Archive for the ‘Judaism’ Category

Evergreen State’s Weinstein accused of using his Judaism as a … – The College Fix

Evergreen States Weinstein accused of using his Judaism as a prop to hide his racism

If its not bad enough what Evergreen State Colleges Bret Weinstein has gone through the last few weeks, now a group of Jewish Evergreen bent on the destruction of white supremacy haswritten a letter accusing the prof of using his (Jewish) faith to deflect from hisanti-black language and behavior.

According tothe letter, Weinstein has attempted to position himself as a victim, and the authors note that if they remain silent [they] accept [his] unacceptable usage of our shared history.

This is not an isolated incident, the letter says. This is about Weinstein, but it also about white Jews acting in complicity with and upholding white supremacy, passively and actively. We seek to counter Brets narrative and de-center his place in the wider struggle against institutional racism on campus and beyond.

More:

It wouldnt take much for Bret to apologize, but he has held fast to his seemingly innocuous position of victimhood, and in doing so has highlighted some of the ways that liberal racism functions. Here we can learn something about how not to react when claims of racist behavior are raised against us.

What was that process of assimilation that brought some Jews into the folds of whiteness? What was the cost? Whiteness is not a singular tangible thing, it is a construction that evolves as power changes hands and as global structures change with them.

Whiteness is flexible enough to expand its definition of who is welcomed into its fold, when its convenient in maintaining the social order it imposessome Jews, Irish people, Italians, etc., are welcome to be white as long as black people remain the targets of racialized violence. For us to be white, have access to whiteness (power), some groups of people must continually be othered, denied access to power. This is how white supremacy functions, by creating structures of power of exclusion and othering and in doing so relying on anti-blackness.

Weinstein, the authors argue, is exhibiting a negation of his responsibility and utilizing a gross misuse of the history by claiming he knows what oppression is: The lived experience of white Ashkenazi Jews and the lived experience of black people in the US is [sic] drastically different and cannot be equated, and by doing so Bret refutes both experiences.

Sigh. Itll be hard to find a more postmodern/intersectional/critical race theorist bunch of hooey at least until tomorrow, that is.

Read the full letter.

MORE: Evergreen State is lying about threatened white professor being back on campus

MORE:Evergreen official asks student vigilantes to stop patrolling campus armed with bats, batons

Like The College Fix on Facebook / Follow us on Twitter

IMAGE: Shutterstock

Original post:
Evergreen State’s Weinstein accused of using his Judaism as a … – The College Fix

Fair Usage Law

June 15, 2017   Posted in: Judaism  Comments Closed

Battle Against Sharia Might as Well Take Aim Against Judaism … – Jewish Exponent

Did you know theres a prominent religious group, right here in the United States, with its own legal system?

Adherents have their own courts, their own rules governing family relations and business laws foreign to American jurisprudence and they sometimes rely on U.S. courts to enforce their transactions and recognize special carve-outs for their practices. When it comes to this groups laws governing marriage, to the untrained eye it appears downright medieval in its view of women.

Think Im talking about Muslims and some of that communitys embrace of the Islamic legal tradition known as Sharia? Think again, because the Jewish community has enjoyed American recognition of halacha the Jewish legal system based on the Torah and rabbinic exegesis as codified in the Talmud and later works for decades.

And yet, there are some in our community who are more than happy to bask in the benefits afforded Judaism and its legal tradition, while at the same time wishing to deny such benefits to Islam and Sharia. And there are a whole bunch of other Americans who dont give two hoots about religious pluralism or legal acknowledgement of faith groups that are not Christian.

Thats a shame, because far from the conventional wisdom prevalent among the many nativists on the right, a respect for and embrace of other religious traditions has been a part of the American fabric since before its founding. Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, Benjamin Franklin and others all expressed in their writings support for the idea that freedom of worship is a necessary pillar of American democracy.

Of course, the organizers of June 10s March Against Sharia in cities stretching from Harrisburg to Seattle will not say that they are anti-Muslim.

Lisa Joseph, a Jewish woman who organized the march in Syracuse, N.Y., instead told a North Country Public Radio reporter that she and her fellow protesters want to make sure that the radical Islamist ideology did not hijack the peaceful Muslims here in this country. Joseph put the rally together, she said, because she was against female genital mutilation, honor killings, throwing gays off of buildings, stoning people to death.

Youd be hard-pressed to find an American Muslim who was in favor of any of that. That doesnt mean no such person exists, but Im sure there are some non-Muslims out there say, of the Westboro Baptist Church variety who wouldnt have a problem with summarily executing homosexuals. And yet, no one is suggesting that the United States ban Christian legal rulings did you know that the Catholic Church has its own canonical law? similar to those in downtown Chicago who chanted, Ban Sharia!

The fact is, marching against Sharia a legal code most of the protesters know nothing about is as much about marching against Islam as marching against halacha would be about marching against Judaism. This is why backing this movement is as un-Jewish as its un-American.

People are free to believe what they want to believe, of course, and to protest whatever they want to protest. But Im for keeping things logically consistent and intellectually honest. The same people who are calling for the states and Congress to forbid judges to take Sharia or other foreign law into account should also be calling for any attempt to enforce a heter iska, interpret the demands of a ketubah or determine the dictates of kashrut for a Jewish prisoner as fundamentally against American tradition.

For that matter, they should also prepare for a host of U.S.-based multinational corporations who must engage in business subject to the laws of the nations where they operate to either mount a vigorous battle against such bans or severely curtail their business. What good, for instance, is a contract entered into subject to Saudi Arabias Sharia-based law if ExxonMobil cant enforce it in a U.S. court?

Israel understands that Sharia is not the enemy. It even has its own Islamic court system alongside the Rabbanut to adjudicate family and personal status issues; the country last month appointed the first female judge to sit in its Islamic courts.

People like Joseph claim that Sharia is interested in global domination. But no system can lay claim to such a strategy. Its instead individual people who seek to bend ideologies to their own devices. America is not in danger of seeing its courts turned over to the dictates of Sharia scholars; it is instead in danger of the terrorists and would-be terrorists whether the homegrown militia member like Timothy McVeigh,the second-generation immigrant or the Saudi hijacker seeking to wreak destruction and havoc.

Its time to focus the nations attention on larger threats. In addition to terrorism, theres the specter of other countries exploiting our cybersecurity weaknesses to harm our economy, as well as a host of pressing domestic concerns. Weve got better things to do than to treat Sharia and Muslimsas boogeymen.

Joshua Runyan is the editor-in-chief of the Jewish Exponent. He can be reached at [emailprotected]exponent.com.

Read the original here:
Battle Against Sharia Might as Well Take Aim Against Judaism … – Jewish Exponent

Fair Usage Law

June 14, 2017   Posted in: Judaism  Comments Closed

Expelled Rabbi: Intermarriage Panics Conservative Judaism – Forward

In her article A Wedding Invitation Like No Other, Jane Eisner describes intermarriage as the oozing story among Conservative Jews, a story found just below the surface.

I am one of the rabbis she describes as not so quietly defying the restriction against officiating at a marriage ceremony involving a Jewish person and a non-Jew. And I would like to assert that this is not a story oozing below the surface. It is one of the most consequential issues about the future of Conservative Judaism, and liberal Judaism in America, and everyone knows it. The Rabbinical Assembly (RA) is terrified by it. At its most recent convention, attendees were sworn to secrecy, adjured not to reveal what was said at a closed-door session on the topic. And now a Blue Ribbon commission has been empaneled, one whose members were chosen in secrecy.

Last November, the RA expelled me for officiating at intermarriages. I fought my expulsion for eight months. I addressed the organizations unresponsive Executive Council, and outlined both the structural and substantive issues in written and oral presentations. Some of my colleagues have resigned from the RA to follow their conscience rather than fight the system. Many others are restive at the coercive tactics used by the RA to keep organizational discipline. The threat of being denied placement is used to keep them in line.

The RA is terrified because it fears that this issue has the potential to split the Conservative rabbinate, and leave the movement, such that it is, in tatters. It is not an unreasonable fear. But I believe that history has demonstrated that a reality as big and undeniable as intermarriage cannot be ignored. And dealing with it in obsolete terms will lead to the very result that is feared, the dissipation of Conservative Judaism, and its irrelevance.

In this context comes the tortuous process that led Rabbi Amichai Lau-Lavie to the proposal that is the subject of Ms. Eisners article. Rabbi Lau-Lavie suggests a repurposing of the Biblical status of ger toshav, translated resident alien or temporary immigrant to define someone who is Jew-ish but not Jewish and thereby potentially qualified under Jewish law to be joined in marriage by a Conservative rabbi to someone who really is Jewish.

This is a creative and imaginative idea. But I believe it is fatally flawed, even if the RA and its Committee on Jewish Law and Standards were to adopt it. In short, the idea is too little, too late. It does not meet the reality test. It addresses a fictional construct. It is casuistry at its core.

The first and most important thing we need to understand is that couples who intermarry do not see themselves as a problem that needs to be solved. They see themselves as two people in love who want to be married. One of them is Jewish, and most often intends to remain a Jew. The other is not Jewish and similarly wants to be true to who they are as a person of faith, or of no faith at all. The person who is not Jewish is not looking to study for six months, make various commitments for future involvement in the Jewish community, and be known (I must say, derogatorily) as a resident alien or temporary immigrant. They just want to be a husband or wife!

That is not to say that there may not be some people who would avail themselves of such a procedure. I can envisage someone who wants to be part of the Jewish community, who is even ready to study and explore involvement for a prescribed period before marriage, but is not ready to make the commitment to convert. But I am quite certain that they are few and far between. Mostly, this proposal is about making a rabbi feel comfortable doing something he or she wants to do but is not permitted to do. It is a fig leaf. It is not unlike the less than honest way in which the CJLS approved gay marriage, but only if, supposedly, the couple agrees not to engage in anal sex. It is a legal fiction. It is essentially dishonest and demeaning.

I agree with Rabbi Lau-Lavie that keeping intermarried couples involved in the Jewish community raises the chances of Judaism reinventing itself. Doing that however begins with respect and acceptance, not with demands and coercive requirements.

To begin, we need to find a substitute for the term intermarriage. It is offensive to many couples. It resonates with the intimation of miscegenation. Their union is not an aberration. It is simply a marriage. The couple who is marrying often does not have a clear sense of what their future, or future home will be. And even if they do, there are no guarantees that life will play out as they plan it. The future is a moving target at best.

What they want from an officiant is affirmation, as they publicly initiate their journey as a married couple, that their love is valid and that their commitment to each other is firm and respected by the community. The fact that they want a rabbi to be that officiant, or one of their officiants, indicates that they envisage Judaism and Jewish identity to be a part of their familys identity. How much more could we expect of any couple, even if both parties are Jewish? We should feel honored that they want us to be part of their momentous occasion; not put-upon. We should embrace them with love and affirmation, not make demands upon them that they cannot possibly commit to, and act as if we are grudgingly doing them a favor.

What we need most is faith in the future. We need to believe in Judaism. We need to believe that the wisdom of Jewish teaching, the ethical values that are at the heart of that teaching, and lure of being part of an ancient people that is continually reinventing itself to be relevant and responsive to the changing religious, spiritual, and moral demands of every epoch, are compelling enough that many of these couples will choose to live as part of the Jewish community. We need to put fewer obstacles in their path. We need to welcome them for what they may add to our people as well as what we might add to their lives.

Rabbi Seymour Rosenbloom is the retired rabbi of Congregation Adath Jeshurun in Elins Park, PA.

The views and opinions expressed in this article are the authors own and do not necessarily reflect those of the Forward.

Read the original:
Expelled Rabbi: Intermarriage Panics Conservative Judaism – Forward

Fair Usage Law

June 13, 2017   Posted in: Judaism  Comments Closed

Embattled Evergreen State Professor Accused of Hiding Racism Behind His Judaism – Algemeiner

Email a copy of “Embattled Evergreen State Professor Accused of Hiding Racism Behind His Judaism” to a friend

Evergreen State College. Photo: Evergreen State College website.

Abiology professor atEvergreen State College who has been under fire in recent months for allegedracist actionshas beenaccused by Jewish students at the schoolof using his Jewish faith as a prop to deflect pressure over his anti-black language and behavior.

Bret Weinstein was charged with positioning himself as a Jew to invalidate the claims of racism being raised against him in anopen letterpublished last week andsigned by a groupidentifying themselves as [s]ome Jewish students at Evergreen bent on the destruction of white supremacy.

This letter was published amid an ongoing controversy over Weinsteins refusal to participate in an Aprilequity initiative in whichall the white members of the Evergreen community were invited toleavecampus, for a so-called Day of Presence celebratingthe colleges minority demographic.

June 13, 2017 4:53 pm

Weinsten gained national attention forhis decision to hold his lectureas usual despite the program, a move that led to student protesters mobbinghis classroom, shoutinghim down and forcing him to relocate his class toan off-campus park.

There have sincebeencalls frommanyatEvergreen forhis resignation or termination.

Over recent weeks, Weinstein hasdocumented his experience in aWall Street Journalop-ed, as well as taking to other media outlets to articulate his view of the diversity initiativeand describe thetreatment he has received.

The Jewish students who published last weeks letter claimed that in his public appearances,Bret has attempted to position himself as a victim.

They wrote:

Something that Bret may be trying to get to when he talks about himself as a Jew is that Ashkenazi Jews have not always been considered white. This is true, and is very important to think about. What was that process of assimilation that brought some Jews into the folds of whiteness? What was the cost? Whiteness is not a singular tangible thing, it is a construction that evolves as power changes hands and as global structures change with them. The assimilation of most Ashkenazi Jews and some Sephardic Jews into whiteness is not a single event, one cannot point to a time or day when their bubbe abandoned Yiddish or traditional clothing, and say this is the event of assimilationWhiteness is flexible enough to expand its definition of who is welcomed into its fold, when its convenient in maintaining the social order it imposes some Jews, Irish people, Italians, etc., are welcome to be white as long as black people remain the targets of racialized violence. For us to be white, have access to whiteness (power), some groups of people must continually be othered, denied access to power. This is how white supremacy functions, by creating structures of power of exclusion and othering and in doing so relying on anti-blackness.

The students also claimedwhite Jews in the US generally areacting in complicity with and upholding white supremacy, passively and actively.

This is not the first time Jews on campus have been subject tosuch comments.

In March, fliers appeared at the University of Illinois stating, Ending White Privilege Starts With Ending Jewish Privilege,together with a pyramid depicting Jews labeled with Stars of David at the top.Students said the fliers werereminiscent of Nazi-era propaganda.

The next month, a Jewish student leader atthe University of Wisconsin-Madison was told by the then-chair of student government F*** white supremacy, after shespoke out against an anti-Israel boycott, divestment and sanctions effort.

Read the rest here:
Embattled Evergreen State Professor Accused of Hiding Racism Behind His Judaism – Algemeiner

Fair Usage Law

June 13, 2017   Posted in: Judaism  Comments Closed

Judaism, Middle Eastern again – Jewish Chronicle


Jewish Chronicle
Judaism, Middle Eastern again
Jewish Chronicle
Sephardic and Mizrahi Judaism, rather than a curio, is in the greatest sweep of Jewish history the mainstream. Ashkenazi Judaism was the flickering. Next to non-existent in the early middle ages, ballooning suddenly, only to almost vanish from Europe

and more »

Read the original:
Judaism, Middle Eastern again – Jewish Chronicle

Fair Usage Law

June 13, 2017   Posted in: Judaism  Comments Closed

Ivanka Trump, Herself Jewish, Gives Incorrect Answer About Judaism – Carbonated.tv (blog)

While talking about her foreign trip, the first daughter inaccurately identified her faith as one of the largest world religions.

President Donald Trumps daughter and advisor, Ivanka Trump, made an appearance on Fox and Friends where she not only took hypocrisy to new heights but also made a factual error.

During the interview, while recalling President Donald Trumps first overseas trip where she accompanied him and met with religious leaders of Islam, Judaism and Christianity in Saudi Arabia, Israel and the Vatican, Trump incorrectly identified Judaism as one of the three largest world religions.

I feel blessed and privileged to have been there. It was deeply personal for me as you know to be standing at the Western Wall in a moment of privacy because it was really just us. To have covered the three largest world religions over the course of four days, it was deeply meaningful, she said.

She further added, It was beyond special. For each of these moments, its hard to find the words to adequately describe them.

In 2009, Trump converted to Judaism before marrying Jared Kushner who is an Orthodox Jew. However, it looks like she needs a little brush up on facts about her faith.

With nearly 4 billion followers combined, Christianity and Islam are the two biggest religions of the world. However, it is not the same for Judaism as it roughly has 14 million followers. Jews make up less than 0.2% of the worlds population, coming in far behind Hindus, Buddhists, Spiritists, Chinese (or Han) religionists and Sikhs.

During her appearance she further revealed how oblivious she truly is when she said she was surprised by vicious attacks against her father.

It is hard. And there’s a level of viciousness that I was not expecting. I was not expecting the intensity of this experience, she told the hosts, referring to the widespread backlash to her father’s presidency.

Twitter users also corrected the clueless first daughter.

View original post here:
Ivanka Trump, Herself Jewish, Gives Incorrect Answer About Judaism – Carbonated.tv (blog)

Fair Usage Law

June 13, 2017   Posted in: Judaism  Comments Closed

Ivanka Trump: Judaism One Of Largest World Religions The Forward – Forward

Getty Images

Not Your Usual Talking Head : Ivanka Trump shmoozes on ?FOX & Friends? at FOX Studios in New York.

Ivanka Trumps humblebrag backfired on Monday morning when she incorrectly said that Judaism was one of the worlds three largest religions.

Trump gracefully sidestepped a possibly-insensitive question from Fox & Friends co-host Gretchen Carlson on what it was like as a convert to be there in Israel and to meet with [Prime Minister] Netanyahu while accompanying President Trump on his global tour to Saudi Arabia, Israel, and Vatican City last month.

To have covered the three largest world religions over the course of four daysit was deeply meaningful, Trump responded.

Jews make up less than 0.2% of the worlds population, coming in far behind Hindus, Buddhists, Spiritists, Chinese (or Han) religionists and Sikhs.

According to a 2012 Pew Center report, Judaism is in the top three (actually, number one) of all major world religions in one thing: the oldest median age of its adherents, at 36.

Contact Ari Feldman at feldman@forward.com or on Twitter, @aefeldman.

Follow this link:
Ivanka Trump: Judaism One Of Largest World Religions The Forward – Forward

Fair Usage Law

June 12, 2017   Posted in: Judaism  Comments Closed

Rabbi Dweck, Judaism and Homosexuality – Algemeiner

Marchers in a past Tel Aviv Pride Parade. Photo: Wikimedia Commons.

I have never had the pleasure of meeting Rabbi Joseph Dweck in person. But I have been in touch with him online and electronically. I know him to be an exceptional rabbi. After a highly successful career in the United States, he moved to London to head theSpanish and Portuguese Synagogue, where he has enthused many people and brought them closer to the Torah. His rabbinic qualifications are impeccable. He is connected to the most revered and scholarly Sephardi authorities. He is an articulate and an inspiring leader. In addition, and possibly most importantly, he is a very caring person.

A few weeks ago, he gavea lecture in London on homosexuality. It was a brave attempt to grapple with the challenges that other cultures present to traditional Torah texts. He traced the history, the terminology and the ideas behind homosexuality in the pagan and post-pagan world. Heusedsources from Torah, Talmud and great post Talmudic masters to illustrate the nuances and variations in attitudes. And while expressing absolute commitment to Jewish law, he said that he was grateful for the challenges that current Western attitudes towards sexual matters have presented to Judaism because it forces traditional Jews to examine their core values and attitudes towards loving relationships. As with any unscripted lecture, Rabbi Dweckused some infelicitous phrases that Imay have avoided, which he has since sought to clarify. Nevertheless, his brave attempt to grapple with a problem rather than avoid it has brought the wrath of his enemies down on his head.

A public rebuttal of Rabbi Dweck(but not his ideas, which were hardly addressed) has come from Aharon Bassous. He is an Indian-born Sephardi rabbi, educated in Ashkenazi yeshivot, who set up his own synagogue in Golders Green, London. In a faltering, simplistic tirade reminiscent of Savonarola, he attacked the integrity, faith and scholarship of Rabbi Dweck as if he were a heretic. The vindictiveness of his speech, in my opinion, was a far greater betrayal of Torah values than anything Rabbi Dweck might have said.

June 12, 2017 2:28 pm

It is typical of such men that they think that by throwing mud you can stop people thinking for themselves, and by shutting mouths you turn off ideas. To me, at any rate, that is a clear breach of Torah values.

Rabbi Dweck has said nothing new in terms of Jewish law. His sensitive approach was pioneered by Rabbi Chaim Rapoport, who is well known in rabbinic circles as an impeccably Orthodox authority (and a Chabad Chasid). His bookJudaism and Homosexuality: An Authentic Orthodox Viewwas prefaced by the lateBerel Berkowitz, Dayan of the Beth Din of the Federation of Synagogues. The books forward describes Rapoport as a courageous figure who has written on a difficult subject that many would rather avoid, designed to mitigate the painful consequences of Orthodoxys uncompromising rejection of homosexuality.Interestingly his book was waved before the cameras by Rabbi Bassous. Except he merely used some general words from the introduction that stressed the uniqueness of Torah, instead of quoting Rabbi Rapoports actual views.

Rabbi Dweck said: Homosexuality in society has forced us to look at how we deal with love between people of the same sex, and it has reduced the taboo of me, my children, and my grandchildren being able to love another human being of the same sex genuinely, to show them affection, to express love without the worry of being seen as deviant and problematic.

I agree that this is an infelicitous and ambiguous statement. But youd have to have a devious mind to take this as an endorsement of the act or of rejecting the Torah. Dweck wenton to say, The act remains an issue. But if we can deal with the peripheral issues, it changes how we address these things. Thats good for society. Of course it is. Clearly his attackers had not read or heard what he actually said. It is fine for them to go on living in closed societies and insist on adherence to their worldview without question. But for those of us who live outside and have to deal daily with human problems, simply putting up shutters is no solution.

There are two aspects to the challenge that homosexuality presents to traditional Jews. First, no one would argue that the Bible considers homosexuality to go against its primary value system of heterosexual relationships as the normative way to create families and rear children. But this does not mean that biblical law doesnt allow for exceptionsthose who choose not to marry altogether, for exampleeven if this is not ideal. The Biblecan also accommodate genetic variations. The Talmud certainly did. Modern knowledge of the way that genes influence us, whichwas not available previously, haschanged the way that we understand the nature of freedom and choice. This does not change our laws. But it does affect the way we relate to individuals.

For example, one could well argue that having caring, loving parents of any sex or sexes is preferable to a normative family where there is abuse, conflict and tension.

As for the act of homosexual intercourseitself, we have never posted policemen in bedrooms or sought to make a persons private sexual life a matter of public concern. Not only that, but embarrassing people in public is regarded as one of the most serious moral deficiencies by our great rabbis. As a result, many Orthodox rabbis apply tolerant standards to the private lives of their congregants. And they welcome everyone into their communities, without prying intoprivate lives.

It is true that halacha, despite its preference for leniency and its escape routes, is not completely relativist. We are expected to respect the law of the land, to take measures that mitigate hatred, and to strive for peace and good relations. Yet this does not mean sacrificing ones own values. Regardless of our halachic imperatives, we try to be sensitive and try to find ways of being constructive where possible, as Rabbi Dweck does.

The Sephardi world has a long tradition of tolerance and open arms. Ashkenazi Orthodoxy has always tended toward rigidity and exclusion it could always shunt people it did not like off to Reform communities. Sephardi communities have no Reform branch. As a result, their rabbis have often had to encounter views that they did not agree with. It would be a tragic betrayal of Sephardi inclusiveness if Rabbi Dweck were to be hounded from his pulpit.

Read more:
Rabbi Dweck, Judaism and Homosexuality – Algemeiner

Fair Usage Law

June 12, 2017   Posted in: Judaism  Comments Closed

Ivanka Trump Incorrectly Names Judaism As 1 Of The 3 ‘Largest World Religions’ – HuffPost

Ivanka Trump, daughter and adviser to President Donald Trump, incorrectly named Judaism as one of the three largest world religions Monday while recalling the presidents recent overseas trip.

The father and daughter, along with several other members of their family and of the administration, met with religious leaders of Islam, Judaism and Christianity in Saudi Arabia, Israel and the Vatican last month during a weeklong excursion abroad.

To have covered the three largest world religions over the course of four days, it was deeply meaningful, Trump said during an appearance on Fox & Friends Monday.

Trump who converted to Judaism before marrying her husband, Jared Kushner, an Orthodox Jew, in 2009 erased the followers of several major religions in her statement.

Christianity and Islam are indeed the two largest world religions with nearly 4 billion followers combined. But with roughly 14 million followers, Judaism trails way behind Hinduism (over 1 billion followers), Buddhism(nearly 500 million followers) and other faiths such as Taoism, Shintoism and Sikhism.

It was beyond special, Trump said Monday about the trip. For each of these moments, its hard to find the words to adequately describe them.

Or accurately, for that matter.

Originally posted here:
Ivanka Trump Incorrectly Names Judaism As 1 Of The 3 ‘Largest World Religions’ – HuffPost

Fair Usage Law

June 12, 2017   Posted in: Judaism  Comments Closed

Evergreen State’s Weinstein accused of using his Judaism as a … – The College Fix

Evergreen States Weinstein accused of using his Judaism as a prop to hide his racism If its not bad enough what Evergreen State Colleges Bret Weinstein has gone through the last few weeks, now a group of Jewish Evergreen bent on the destruction of white supremacy haswritten a letter accusing the prof of using his (Jewish) faith to deflect from hisanti-black language and behavior. According tothe letter, Weinstein has attempted to position himself as a victim, and the authors note that if they remain silent [they] accept [his] unacceptable usage of our shared history. This is not an isolated incident, the letter says. This is about Weinstein, but it also about white Jews acting in complicity with and upholding white supremacy, passively and actively. We seek to counter Brets narrative and de-center his place in the wider struggle against institutional racism on campus and beyond. More: It wouldnt take much for Bret to apologize, but he has held fast to his seemingly innocuous position of victimhood, and in doing so has highlighted some of the ways that liberal racism functions. Here we can learn something about how not to react when claims of racist behavior are raised against us. What was that process of assimilation that brought some Jews into the folds of whiteness? What was the cost? Whiteness is not a singular tangible thing, it is a construction that evolves as power changes hands and as global structures change with them. Whiteness is flexible enough to expand its definition of who is welcomed into its fold, when its convenient in maintaining the social order it imposessome Jews, Irish people, Italians, etc., are welcome to be white as long as black people remain the targets of racialized violence. For us to be white, have access to whiteness (power), some groups of people must continually be othered, denied access to power. This is how white supremacy functions, by creating structures of power of exclusion and othering and in doing so relying on anti-blackness. Weinstein, the authors argue, is exhibiting a negation of his responsibility and utilizing a gross misuse of the history by claiming he knows what oppression is: The lived experience of white Ashkenazi Jews and the lived experience of black people in the US is [sic] drastically different and cannot be equated, and by doing so Bret refutes both experiences. Sigh. Itll be hard to find a more postmodern/intersectional/critical race theorist bunch of hooey at least until tomorrow, that is. Read the full letter. MORE: Evergreen State is lying about threatened white professor being back on campus MORE:Evergreen official asks student vigilantes to stop patrolling campus armed with bats, batons Like The College Fix on Facebook / Follow us on Twitter IMAGE: Shutterstock

Fair Usage Law

June 15, 2017   Posted in: Judaism  Comments Closed

Battle Against Sharia Might as Well Take Aim Against Judaism … – Jewish Exponent

Did you know theres a prominent religious group, right here in the United States, with its own legal system? Adherents have their own courts, their own rules governing family relations and business laws foreign to American jurisprudence and they sometimes rely on U.S. courts to enforce their transactions and recognize special carve-outs for their practices. When it comes to this groups laws governing marriage, to the untrained eye it appears downright medieval in its view of women. Think Im talking about Muslims and some of that communitys embrace of the Islamic legal tradition known as Sharia? Think again, because the Jewish community has enjoyed American recognition of halacha the Jewish legal system based on the Torah and rabbinic exegesis as codified in the Talmud and later works for decades. And yet, there are some in our community who are more than happy to bask in the benefits afforded Judaism and its legal tradition, while at the same time wishing to deny such benefits to Islam and Sharia. And there are a whole bunch of other Americans who dont give two hoots about religious pluralism or legal acknowledgement of faith groups that are not Christian. Thats a shame, because far from the conventional wisdom prevalent among the many nativists on the right, a respect for and embrace of other religious traditions has been a part of the American fabric since before its founding. Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, Benjamin Franklin and others all expressed in their writings support for the idea that freedom of worship is a necessary pillar of American democracy. Of course, the organizers of June 10s March Against Sharia in cities stretching from Harrisburg to Seattle will not say that they are anti-Muslim. Lisa Joseph, a Jewish woman who organized the march in Syracuse, N.Y., instead told a North Country Public Radio reporter that she and her fellow protesters want to make sure that the radical Islamist ideology did not hijack the peaceful Muslims here in this country. Joseph put the rally together, she said, because she was against female genital mutilation, honor killings, throwing gays off of buildings, stoning people to death. Youd be hard-pressed to find an American Muslim who was in favor of any of that. That doesnt mean no such person exists, but Im sure there are some non-Muslims out there say, of the Westboro Baptist Church variety who wouldnt have a problem with summarily executing homosexuals. And yet, no one is suggesting that the United States ban Christian legal rulings did you know that the Catholic Church has its own canonical law? similar to those in downtown Chicago who chanted, Ban Sharia! The fact is, marching against Sharia a legal code most of the protesters know nothing about is as much about marching against Islam as marching against halacha would be about marching against Judaism. This is why backing this movement is as un-Jewish as its un-American. People are free to believe what they want to believe, of course, and to protest whatever they want to protest. But Im for keeping things logically consistent and intellectually honest. The same people who are calling for the states and Congress to forbid judges to take Sharia or other foreign law into account should also be calling for any attempt to enforce a heter iska, interpret the demands of a ketubah or determine the dictates of kashrut for a Jewish prisoner as fundamentally against American tradition. For that matter, they should also prepare for a host of U.S.-based multinational corporations who must engage in business subject to the laws of the nations where they operate to either mount a vigorous battle against such bans or severely curtail their business. What good, for instance, is a contract entered into subject to Saudi Arabias Sharia-based law if ExxonMobil cant enforce it in a U.S. court? Israel understands that Sharia is not the enemy. It even has its own Islamic court system alongside the Rabbanut to adjudicate family and personal status issues; the country last month appointed the first female judge to sit in its Islamic courts. People like Joseph claim that Sharia is interested in global domination. But no system can lay claim to such a strategy. Its instead individual people who seek to bend ideologies to their own devices. America is not in danger of seeing its courts turned over to the dictates of Sharia scholars; it is instead in danger of the terrorists and would-be terrorists whether the homegrown militia member like Timothy McVeigh,the second-generation immigrant or the Saudi hijacker seeking to wreak destruction and havoc. Its time to focus the nations attention on larger threats. In addition to terrorism, theres the specter of other countries exploiting our cybersecurity weaknesses to harm our economy, as well as a host of pressing domestic concerns. Weve got better things to do than to treat Sharia and Muslimsas boogeymen. Joshua Runyan is the editor-in-chief of the Jewish Exponent. He can be reached at [emailprotected]exponent.com.

Fair Usage Law

June 14, 2017   Posted in: Judaism  Comments Closed

Expelled Rabbi: Intermarriage Panics Conservative Judaism – Forward

In her article A Wedding Invitation Like No Other, Jane Eisner describes intermarriage as the oozing story among Conservative Jews, a story found just below the surface. I am one of the rabbis she describes as not so quietly defying the restriction against officiating at a marriage ceremony involving a Jewish person and a non-Jew. And I would like to assert that this is not a story oozing below the surface. It is one of the most consequential issues about the future of Conservative Judaism, and liberal Judaism in America, and everyone knows it. The Rabbinical Assembly (RA) is terrified by it. At its most recent convention, attendees were sworn to secrecy, adjured not to reveal what was said at a closed-door session on the topic. And now a Blue Ribbon commission has been empaneled, one whose members were chosen in secrecy. Last November, the RA expelled me for officiating at intermarriages. I fought my expulsion for eight months. I addressed the organizations unresponsive Executive Council, and outlined both the structural and substantive issues in written and oral presentations. Some of my colleagues have resigned from the RA to follow their conscience rather than fight the system. Many others are restive at the coercive tactics used by the RA to keep organizational discipline. The threat of being denied placement is used to keep them in line. The RA is terrified because it fears that this issue has the potential to split the Conservative rabbinate, and leave the movement, such that it is, in tatters. It is not an unreasonable fear. But I believe that history has demonstrated that a reality as big and undeniable as intermarriage cannot be ignored. And dealing with it in obsolete terms will lead to the very result that is feared, the dissipation of Conservative Judaism, and its irrelevance. In this context comes the tortuous process that led Rabbi Amichai Lau-Lavie to the proposal that is the subject of Ms. Eisners article. Rabbi Lau-Lavie suggests a repurposing of the Biblical status of ger toshav, translated resident alien or temporary immigrant to define someone who is Jew-ish but not Jewish and thereby potentially qualified under Jewish law to be joined in marriage by a Conservative rabbi to someone who really is Jewish. This is a creative and imaginative idea. But I believe it is fatally flawed, even if the RA and its Committee on Jewish Law and Standards were to adopt it. In short, the idea is too little, too late. It does not meet the reality test. It addresses a fictional construct. It is casuistry at its core. The first and most important thing we need to understand is that couples who intermarry do not see themselves as a problem that needs to be solved. They see themselves as two people in love who want to be married. One of them is Jewish, and most often intends to remain a Jew. The other is not Jewish and similarly wants to be true to who they are as a person of faith, or of no faith at all. The person who is not Jewish is not looking to study for six months, make various commitments for future involvement in the Jewish community, and be known (I must say, derogatorily) as a resident alien or temporary immigrant. They just want to be a husband or wife! That is not to say that there may not be some people who would avail themselves of such a procedure. I can envisage someone who wants to be part of the Jewish community, who is even ready to study and explore involvement for a prescribed period before marriage, but is not ready to make the commitment to convert. But I am quite certain that they are few and far between. Mostly, this proposal is about making a rabbi feel comfortable doing something he or she wants to do but is not permitted to do. It is a fig leaf. It is not unlike the less than honest way in which the CJLS approved gay marriage, but only if, supposedly, the couple agrees not to engage in anal sex. It is a legal fiction. It is essentially dishonest and demeaning. I agree with Rabbi Lau-Lavie that keeping intermarried couples involved in the Jewish community raises the chances of Judaism reinventing itself. Doing that however begins with respect and acceptance, not with demands and coercive requirements. To begin, we need to find a substitute for the term intermarriage. It is offensive to many couples. It resonates with the intimation of miscegenation. Their union is not an aberration. It is simply a marriage. The couple who is marrying often does not have a clear sense of what their future, or future home will be. And even if they do, there are no guarantees that life will play out as they plan it. The future is a moving target at best. What they want from an officiant is affirmation, as they publicly initiate their journey as a married couple, that their love is valid and that their commitment to each other is firm and respected by the community. The fact that they want a rabbi to be that officiant, or one of their officiants, indicates that they envisage Judaism and Jewish identity to be a part of their familys identity. How much more could we expect of any couple, even if both parties are Jewish? We should feel honored that they want us to be part of their momentous occasion; not put-upon. We should embrace them with love and affirmation, not make demands upon them that they cannot possibly commit to, and act as if we are grudgingly doing them a favor. What we need most is faith in the future. We need to believe in Judaism. We need to believe that the wisdom of Jewish teaching, the ethical values that are at the heart of that teaching, and lure of being part of an ancient people that is continually reinventing itself to be relevant and responsive to the changing religious, spiritual, and moral demands of every epoch, are compelling enough that many of these couples will choose to live as part of the Jewish community. We need to put fewer obstacles in their path. We need to welcome them for what they may add to our people as well as what we might add to their lives. Rabbi Seymour Rosenbloom is the retired rabbi of Congregation Adath Jeshurun in Elins Park, PA. The views and opinions expressed in this article are the authors own and do not necessarily reflect those of the Forward.

Fair Usage Law

June 13, 2017   Posted in: Judaism  Comments Closed

Embattled Evergreen State Professor Accused of Hiding Racism Behind His Judaism – Algemeiner

Email a copy of “Embattled Evergreen State Professor Accused of Hiding Racism Behind His Judaism” to a friend Evergreen State College. Photo: Evergreen State College website. Abiology professor atEvergreen State College who has been under fire in recent months for allegedracist actionshas beenaccused by Jewish students at the schoolof using his Jewish faith as a prop to deflect pressure over his anti-black language and behavior. Bret Weinstein was charged with positioning himself as a Jew to invalidate the claims of racism being raised against him in anopen letterpublished last week andsigned by a groupidentifying themselves as [s]ome Jewish students at Evergreen bent on the destruction of white supremacy. This letter was published amid an ongoing controversy over Weinsteins refusal to participate in an Aprilequity initiative in whichall the white members of the Evergreen community were invited toleavecampus, for a so-called Day of Presence celebratingthe colleges minority demographic. June 13, 2017 4:53 pm Weinsten gained national attention forhis decision to hold his lectureas usual despite the program, a move that led to student protesters mobbinghis classroom, shoutinghim down and forcing him to relocate his class toan off-campus park. There have sincebeencalls frommanyatEvergreen forhis resignation or termination. Over recent weeks, Weinstein hasdocumented his experience in aWall Street Journalop-ed, as well as taking to other media outlets to articulate his view of the diversity initiativeand describe thetreatment he has received. The Jewish students who published last weeks letter claimed that in his public appearances,Bret has attempted to position himself as a victim. They wrote: Something that Bret may be trying to get to when he talks about himself as a Jew is that Ashkenazi Jews have not always been considered white. This is true, and is very important to think about. What was that process of assimilation that brought some Jews into the folds of whiteness? What was the cost? Whiteness is not a singular tangible thing, it is a construction that evolves as power changes hands and as global structures change with them. The assimilation of most Ashkenazi Jews and some Sephardic Jews into whiteness is not a single event, one cannot point to a time or day when their bubbe abandoned Yiddish or traditional clothing, and say this is the event of assimilationWhiteness is flexible enough to expand its definition of who is welcomed into its fold, when its convenient in maintaining the social order it imposes some Jews, Irish people, Italians, etc., are welcome to be white as long as black people remain the targets of racialized violence. For us to be white, have access to whiteness (power), some groups of people must continually be othered, denied access to power. This is how white supremacy functions, by creating structures of power of exclusion and othering and in doing so relying on anti-blackness. The students also claimedwhite Jews in the US generally areacting in complicity with and upholding white supremacy, passively and actively. This is not the first time Jews on campus have been subject tosuch comments. In March, fliers appeared at the University of Illinois stating, Ending White Privilege Starts With Ending Jewish Privilege,together with a pyramid depicting Jews labeled with Stars of David at the top.Students said the fliers werereminiscent of Nazi-era propaganda. The next month, a Jewish student leader atthe University of Wisconsin-Madison was told by the then-chair of student government F*** white supremacy, after shespoke out against an anti-Israel boycott, divestment and sanctions effort.

Fair Usage Law

June 13, 2017   Posted in: Judaism  Comments Closed

Judaism, Middle Eastern again – Jewish Chronicle

Jewish Chronicle Judaism , Middle Eastern again Jewish Chronicle Sephardic and Mizrahi Judaism , rather than a curio, is in the greatest sweep of Jewish history the mainstream. Ashkenazi Judaism was the flickering. Next to non-existent in the early middle ages, ballooning suddenly, only to almost vanish from Europe … and more »

Fair Usage Law

June 13, 2017   Posted in: Judaism  Comments Closed

Ivanka Trump, Herself Jewish, Gives Incorrect Answer About Judaism – Carbonated.tv (blog)

While talking about her foreign trip, the first daughter inaccurately identified her faith as one of the largest world religions. President Donald Trumps daughter and advisor, Ivanka Trump, made an appearance on Fox and Friends where she not only took hypocrisy to new heights but also made a factual error. During the interview, while recalling President Donald Trumps first overseas trip where she accompanied him and met with religious leaders of Islam, Judaism and Christianity in Saudi Arabia, Israel and the Vatican, Trump incorrectly identified Judaism as one of the three largest world religions. I feel blessed and privileged to have been there. It was deeply personal for me as you know to be standing at the Western Wall in a moment of privacy because it was really just us. To have covered the three largest world religions over the course of four days, it was deeply meaningful, she said. She further added, It was beyond special. For each of these moments, its hard to find the words to adequately describe them. In 2009, Trump converted to Judaism before marrying Jared Kushner who is an Orthodox Jew. However, it looks like she needs a little brush up on facts about her faith. With nearly 4 billion followers combined, Christianity and Islam are the two biggest religions of the world. However, it is not the same for Judaism as it roughly has 14 million followers. Jews make up less than 0.2% of the worlds population, coming in far behind Hindus, Buddhists, Spiritists, Chinese (or Han) religionists and Sikhs. During her appearance she further revealed how oblivious she truly is when she said she was surprised by vicious attacks against her father. It is hard. And there’s a level of viciousness that I was not expecting. I was not expecting the intensity of this experience, she told the hosts, referring to the widespread backlash to her father’s presidency. Twitter users also corrected the clueless first daughter.

Fair Usage Law

June 13, 2017   Posted in: Judaism  Comments Closed

Ivanka Trump: Judaism One Of Largest World Religions The Forward – Forward

Getty Images Not Your Usual Talking Head : Ivanka Trump shmoozes on ?FOX & Friends? at FOX Studios in New York. Ivanka Trumps humblebrag backfired on Monday morning when she incorrectly said that Judaism was one of the worlds three largest religions. Trump gracefully sidestepped a possibly-insensitive question from Fox & Friends co-host Gretchen Carlson on what it was like as a convert to be there in Israel and to meet with [Prime Minister] Netanyahu while accompanying President Trump on his global tour to Saudi Arabia, Israel, and Vatican City last month. To have covered the three largest world religions over the course of four daysit was deeply meaningful, Trump responded. Jews make up less than 0.2% of the worlds population, coming in far behind Hindus, Buddhists, Spiritists, Chinese (or Han) religionists and Sikhs. According to a 2012 Pew Center report, Judaism is in the top three (actually, number one) of all major world religions in one thing: the oldest median age of its adherents, at 36. Contact Ari Feldman at feldman@forward.com or on Twitter, @aefeldman.

Fair Usage Law

June 12, 2017   Posted in: Judaism  Comments Closed

Rabbi Dweck, Judaism and Homosexuality – Algemeiner

Marchers in a past Tel Aviv Pride Parade. Photo: Wikimedia Commons. I have never had the pleasure of meeting Rabbi Joseph Dweck in person. But I have been in touch with him online and electronically. I know him to be an exceptional rabbi. After a highly successful career in the United States, he moved to London to head theSpanish and Portuguese Synagogue, where he has enthused many people and brought them closer to the Torah. His rabbinic qualifications are impeccable. He is connected to the most revered and scholarly Sephardi authorities. He is an articulate and an inspiring leader. In addition, and possibly most importantly, he is a very caring person. A few weeks ago, he gavea lecture in London on homosexuality. It was a brave attempt to grapple with the challenges that other cultures present to traditional Torah texts. He traced the history, the terminology and the ideas behind homosexuality in the pagan and post-pagan world. Heusedsources from Torah, Talmud and great post Talmudic masters to illustrate the nuances and variations in attitudes. And while expressing absolute commitment to Jewish law, he said that he was grateful for the challenges that current Western attitudes towards sexual matters have presented to Judaism because it forces traditional Jews to examine their core values and attitudes towards loving relationships. As with any unscripted lecture, Rabbi Dweckused some infelicitous phrases that Imay have avoided, which he has since sought to clarify. Nevertheless, his brave attempt to grapple with a problem rather than avoid it has brought the wrath of his enemies down on his head. A public rebuttal of Rabbi Dweck(but not his ideas, which were hardly addressed) has come from Aharon Bassous. He is an Indian-born Sephardi rabbi, educated in Ashkenazi yeshivot, who set up his own synagogue in Golders Green, London. In a faltering, simplistic tirade reminiscent of Savonarola, he attacked the integrity, faith and scholarship of Rabbi Dweck as if he were a heretic. The vindictiveness of his speech, in my opinion, was a far greater betrayal of Torah values than anything Rabbi Dweck might have said. June 12, 2017 2:28 pm It is typical of such men that they think that by throwing mud you can stop people thinking for themselves, and by shutting mouths you turn off ideas. To me, at any rate, that is a clear breach of Torah values. Rabbi Dweck has said nothing new in terms of Jewish law. His sensitive approach was pioneered by Rabbi Chaim Rapoport, who is well known in rabbinic circles as an impeccably Orthodox authority (and a Chabad Chasid). His bookJudaism and Homosexuality: An Authentic Orthodox Viewwas prefaced by the lateBerel Berkowitz, Dayan of the Beth Din of the Federation of Synagogues. The books forward describes Rapoport as a courageous figure who has written on a difficult subject that many would rather avoid, designed to mitigate the painful consequences of Orthodoxys uncompromising rejection of homosexuality.Interestingly his book was waved before the cameras by Rabbi Bassous. Except he merely used some general words from the introduction that stressed the uniqueness of Torah, instead of quoting Rabbi Rapoports actual views. Rabbi Dweck said: Homosexuality in society has forced us to look at how we deal with love between people of the same sex, and it has reduced the taboo of me, my children, and my grandchildren being able to love another human being of the same sex genuinely, to show them affection, to express love without the worry of being seen as deviant and problematic. I agree that this is an infelicitous and ambiguous statement. But youd have to have a devious mind to take this as an endorsement of the act or of rejecting the Torah. Dweck wenton to say, The act remains an issue. But if we can deal with the peripheral issues, it changes how we address these things. Thats good for society. Of course it is. Clearly his attackers had not read or heard what he actually said. It is fine for them to go on living in closed societies and insist on adherence to their worldview without question. But for those of us who live outside and have to deal daily with human problems, simply putting up shutters is no solution. There are two aspects to the challenge that homosexuality presents to traditional Jews. First, no one would argue that the Bible considers homosexuality to go against its primary value system of heterosexual relationships as the normative way to create families and rear children. But this does not mean that biblical law doesnt allow for exceptionsthose who choose not to marry altogether, for exampleeven if this is not ideal. The Biblecan also accommodate genetic variations. The Talmud certainly did. Modern knowledge of the way that genes influence us, whichwas not available previously, haschanged the way that we understand the nature of freedom and choice. This does not change our laws. But it does affect the way we relate to individuals. For example, one could well argue that having caring, loving parents of any sex or sexes is preferable to a normative family where there is abuse, conflict and tension. As for the act of homosexual intercourseitself, we have never posted policemen in bedrooms or sought to make a persons private sexual life a matter of public concern. Not only that, but embarrassing people in public is regarded as one of the most serious moral deficiencies by our great rabbis. As a result, many Orthodox rabbis apply tolerant standards to the private lives of their congregants. And they welcome everyone into their communities, without prying intoprivate lives. It is true that halacha, despite its preference for leniency and its escape routes, is not completely relativist. We are expected to respect the law of the land, to take measures that mitigate hatred, and to strive for peace and good relations. Yet this does not mean sacrificing ones own values. Regardless of our halachic imperatives, we try to be sensitive and try to find ways of being constructive where possible, as Rabbi Dweck does. The Sephardi world has a long tradition of tolerance and open arms. Ashkenazi Orthodoxy has always tended toward rigidity and exclusion it could always shunt people it did not like off to Reform communities. Sephardi communities have no Reform branch. As a result, their rabbis have often had to encounter views that they did not agree with. It would be a tragic betrayal of Sephardi inclusiveness if Rabbi Dweck were to be hounded from his pulpit.

Fair Usage Law

June 12, 2017   Posted in: Judaism  Comments Closed

Ivanka Trump Incorrectly Names Judaism As 1 Of The 3 ‘Largest World Religions’ – HuffPost

Ivanka Trump, daughter and adviser to President Donald Trump, incorrectly named Judaism as one of the three largest world religions Monday while recalling the presidents recent overseas trip. The father and daughter, along with several other members of their family and of the administration, met with religious leaders of Islam, Judaism and Christianity in Saudi Arabia, Israel and the Vatican last month during a weeklong excursion abroad. To have covered the three largest world religions over the course of four days, it was deeply meaningful, Trump said during an appearance on Fox & Friends Monday. Trump who converted to Judaism before marrying her husband, Jared Kushner, an Orthodox Jew, in 2009 erased the followers of several major religions in her statement. Christianity and Islam are indeed the two largest world religions with nearly 4 billion followers combined. But with roughly 14 million followers, Judaism trails way behind Hinduism (over 1 billion followers), Buddhism(nearly 500 million followers) and other faiths such as Taoism, Shintoism and Sikhism. It was beyond special, Trump said Monday about the trip. For each of these moments, its hard to find the words to adequately describe them. Or accurately, for that matter.

Fair Usage Law

June 12, 2017   Posted in: Judaism  Comments Closed


Fair Use Disclaimer

"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances."

Under the 'fair use' rule of copyright law, an author may make limited use of another author's work without asking permission. Fair use is based on the belief that the public is entitled to freely use portions of copyrighted materials for purposes of commentary and criticism. The fair use privilege is perhaps the most significant limitation on a copyright owner's exclusive rights.

Fair use as described at 17 U.S.C. Section 107:

"Notwithstanding the provisions of section 106 and 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phono-records or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright.

In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include:

  • (1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for or nonprofit educational purposes,
  • (2) the nature of the copyrighted work,
  • (3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole, and
  • (4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work."