suggested by the we used by kings when speaking of themselves (compare 1 Maccabees 10:19 and 11:31); and the plural used by God in Genesis 1:26 and 11:7; Isaiah 6:8 has been incorrectly explained in this way). It is, however, either communicative (including the attendant angels: so at all events in Isaiah 6:8 and Genesis 3:22), or according to others, an indication of the fullness of power and might implied. It is best explained as a plural of self-deliberation. The use of the plural as a form of respectful address is quite foreign to Hebrew.

Mark S. Smith has cited the use of plural as possible evidence to suggest an evolution in the formation of early Jewish conceptions of monotheism, wherein references to “the gods” (plural) in earlier accounts of verbal tradition became either interpreted as multiple aspects of a single monotheistic God at the time of writing, or subsumed under a form of monolatry, wherein the god(s) of a certain city would be accepted after the fact as a reference to the God of Israel and the plural deliberately dropped.[31]

The plural form ending in -im can also be understood as denoting abstraction, as in the Hebrew words chayyim (“life”) or betulim (“virginity”). If understood this way, Elohim means “divinity” or “deity”. The word chayyim is similarly syntactically singular when used as a name but syntactically plural otherwise.

In many of the passages in which elohim occurs in the Bible it refers to non-Israelite deities, or in some instances to powerful men or judges, and even angels (Exodus 21:6, Psalms 8:5) as a simple plural in those instances.

Elohai or Elohei (“My God”) is a form of Elohim along with the first-person singular pronoun enclitic. It appears in the names “God of Abraham” (Elohai Avraham); “God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob” (Elohai Avraham, Elohai Yitzchak ve Elohai Yaaqov); and “God of Sarah, Rebecca, Leah, and Rachel” (Elohai Sara, Elohai Rivka, Elohai Leah ve Elohai Rakhel).

El Shaddai (Hebrew: (helpinfo), pronounced[ada.i]) is one of the names of God in Judaism, with its etymology coming from the influence of the Ugaritic religion on modern Judaism. El Shaddai is conventionally translated as “God Almighty”. While the translation of El as “god” in Ugarit/Canaanite language is straightforward, the literal meaning of Shaddai is the subject of debate.

Tzevaot, Tsebaoth or Sabaoth (, [tsvaot](listen), lit.”Armies”) appears in reference to armies or armed hosts of men in Exodus[32] but is not used as a divine epithet in the Torah, Joshua, or Judges. In the First Book of Samuel, David uses the name YHWH Tzavaot and immediately glosses it as “the God of the armies of Israel”.[33] The same name appears in the prophets along with YHWH Elohe Tzevaot, Elohey Tzevaot, and Adonai YHWH Tzevaot. These are usually translated in the King James Version as the “Lord of Hosts” or “Lord God of Hosts”. In its later uses, however, it often denotes God in His role as leader of the heavenly hosts.[citation needed]

The abbreviated form Jah ()[34] or Yah ((listen); , Yahu) appears in the Psalms[35] and Isaiah.[36] It is a common element in Hebrew theophoric names such as Elijah and also appears in the forms yahu (“Jeremiah”), yeho (“Joshua”), and yo (“John”, ultimately from the biblical “Yohanan”). It also appears 24 times in the Psalms as a part of Hallelujah (“Praise Jah”).[37]

Adonai (, lit.”My Lords”) is the plural form of adon (“lord”) along with the first-person singular pronoun enclitic.[n 3] As with Elohim, Adonai’s grammatical form is usually explained as a plural of majesty. In the Hebrew Bible, it is only used to refer to God. As the pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton came to be avoided in the Hellenistic period, Jews began to read “Adonai” at its appearances in scripture and to say “Adonai” in its place in prayer. Owing to the expansion of chumra (the idea of “building a fence around the Torah”), Adonai itself has come to be too holy to say for Orthodox Jews, leading to its replacement by HaShem (“The Name”).

The singular forms adon and adoni (“my lord”) are used in scripture as royal titles,[38][39] as in the First Book of Samuel,[40] and for distinguished persons. The Phoenicians used it as a title of Tammuz, the origin of the Greek Adonis, and is also used in scripture to refer to God (e.g. Ps 114:7.)[41]

Deuteronomy 10:17 has the proper name Yahweh alongside the superlative constructions “god[s] of gods” elh ha-elhm and “lord of lords” adn ha-adnm ( ; KJV: “For the LORD your God is God of gods, and Lord of lords”).

The final syllable of Adonai uses the vowel kamatz, rather than patach which would be expected from the Hebrew for “my lord(s)”. Prof. Yoel Elitzur explains this as a normal transformation when a Hebrew word becomes a name, giving as other examples Nathan, Yitzchak, and Yigal.[42]

Up until the mid-twentieth century, the use of the word Adoshem, combining the first two syllables of “Adonai” with the last syllable of “Hashem”‘, was quite common. This was discouraged by Rabbi David HaLevi Segal in his commentary to the Shulchan Aruch. His rationale was that it is disrespectful to combine a Name of God with another word. It took a few centuries for the word to fall into almost complete disuse. Despite being obsolete in most circles, it is used occasionally in conversation in place of Adonai by Jews who do not wish to say Adonai but need to specify the substitution of that particular word. It is also used when quoting from the liturgy in a non-liturgical context. For example, Shlomo Carlebach performed his prayer “Shema Yisrael” with the words Shema Yisrael Adoshem Elokeinu Adoshem Ead instead of Shema Yisrael Adonai Eloheinu Adonai Ead.

Baal (),[43][n 4] properly Baal,[n 5] meant “owner” and, by extension, “lord”, “master”, and “husband” in Hebrew and the other Northwest Semitic languages. In some early contexts and theophoric names, it and Baali (; “My Lord”) were treated as synonyms of Adon and Adonai. After the time of Solomon[52] and particularly after Jezebel’s attempt to promote the worship of the Lord of Tyre Melqart, however, the name became particularly associated with the Canaanite storm god Baal Haddu and was gradually avoided as a title for Yahweh.[52] Several names that included it were rewritten as bosheth (“shame”). The prophet Hosea in particular reproached the Israelites for continuing to use the term:[54]

“It will come about in that day,” declares the Lord, “That you will call Me Ishi[n 6] And will no longer call Me Baali.”[56]

Ehyeh asher ehyeh (Hebrew: ) is the first of three responses given to Moses when he asks for God’s name in the Book of Exodus.[18] The King James Version of the Bible translates the Hebrew as “I Am that I Am” and uses it as a proper name for God. The Aramaic Targum Onkelos leaves the phrase untranslated and is so quoted in the Talmud (B. B. 73a.[clarification needed])

Ehyeh is the first-person singular imperfect form of hayah, “to be”. Ehyeh is usually translated “I will be”, since the imperfect tense in Hebrew denotes actions that are not yet completed (e.g. Exodus 3:12, “Certainly I will be [ehyeh] with thee.”).[57] Asher is an ambiguous pronoun which can mean, depending on context, “that”, “who”, “which”, or “where”.[57]

Although Ehyeh asher ehyeh is generally rendered in English “I am that I am”, better renderings might be “I will be what I will be” or “I will be who I will be”, or “I shall prove to be whatsoever I shall prove to be” or even “I will be because I will be”.[58] Other renderings include: Leeser, I Will Be that I Will Be; Rotherham, “I Will Become whatsoever I please”, New World Translation (2013 Edition): “I Will Become What I Choose to Become.”[59][60] Greek, Ego eimi ho on ( ), “I am The Being” in the Septuagint,[61] and Philo,[62][63] and Revelation[64] or, “I am The Existing One”; Lat., ego sum qui sum, “I am Who I am.”

Elah (Aramaic: ; pl. “elim”) is the Aramaic word for God. The origin of the word is uncertain and it may be related to a root word, meaning “reverence”. Elah is found in the Tanakh in the books of Ezra, Jeremiah (Jer 10:11, the only verse in the entire book written in Aramaic),[65] and Daniel. Elah is used to describe both pagan gods and the Jews’ God. The word ‘Elah – ‘ is also an Arabic word which means god. The name is etymologically related to Allah used by Muslims.

In the Book of Genesis, Hagar is said to call the name of Yahweh who spoke to her through his angel. In Hebrew, her phrase “El Roi” is taken as an epithet of God (“God of Seeing”)[66] although the King James Version translates it as a statement: “Thou God seest me.”[67]

The name Elyon (Hebrew: ) occurs in combination with El, YHWH, Elohim and alone. It appears chiefly in poetic and later Biblical passages. The modern Hebrew adjective “`Elyon” means “supreme” (as in “Supreme Court”) or “Most High”. El Elyon has been traditionally translated into English as ‘God Most High’. The Phoenicians used what appears to be a similar name for God, . It is cognate to the Arabic `Aliyy.

“The Eternal One” is increasingly used, particularly in Reform and Reconstructionist communities seeking to use gender-neutral language.[68] In the Torah, “Hashem Kel Olam” (“the Everlasting God”) is used at Genesis 21:33 to refer to God.[69]

It is common Jewish practice to restrict the use of the names of God to a liturgical context. In casual conversation some Jews, even when not speaking Hebrew, will call God HaShem (), which is Hebrew for “the Name” (cf. Leviticus 24:11 and Deuteronomy 28:58). Likewise, when quoting from the Tanakh or prayers, some pious Jews will replace Adonai with HaShem. For example, when making audio recordings of prayer services, HaShem[70] will generally be substituted for Adonai.

A popular expression containing this phrase is Baruch HaShem, meaning “Thank God” (literally, “Blessed be the Name”).[71]

Talmudic authors,[72] ruling on the basis of Gideon’s name for an altar (“YHVH-Shalom”, according to Judges 6:24), write that “the name of God is ‘Peace'” (Pereq ha-Shalom, Shab. 10b); consequently, a Talmudic opinion (Shabbat, 10b) asserts that one would greet another with the word shalom(helpinfo) in order for the word not to be forgotten in the exile. But one is not permitted to greet another with the word shalom(helpinfo) in unholy places such as a bathroom, because of holiness of the name.

Shekhinah ((helpinfo)) is the presence or manifestation of God which has descended to “dwell” among humanity. The term never appears in the Hebrew Bible; later rabbis used the word when speaking of God dwelling either in the Tabernacle or amongst the people of Israel. The root of the word means “dwelling”. Of the principal names of God, it is the only one that is of the feminine gender in Hebrew grammar. Some believe that this was the name of a female counterpart of God, but this is unlikely as the name is always mentioned in conjunction with an article (e.g.: “the Shekhina descended and dwelt among them” or “He removed Himself and His Shekhina from their midst”). This kind of usage does not occur in Semitic languages in conjunction with proper names.

The Arabic form of the word “Saknah ” is also mentioned in the Quran. This mention is in the middle of the narrative of the choice of Saul to be king and is mentioned as descending with the Ark of the Covenant, here the word is used to mean “security” and is derived from the root sa-ka-na which means dwell:

Rabb al-Alamin.

In Jewish tradition the sacredness of the divine name or titles must be recognized by the professional sofer (scribe) who writes Torah scrolls, or tefillin and mezuzah. Before transcribing any of the divine titles or name he prepares mentally to sanctify them. Once he begins a name he does not stop until it is finished, and he must not be interrupted while writing it, even to greet a king. If an error is made in writing it may not be erased, but a line must be drawn round it to show that it is canceled, and the whole page must be put in a genizah (burial place for scripture) and a new page begun.

One of the most important names is that of the Ein Sof ( “Endless”), which first came into use after CE1300.[76] The forty-two-lettered name contains the combined names , that when spelled out contains 42 letters. The equivalent in value of YHWH (spelled = 45) is the forty-five-lettered name.[clarification needed]

The seventy-two-lettered name is derived from three verses in Exodus (14:1921) beginning with “Vayyissa”, “Vayyabo” and “Vayyet” respectively. Each of the verses contains 72 letters, and when combined they form 72 names, known collectively as the Shemhamphorasch. The kabbalistic book Sefer Yetzirah explains that the creation of the world was achieved by the manipulation of these sacred letters that form the names of God.

The words “God” and “Lord” are written by some Jews as “G-d” and “L-rd” as a way of avoiding writing any name of God in full out of respect. Deuteronomy 12:34 reads, “And ye shall overthrow their altars, and break their pillars, and burn their groves with fire; and ye shall hew down the graven images of their gods, and destroy the names of them out of that place. Ye shall not do so unto the Lord your God.” From this it is understood that one should not erase or blot out the name of God. The general halachic opinion is that this only applies to the sacred Hebrew names of God, but not to other euphemistic references; there is a dispute whether the word “God” in English or other languages may be erased.[77]

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Judaism | World | The Guardian

Letters:Dr David Alderson and 42 others want the University of Manchester to apologise to the students whose campaign it has maligned, and to the censored speaker whom it has defamed. MeanwhileProf Avi Shlaim and six other signatories object to Moshe Machovers expulsion from the Labour party

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Judaism | Definition of Judaism by Merriam-Webster

1 : a religion developed among the ancient Hebrews and characterized by belief in one transcendent God who has revealed himself to Abraham, Moses, and the Hebrew prophets and by a religious life in accordance with Scriptures and rabbinic traditions

2 : the cultural, social, and religious beliefs and practices of the Jews

3 : conformity to Jewish rites, ceremonies, and practices

4 : the whole body of Jews : the Jewish people

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Judaism – definition of Judaism by The Free Dictionary

an attitude or policy of hatred and hostility toward Jewish people. anti-Semite, n.

Hasidism, def. 2.

1. the principles or doctrines of the cabala, a system of theosophy, theurgy, and mystical Scriptural interpretive methods originated by rabbis about the 8th century and affecting later Christian thinkers.2. an interpretation made according to these doctrines.3. an extreme traditionalism in theological concepts or Biblical interpretation.4. obscurantism, especially that resulting from the use of obscure vocabulary. cabalist, n. cabalistic, adj.

the scattering of the Jews after the period of Babylonian exile.

a student of or expert on the Gemara, or second book of the Talmud. Gemaric, adj.

the state or quality of being non-Jewish. gentile, n., adj.

1. the explanatory matter in rabbinic and Talmudic literature, interpreting or illustrating the Scriptures.2. a book in which is printed the liturgy for the Seder service. haggadic, haggadical, adj.

1. a student of the Haggada.2. a writer of the Haggada.

the entire body of Jewish law, comprising Biblical laws, oral laws transcribed in the Talmud, and subsequent codes altering traditional teachings. Halakist, Halachist, n. Halakic, adj.

1. the beliefs and practices of a mystical Jewish sect, founded in Poland about 1750, characterized by an emphasis on prayer, religious zeal, and joy.2. the beliefs and practices of a pious sect founded in the 3rd century B.C. to resist Hellenizing tendencies and to promote strict observance of Jewish laws and rituals. Also Assideanism. Hasidic, adj. Hasidim, n. pi.

the thought, spirit, and practice characteristic of the Hebrews. Hebraist, n. Hebraistic, Hebraistical, adj.

1. the Jewish people collectively.2. an area inhabited solely or mostly by Jews.

1. the Jewish religion, rites, customs, etc.2. adherence to the Jewish religion, rites, etc. Judaist, n. Judaic, Judaistic, adj.

a hatred of Jews and of Jewish culture. Also called Judaeophobia.

a Jewish theology based on literal interpretation of the Old Testament and rejection of rabbinical commentary. Karaite, n.

the custom under the Mosaic code (Deut. xxv: 5-10) that required a widow to marry her dead husbands brother if she had no sons. levirate, leviratical, adj.

any of the Jewish scribes of the 10th century who compiled the Masora. Masoretic, Masoretical, adj.

1. a belief in a Messiah coming to deliver the Jews, restore Israel, and rule righteously, first mentioned by the Prophet Isaiah.2. the Christian belief that Jesus Christ was the Messiah prophesied.3. the vocation of a Messiah. Messianic, adj.

the condition of being rooted in Mosaic tradition.

1. the system of laws and rituals established by Moses.2. devotion to the Mosaic laws. Mosaist, n. Mosaic, adj.

1. the beliefs and practices of an ancient Jewish sect, especially strictness of religious observance, close adherence to oral laws and traditions, and belief in an afterlife and a coming Messiah. Cf. Sadducecism.2. (l.c.) the behavior of a sanctimonious and self-righteous person. Pharisee, pharisee n. Pharisaic, pharisaic, adj.

the philosophy of Philo Judaeus, lst-century B.C. Alexandrian, combining Judaism and Platonism and acting as a precursor of Neoplatonism. Philonian, adj. Philonic, adj.

the beliefs, practices, and precepts of the rabbis of the Talmudic period. rabbinic, rabbinical, adj.

the beliefs and principles underlying a strict observance of the Sabbath. Sabbatarian, n., adj.

the beliefs and practices of an ancient Jewish sect made up largely of the priestly aristocracy and opposing the Pharisees in both political and doctrinal matters, especially literal and less legalistic interpretation of the Jewish law, rejection of the rabbinical and prophetic traditions, and denying immortality, retribution in a future life, and the existence of angels. Cf. Phariseeism. Sadducee, n. Sadducean, adj.

the beliefs and actions of Jewish scribes during the life of Christ.

the study of Semitic languages and culture. Semitist, Semiticist, n.

1. the state or quality of being Jewish.2. anything typical or characteristic of Judaism, as customs, beliefs, influence, etc.

Torah, def. 2.

1. the teachings of the collection of Jewish law and tradition called the Talmud.2. the observance of and adherence to these teachings. Talmudist, n. Talmudic, adj.

1. the first flve books of the Old Testament; the Pentateuch.2. a scroll of these scriptures in Hebrew used for liturgical purposes. Also called Sepher Torah.3. the entire body of Jewish law and tradition as found in the Old Testament and the Talmud.

a writer of tosaphoth.

the explanatory and critical glosses made usually in the margins of Talmudic literature.

1. the worship of Yahweh (Jehovah).2. the act or custom of naming Jehovah Yahweh.

the beliefs, activities, and spirit of an ancient radical group in Judea that advocated overthrowing Roman rule.

a worldwide Jewish movement for the establishment in Palestine of a national homeland for Jews. Zionist, Zionite, n. Zionist, Zionistic, adj.

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Judaism – definition of Judaism by The Free Dictionary

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Judaism: Basic Beliefs | URI

Judaism began about 4000 years ago with the Hebrew people in the Middle East. Abraham, a Hebrew man, is considered the father of the Jewish faith because he promoted the central idea of the Jewish faith: that there is one God. At the time many people in the Middle East worshipped many gods. It is said that Abraham and his wife Sarah, who were old and childless, were told by God that their children would be as plentiful as the stars in the sky and that they would live in a land of their own — the Promised Land. This gradually came true.

Abraham’s son, Isaac had a son, Jacob, also called Israel. In this way the descendants of Abraham came to be known as the Israelites. God promised the Israelites he would care for them as long as they obeyed God’s laws. While still traveling, the Hebrews lived in Egypt where they were enslaved. Moses, a Hebrew, was chosen by God to lead the Hebrew people out of Egypt. Moses led the Hebrew people out of the Sinai Desert toward the promised land. At Mt. Sinai, God gave Moses the Law which would guide the Israelites to today. The laws were called the Ten Commandments and form the basis of the Torah, the book of Jewish law.

It took many years for the Israelites to finally get to what they thought was the Promised Land – Canaan. After some fighting the Jews established the Israelite kingdom. After many years, Canaan was conquered by the Assyrians, the Babylonians and then eventually the Romans. The Israelites once again found themselves enslaved, this time by Babylonians. The Israelites were then taken over by Romans who destroyed much of what had been built in Jerusalem by the Israelites. Most of the Jews were scattered all over the region and eventually moved from place to place to avoid persecution which continues to this day. The dispersion of the Jews is called the Diaspora.

The worst persecution of the Jews was during World War II by the Nazis who murdered more than six million Jews or a third of the world’s Jewish population. This was called the Holocaust. Beginning in the 1880’s Jews began returning to their homeland in growing numbers, this time to avoid persecution where they lived. After World War II, many Jews believed that for the Jewish people and culture to survive, Jews needed to live in their own country where all Jews from anywhere in the world would have the right to live and be citizens. In 1948, Palestine was divided up and a Jewish state of Israel was formed in the land that was once called Canaan, surrounded by countries with predominantly Muslim populations. Since Muslims also claimed rights to the land where the Jews were living, there was conflict, which continues to this day in the Middle East.

Today nearly fourteen million Jewish people live all over the world. Approximately half of them live in the United States, one quarter live in Israel, and a quarter are still scattered around the world in countries in Europe, Russia, South America, Africa, Asia and other North American and Middle Eastern countries. Anyone born to a Jewish mother is considered a Jew.

Jewish people believe in the Torah, which was the whole of the laws given to the Israelities at Sinai. They believe they must follow God’s laws which govern daily life. Later legal books, written by rabbis, determine the law as it applies to life in each new place and time.

Orthodox Jews believe that all of the practices in the Torah which it is practical to obey must be obeyed without question.

Conservative and Reform Jews believe that the ancient laws and practices have to be interpreted for modern life with inclusion of contemporary sources and with more concern with community practices than with ritual practices.

Reform Jews also allow everyone to sit together, men and women, and both Hebrew and the local language are spoken in services.

The Tenakh is the ancient collection of writings that are sacred to the Jews. They were written over almost a thousand years from 1000 to 100 BCE. The word Tenakh comes from the three first letters of the three books included in this text: the Torah, plus the Nev’im (prophets) and the Ki’tuvim (writings, which include histories, prophecies, poems, hymns and sayings).

The Torah is written on scrolls and kept in a special cabinet called the aron hakodish, the holy ark, in synagogues. The Torah is read with a pointer called a yad (hand) to keep it from being spoiled. Each week, one section is read until the entire Torah is completed and the reading begins again.

The Talmud is also an important collection of Jewish writings. Written about 2000 years ago, it is a recording of the rabbis discussion of the way to follow the Torah at that time. Later texts, the Mishnah Torah and the Shulhan Aruch, are recordings of rabbinic discussions from later periods.

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Judaism: Basic Beliefs | URI

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November 30, 2017   Posted in: Judaism  Comments Closed

Text of White House Statement on Immigration Priorities

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Here is the full statement on immigration priorities issued by the White House late October 8.

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Text of White House Statement on Immigration Priorities

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October 9, 2017   Posted in: Judaism  Comments Closed

Government Research Reveals Pakistani Women in Britain Are ‘Shockingly Badly Integrated’

Pakistani
The Government is set to publish a ‘disparity audit’ which reveals that Pakistani women in Britain are “shockingly badly integrated” and “living in an entirely different society”.

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Government Research Reveals Pakistani Women in Britain Are ‘Shockingly Badly Integrated’

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October 9, 2017   Posted in: Judaism  Comments Closed

Westpac – Personal, Business and Corporate Banking

This information has been prepared by Westpac Banking Corporation ABN 33 007 457 141, AFSL 233714 (‘Westpac’). The exchange rates provided are indicative only as at the time and date shown, are subject to market movements and therefore change continuously; they should not be relied upon as an accurate representation of any final pricing. You should contact Westpac for up-to-date pricing prior to dealing. Exchange rates are applicable for transactions up to $25,000 AUD for Overseas Telegraphic Transfers, Foreign Currency Account Transfers, Foreign Cheque Repurchases, and Bank Draft transactions; and for transactions up to $10,000 AUD for Cash/Bank Notes and Travellers Cheques. Transactions may be subject to certain fees and charges. For further enquiries relating to foreign exchange please visit your local branch, contact your Westpac Relationship Manager or alternatively call 1800 244 313. This information has been prepared without taking account of your objectives, financial situation or needs. Because of this you should, before acting on this information, consider its appropriateness, having regard to these things, and seek independent specialist advice as necessary. Neither Westpac nor any director, officer, employee or associate of Westpac or of any related entity make any express or implied representation or warranty regarding the accuracy or completeness of this information.

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February 11, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Judaism  Comments Closed

Glossary See The Holy Land

Abraham Acts of the Apostles Annunciation Apocrypha Apostle Aramaic Archaeology Ark of the Covenant Armageddon Ascension Bahai Barluzzi, Antonio Basilica BC and AD, or BCE and CE Bedouin Bible Byzantine Canaan Choir Cistern Constantine Crusades Custody of the Holy Land Decapolis Essenes Eusebius Exile Exodus Franks Gallicantu Gate Gentile Gospel Hebrew Helena Herod the Great Hellenism Icon Iconostasis Incarnation Islam Jerome Josephus Kibbutz Kosher Liturgy Lords Prayer Martyr Messiah Mikvah Mishnah Mosaic Moses Mosque Muhammad New Testament Old Testament Orthodox Ossuary Ottoman Empire Palestine Parable Passover Patriarch Pentecost Pharisee Pontius Pilate Prophet Promised Land Quran Ramadan Resurrection Sabbath Sadducees Samaritans Sarcophagus Souk Stations of the Cross Status Quo Stele Stoa Synagogue Talmud Tel/Tell Temple Torah Transfiguration Trinity Vulgate Wadi West Bank Yahweh Yom Kippur Zealot Abraham The founding patriarch of the Israelites, Ishmaelites, Midianites and Edomite peoples, he is considered father of the three monotheistic faiths tied to the Holy Land today Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Genesis 17:5 says God changed his name from Abram (probably meaning the father is exalted) to Abraham (meaning father of many), then sent him from his home in Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq) to Canaan. Here Abraham entered into a covenant: He would recognise Yahweh as his God, and in return he would be blessed with numerous offspring and the land would belong to his descendants. Acts of the Apostles

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February 9, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Judaism  Comments Closed

Names of God in Judaism – Wikipedia

The name of God used in the Hebrew Bible is the Tetragrammaton YHWH (). It is frequently anglicized as Jehovah and Yahweh[1] and written in most English editions of the Bible as “the Lord” owing to the Jewish tradition viewing the divine name as increasingly too sacred to be uttered.It was thus replaced vocally in the synagogue ritual by the Hebrew word Adonai (My Lord), which was translated as Kyrios (Lord) in the Septuagint, the Greek version of the Hebrew Scriptures.[2] Rabbinic Judaism describes seven names which are so holy that, once written, should not be erased: The Tetragrammaton written as YHWH and six others which can be categorized as titles are El (“God”), Eloah (“God”), Elohim (“Gods”), Shaddai (“God Almighty”), Ehyeh, and Tzevaot (“[of] Hosts”).[3] Other names are considered mere epithets or titles reflecting different aspects of God, but chumrah sometimes dictates special care such as the writing of “G-d” instead of “God” in English or saying t-Vav (, lit.”9-6″) instead of Yd-H (, lit.”10-5″ but also “Jah”) for the number fifteen in Hebrew.[5] The documentary hypothesis proposes that the Torah was compiled from various original sources, two of which (the Jahwist and the Elohist) are named for their usual names for God (YHWH and Elohim respectively). The seven names of God that, once written, cannot be erased because of their holiness[6] are the Tetragrammaton, El, Elohim, Eloah, Elohai, El Shaddai, and Tzevaot.[7] In addition, the name Jahbecause it forms part of the Tetragrammatonis similarly protected.[7] Rabbi Jose considered “Tzevaot” a common name[8] and Rabbi Ishmael that “Elohim” was.[9] All other names, such as “Merciful”, “Gracious” and “Faithful”, merely represent attributes that are also common to human beings.[10] The name of God used most often in the Hebrew Bible is YHWH[n 1] ( ), also known as the Tetragrammaton (Greek for “four-letter [word]”). Hebrew is a right-to-left abjad, so the word’s letters Yd, H, Vav, H are usually taken for consonants and expanded to Yahweh or Jehovah in English. In modern Jewish culture, it is accepted as forbidden to pronounce the name the way that it is spelled. In prayers it is pronounced Adonai, and in discussion is usually said as HaShem, meaning The Name. The exact pronunciation is uncertain becausealthough there is nothing in the Torah to prohibit the saying of the name[12] and Ruth shows it was being pronounced as late as the 5th centuryBCE[13][n 2]it had ceased to be spoken aloud by at least the 3rdcenturyBCE during Second Temple Judaism[15] and vowel points were not written until the early medieval period. The Masoretic Text uses vowel points of Adonai or Elohim (depending on the context) marking the pronunciation as Yhwh ( , [jhowh](listen)); however, scholarly consensus is that this is not the original pronunciation.[16] (For a discussion of subtle pronunciation changes between what is preserved in the Hebrew Scriptures and what is read, see Qere and Ketiv.) The Tetragrammaton first appears in Genesis[17] and occurs 6828 times in total in the Stuttgart edition of the Masoretic Text. It is thought to be an archaic third-person singular imperfect tense of the verb “tobe” (i.e., “[He] was being”). This agrees with the passage in Exodus where God names Himself as “I Will Be What I Will Be”[18] using the first-person singular imperfect tense. Rabbinical Judaism teaches that the name is forbidden to all except the High Priest, who should only speak it in the Holy of Holies of the Temple in Jerusalem on Yom Kippur. He then pronounces the name “just as it is written”.[citation needed][19] As each blessing was made, the people in the courtyard were to prostrate themselves completely as they heard it spoken aloud. As the Temple has been destroyed since CE70, most modern Jews never pronounce YHWH but instead read Adonai (“My Lord”) during prayer and while reading the Torah and as HaShem (“The Name”) at other times.[20][21] Similarly, the Vulgate used Dominus (“The Lord”) and most English translations of the Bible write “the Lord” for YHWH and “the Lord God” for Adonai YHWH instead of transcribing the name. (The Septuagint apparently originally used the Hebrew letters themselves amid its Greek text[22][23] but all surviving editions instead write either Kyrios [, “Lord”) or Theos [, “God”] for occurrences of the name.) El appears in Ugaritic, Phoenician and other 2nd and 1st millenniumBCE texts both as generic “god” and as the head of the divine pantheon.[24] In the Hebrew Bible El (Hebrew: ) appears very occasionally alone (e.g. Genesis 33:20, el elohe yisrael, “El the God of Israel”,[25] and Genesis 46:3, ha’el elohe abika, “El the God of thy father”),[26] but usually with some epithet or attribute attached (e.g. El Elyon, “Most High El”, El Shaddai, “El of Shaddai”, El `Olam “Everlasting El”, El Hai, “Living El”, El Ro’i “El my Shepherd”, and El Gibbor “El of Strength”), in which cases it can be understood as the generic “god”. In theophoric names such as Gabriel (“Strength of God”), Michael (“Who is like God?”), Raphael (“God’s medicine”), Ariel (“God’s lion”), Daniel (“God’s Judgment”), Israel (“one who has struggled with God”), Immanuel (“God is with us”), and Ishmael (“God Hears”/”God Listens”) it is usually interpreted and translated as “God”, but it is not clear whether these “el”s refer to the deity in general or to the god El in particular.[27] A common name of God in the Hebrew Bible is Elohim (Hebrew: (helpinfo)). Despite the -im ending common to many plural nouns in Hebrew, the word Elohim when referring to God is grammatically singular, and takes a singular verb in the Hebrew Bible. The word is identical to the usual plural of el meaning gods or magistrates, and is cognate to the ‘lhm found in Ugaritic, where it is used for the pantheon of Canaanite gods, the children of El and conventionally vocalized as “Elohim” although the original Ugaritic vowels are unknown. When the Hebrew Bible uses elohim not in reference to God, it is plural (for example, Exodus 20:2). There are a few other such uses in Hebrew, for example Behemoth. In Modern Hebrew, the singular word ba’alim (“owner”, “lord”, or “husband”) looks plural, but likewise takes a singular verb. A number of scholars have traced the etymology to the Semitic root *yl, “to be first, powerful”, despite some difficulties with this view.[28] Elohim is thus the plural construct “powers”. Hebrew grammar allows for this form to mean “He is the Power (singular) over powers (plural)”, just as the word Ba’alim means “owner” (see above). “He is lord (singular) even over any of those things that he owns that are lordly (plural).” Theologians who dispute this claim cite the hypothesis that plurals of majesty came about in more modern times. Richard Toporoski, a classics scholar, asserts that plurals of majesty first appeared in the reign of Diocletian (CE284305).[29] Indeed, Gesenius states in his book Hebrew Grammar the following:[30] The Jewish grammarians call such plurals plur. virium or virtutum; later grammarians call them plur. excellentiae, magnitudinis, or plur. maiestaticus. This last name may have been suggested by the we used by kings when speaking of themselves (compare 1 Maccabees 10:19 and 11:31); and the plural used by God in Genesis 1:26 and 11:7; Isaiah 6:8 has been incorrectly explained in this way). It is, however, either communicative (including the attendant angels: so at all events in Isaiah 6:8 and Genesis 3:22), or according to others, an indication of the fullness of power and might implied. It is best explained as a plural of self-deliberation. The use of the plural as a form of respectful address is quite foreign to Hebrew. Mark S. Smith has cited the use of plural as possible evidence to suggest an evolution in the formation of early Jewish conceptions of monotheism, wherein references to “the gods” (plural) in earlier accounts of verbal tradition became either interpreted as multiple aspects of a single monotheistic God at the time of writing, or subsumed under a form of monolatry, wherein the god(s) of a certain city would be accepted after the fact as a reference to the God of Israel and the plural deliberately dropped.[31] The plural form ending in -im can also be understood as denoting abstraction, as in the Hebrew words chayyim (“life”) or betulim (“virginity”). If understood this way, Elohim means “divinity” or “deity”. The word chayyim is similarly syntactically singular when used as a name but syntactically plural otherwise. In many of the passages in which elohim occurs in the Bible it refers to non-Israelite deities, or in some instances to powerful men or judges, and even angels (Exodus 21:6, Psalms 8:5) as a simple plural in those instances. Elohai or Elohei (“My God”) is a form of Elohim along with the first-person singular pronoun enclitic. It appears in the names “God of Abraham” (Elohai Avraham); “God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob” (Elohai Avraham, Elohai Yitzchak ve Elohai Yaaqov); and “God of Sarah, Rebecca, Leah, and Rachel” (Elohai Sara, Elohai Rivka, Elohai Leah ve Elohai Rakhel). El Shaddai (Hebrew: (helpinfo), pronounced[ada.i]) is one of the names of God in Judaism, with its etymology coming from the influence of the Ugaritic religion on modern Judaism. El Shaddai is conventionally translated as “God Almighty”. While the translation of El as “god” in Ugarit/Canaanite language is straightforward, the literal meaning of Shaddai is the subject of debate. Tzevaot, Tsebaoth or Sabaoth (, [tsvaot](listen), lit.”Armies”) appears in reference to armies or armed hosts of men in Exodus[32] but is not used as a divine epithet in the Torah, Joshua, or Judges. In the First Book of Samuel, David uses the name YHWH Tzavaot and immediately glosses it as “the God of the armies of Israel”.[33] The same name appears in the prophets along with YHWH Elohe Tzevaot, Elohey Tzevaot, and Adonai YHWH Tzevaot. These are usually translated in the King James Version as the “Lord of Hosts” or “Lord God of Hosts”. In its later uses, however, it often denotes God in His role as leader of the heavenly hosts.[citation needed] The abbreviated form Jah ()[34] or Yah ((listen); , Yahu) appears in the Psalms[35] and Isaiah.[36] It is a common element in Hebrew theophoric names such as Elijah and also appears in the forms yahu (“Jeremiah”), yeho (“Joshua”), and yo (“John”, ultimately from the biblical “Yohanan”). It also appears 24 times in the Psalms as a part of Hallelujah (“Praise Jah”).[37] Adonai (, lit.”My Lords”) is the plural form of adon (“lord”) along with the first-person singular pronoun enclitic.[n 3] As with Elohim, Adonai’s grammatical form is usually explained as a plural of majesty. In the Hebrew Bible, it is only used to refer to God. As the pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton came to be avoided in the Hellenistic period, Jews began to read “Adonai” at its appearances in scripture and to say “Adonai” in its place in prayer. Owing to the expansion of chumra (the idea of “building a fence around the Torah”), Adonai itself has come to be too holy to say for Orthodox Jews, leading to its replacement by HaShem (“The Name”). The singular forms adon and adoni (“my lord”) are used in scripture as royal titles,[38][39] as in the First Book of Samuel,[40] and for distinguished persons. The Phoenicians used it as a title of Tammuz, the origin of the Greek Adonis, and is also used in scripture to refer to God (e.g. Ps 114:7.)[41] Deuteronomy 10:17 has the proper name Yahweh alongside the superlative constructions “god[s] of gods” elh ha-elhm and “lord of lords” adn ha-adnm ( ; KJV: “For the LORD your God is God of gods, and Lord of lords”). The final syllable of Adonai uses the vowel kamatz, rather than patach which would be expected from the Hebrew for “my lord(s)”. Prof. Yoel Elitzur explains this as a normal transformation when a Hebrew word becomes a name, giving as other examples Nathan, Yitzchak, and Yigal.[42] Up until the mid-twentieth century, the use of the word Adoshem, combining the first two syllables of “Adonai” with the last syllable of “Hashem”‘, was quite common. This was discouraged by Rabbi David HaLevi Segal in his commentary to the Shulchan Aruch. His rationale was that it is disrespectful to combine a Name of God with another word. It took a few centuries for the word to fall into almost complete disuse. Despite being obsolete in most circles, it is used occasionally in conversation in place of Adonai by Jews who do not wish to say Adonai but need to specify the substitution of that particular word. It is also used when quoting from the liturgy in a non-liturgical context. For example, Shlomo Carlebach performed his prayer “Shema Yisrael” with the words Shema Yisrael Adoshem Elokeinu Adoshem Ead instead of Shema Yisrael Adonai Eloheinu Adonai Ead. Baal (),[43][n 4] properly Baal,[n 5] meant “owner” and, by extension, “lord”, “master”, and “husband” in Hebrew and the other Northwest Semitic languages. In some early contexts and theophoric names, it and Baali (; “My Lord”) were treated as synonyms of Adon and Adonai. After the time of Solomon[52] and particularly after Jezebel’s attempt to promote the worship of the Lord of Tyre Melqart, however, the name became particularly associated with the Canaanite storm god Baal Haddu and was gradually avoided as a title for Yahweh.[52] Several names that included it were rewritten as bosheth (“shame”). The prophet Hosea in particular reproached the Israelites for continuing to use the term:[54] “It will come about in that day,” declares the Lord, “That you will call Me Ishi[n 6] And will no longer call Me Baali.”[56] Ehyeh asher ehyeh (Hebrew: ) is the first of three responses given to Moses when he asks for God’s name in the Book of Exodus.[18] The King James Version of the Bible translates the Hebrew as “I Am that I Am” and uses it as a proper name for God. The Aramaic Targum Onkelos leaves the phrase untranslated and is so quoted in the Talmud (B. B. 73a.[clarification needed]) Ehyeh is the first-person singular imperfect form of hayah, “to be”. Ehyeh is usually translated “I will be”, since the imperfect tense in Hebrew denotes actions that are not yet completed (e.g. Exodus 3:12, “Certainly I will be [ehyeh] with thee.”).[57] Asher is an ambiguous pronoun which can mean, depending on context, “that”, “who”, “which”, or “where”.[57] Although Ehyeh asher ehyeh is generally rendered in English “I am that I am”, better renderings might be “I will be what I will be” or “I will be who I will be”, or “I shall prove to be whatsoever I shall prove to be” or even “I will be because I will be”.[58] Other renderings include: Leeser, I Will Be that I Will Be; Rotherham, “I Will Become whatsoever I please”, New World Translation (2013 Edition): “I Will Become What I Choose to Become.”[59][60] Greek, Ego eimi ho on ( ), “I am The Being” in the Septuagint,[61] and Philo,[62][63] and Revelation[64] or, “I am The Existing One”; Lat., ego sum qui sum, “I am Who I am.” Elah (Aramaic: ; pl. “elim”) is the Aramaic word for God. The origin of the word is uncertain and it may be related to a root word, meaning “reverence”. Elah is found in the Tanakh in the books of Ezra, Jeremiah (Jer 10:11, the only verse in the entire book written in Aramaic),[65] and Daniel. Elah is used to describe both pagan gods and the Jews’ God. The word ‘Elah – ‘ is also an Arabic word which means god. The name is etymologically related to Allah used by Muslims. In the Book of Genesis, Hagar is said to call the name of Yahweh who spoke to her through his angel. In Hebrew, her phrase “El Roi” is taken as an epithet of God (“God of Seeing”)[66] although the King James Version translates it as a statement: “Thou God seest me.”[67] The name Elyon (Hebrew: ) occurs in combination with El, YHWH, Elohim and alone. It appears chiefly in poetic and later Biblical passages. The modern Hebrew adjective “`Elyon” means “supreme” (as in “Supreme Court”) or “Most High”. El Elyon has been traditionally translated into English as ‘God Most High’. The Phoenicians used what appears to be a similar name for God, . It is cognate to the Arabic `Aliyy. “The Eternal One” is increasingly used, particularly in Reform and Reconstructionist communities seeking to use gender-neutral language.[68] In the Torah, “Hashem Kel Olam” (“the Everlasting God”) is used at Genesis 21:33 to refer to God.[69] It is common Jewish practice to restrict the use of the names of God to a liturgical context. In casual conversation some Jews, even when not speaking Hebrew, will call God HaShem (), which is Hebrew for “the Name” (cf. Leviticus 24:11 and Deuteronomy 28:58). Likewise, when quoting from the Tanakh or prayers, some pious Jews will replace Adonai with HaShem. For example, when making audio recordings of prayer services, HaShem[70] will generally be substituted for Adonai. A popular expression containing this phrase is Baruch HaShem, meaning “Thank God” (literally, “Blessed be the Name”).[71] Talmudic authors,[72] ruling on the basis of Gideon’s name for an altar (“YHVH-Shalom”, according to Judges 6:24), write that “the name of God is ‘Peace'” (Pereq ha-Shalom, Shab. 10b); consequently, a Talmudic opinion (Shabbat, 10b) asserts that one would greet another with the word shalom(helpinfo) in order for the word not to be forgotten in the exile. But one is not permitted to greet another with the word shalom(helpinfo) in unholy places such as a bathroom, because of holiness of the name. Shekhinah ((helpinfo)) is the presence or manifestation of God which has descended to “dwell” among humanity. The term never appears in the Hebrew Bible; later rabbis used the word when speaking of God dwelling either in the Tabernacle or amongst the people of Israel. The root of the word means “dwelling”. Of the principal names of God, it is the only one that is of the feminine gender in Hebrew grammar. Some believe that this was the name of a female counterpart of God, but this is unlikely as the name is always mentioned in conjunction with an article (e.g.: “the Shekhina descended and dwelt among them” or “He removed Himself and His Shekhina from their midst”). This kind of usage does not occur in Semitic languages in conjunction with proper names. The Arabic form of the word “Saknah ” is also mentioned in the Quran. This mention is in the middle of the narrative of the choice of Saul to be king and is mentioned as descending with the Ark of the Covenant, here the word is used to mean “security” and is derived from the root sa-ka-na which means dwell: Rabb al-Alamin. In Jewish tradition the sacredness of the divine name or titles must be recognized by the professional sofer (scribe) who writes Torah scrolls, or tefillin and mezuzah. Before transcribing any of the divine titles or name he prepares mentally to sanctify them. Once he begins a name he does not stop until it is finished, and he must not be interrupted while writing it, even to greet a king. If an error is made in writing it may not be erased, but a line must be drawn round it to show that it is canceled, and the whole page must be put in a genizah (burial place for scripture) and a new page begun. One of the most important names is that of the Ein Sof ( “Endless”), which first came into use after CE1300.[76] The forty-two-lettered name contains the combined names , that when spelled out contains 42 letters. The equivalent in value of YHWH (spelled = 45) is the forty-five-lettered name.[clarification needed] The seventy-two-lettered name is derived from three verses in Exodus (14:1921) beginning with “Vayyissa”, “Vayyabo” and “Vayyet” respectively. Each of the verses contains 72 letters, and when combined they form 72 names, known collectively as the Shemhamphorasch. The kabbalistic book Sefer Yetzirah explains that the creation of the world was achieved by the manipulation of these sacred letters that form the names of God. The words “God” and “Lord” are written by some Jews as “G-d” and “L-rd” as a way of avoiding writing any name of God in full out of respect. Deuteronomy 12:34 reads, “And ye shall overthrow their altars, and break their pillars, and burn their groves with fire; and ye shall hew down the graven images of their gods, and destroy the names of them out of that place. Ye shall not do so unto the Lord your God.” From this it is understood that one should not erase or blot out the name of God. The general halachic opinion is that this only applies to the sacred Hebrew names of God, but not to other euphemistic references; there is a dispute whether the word “God” in English or other languages may be erased.[77]

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January 27, 2018   Posted in: Judaism  Comments Closed

Judaism | World | The Guardian

Letters:Dr David Alderson and 42 others want the University of Manchester to apologise to the students whose campaign it has maligned, and to the censored speaker whom it has defamed. MeanwhileProf Avi Shlaim and six other signatories object to Moshe Machovers expulsion from the Labour party

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December 7, 2017   Posted in: Judaism  Comments Closed

Judaism | Definition of Judaism by Merriam-Webster

1 : a religion developed among the ancient Hebrews and characterized by belief in one transcendent God who has revealed himself to Abraham, Moses, and the Hebrew prophets and by a religious life in accordance with Scriptures and rabbinic traditions 2 : the cultural, social, and religious beliefs and practices of the Jews 3 : conformity to Jewish rites, ceremonies, and practices 4 : the whole body of Jews : the Jewish people

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December 2, 2017   Posted in: Judaism  Comments Closed

Judaism – definition of Judaism by The Free Dictionary

an attitude or policy of hatred and hostility toward Jewish people. anti-Semite, n. Hasidism, def. 2. 1. the principles or doctrines of the cabala, a system of theosophy, theurgy, and mystical Scriptural interpretive methods originated by rabbis about the 8th century and affecting later Christian thinkers.2. an interpretation made according to these doctrines.3. an extreme traditionalism in theological concepts or Biblical interpretation.4. obscurantism, especially that resulting from the use of obscure vocabulary. cabalist, n. cabalistic, adj. the scattering of the Jews after the period of Babylonian exile. a student of or expert on the Gemara, or second book of the Talmud. Gemaric, adj. the state or quality of being non-Jewish. gentile, n., adj. 1. the explanatory matter in rabbinic and Talmudic literature, interpreting or illustrating the Scriptures.2. a book in which is printed the liturgy for the Seder service. haggadic, haggadical, adj. 1. a student of the Haggada.2. a writer of the Haggada. the entire body of Jewish law, comprising Biblical laws, oral laws transcribed in the Talmud, and subsequent codes altering traditional teachings. Halakist, Halachist, n. Halakic, adj. 1. the beliefs and practices of a mystical Jewish sect, founded in Poland about 1750, characterized by an emphasis on prayer, religious zeal, and joy.2. the beliefs and practices of a pious sect founded in the 3rd century B.C. to resist Hellenizing tendencies and to promote strict observance of Jewish laws and rituals. Also Assideanism. Hasidic, adj. Hasidim, n. pi. the thought, spirit, and practice characteristic of the Hebrews. Hebraist, n. Hebraistic, Hebraistical, adj. 1. the Jewish people collectively.2. an area inhabited solely or mostly by Jews. 1. the Jewish religion, rites, customs, etc.2. adherence to the Jewish religion, rites, etc. Judaist, n. Judaic, Judaistic, adj. a hatred of Jews and of Jewish culture. Also called Judaeophobia. a Jewish theology based on literal interpretation of the Old Testament and rejection of rabbinical commentary. Karaite, n. the custom under the Mosaic code (Deut. xxv: 5-10) that required a widow to marry her dead husbands brother if she had no sons. levirate, leviratical, adj. any of the Jewish scribes of the 10th century who compiled the Masora. Masoretic, Masoretical, adj. 1. a belief in a Messiah coming to deliver the Jews, restore Israel, and rule righteously, first mentioned by the Prophet Isaiah.2. the Christian belief that Jesus Christ was the Messiah prophesied.3. the vocation of a Messiah. Messianic, adj. the condition of being rooted in Mosaic tradition. 1. the system of laws and rituals established by Moses.2. devotion to the Mosaic laws. Mosaist, n. Mosaic, adj. 1. the beliefs and practices of an ancient Jewish sect, especially strictness of religious observance, close adherence to oral laws and traditions, and belief in an afterlife and a coming Messiah. Cf. Sadducecism.2. (l.c.) the behavior of a sanctimonious and self-righteous person. Pharisee, pharisee n. Pharisaic, pharisaic, adj. the philosophy of Philo Judaeus, lst-century B.C. Alexandrian, combining Judaism and Platonism and acting as a precursor of Neoplatonism. Philonian, adj. Philonic, adj. the beliefs, practices, and precepts of the rabbis of the Talmudic period. rabbinic, rabbinical, adj. the beliefs and principles underlying a strict observance of the Sabbath. Sabbatarian, n., adj. the beliefs and practices of an ancient Jewish sect made up largely of the priestly aristocracy and opposing the Pharisees in both political and doctrinal matters, especially literal and less legalistic interpretation of the Jewish law, rejection of the rabbinical and prophetic traditions, and denying immortality, retribution in a future life, and the existence of angels. Cf. Phariseeism. Sadducee, n. Sadducean, adj. the beliefs and actions of Jewish scribes during the life of Christ. the study of Semitic languages and culture. Semitist, Semiticist, n. 1. the state or quality of being Jewish.2. anything typical or characteristic of Judaism, as customs, beliefs, influence, etc. Torah, def. 2. 1. the teachings of the collection of Jewish law and tradition called the Talmud.2. the observance of and adherence to these teachings. Talmudist, n. Talmudic, adj. 1. the first flve books of the Old Testament; the Pentateuch.2. a scroll of these scriptures in Hebrew used for liturgical purposes. Also called Sepher Torah.3. the entire body of Jewish law and tradition as found in the Old Testament and the Talmud. a writer of tosaphoth. the explanatory and critical glosses made usually in the margins of Talmudic literature. 1. the worship of Yahweh (Jehovah).2. the act or custom of naming Jehovah Yahweh. the beliefs, activities, and spirit of an ancient radical group in Judea that advocated overthrowing Roman rule. a worldwide Jewish movement for the establishment in Palestine of a national homeland for Jews. Zionist, Zionite, n. Zionist, Zionistic, adj.

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December 1, 2017   Posted in: Judaism  Comments Closed

Judaism: Basic Beliefs | URI

Judaism began about 4000 years ago with the Hebrew people in the Middle East. Abraham, a Hebrew man, is considered the father of the Jewish faith because he promoted the central idea of the Jewish faith: that there is one God. At the time many people in the Middle East worshipped many gods. It is said that Abraham and his wife Sarah, who were old and childless, were told by God that their children would be as plentiful as the stars in the sky and that they would live in a land of their own — the Promised Land. This gradually came true. Abraham’s son, Isaac had a son, Jacob, also called Israel. In this way the descendants of Abraham came to be known as the Israelites. God promised the Israelites he would care for them as long as they obeyed God’s laws. While still traveling, the Hebrews lived in Egypt where they were enslaved. Moses, a Hebrew, was chosen by God to lead the Hebrew people out of Egypt. Moses led the Hebrew people out of the Sinai Desert toward the promised land. At Mt. Sinai, God gave Moses the Law which would guide the Israelites to today. The laws were called the Ten Commandments and form the basis of the Torah, the book of Jewish law. It took many years for the Israelites to finally get to what they thought was the Promised Land – Canaan. After some fighting the Jews established the Israelite kingdom. After many years, Canaan was conquered by the Assyrians, the Babylonians and then eventually the Romans. The Israelites once again found themselves enslaved, this time by Babylonians. The Israelites were then taken over by Romans who destroyed much of what had been built in Jerusalem by the Israelites. Most of the Jews were scattered all over the region and eventually moved from place to place to avoid persecution which continues to this day. The dispersion of the Jews is called the Diaspora. The worst persecution of the Jews was during World War II by the Nazis who murdered more than six million Jews or a third of the world’s Jewish population. This was called the Holocaust. Beginning in the 1880’s Jews began returning to their homeland in growing numbers, this time to avoid persecution where they lived. After World War II, many Jews believed that for the Jewish people and culture to survive, Jews needed to live in their own country where all Jews from anywhere in the world would have the right to live and be citizens. In 1948, Palestine was divided up and a Jewish state of Israel was formed in the land that was once called Canaan, surrounded by countries with predominantly Muslim populations. Since Muslims also claimed rights to the land where the Jews were living, there was conflict, which continues to this day in the Middle East. Today nearly fourteen million Jewish people live all over the world. Approximately half of them live in the United States, one quarter live in Israel, and a quarter are still scattered around the world in countries in Europe, Russia, South America, Africa, Asia and other North American and Middle Eastern countries. Anyone born to a Jewish mother is considered a Jew. Jewish people believe in the Torah, which was the whole of the laws given to the Israelities at Sinai. They believe they must follow God’s laws which govern daily life. Later legal books, written by rabbis, determine the law as it applies to life in each new place and time. Orthodox Jews believe that all of the practices in the Torah which it is practical to obey must be obeyed without question. Conservative and Reform Jews believe that the ancient laws and practices have to be interpreted for modern life with inclusion of contemporary sources and with more concern with community practices than with ritual practices. Reform Jews also allow everyone to sit together, men and women, and both Hebrew and the local language are spoken in services. The Tenakh is the ancient collection of writings that are sacred to the Jews. They were written over almost a thousand years from 1000 to 100 BCE. The word Tenakh comes from the three first letters of the three books included in this text: the Torah, plus the Nev’im (prophets) and the Ki’tuvim (writings, which include histories, prophecies, poems, hymns and sayings). The Torah is written on scrolls and kept in a special cabinet called the aron hakodish, the holy ark, in synagogues. The Torah is read with a pointer called a yad (hand) to keep it from being spoiled. Each week, one section is read until the entire Torah is completed and the reading begins again. The Talmud is also an important collection of Jewish writings. Written about 2000 years ago, it is a recording of the rabbis discussion of the way to follow the Torah at that time. Later texts, the Mishnah Torah and the Shulhan Aruch, are recordings of rabbinic discussions from later periods.

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November 30, 2017   Posted in: Judaism  Comments Closed

Text of White House Statement on Immigration Priorities

Here is the full statement on immigration priorities issued by the White House late October 8.

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October 9, 2017   Posted in: Judaism  Comments Closed

Government Research Reveals Pakistani Women in Britain Are ‘Shockingly Badly Integrated’

The Government is set to publish a ‘disparity audit’ which reveals that Pakistani women in Britain are “shockingly badly integrated” and “living in an entirely different society”.

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October 9, 2017   Posted in: Judaism  Comments Closed


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