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Tim Kaine Links Trump to Ku Klux Klan Values (UPDATED …

During a campaign rally in Tallahassee today, Democratic vice presidential candidate Tim Kaine invoked Ku Klux Klan values in an attack on Donald Trump.

The Clinton campaign has been sounding alarms about how racists and white nationalists are not only publicly embracing Trump, but Trump is sending them dog-whistles.

Kaine took all those arguments and took them a step further today:

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He has supporters like David Duke, connected with the Ku Klux Klan, who are going around and saying Donald Trump is their candidate because Donald Trump is pushing their values. Ku Klux Klan values, David Duke values, Donald Trump values are not American values. Theyre not our values.

Watch above, via CNN.

UPDATE 11:00 pm ET: The Trump campaign has responded in a statement provided to Mediaite:

Tim Kaines policies are responsible for the economic suffering in so many of our inner cities, and for preventable violence that takes too many young lives. Like Hillary Clinton, his policies have produced only more poverty, joblessness, and failing schools. He is part of the Wall Street machine and rigged system that is betraying and failing minority communities in this country, while grinding Americans down to keep enriching himself and his friends. These repulsive and repugnant lies perpetrated by a desperate Clinton-Kaine campaign are nothing more than flailing attacks from failed politicians unable to defend their abysmal records, and seeking to deny Americans the change they deserve. Its the lies and cynicism of Hillary Clinton and Tim Kaine versus the hope and optimism of Donald J. Trump and Mike Pence.

[image via screengrab]

Follow Josh Feldman on Twitter: @feldmaniac

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Tim Kaine Links Trump to Ku Klux Klan Values (UPDATED …

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Ku Klux Klan Wikipdia, a enciclopdia livre

Origem: Wikipdia, a enciclopdia livre.

Ku Klux Klan (tambm conhecida como KKK ou simplesmente “o Klan”) o nome de trs movimentos distintos, passados e atuais, dos Estados Unidos que defendem correntes reacionrias e extremistas, tais como a supremacia branca, o nacionalismo branco, a anti-imigrao e, especialmente em iteraes posteriores, o nordicismo,[5][6] o anticatolicismo[7][8] e o antissemitismo,[8] historicamente expressos atravs do terrorismo voltado a grupos ou indivduos aos quais eles se opem.[9] Todos os trs movimentos tm clamado pela “purificao” da sociedade estadunidense e todos so considerados organizaes de extrema-direita.[10][11][12][13]

O primeiro Klan surgiu no sul dos Estados Unidos no final dos anos 1860 e deixou de existir no incio da dcada de 1870. Ele tentou derrubar os governos estaduais republicanos no sul durante a Era da Reconstruo, especialmente atravs uso da violncia contra os lderes afro-americanos. Com inmeros ataques em todo o Sul, o grupo foi suprimido por volta de 1871, atravs da aplicao da lei federal. Seus membros faziam seus prprios trajes, muitas vezes coloridos: roupes, mscaras e chapus cnicos, projetado para serem aterrorizantes e para esconder suas identidades.[14][15]

O segundo grupo foi fundado em 1915 e comeou a atuar em todo o pas em meados da dcada de 1920, especialmente nas reas urbanas do Centro-Oeste e Oeste. Ele se opunha aos catlicos e judeus, especialmente os imigrantes mais recentes e ressaltavam sua profunda oposio Igreja Catlica.[16] Esta segunda organizao adotou um traje branco padro e usava palavras de cdigo semelhantes como as do primeiro Klan, alm de ter adicionado os rituais de queima de cruzes e de desfiles em massa.

A terceira e atual manifestao da KKK surgiu depois de 1950, sob a forma de grupos pequenos, locais e desconexos que fazem uso do nome KKK. Eles se concentraram na oposio ao movimento dos direitos civis, muitas vezes usando violncia e assassinatos para reprimir ativistas. classificado como um grupo de dio pela Liga Antidifamao e pelo Southern Poverty Law Center.[17] Estima-se ter entre 5.000 e 8.000 membros em 2012. O segundo e terceiro encarnaes do Ku Klux Klan faziam referncias frequentes ao sangue “anglo-saxo” dos Estados Unidos, que remete ao nativismo do sculo XIX.[18] Embora os membros da KKK jurem para defender a moralidade crist, praticamente todas as denominaes crists oficialmente denunciaram as prticas e ideologias da KKK.[19]

A primeira Ku Klux Klan na verdade foi fundada pelo general Nathan Bedford Forrest da cidade de Pulaski, Tennessee, em 1865 aps o final da Guerra Civil Americana. Seu objetivo era impedir a integrao social dos negros recm-libertados, como por exemplo, adquirir terras e ter direitos concedidos aos outros cidados, como votar. O nome, cujo registro mais antigo de 1867, parece derivar da palavra grega kklos(do grego ), que significa “crculo”, “anel”, e da palavra inglesa clan (cl) escrita com k. Devido aos mtodos violentos da KKK, h a hiptese de o nome ter-se inspirado no som feito quando se coloca um rifle pronto para atirar. provavelmente o nome tambm pode ter origem no nome de um templo maia, chamado kukulcn. onde segundo os maias, “kukul” significa sagrado ou divino e “can” significa serpente, mas no existem dados que comprovem isso.[carecede fontes]

Em 1872 o grupo foi reconhecido como uma entidade terrorista e foi banida dos Estados Unidos. O segundo grupo que utilizou o mesmo nome foi fundado em 1915 (alguns dizem que foi em funo do lanamento do filme O Nascimento de uma Nao, naquele mesmo ano) em Atlanta por William J. Simmons. Este grupo foi criado como uma organizao fraternal e lutou pelo domnio dos brancos protestantes sobre os negros, catlicos, judeus e asiticos, assim como outros imigrantes. Este grupo ficou famoso pelos linchamentos e outras atividades violentas contra seus “inimigos”. Chegou a ter quatro milhes de membros (outros dizem serem cinco milhes) na dcada de 1920[20], incluindo muitos polticos. A popularidade do grupo caiu durante a Grande Depresso e a Segunda Guerra Mundial, j que os Estados Unidos se posicionaram ao lado dos aliados, que eram contrrios ideias totalitrias, extremistas e racistas, como as nazistas.[carecede fontes]

A perda de respeitabilidade da Ku Klux Klan devido aos mtodos brutais, ilegais ou meramente arbitrrios e as execues sumrias de inocentes, unidas as divises internas, levou degradao de seu prestgio, apesar de a organizao continuar a realizar expedies punitivas, desempenhando, por exemplo, o papel de supervisora de uma agremiao de patres contra os sindicalistas, cuja cota estava em alta depois da crise de 1929.[carecede fontes]

Na dcada de 1930, o nazismo exerceu uma certa atrao sobre a Ku Klux Klan. No passou disso, porm. A aproximao com os alemes foi bruscamente encerrada na Segunda Guerra Mundial, depois do ataque japons base estadunidense de Pearl Harbor, quando muitos membros se alistaram no exrcito para lutar contra o “perigo amarelo”. S faltava o tiro de misericrdia ao imprio invisvel. Em 1944, o servio de contribuies diretas cobrou uma dvida da Klan, pendente desde 1920. Incapaz de honrar o compromisso, a organizao morreu pela segunda vez.

Apesar de diversas tentativas de ressurreio (num mbito mais local que nacional), a Ku Klux Klan no obteve mais o sucesso de antes da guerra. Finalmente, o Stetson Kennedy contribuiu para desmistificar a organizao, liberando todos os seus segredos no livro “Eu fiz parte da Ku Klux Klan”. Alguns klanistas ainda insistiram e suscitaram, temporariamente, uma retomada de interesse entre os WASP (sigla em ingls para protestantes brancos anglo-saxes) frustrados, que no compunham mais a maioria da populao estadunidense.[carecede fontes]

Na dcada de 1950, a promulgao da lei contra a segregao racial nas escolas pblicas despertou novamente algumas paixes, e cruzes se acenderam. Seguiram-se batalhas, casas dinamitadas e novos crimes (29 mortos de 1956 a 1963, entre eles 11 brancos, durante protestos raciais). Os klanistas tentaram se reciclar no anticomunismo, combatendo os ndios ou atenuando seu anticatolicismo fantico.[21]

As quimeras de Garvey tinham quebrado a solidariedade dos negros num tempo das mais pesadas ameaas; num tempo em que a Ku Klux Klan depois de 50 anos de pausa retomava a sua atividade, e quem sabe se no preparava ainda comoes mais terrveis do que aquelas a que tinha recorrido meio sculo antes. Os mtodos da Ku Klux Klan no se haviam modificado de maneira sensvel; agora, como antes, se balanceava (processo pelo qual se fazia deslizar uma vtima manietada por uma estreita barra de ao, dolorosamente, para cima e para baixo, a toda velocidade para criar atrito), espancava, extorquia, boicotava, exilava, linchava e assassinava.[carecede fontes]

Mas nada surtiu grande efeito e o declnio da Klan j tinha comeado desde o fim da dcada de 1960, poca em que s contava com algumas dezenas de milhares de membros. Depois, podia-se tentar distinguir os “Imperial Klans of America” dos “Knights of the Ku Klux Klan”, ou ainda dos “Knights of the White Camelia”, alguns dos vrios nomes das tentativas de ressurgimento. Mas os klanistas no eram mais uma organizao de massa. Apesar das proclamaes tonitruantes e de provocaes episdicas, as “Klans” no reuniam mais do que alguns milhares de membros, comparveis assim com outros grupelhos neonazistas com os quais s vezes mantinham relaes. A organizao no parece estar perto de renascer uma segunda vez.[carecede fontes]

Os infernos passaram a chamar-se cavernas e as reunies passaram a realizar-se em grandes locais muitas vezes sob o cu aberto. No raro milhares de autos vinham reforar, guardas a cavalo e a p cercavam o local e estavam presentes os utenslios com que se entusiasma qualquer estadunidense: a bandeira estrelada, a Bblia aberta e o punhal desembainhado a fazer pano de fundo, uma cruz em fogo, noite, que projetava uma luz estranhamente tranquilizadora sobre as filas dos agora uniformizados homens dos capuzes brancos.[carecede fontes]

De incio a Klan s admitia como membros aquelas pessoas oriundas de pais brancos estadunidenses, nascidas nos Estados Unidos; alm disso, os pais no podiam comungar na religio catlica nem pertencer raa judaica. Mais tarde deixou-se caducar a exigncia de que os pais j deviam ser de nacionalidade estadunidense pois este ponto prejudicara em muito a solcita procura de membros para a Klan e a afluncia de meios de contribuio de scios. O candidato a aceitao era submetido a interrogatrios e em seguida instrudo de que a Klan exigia de todos os seus membros obedincia cega.[carecede fontes]

Seguia-se o juramento, batismo, ordenao e apostasia, com a leitura dos pargrafos da f da Klan em que muito se tratava da raa branca e da religio crist. Os crimes que a nova Ku Klux Klan at a sua recente proibio cometeu, sobretudo nos estados do Sul dos Estados Unidos, so to variados e numerosos, to cuidadosamente velados e to intimamente amalgamados com as singularidades da vida pblica naqueles estados, que nunca seria possvel abrang-los a todos. A simples crnica ou mesmo pequena revista, como ns aqui tentamos oferecer, nunca seria capaz de exprimir como o que aconteceu foi caprichoso e horrvel. O mundo teve conhecimento aqui e ali de um registro especialmente alusivo nos jornais, mas depressa ele caiu no esquecimento da conscincia mundial, ainda que esta fatalidade passe posteridade, pois que no houve nenhum dos grandes escritores estadunidenses que alguma vez deixasse passar em branco atuao to vergonhosa. Atualmente, a Ku Klux Klan conta apenas com um efetivo de 3000 homens em todos os antigos estados confederados, apesar do baixo nmero de associados, muitos no associados apoiam a organizao.[carecede fontes]

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Ku Klux Klan Wikipdia, a enciclopdia livre

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A Johnson County resident told police he found a Ku Klux …

A Franklin-area resident told police Tuesday that someone placed racist literature from theKu Klux Klan in his mailbox.

The homeowner, who lives west of Franklin nearCenterline Road and Ind.44,found the one-pageleaflet folded in a plastic bag when he checked his mail Tuesday, according to aJohnson County Sheriff’s Office report.

Asmall amount of what appeared to be bird seed was in the bag with the leaflet, police said.

Sheriff Doug Cox said early Wednesday that the department had not receivedother complaints about a leaflet.

The document appeared to be from the “Confederate White Knights Ku Klux Klan” and urged “white European” Americans to support the Second Amendment and other rights.

A Franklin-area resident told police Tuesday, Aug. 16, 2016, that someone placed racist literature from the Ku Klux Klan in his mailbox. The homeowner found the leaflet folded in a plastic bag along with what appeared to be bird seed, according to a Johnson County Sheriff’s Office report.(Photo: Provided by Johnson County Sheriff’s Office)

Detectives preserved the document asevidence andwereinvestigating.

Three weeks ago, similar leaflets were distributed to Fishers residents’ front lawns. A neighbor said he collectedabout 200 Klan leaflets that had been placedin clear bags weighted down with rocks.

Call IndyStar reporter Vic Ryckaert at (317) 444-2701. Follow him on Twitter: @vicryc.

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A Johnson County resident told police he found a Ku Klux …

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Stop calling fringe white supremacist groups ‘the Ku Klux …

This year marks the 150th anniversary of the Ku Klux Klan’s founding. At its height, the KKK boasted an estimated 5 million members and dominated politics in parts of Texas and across the South.Klan members openly engaged in domestic terrorism and made bombings, lynchings and flaming crosses a fact of life for decades.

Today, there are only about 6,000 self-described Klansmen across the country, according to estimates from the Alabama-based Southern Poverty Law Center.Although some white supremacists still burn crosses at night while wearing hooded robes, we should stop referring to these groups as “the Ku Klux Klan.”

How we speak about hate groups matters. Modern fringe groups have used myths about the KKK to successfully market themselves as the organization of the past. By allowing new hate groups to co-opt the Ku Klux Klan’s legacy of power, we leave open the possibility that America’s deadliest hate group will rise again in the future.

Past Ku Klux Klan “movements”

Ku Klux Klan meeting – 1923. From the collection of the Texas/Dallas Historyand Archives Division, Dallas Public Library

Three different white supremacy movements have used the Ku Klux Klan name since its founding 150 years ago. The first Ku Klux Klan began in Tennessee after the Civil War. The loosely organized social group quickly evolved into a domestic terrorist organization in response to Southern blacks gaining civil and political rights.

The first Ku Klux Klan lasted only a few years. According to the New Georgia Encyclopedia, Democratic electoral wins and heavy federal intervention weakened the Klan’s organizational structure, causing it to fade away in the 1870s.

The second Ku Klux Klan was founded in 1915. It is widely believed that the second Klan was inspired by the popular film Birth of a Nation, which portrayed the original KKK as a heroic force in U.S. history.

Ku Klux Klan women drum corpsFrom the collection of the Texas/Dallas History and Archives Division, Dallas Public Library

After starting as a small group, the second KKK grew into a highly organized national operation that became heavily involved in politics, particularly in the South. The FBI estimates that the second Ku Klux Klan had several million members by the early 1920s.

In September 1922, the governor of Louisiana asked for federal intervention because local authorities refused to prosecute Klansmen for rampant criminal activity. According to FBI archives, this letter prompted federal authorities to investigate the Klan and caused many agents to become targets of Klansmen. One FBI memo from November 1922 details an elaborate Klan plot to kill FBI agents investigating crimes in Mer Rouge, La. The plot was reportedly devised by the U.S. attorney in Shreveport, who was a Klansman.

By 1930, a combination of high-profile leadership scandals and prosecutions caused Klan membership to plummet to about 30,000. The formal Ku Klux Klan organization lingered until the mid-1940s, then faded out of existence, according to FBI records.

Defining the Ku Klux Klan in 2016

The third (and modern) Ku Klux Klan movement is a series of fragmented white supremacist groups that arose during the civil rights era of the 1950s and 1960s. The Southern Poverty Law Center estimates that there are between 5,000 and 8,000 active Klan members “split between different and often warring organizations that use the Klan name.”

Continuing to describe these white supremacy groups as “the Ku Klux Klan” implies an organizational unity that does not exist and creates a misleading link to the powerful KKK organization of the 1920s. The modern Ku Klux Klan is not a cohesive organization but rather a brand name used by fringe white supremacy groups that share a common set of fraternal practices and symbols originating from historical KKK movements.

This April 28, 2016 photo shows Brent Waller, Mississippi grand dragon and spokesman for the Tennessee-based Ku Klos Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. Waller has since become the imperial wizard of the United Dixie White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. AP Photo/Jay Reeves

The range of beliefs among KKK-affiliated groups is very diverse and localized. A few active KKK groups are still domestic terrorist organizations. Other groups such as The United Dixie White Knights and The Knights of the Ku Klux Klan claim on their websites to be non-violent political organizations that advocate for advancing the rights of white Christian protestants. Some Klan groups are still focused on the perceived danger from African Americans, whereas others interviewed by the Associated Press for a recent report were preoccupied withthe perceived threat of immigration. Some groups associate with Neo-Nazis, others don’t.

The lack of unity among today’s Klan groups makes it impossible to identify a coherent agenda. The fragmentation also makes it easy for local leaders to disassociate themselves with statements and actions made by other self-described Klansmen.

In this Saturday, April 23, 2016 photo, a member of the Ku Klux Klan uses a mobile device during cross burnings after a “white pride” rally in rural Paulding County near Cedar Town, Ga. AP Photo/John Bazemore

Instead of pretending the Ku Klux Klan still exists as a national organization, we should treat today’s self-described Klan groups like the fringe local entities that they are. I propose we usethe prefix neo-” to help make the distinction, just as the term “neo-Nazi” is used to describe American groups that use the symbolism of Germany’s Nazi party.

By preventing today’s neo-KKK groups from invoking the legacy of the Ku Klux Klan, we can stop this boogeyman from using a historic brand of horror to build itself into a new terrorist organization.

Dennis Jansen is a newsletter editor for The Dallas Morning News. Email: djansen@dallasnews.com

On Twitter: @dennisjansen

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The Ku Klux Klan The Ku Klux Klan is composed entirely of …

Michael Fisher

The Ku Klux Klan

I) Abstract

The Ku Klux Klan is composed entirely of white, Anglo-saxon, Christian American citizens, both male and female, who believe that their race and religion are superior to those of people of other colors and religions. The Ku Klux Klan has mostly targeted African-Americans in the past due to the freeing of the slaves by Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War. It was therefore at the time just after the end of the war between the states that the Ku Klux Klan was formed by ex-Confederate soldiers. Southerners at this time saw their way of life before the war completely turned upside down and took out their frustration on recently freed blacks. Lynching and other assaults on blacks were commonly committed by Klansmen who were not punished by the government for their crimes. In fact, as depicted in the film Birth of a Nation, the Ku Klux Klan was viewed as a group of brave white heroes who gallantly saved whites from aggressive blacks in the early twentieth century. As time has gone by, the KKK has also been known to heavily discriminate against people of Jewish faith. Bombing of synagogues has been a common act of violence against Jews by the Klan in the past. In addition, the Ku Klux Klan has helped with Mexican border control and claims that when the Klan is on patrol on the border, Mexican illegal aliens are too afraid to come across. It is acts such as this that Klan used to intimidate its opponents into succumbing to its wants. The KKK uses words from the Holy Bible and teachings from Protestant Reverends to support its cause and justify its actions.

II. Scope and Purpose of the System

The Ku Klux Klan is a group of American white supremacists who believe that all non-Caucasian peoples are inferior and that they have no place in the United States which is only truly home to white Christians. All members of the Ku Klux Klan must be one hundred percent white and Christian. These people feel that they must unite and create white power to defend the white race from other races found in America. They also claim that whites must maintain control of the United States and keep all people of other races and religions from gaining power. Klansmen feel a strong sense of hate towards anyone who is not of their race and religion. They discriminate against these people, and have been known to use acts of violence to intimidate and hold down other races. Traditionally, the Ku Klux Klan has focused the majority of its hate on African-Americans and Jews. Members of the Klan however, are very helpful to one another and look out for the well being of fellow members. The Ku Klux Klan, though hardly influential today, has been found in operation all over the nation in the past as recently as the late 1980s. A majority of its members lived in the South where the group began. However, as the Klan grew it spread all throughout the North, and the western United States. The group was especially active in the South due to the fact that slave-owners resented the emancipation of black slaves after the loss of the Civil War, and were frustrated with the horrible condition of the South during reconstruction.

III. Authority Structure The number one source of knowledge for the Ku Klux Klan is the Holy Bible. Members of the Klan believe in the literal truth of the Bible. One KKK member once wrote, the Klansmen pins his faith to the Bible as the revealed will of GOD. In fact many active Klansmen were ordained ministers. In addition, the majority of the members belong to some Protestant church. The religious ideals of the group could be found in ceremonies such as the Klan baptism of an eight-week-old child in 1924 by a gathering of hooded members. In the early 1980s, new religious fundamentalists used very similar rhetoric about Christian supremacy. The Reverend Bailey Smith, the president of the Southern Baptist Convention announces in 1980, God Almighty does not hear the prayer of a Jew. He continued by adding the fact that God cant possibly hear the prayer of someone who does not believe Jesus Christ is the true Messiah. The Klan takes direct action against those who do not share its beliefs or those who it simply views as inferior based on its readings of the Bible. Klansmen recognize the differences of other groups and translate them into justification for hate. Rituals and ceremonies are also very important and commonly used by the Ku Klux Klan. For example, an elaborate initiation ritual is carried out for new members, and the custom of wearing white robes and hoods sets the members apart from other citizens and provides for them a special identity. Cross burning is a very common practice among members of the Klan. This ritual is used mainly as a form of intimidation against those people hated by the Klan. Often the burning cross is driven into the ground and left standing where the targeted group can see it. This ritual has also been called cross lighting, a term used by David Duke and other Klansmen in the 1970s to illustrate that Christ is the light of the world. In the Klan, rituals and ceremonies are held which help instill Klan values and beliefs in the members. However, most members already have a strong sense of white supremacist thought in their heads before they join the Klan. Ordained ministers in the Klan preach the Christian aspect of the Ku Klux Klan to members. These clergymen have been trained in the Church and added their own views to their religion to create an interpretation of the Bible that fits the creed of the Ku-Klux Klan. Important figures such as leaders like Imperial Wizards lead the Klan and mobilize its efforts into structured political fights. For example marches through streets like Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D.C. were common when the Klan was more active. These marches are generally to protest something the Klan does not agree with such as Martin Luther King Day, Black History Month, or Gay rights.

IV. History The original Ku Klux Klan was founded in Pulaski, Tennessee during Reconstruction sometime between December 1865 and August 1866. The exact date is unknown due to varying reports of the time as well as conflicting accounts of the event by the principals involved. On June 5, 1867, Klansmen celebrated the groups first anniversary with a gala parade. The name was adapted from the Greek work kuklos meaning circle. Clan was added at the end but spelled with a K for visual effect. The six founders of the Klan were John Lester, James Crowe, John Kennedy, Calvin Jones, Richard Reed, and Frank McCord. Each of these men was a Confederate veteran. They were all also well educated and from wealthy families. The original Klan as created by these men was intended as a social organization with fun and frolic in mind. At the time of the Klans birth, in Pulaski, Tennessee, there were no jobs available, and the state was under tight military control. The six founders of the Klan, like many residents of Pulaski, had nothing to do and had grown restless. For this reason they decided to create their own club. The actions of the early Ku Klux Klan were intended merely as a source of entertainment. Nightly activities consisted of posing as ghosts of Confederate dead to tease and scare black freedmen. The Klansmen also played practical jokes on blacks, though perhaps without any sinister motivation. Post Civil War reconstruction of the South, changed this playful attitude. Diehard Confederates gravitated toward the Klan as a way to defeat black suffrage, continue white supremacy, and restore Democratic party rule to the South. In the spring of 1867, at Nashvilles Maxwell House Hotel, a secret reorganizational meeting was held. Klansmen here endorsed a new constitution, planned a four-year guerrilla war against the federal government in Washington. Nathan Bedford Forrest, former Confederate cavalry leader and slave trader, was chosen as the grand wizard of the KKK. With the next three years, KKK members and allies like the Knights of the White Camellia committed over 2,000 murders and many floggings, rapes, castrations, brandings, and shootings. In 1869, Forrest issued a ban on masked violence, and urged Klansmen to keep a low profile and save ammunition for legitimate emergencies. In the early 1870s the Klan gradually faded out as it successfully terrorized black voters, drove carpetbaggers out, and maintained Democratic party rule in the South.

The Klan of the twentieth century was born in November 1915 by Imperial Wizard William J. Simmons. After a period of relative inactivity, Simmons revived the Klan. He recruited publicists to spice up the groups image. Using modern salesmanship and old-fashioned bigotry, he built a large empire. Hiram Evans, a Texas dentist, replaced Simmons in 1922 and led the Klan until June 1939 when the Great Depression caused many to leave the group as its reputation of violence and corruption gave it a negative image. James Colescott succeeded Evans but failed to fully revive the Klan. From this time up until today, many local splinter groups survived or have been created, though the Klan has never reached the size it had prior to 1939. Not nearly as powerful or noticeable today, the KKK still exists and can send messages easily via the internet. Although anyone interested can access these websites, and many people do, violent acts committed by the KKK today are basically unheard of.

V. Representative Examples of Argumentation Today the White Camelia Knights of the Ku Klux Klan use quotes from the Bible as well as examples from world history to support their beliefs. As this group attempts to define Christian identity they give reasons why white Christians are a superior people. They state that it is the Anglo-Saxon, Germanic and Scandinavian people that has created great nations and civilizations. Through our laws and technology we have helped raise the standard of living for all the people on earth. Through our great knowledge in farming and agriculture we have helped feed the world and have taught others how to feed themselves. This belief provides for the Klansman his sense of racial superiority. The Camelia Knights state that they look to Christs own words to defend their opinions. They quote Jesus as saying to the Jews in John 10:24-27: ye are not of my sheepMy sheep here my voice, and I know them, and they follow me. The Knights add that there is only one group of people that has always followed Christ and they are White Anglo-Saxon Christians. They discuss how Christians have spread their religion all over the world using missionaries so that people across the world could live a more productive and stable and moral life here on earth. However, the Knights also believe that one of the worst violations of the Heavenly Fathers law is the mingling of their (white races) seed with that of the other peoples of the earth. For this reason the Klan opposes racial mixing.

VI. Suggested Position in Comparative Scales (1-10 scale) A) The Ku Klux Klan upholds God and Jesus Christ as the major authorities that all Klansmen should praise. They feel that what they do is Gods will and follows the word of Christ. By interpreting the Bible so that it parallels with their agenda of hate and racial discrimination the Klan sees itself as a group of good, moral, and responsible Christian American citizens. On a one to ten scale, where one is emphasis on traditional authority and ten is the testimony of experience, the KKK gets a five. This is because they believe in traditional Christian authority, but also judge people as they observe them in social situations.

B) There is also a centralization of authority within the Klan itself. On the scale, if one is centralized authority and ten is decentralized, the Klan scores a one. There is a set chain of command in which an Emperor or Spiritual Head is at the top. Below him are the Imperial Wizard or Chief Executive, Imperial Kleagle or Chief Treasurer, a Grand Goblin or Section Chief, a King Kleagle or Head of Provisional State, and below these are more positions of lesser stature. Less responsibility rests on positions as they go down the ladder of Klan ranks. C) The Klan also combines a strong emphasis on invisible and spiritual or heavenly realities along with material, earthly ones as well. The Ku Klux Klan believes whole heartedly in the Heavenly Father, GOD and also in Jesus Christ. The Bible is held very dear and its teachings used in Klan thoughts and ideas. After all, being a Christian is basically necessary for one to become a member of the Ku Klux Klan. As for material realities, the Klan focuses much attention on the physical differences between races and ethnicities. Certain groups of people are discriminated by the Klan simply because they look different. Black people are a good example of this because many of them are Christian but are still labeled as part of an inferior race by the Klan. The Klan also uses its elaborate robes and hooded white outfits as a way to hide ones identity while also separating members from other ordinary citizens. The Klan scores a five with one being invisible realities and ten being material because it uses some of both. D) The objective of the Klan is to help the White Anglo-Saxon Christian people thrive and be superior to all other races. They believe in helping one another in order to keep their people strong as a united race. With one being moral or spiritual objectives and ten being pragmatic, the Klan scores a one because it believes that white Christians are morally and spiritually superior.

E) The power recognized by the Klan does not seem to be strictly reserved for a divine being such as God. The Klansmen instead feel that Gods power is in every white Christian individual and can be realized by a Klan member. If one is power held by a divine being and ten is power held by individuals, the Klan scores a five because it holds the power of God and Jesus high, but also believes in the power of each of its members. Together these individuals create what the Klan refers to as white power.

Bibliography

Primary Source:

White Camelia Knights. Website: www.wckkkk.com, 2001-2002. Date accessed: March 13, 2003.

-A very extensive website several links. I used mainly the Christian Identity page with states exactly what being a Christian and Klan member really means. It tells why Christianity and the white race are so important to the Klan. This site provides information on almost every aspect of the Klan. It even tells one how to go about joining the Klan. Clearly this website is updated often and worked on very hard by current members. This really gave me an insight about exactly what Klansmen really think about themselves. It was more helpful than a history book because the words on this site come straight from Klan members themselves. This gives a direct impression of what the Klan is doing today and what it believes.

Secondary Sources:

Maclean, Nancy. Behind the Mask of Chivalry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

-This book was very helpful and gives lots of information on the history of the Ku Klux Klan in the 20th century. Many diagrams and pictures are provided to give a visual idea of what the Klan is. Real photographs with captions are given as well. Overall a great source which I found useful.

Newton, Michael. The Ku Klux Klan: An Encyclopedia. London: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1991.

-An excellent source for quick references. Contains lengthy information on almost all terms related to the Klan. Very easy to use and search for certain keywords. I used it to gather most of my research.

Wade, Wyn Craig. The Fiery Cross. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987.

-A very good source with in depth information on Klan activities and religious beliefs. Also filled with real photographs of Klan scenes. An interesting and helpful account of the Ku Klux Klan and what it really is.

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North Carolina Civil War Sesquicentennial

Following the war, President Andrew Johnson moved to Reconstruct the South on his own initiative. Yet Southern states (including North Carolina) began to pass “Black Codes,” or laws subjecting former slaves to a variety of restrictions on their freedom.

Secret societies, including the Ku Klux Klan, were formed initially to terrorize blacks, and the Klan quickly spread to North Carolina.

In 1866, the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was passed by Congress, granting full citizenship to blacks, and giving the Federal government responsibility to protect equal rights under the law to all American citizens.

In 1867, Congress temporarily placed most of the South under military rule. North Carolina was in the Second Military District (out of five) under Maj. Gen. Daniel Sickles (March-August 1867) and Brig. Gen. Edward R. S. Canby (September 1867-August 1868). After 1868, the Federal military presence in North Carolina dwindled. The capital city of Raleigh, however, remained a military outpost. During this period, the force was reduced to around 500 troops statewide, and included the 8th U.S. Infantry. The occupation lasted until 1877, when “home rule” was finally restored.

In North Carolina, President Johnson appointed William W. Holden as provisional governor, and many Confederates were pardoned. Jonathan Worth, wartime state treasurer, then defeated Holden for the governorship, and many former Confederate officials were elected to Congress. Congress, however, refused to seat these delegates on the grounds that they had been disloyal to the Union and freedmen were being mistreated (via the “Black Codes”).

Johnson and the U.S. Congress clashed over Reconstruction policy. Congress wanted full citizenship and civil rights for freedmen, while Johnson did not. Congressional Republicans overrode Johnson’s veto to pass Reconstruction acts, which placed the southern states, except Tennessee, under military control, disfranchised many former Confederates, and required states to revise their constitutions to enfranchise freedmen. When these states were reorganized under their new constitutions, they were required to ratify the 14th Amendment, which would allow them to regain their seats in Congress. North Carolina ratified the 14th Amendment on July 4, 1868 and was readmitted to the Union.

Several African American military units pulled duty in North Carolina during the occupation. The 37th U.S. Colored Troops were stationed at various points along the coast until February 1867. The 40th U.S. Infantry (colored) served in North Carolina from March 1867 through March 1869. During this period, Fort Macon was used as a jail.

Former Union general Ulysses S. Grant was elected president in 1868. Though aligned with the “Radical Republicans” in Congress, Grant did not provide strong leadership during Reconstruction.

In 1869, the 15th Amendment was passed by Congress, prohibiting any state from denying a citizen the right to vote because of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. North Carolina ratified the 15th Amendment on March 5, 1869.

William W. Holden headed the new North Carolina Republican Party, which included freedmen, carpetbaggers, and native whites. The Republicans controlled the state convention of 1868 that drafted a more democratic constitution. They also controlled the new state government, and Holden was elected governor. During this period, North Carolina sent 13 African American delegates to the state constitutional convention in 1867. Between 1870 and 1876, North Carolina’s African American office holders included 30 state legislators and one U. S. Congressman (John A. Hyman, a former slave, who held office from 1875 to 1877. Hyman had also served in the North Carolina State Senate, 1868-1874). Unfortunately, the “new order” did not last long.

Opponents of Holden’s regime used the issue of “white supremacy” and violence to regain control of state government. The Ku Klux Klan operated in counties with slight Republican majorities. Using murder and intimidation, the Klan suppressed the Republican vote in 1870.

On February 26, 1870, Wyatt Outlaw a former slave and former Union soldier was lynched by the Klan in Alamance County (where Outlaw was politically active). On May 21, 1870, state senator and Freedmen’s Bureau agent John W. Stephens who had tried to organize the black population in Caswell County was assisnated by the Klan at the county court house. Governor Holden used state troops against the Klan, but captives were released by federal judges.

Controlling the 1871 legislature, Democrats impeached Holden and removed him from office (the first governor in American history to suffer such a fate). The Republican Party did win the governorship in 1872 and nearly controlled the state convention of 1875 that revised the constitution for Democratic advantage. But in 1876, the Democratic Party established white supremacy in state government and used fraud to remain in power.

Thus Jubilation turned to Jim Crow, and another uphill battle was begun. This legacy was still being felt by the time of the white overthrow of black government in Wilmington one of North Carolina’s most progressive towns in 1898 (popularly known as the “Wilmington Race Riot”).

A few more African Americans from North Carolina did, however, serve in the U.S. Congress in the late nineteenth century, including James E. O’Hara (1883-1887); Henry P. Cheatham (1889-1893); and George Henry White (1897-1901). White was the only black member of Congress during his tenure, and 28 years would pass before another black member was seated.

It would take diligent activism and new Civil Rights laws passed in the mid-1960s for the South to even begin to overcome the legacy of slavery. That struggle continues today.

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Ku Klux Klan – Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Ku Klux Klan is a hate group.[1] It was started in the southern United States on 3 March 1865. Most of its hate has been towards African-Americans, but it has also attacked Catholics, Jews and immigrants. It has sought to keep something called “white power”, often through very violent acts such as killing people. The first Ku Klux Klan broke up and does not exist anymore. However, other groups with the same name and the same ideas have been created.

The Ku Klux Klan (acronym KKK) is an organization which was started in the South of the United States in 1865. This was after the American Civil War. It was to resist the Reconstruction of the United States.

During this time, there were troops based in the ex-Confederacy states. The Klan was scared that the population in the South could lose their democratic rights. Also the Klan members believed that African Americans were inferior to (less than) white people. The Klan acted against black people. Republicans were also targets of attacks by the Klan.

The methods of acting against people were often the same: the Klan members tried to frighten the people that the Klan wanted to go out of town. The KKK tried to scare people by burning crosses or by threatening them. If people did not react, the Klan sometimes killed them. The growing violence which was promoted by the KKK led to many lynchings (giving a person an unfair trial and killing them, often by hanging by the neck). The KKK was “prohibited” (made against the law) in 1871. After 1871, many KKK members were imprisoned (put in Prison). However, the Klan had achieved many of its original goals. For example, the occupation troops were moved out of the Southern states, to the West. The KKK affected many African Americans throughout the last century.

In 1915, William J. Simmons started the Ku Klux Klan for a second time. Most of the rituals and traditions of the old Ku Klux Klan were kept. Any white Protestant man could join the KKK. The KKK still attacked African Americans, but they also attacked Jews and Catholics this time. In 1920, growing economic problems in rural areas caused the Klan to grow again. The KKK strongly argued for white supremacy. White supremacy says that people who are white (from European origins) are better than other racial groups and must rule them.

The Klan killed many blacks. These were not legal executions because there were no trials. Many people now call these acts a kind of terrorism, because the KKK used fear to control African Americans and take away their political rights. In the middle of the 20s the Klan got smaller due to bad leaders and too much violence. After the Second World War, the Klan closed again because it owed more money than it could pay.

In 1954, the United States Supreme Court (the highest court in the US) made an important decision. The case was Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. The court ruled (decided) that it was un-Constitutional to have different schools for black and white children. When this ruling passed, many independent groups using the Ku Klux Klan name attacked African Americans.

In the summer of 1964, Edgar Killen killed three African Americans that participated in the civil rights movement. Killen was a member of the Ku Klux Klan. There was an early trial in 1967, but in this trial there was an all-white jury and so Killen was set free. In 1988 a movie called Mississippi Burning was made which talked about the events of this case. In 2005 there was another trial. Killen (now 80 years old) was sentenced to prison for 160 years.

In 2011 they were estimated to be perhaps as many as 5,000 members.[2]

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KKK – Welcome to the Ku Klux Klan: Knights Party

Black Lives Matter . . . is pure hatred, and as it is directed against white cops, racist. After the massacre of five Dallas cops, during a protest of police shootings of black men in Louisiana and Minnesota, President Obama said, America is not as divided as some have suggested.

Former D.C. Police Chief Charles Ramsey, an African-American, says we are sitting on a powder keg.

Put me down as agreeing with the president. For when a real powder keg blew in the 60s, I was there. And this is not it.

In 1965, the Watts area of Los Angeles exploded in the worst racial violence since the New York draft riot of 1863 when Lincoln had to send in veterans of Gettysburg. After six days of looting, shooting and arson in LA, there were 34 dead, 1,000 injured, 4,000 arrested. In 1967, Newark, New Jersey, and Detroit exploded, bringing out not only the Guard but the 82nd Airborne. After Dr. King was assassinated on April 4, 1968, a hundred American cities burst into flame.

Troops defended the White House. Marines mounted machine guns on the Capitol steps. Thousands of soldiers patrolled the city. The 7th and 14th street corridors of my hometown, D.C., were gutted and would not be rebuilt for years. That was a powder kegthat went off.

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Ku Klux Klan | NCpedia

by Allen W. Trelease, 2006

There have been three Ku Klux Klan KKK movements in North Carolina and the nation, similar in character but distinct organizationally and chronologically. The first Klan flourished in the Reconstruction era, its name derived from the Greek word kuklos for circle or band; it was almost exclusively southern in its membership and mission to perpetuate white supremacy. Beginning as a social fraternity in Pulaski, Tenn., in 1866, the KKK was soon taken over by former Confederate officers, including Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest, and transformed into a paramilitary force to oppose Republican policies, especially black suffrage, in Tennessee. In 1868 the order quickly spread across the South as other Republican state governments were established under the Congressional Reconstruction acts.

The most Klan-ridden areas of North Carolina were Alamance and Caswell Counties in the northern Piedmont in 1869-70 and Rutherford and Cleveland Counties in the southern foothills a year later. Neighboring counties, such as Sampson, Lenoir, and Jones in the southeast, were also affected. In these places, disguised night riders roamed the countryside, dragging people from their homes; lynching, whipping, shooting, or otherwise assaulting them; driving them away, or destroying their property. Most of the victims were black, but white Republicans were also attacked, especially in Rutherford County.

Around the turn of the twentieth century, the KKK, and the Confederate Lost Cause generally, took on for southerners a retrospective romantic appeal that had been lacking amid the suffering immediately after the war. This attraction was greatly stimulated by North Carolinian Thomas Dixon’s novel, The Clansman (1905), and D. W. Griffith’s film based on the novel, The Birth of a Nation (1915). The second incarnation of the KKK was born in that environment in Atlanta, Ga., in 1915, encouraging superpatriotism during World War I. After the war, its membership and geographic range expanded dramatically.

During its heyday in the early 1920s, the second KKK numbered about 3 million members nationwide. It gained political power in Indiana, Oklahoma, Oregon, and other states but was comparatively weak in North Carolina. Unlike the first Klan, it was primarily urban, reflecting demographic changes in the country. Its members, drawn chiefly from the lower middle class, were often religious fundamentalists who felt threatened by the drift away from the small-town Protestant culture they had known growing up. They disdained immigrants, especially communists and other radicals, labor unions, Jews, Catholics, and the increasing number of blacks moving into both northern and southern cities. Some Klansmen resorted to the terrorism of earlier days, but the vast majority were nonviolent.

The modern-day KKK emerged in 1946, two years after the second Klan had disbanded as a result of its legal, financial, and political crises. Although this new KKK was fueled by the fear of communism abroad and at home, practically all of its violent activities were directed at undermining efforts to secure the civil rights of African Americans in the South. In North Carolina, one of its banner states, the modern Klan thrived among mill workers and other blue-collar laborers in the Piedmont. One of its greatest embarrassments occurred in 1958, when a prospective KKK rally near Maxton (Robeson County) was broken up by a group of Lumbee Indians. Nationally, the peak in membership came during the civil rights demonstrations of the 1960s, when it may have reached 55,000 (9,800 members in North Carolina). By 1995 the Klan was at its lowest ebb in many years, nationally and locally.

The modern Klan has been chronically fragmented and prone to internal conflicts over policy and leadership. Groups have differed in their readiness to embrace violence. In 1979 Klansmen attacked a Communist Workers Party “Death to the Klan” march in Greensboro, killing five people. They have sometimes forged alliances with like-minded organizations, as when North Carolina Klansmen (also in 1979) briefly formed a United Racist Front with the state’s tiny Nazi Party.

For all of its ability to make headlines, the KKK historically has failed to accomplish its major objectives. It did not end southern Reconstruction in the 1870s; that was more nearly the work of organized rioters and Red Shirt campaigners. It did not significantly deflect the nation’s progress toward a pluralistic, democratic society in the 1920s. And its major effect on the civil rights movement was to hasten the triumph of that cause when Klan bloodshed mobilized public support for passage of landmark civil rights legislation in the 1960s.

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Tim Kaine Links Trump to Ku Klux Klan Values (UPDATED …

During a campaign rally in Tallahassee today, Democratic vice presidential candidate Tim Kaine invoked Ku Klux Klan values in an attack on Donald Trump. The Clinton campaign has been sounding alarms about how racists and white nationalists are not only publicly embracing Trump, but Trump is sending them dog-whistles. Kaine took all those arguments and took them a step further today: Please enable Javascript to watch. He has supporters like David Duke, connected with the Ku Klux Klan, who are going around and saying Donald Trump is their candidate because Donald Trump is pushing their values. Ku Klux Klan values, David Duke values, Donald Trump values are not American values. Theyre not our values. Watch above, via CNN. UPDATE 11:00 pm ET: The Trump campaign has responded in a statement provided to Mediaite: Tim Kaines policies are responsible for the economic suffering in so many of our inner cities, and for preventable violence that takes too many young lives. Like Hillary Clinton, his policies have produced only more poverty, joblessness, and failing schools. He is part of the Wall Street machine and rigged system that is betraying and failing minority communities in this country, while grinding Americans down to keep enriching himself and his friends. These repulsive and repugnant lies perpetrated by a desperate Clinton-Kaine campaign are nothing more than flailing attacks from failed politicians unable to defend their abysmal records, and seeking to deny Americans the change they deserve. Its the lies and cynicism of Hillary Clinton and Tim Kaine versus the hope and optimism of Donald J. Trump and Mike Pence. [image via screengrab] Follow Josh Feldman on Twitter: @feldmaniac

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Ku Klux Klan Wikipdia, a enciclopdia livre

Origem: Wikipdia, a enciclopdia livre. Ku Klux Klan (tambm conhecida como KKK ou simplesmente “o Klan”) o nome de trs movimentos distintos, passados e atuais, dos Estados Unidos que defendem correntes reacionrias e extremistas, tais como a supremacia branca, o nacionalismo branco, a anti-imigrao e, especialmente em iteraes posteriores, o nordicismo,[5][6] o anticatolicismo[7][8] e o antissemitismo,[8] historicamente expressos atravs do terrorismo voltado a grupos ou indivduos aos quais eles se opem.[9] Todos os trs movimentos tm clamado pela “purificao” da sociedade estadunidense e todos so considerados organizaes de extrema-direita.[10][11][12][13] O primeiro Klan surgiu no sul dos Estados Unidos no final dos anos 1860 e deixou de existir no incio da dcada de 1870. Ele tentou derrubar os governos estaduais republicanos no sul durante a Era da Reconstruo, especialmente atravs uso da violncia contra os lderes afro-americanos. Com inmeros ataques em todo o Sul, o grupo foi suprimido por volta de 1871, atravs da aplicao da lei federal. Seus membros faziam seus prprios trajes, muitas vezes coloridos: roupes, mscaras e chapus cnicos, projetado para serem aterrorizantes e para esconder suas identidades.[14][15] O segundo grupo foi fundado em 1915 e comeou a atuar em todo o pas em meados da dcada de 1920, especialmente nas reas urbanas do Centro-Oeste e Oeste. Ele se opunha aos catlicos e judeus, especialmente os imigrantes mais recentes e ressaltavam sua profunda oposio Igreja Catlica.[16] Esta segunda organizao adotou um traje branco padro e usava palavras de cdigo semelhantes como as do primeiro Klan, alm de ter adicionado os rituais de queima de cruzes e de desfiles em massa. A terceira e atual manifestao da KKK surgiu depois de 1950, sob a forma de grupos pequenos, locais e desconexos que fazem uso do nome KKK. Eles se concentraram na oposio ao movimento dos direitos civis, muitas vezes usando violncia e assassinatos para reprimir ativistas. classificado como um grupo de dio pela Liga Antidifamao e pelo Southern Poverty Law Center.[17] Estima-se ter entre 5.000 e 8.000 membros em 2012. O segundo e terceiro encarnaes do Ku Klux Klan faziam referncias frequentes ao sangue “anglo-saxo” dos Estados Unidos, que remete ao nativismo do sculo XIX.[18] Embora os membros da KKK jurem para defender a moralidade crist, praticamente todas as denominaes crists oficialmente denunciaram as prticas e ideologias da KKK.[19] A primeira Ku Klux Klan na verdade foi fundada pelo general Nathan Bedford Forrest da cidade de Pulaski, Tennessee, em 1865 aps o final da Guerra Civil Americana. Seu objetivo era impedir a integrao social dos negros recm-libertados, como por exemplo, adquirir terras e ter direitos concedidos aos outros cidados, como votar. O nome, cujo registro mais antigo de 1867, parece derivar da palavra grega kklos(do grego ), que significa “crculo”, “anel”, e da palavra inglesa clan (cl) escrita com k. Devido aos mtodos violentos da KKK, h a hiptese de o nome ter-se inspirado no som feito quando se coloca um rifle pronto para atirar. provavelmente o nome tambm pode ter origem no nome de um templo maia, chamado kukulcn. onde segundo os maias, “kukul” significa sagrado ou divino e “can” significa serpente, mas no existem dados que comprovem isso.[carecede fontes] Em 1872 o grupo foi reconhecido como uma entidade terrorista e foi banida dos Estados Unidos. O segundo grupo que utilizou o mesmo nome foi fundado em 1915 (alguns dizem que foi em funo do lanamento do filme O Nascimento de uma Nao, naquele mesmo ano) em Atlanta por William J. Simmons. Este grupo foi criado como uma organizao fraternal e lutou pelo domnio dos brancos protestantes sobre os negros, catlicos, judeus e asiticos, assim como outros imigrantes. Este grupo ficou famoso pelos linchamentos e outras atividades violentas contra seus “inimigos”. Chegou a ter quatro milhes de membros (outros dizem serem cinco milhes) na dcada de 1920[20], incluindo muitos polticos. A popularidade do grupo caiu durante a Grande Depresso e a Segunda Guerra Mundial, j que os Estados Unidos se posicionaram ao lado dos aliados, que eram contrrios ideias totalitrias, extremistas e racistas, como as nazistas.[carecede fontes] A perda de respeitabilidade da Ku Klux Klan devido aos mtodos brutais, ilegais ou meramente arbitrrios e as execues sumrias de inocentes, unidas as divises internas, levou degradao de seu prestgio, apesar de a organizao continuar a realizar expedies punitivas, desempenhando, por exemplo, o papel de supervisora de uma agremiao de patres contra os sindicalistas, cuja cota estava em alta depois da crise de 1929.[carecede fontes] Na dcada de 1930, o nazismo exerceu uma certa atrao sobre a Ku Klux Klan. No passou disso, porm. A aproximao com os alemes foi bruscamente encerrada na Segunda Guerra Mundial, depois do ataque japons base estadunidense de Pearl Harbor, quando muitos membros se alistaram no exrcito para lutar contra o “perigo amarelo”. S faltava o tiro de misericrdia ao imprio invisvel. Em 1944, o servio de contribuies diretas cobrou uma dvida da Klan, pendente desde 1920. Incapaz de honrar o compromisso, a organizao morreu pela segunda vez. Apesar de diversas tentativas de ressurreio (num mbito mais local que nacional), a Ku Klux Klan no obteve mais o sucesso de antes da guerra. Finalmente, o Stetson Kennedy contribuiu para desmistificar a organizao, liberando todos os seus segredos no livro “Eu fiz parte da Ku Klux Klan”. Alguns klanistas ainda insistiram e suscitaram, temporariamente, uma retomada de interesse entre os WASP (sigla em ingls para protestantes brancos anglo-saxes) frustrados, que no compunham mais a maioria da populao estadunidense.[carecede fontes] Na dcada de 1950, a promulgao da lei contra a segregao racial nas escolas pblicas despertou novamente algumas paixes, e cruzes se acenderam. Seguiram-se batalhas, casas dinamitadas e novos crimes (29 mortos de 1956 a 1963, entre eles 11 brancos, durante protestos raciais). Os klanistas tentaram se reciclar no anticomunismo, combatendo os ndios ou atenuando seu anticatolicismo fantico.[21] As quimeras de Garvey tinham quebrado a solidariedade dos negros num tempo das mais pesadas ameaas; num tempo em que a Ku Klux Klan depois de 50 anos de pausa retomava a sua atividade, e quem sabe se no preparava ainda comoes mais terrveis do que aquelas a que tinha recorrido meio sculo antes. Os mtodos da Ku Klux Klan no se haviam modificado de maneira sensvel; agora, como antes, se balanceava (processo pelo qual se fazia deslizar uma vtima manietada por uma estreita barra de ao, dolorosamente, para cima e para baixo, a toda velocidade para criar atrito), espancava, extorquia, boicotava, exilava, linchava e assassinava.[carecede fontes] Mas nada surtiu grande efeito e o declnio da Klan j tinha comeado desde o fim da dcada de 1960, poca em que s contava com algumas dezenas de milhares de membros. Depois, podia-se tentar distinguir os “Imperial Klans of America” dos “Knights of the Ku Klux Klan”, ou ainda dos “Knights of the White Camelia”, alguns dos vrios nomes das tentativas de ressurgimento. Mas os klanistas no eram mais uma organizao de massa. Apesar das proclamaes tonitruantes e de provocaes episdicas, as “Klans” no reuniam mais do que alguns milhares de membros, comparveis assim com outros grupelhos neonazistas com os quais s vezes mantinham relaes. A organizao no parece estar perto de renascer uma segunda vez.[carecede fontes] Os infernos passaram a chamar-se cavernas e as reunies passaram a realizar-se em grandes locais muitas vezes sob o cu aberto. No raro milhares de autos vinham reforar, guardas a cavalo e a p cercavam o local e estavam presentes os utenslios com que se entusiasma qualquer estadunidense: a bandeira estrelada, a Bblia aberta e o punhal desembainhado a fazer pano de fundo, uma cruz em fogo, noite, que projetava uma luz estranhamente tranquilizadora sobre as filas dos agora uniformizados homens dos capuzes brancos.[carecede fontes] De incio a Klan s admitia como membros aquelas pessoas oriundas de pais brancos estadunidenses, nascidas nos Estados Unidos; alm disso, os pais no podiam comungar na religio catlica nem pertencer raa judaica. Mais tarde deixou-se caducar a exigncia de que os pais j deviam ser de nacionalidade estadunidense pois este ponto prejudicara em muito a solcita procura de membros para a Klan e a afluncia de meios de contribuio de scios. O candidato a aceitao era submetido a interrogatrios e em seguida instrudo de que a Klan exigia de todos os seus membros obedincia cega.[carecede fontes] Seguia-se o juramento, batismo, ordenao e apostasia, com a leitura dos pargrafos da f da Klan em que muito se tratava da raa branca e da religio crist. Os crimes que a nova Ku Klux Klan at a sua recente proibio cometeu, sobretudo nos estados do Sul dos Estados Unidos, so to variados e numerosos, to cuidadosamente velados e to intimamente amalgamados com as singularidades da vida pblica naqueles estados, que nunca seria possvel abrang-los a todos. A simples crnica ou mesmo pequena revista, como ns aqui tentamos oferecer, nunca seria capaz de exprimir como o que aconteceu foi caprichoso e horrvel. O mundo teve conhecimento aqui e ali de um registro especialmente alusivo nos jornais, mas depressa ele caiu no esquecimento da conscincia mundial, ainda que esta fatalidade passe posteridade, pois que no houve nenhum dos grandes escritores estadunidenses que alguma vez deixasse passar em branco atuao to vergonhosa. Atualmente, a Ku Klux Klan conta apenas com um efetivo de 3000 homens em todos os antigos estados confederados, apesar do baixo nmero de associados, muitos no associados apoiam a organizao.[carecede fontes]

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August 22, 2016   Posted in: Ku Klux Klan  Comments Closed

A Johnson County resident told police he found a Ku Klux …

A Franklin-area resident told police Tuesday that someone placed racist literature from theKu Klux Klan in his mailbox. The homeowner, who lives west of Franklin nearCenterline Road and Ind.44,found the one-pageleaflet folded in a plastic bag when he checked his mail Tuesday, according to aJohnson County Sheriff’s Office report. Asmall amount of what appeared to be bird seed was in the bag with the leaflet, police said. Sheriff Doug Cox said early Wednesday that the department had not receivedother complaints about a leaflet. The document appeared to be from the “Confederate White Knights Ku Klux Klan” and urged “white European” Americans to support the Second Amendment and other rights. A Franklin-area resident told police Tuesday, Aug. 16, 2016, that someone placed racist literature from the Ku Klux Klan in his mailbox. The homeowner found the leaflet folded in a plastic bag along with what appeared to be bird seed, according to a Johnson County Sheriff’s Office report.(Photo: Provided by Johnson County Sheriff’s Office) Detectives preserved the document asevidence andwereinvestigating. Three weeks ago, similar leaflets were distributed to Fishers residents’ front lawns. A neighbor said he collectedabout 200 Klan leaflets that had been placedin clear bags weighted down with rocks. Call IndyStar reporter Vic Ryckaert at (317) 444-2701. Follow him on Twitter: @vicryc.

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August 20, 2016   Posted in: Ku Klux Klan  Comments Closed

Stop calling fringe white supremacist groups ‘the Ku Klux …

This year marks the 150th anniversary of the Ku Klux Klan’s founding. At its height, the KKK boasted an estimated 5 million members and dominated politics in parts of Texas and across the South.Klan members openly engaged in domestic terrorism and made bombings, lynchings and flaming crosses a fact of life for decades. Today, there are only about 6,000 self-described Klansmen across the country, according to estimates from the Alabama-based Southern Poverty Law Center.Although some white supremacists still burn crosses at night while wearing hooded robes, we should stop referring to these groups as “the Ku Klux Klan.” How we speak about hate groups matters. Modern fringe groups have used myths about the KKK to successfully market themselves as the organization of the past. By allowing new hate groups to co-opt the Ku Klux Klan’s legacy of power, we leave open the possibility that America’s deadliest hate group will rise again in the future. Past Ku Klux Klan “movements” Ku Klux Klan meeting – 1923. From the collection of the Texas/Dallas Historyand Archives Division, Dallas Public Library Three different white supremacy movements have used the Ku Klux Klan name since its founding 150 years ago. The first Ku Klux Klan began in Tennessee after the Civil War. The loosely organized social group quickly evolved into a domestic terrorist organization in response to Southern blacks gaining civil and political rights. The first Ku Klux Klan lasted only a few years. According to the New Georgia Encyclopedia, Democratic electoral wins and heavy federal intervention weakened the Klan’s organizational structure, causing it to fade away in the 1870s. The second Ku Klux Klan was founded in 1915. It is widely believed that the second Klan was inspired by the popular film Birth of a Nation, which portrayed the original KKK as a heroic force in U.S. history. Ku Klux Klan women drum corpsFrom the collection of the Texas/Dallas History and Archives Division, Dallas Public Library After starting as a small group, the second KKK grew into a highly organized national operation that became heavily involved in politics, particularly in the South. The FBI estimates that the second Ku Klux Klan had several million members by the early 1920s. In September 1922, the governor of Louisiana asked for federal intervention because local authorities refused to prosecute Klansmen for rampant criminal activity. According to FBI archives, this letter prompted federal authorities to investigate the Klan and caused many agents to become targets of Klansmen. One FBI memo from November 1922 details an elaborate Klan plot to kill FBI agents investigating crimes in Mer Rouge, La. The plot was reportedly devised by the U.S. attorney in Shreveport, who was a Klansman. By 1930, a combination of high-profile leadership scandals and prosecutions caused Klan membership to plummet to about 30,000. The formal Ku Klux Klan organization lingered until the mid-1940s, then faded out of existence, according to FBI records. Defining the Ku Klux Klan in 2016 The third (and modern) Ku Klux Klan movement is a series of fragmented white supremacist groups that arose during the civil rights era of the 1950s and 1960s. The Southern Poverty Law Center estimates that there are between 5,000 and 8,000 active Klan members “split between different and often warring organizations that use the Klan name.” Continuing to describe these white supremacy groups as “the Ku Klux Klan” implies an organizational unity that does not exist and creates a misleading link to the powerful KKK organization of the 1920s. The modern Ku Klux Klan is not a cohesive organization but rather a brand name used by fringe white supremacy groups that share a common set of fraternal practices and symbols originating from historical KKK movements. This April 28, 2016 photo shows Brent Waller, Mississippi grand dragon and spokesman for the Tennessee-based Ku Klos Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. Waller has since become the imperial wizard of the United Dixie White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. AP Photo/Jay Reeves The range of beliefs among KKK-affiliated groups is very diverse and localized. A few active KKK groups are still domestic terrorist organizations. Other groups such as The United Dixie White Knights and The Knights of the Ku Klux Klan claim on their websites to be non-violent political organizations that advocate for advancing the rights of white Christian protestants. Some Klan groups are still focused on the perceived danger from African Americans, whereas others interviewed by the Associated Press for a recent report were preoccupied withthe perceived threat of immigration. Some groups associate with Neo-Nazis, others don’t. The lack of unity among today’s Klan groups makes it impossible to identify a coherent agenda. The fragmentation also makes it easy for local leaders to disassociate themselves with statements and actions made by other self-described Klansmen. In this Saturday, April 23, 2016 photo, a member of the Ku Klux Klan uses a mobile device during cross burnings after a “white pride” rally in rural Paulding County near Cedar Town, Ga. AP Photo/John Bazemore Instead of pretending the Ku Klux Klan still exists as a national organization, we should treat today’s self-described Klan groups like the fringe local entities that they are. I propose we usethe prefix neo-” to help make the distinction, just as the term “neo-Nazi” is used to describe American groups that use the symbolism of Germany’s Nazi party. By preventing today’s neo-KKK groups from invoking the legacy of the Ku Klux Klan, we can stop this boogeyman from using a historic brand of horror to build itself into a new terrorist organization. Dennis Jansen is a newsletter editor for The Dallas Morning News. Email: djansen@dallasnews.com On Twitter: @dennisjansen

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August 20, 2016   Posted in: Ku Klux Klan  Comments Closed

The Ku Klux Klan The Ku Klux Klan is composed entirely of …

Michael Fisher The Ku Klux Klan I) Abstract The Ku Klux Klan is composed entirely of white, Anglo-saxon, Christian American citizens, both male and female, who believe that their race and religion are superior to those of people of other colors and religions. The Ku Klux Klan has mostly targeted African-Americans in the past due to the freeing of the slaves by Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War. It was therefore at the time just after the end of the war between the states that the Ku Klux Klan was formed by ex-Confederate soldiers. Southerners at this time saw their way of life before the war completely turned upside down and took out their frustration on recently freed blacks. Lynching and other assaults on blacks were commonly committed by Klansmen who were not punished by the government for their crimes. In fact, as depicted in the film Birth of a Nation, the Ku Klux Klan was viewed as a group of brave white heroes who gallantly saved whites from aggressive blacks in the early twentieth century. As time has gone by, the KKK has also been known to heavily discriminate against people of Jewish faith. Bombing of synagogues has been a common act of violence against Jews by the Klan in the past. In addition, the Ku Klux Klan has helped with Mexican border control and claims that when the Klan is on patrol on the border, Mexican illegal aliens are too afraid to come across. It is acts such as this that Klan used to intimidate its opponents into succumbing to its wants. The KKK uses words from the Holy Bible and teachings from Protestant Reverends to support its cause and justify its actions. II. Scope and Purpose of the System The Ku Klux Klan is a group of American white supremacists who believe that all non-Caucasian peoples are inferior and that they have no place in the United States which is only truly home to white Christians. All members of the Ku Klux Klan must be one hundred percent white and Christian. These people feel that they must unite and create white power to defend the white race from other races found in America. They also claim that whites must maintain control of the United States and keep all people of other races and religions from gaining power. Klansmen feel a strong sense of hate towards anyone who is not of their race and religion. They discriminate against these people, and have been known to use acts of violence to intimidate and hold down other races. Traditionally, the Ku Klux Klan has focused the majority of its hate on African-Americans and Jews. Members of the Klan however, are very helpful to one another and look out for the well being of fellow members. The Ku Klux Klan, though hardly influential today, has been found in operation all over the nation in the past as recently as the late 1980s. A majority of its members lived in the South where the group began. However, as the Klan grew it spread all throughout the North, and the western United States. The group was especially active in the South due to the fact that slave-owners resented the emancipation of black slaves after the loss of the Civil War, and were frustrated with the horrible condition of the South during reconstruction. III. Authority Structure The number one source of knowledge for the Ku Klux Klan is the Holy Bible. Members of the Klan believe in the literal truth of the Bible. One KKK member once wrote, the Klansmen pins his faith to the Bible as the revealed will of GOD. In fact many active Klansmen were ordained ministers. In addition, the majority of the members belong to some Protestant church. The religious ideals of the group could be found in ceremonies such as the Klan baptism of an eight-week-old child in 1924 by a gathering of hooded members. In the early 1980s, new religious fundamentalists used very similar rhetoric about Christian supremacy. The Reverend Bailey Smith, the president of the Southern Baptist Convention announces in 1980, God Almighty does not hear the prayer of a Jew. He continued by adding the fact that God cant possibly hear the prayer of someone who does not believe Jesus Christ is the true Messiah. The Klan takes direct action against those who do not share its beliefs or those who it simply views as inferior based on its readings of the Bible. Klansmen recognize the differences of other groups and translate them into justification for hate. Rituals and ceremonies are also very important and commonly used by the Ku Klux Klan. For example, an elaborate initiation ritual is carried out for new members, and the custom of wearing white robes and hoods sets the members apart from other citizens and provides for them a special identity. Cross burning is a very common practice among members of the Klan. This ritual is used mainly as a form of intimidation against those people hated by the Klan. Often the burning cross is driven into the ground and left standing where the targeted group can see it. This ritual has also been called cross lighting, a term used by David Duke and other Klansmen in the 1970s to illustrate that Christ is the light of the world. In the Klan, rituals and ceremonies are held which help instill Klan values and beliefs in the members. However, most members already have a strong sense of white supremacist thought in their heads before they join the Klan. Ordained ministers in the Klan preach the Christian aspect of the Ku Klux Klan to members. These clergymen have been trained in the Church and added their own views to their religion to create an interpretation of the Bible that fits the creed of the Ku-Klux Klan. Important figures such as leaders like Imperial Wizards lead the Klan and mobilize its efforts into structured political fights. For example marches through streets like Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D.C. were common when the Klan was more active. These marches are generally to protest something the Klan does not agree with such as Martin Luther King Day, Black History Month, or Gay rights. IV. History The original Ku Klux Klan was founded in Pulaski, Tennessee during Reconstruction sometime between December 1865 and August 1866. The exact date is unknown due to varying reports of the time as well as conflicting accounts of the event by the principals involved. On June 5, 1867, Klansmen celebrated the groups first anniversary with a gala parade. The name was adapted from the Greek work kuklos meaning circle. Clan was added at the end but spelled with a K for visual effect. The six founders of the Klan were John Lester, James Crowe, John Kennedy, Calvin Jones, Richard Reed, and Frank McCord. Each of these men was a Confederate veteran. They were all also well educated and from wealthy families. The original Klan as created by these men was intended as a social organization with fun and frolic in mind. At the time of the Klans birth, in Pulaski, Tennessee, there were no jobs available, and the state was under tight military control. The six founders of the Klan, like many residents of Pulaski, had nothing to do and had grown restless. For this reason they decided to create their own club. The actions of the early Ku Klux Klan were intended merely as a source of entertainment. Nightly activities consisted of posing as ghosts of Confederate dead to tease and scare black freedmen. The Klansmen also played practical jokes on blacks, though perhaps without any sinister motivation. Post Civil War reconstruction of the South, changed this playful attitude. Diehard Confederates gravitated toward the Klan as a way to defeat black suffrage, continue white supremacy, and restore Democratic party rule to the South. In the spring of 1867, at Nashvilles Maxwell House Hotel, a secret reorganizational meeting was held. Klansmen here endorsed a new constitution, planned a four-year guerrilla war against the federal government in Washington. Nathan Bedford Forrest, former Confederate cavalry leader and slave trader, was chosen as the grand wizard of the KKK. With the next three years, KKK members and allies like the Knights of the White Camellia committed over 2,000 murders and many floggings, rapes, castrations, brandings, and shootings. In 1869, Forrest issued a ban on masked violence, and urged Klansmen to keep a low profile and save ammunition for legitimate emergencies. In the early 1870s the Klan gradually faded out as it successfully terrorized black voters, drove carpetbaggers out, and maintained Democratic party rule in the South. The Klan of the twentieth century was born in November 1915 by Imperial Wizard William J. Simmons. After a period of relative inactivity, Simmons revived the Klan. He recruited publicists to spice up the groups image. Using modern salesmanship and old-fashioned bigotry, he built a large empire. Hiram Evans, a Texas dentist, replaced Simmons in 1922 and led the Klan until June 1939 when the Great Depression caused many to leave the group as its reputation of violence and corruption gave it a negative image. James Colescott succeeded Evans but failed to fully revive the Klan. From this time up until today, many local splinter groups survived or have been created, though the Klan has never reached the size it had prior to 1939. Not nearly as powerful or noticeable today, the KKK still exists and can send messages easily via the internet. Although anyone interested can access these websites, and many people do, violent acts committed by the KKK today are basically unheard of. V. Representative Examples of Argumentation Today the White Camelia Knights of the Ku Klux Klan use quotes from the Bible as well as examples from world history to support their beliefs. As this group attempts to define Christian identity they give reasons why white Christians are a superior people. They state that it is the Anglo-Saxon, Germanic and Scandinavian people that has created great nations and civilizations. Through our laws and technology we have helped raise the standard of living for all the people on earth. Through our great knowledge in farming and agriculture we have helped feed the world and have taught others how to feed themselves. This belief provides for the Klansman his sense of racial superiority. The Camelia Knights state that they look to Christs own words to defend their opinions. They quote Jesus as saying to the Jews in John 10:24-27: ye are not of my sheepMy sheep here my voice, and I know them, and they follow me. The Knights add that there is only one group of people that has always followed Christ and they are White Anglo-Saxon Christians. They discuss how Christians have spread their religion all over the world using missionaries so that people across the world could live a more productive and stable and moral life here on earth. However, the Knights also believe that one of the worst violations of the Heavenly Fathers law is the mingling of their (white races) seed with that of the other peoples of the earth. For this reason the Klan opposes racial mixing. VI. Suggested Position in Comparative Scales (1-10 scale) A) The Ku Klux Klan upholds God and Jesus Christ as the major authorities that all Klansmen should praise. They feel that what they do is Gods will and follows the word of Christ. By interpreting the Bible so that it parallels with their agenda of hate and racial discrimination the Klan sees itself as a group of good, moral, and responsible Christian American citizens. On a one to ten scale, where one is emphasis on traditional authority and ten is the testimony of experience, the KKK gets a five. This is because they believe in traditional Christian authority, but also judge people as they observe them in social situations. B) There is also a centralization of authority within the Klan itself. On the scale, if one is centralized authority and ten is decentralized, the Klan scores a one. There is a set chain of command in which an Emperor or Spiritual Head is at the top. Below him are the Imperial Wizard or Chief Executive, Imperial Kleagle or Chief Treasurer, a Grand Goblin or Section Chief, a King Kleagle or Head of Provisional State, and below these are more positions of lesser stature. Less responsibility rests on positions as they go down the ladder of Klan ranks. C) The Klan also combines a strong emphasis on invisible and spiritual or heavenly realities along with material, earthly ones as well. The Ku Klux Klan believes whole heartedly in the Heavenly Father, GOD and also in Jesus Christ. The Bible is held very dear and its teachings used in Klan thoughts and ideas. After all, being a Christian is basically necessary for one to become a member of the Ku Klux Klan. As for material realities, the Klan focuses much attention on the physical differences between races and ethnicities. Certain groups of people are discriminated by the Klan simply because they look different. Black people are a good example of this because many of them are Christian but are still labeled as part of an inferior race by the Klan. The Klan also uses its elaborate robes and hooded white outfits as a way to hide ones identity while also separating members from other ordinary citizens. The Klan scores a five with one being invisible realities and ten being material because it uses some of both. D) The objective of the Klan is to help the White Anglo-Saxon Christian people thrive and be superior to all other races. They believe in helping one another in order to keep their people strong as a united race. With one being moral or spiritual objectives and ten being pragmatic, the Klan scores a one because it believes that white Christians are morally and spiritually superior. E) The power recognized by the Klan does not seem to be strictly reserved for a divine being such as God. The Klansmen instead feel that Gods power is in every white Christian individual and can be realized by a Klan member. If one is power held by a divine being and ten is power held by individuals, the Klan scores a five because it holds the power of God and Jesus high, but also believes in the power of each of its members. Together these individuals create what the Klan refers to as white power. Bibliography Primary Source: White Camelia Knights. Website: www.wckkkk.com, 2001-2002. Date accessed: March 13, 2003. -A very extensive website several links. I used mainly the Christian Identity page with states exactly what being a Christian and Klan member really means. It tells why Christianity and the white race are so important to the Klan. This site provides information on almost every aspect of the Klan. It even tells one how to go about joining the Klan. Clearly this website is updated often and worked on very hard by current members. This really gave me an insight about exactly what Klansmen really think about themselves. It was more helpful than a history book because the words on this site come straight from Klan members themselves. This gives a direct impression of what the Klan is doing today and what it believes. Secondary Sources: Maclean, Nancy. Behind the Mask of Chivalry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. -This book was very helpful and gives lots of information on the history of the Ku Klux Klan in the 20th century. Many diagrams and pictures are provided to give a visual idea of what the Klan is. Real photographs with captions are given as well. Overall a great source which I found useful. Newton, Michael. The Ku Klux Klan: An Encyclopedia. London: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1991. -An excellent source for quick references. Contains lengthy information on almost all terms related to the Klan. Very easy to use and search for certain keywords. I used it to gather most of my research. Wade, Wyn Craig. The Fiery Cross. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987. -A very good source with in depth information on Klan activities and religious beliefs. Also filled with real photographs of Klan scenes. An interesting and helpful account of the Ku Klux Klan and what it really is.

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August 12, 2016   Posted in: Ku Klux Klan  Comments Closed

North Carolina Civil War Sesquicentennial

Following the war, President Andrew Johnson moved to Reconstruct the South on his own initiative. Yet Southern states (including North Carolina) began to pass “Black Codes,” or laws subjecting former slaves to a variety of restrictions on their freedom. Secret societies, including the Ku Klux Klan, were formed initially to terrorize blacks, and the Klan quickly spread to North Carolina. In 1866, the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was passed by Congress, granting full citizenship to blacks, and giving the Federal government responsibility to protect equal rights under the law to all American citizens. In 1867, Congress temporarily placed most of the South under military rule. North Carolina was in the Second Military District (out of five) under Maj. Gen. Daniel Sickles (March-August 1867) and Brig. Gen. Edward R. S. Canby (September 1867-August 1868). After 1868, the Federal military presence in North Carolina dwindled. The capital city of Raleigh, however, remained a military outpost. During this period, the force was reduced to around 500 troops statewide, and included the 8th U.S. Infantry. The occupation lasted until 1877, when “home rule” was finally restored. In North Carolina, President Johnson appointed William W. Holden as provisional governor, and many Confederates were pardoned. Jonathan Worth, wartime state treasurer, then defeated Holden for the governorship, and many former Confederate officials were elected to Congress. Congress, however, refused to seat these delegates on the grounds that they had been disloyal to the Union and freedmen were being mistreated (via the “Black Codes”). Johnson and the U.S. Congress clashed over Reconstruction policy. Congress wanted full citizenship and civil rights for freedmen, while Johnson did not. Congressional Republicans overrode Johnson’s veto to pass Reconstruction acts, which placed the southern states, except Tennessee, under military control, disfranchised many former Confederates, and required states to revise their constitutions to enfranchise freedmen. When these states were reorganized under their new constitutions, they were required to ratify the 14th Amendment, which would allow them to regain their seats in Congress. North Carolina ratified the 14th Amendment on July 4, 1868 and was readmitted to the Union. Several African American military units pulled duty in North Carolina during the occupation. The 37th U.S. Colored Troops were stationed at various points along the coast until February 1867. The 40th U.S. Infantry (colored) served in North Carolina from March 1867 through March 1869. During this period, Fort Macon was used as a jail. Former Union general Ulysses S. Grant was elected president in 1868. Though aligned with the “Radical Republicans” in Congress, Grant did not provide strong leadership during Reconstruction. In 1869, the 15th Amendment was passed by Congress, prohibiting any state from denying a citizen the right to vote because of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. North Carolina ratified the 15th Amendment on March 5, 1869. William W. Holden headed the new North Carolina Republican Party, which included freedmen, carpetbaggers, and native whites. The Republicans controlled the state convention of 1868 that drafted a more democratic constitution. They also controlled the new state government, and Holden was elected governor. During this period, North Carolina sent 13 African American delegates to the state constitutional convention in 1867. Between 1870 and 1876, North Carolina’s African American office holders included 30 state legislators and one U. S. Congressman (John A. Hyman, a former slave, who held office from 1875 to 1877. Hyman had also served in the North Carolina State Senate, 1868-1874). Unfortunately, the “new order” did not last long. Opponents of Holden’s regime used the issue of “white supremacy” and violence to regain control of state government. The Ku Klux Klan operated in counties with slight Republican majorities. Using murder and intimidation, the Klan suppressed the Republican vote in 1870. On February 26, 1870, Wyatt Outlaw a former slave and former Union soldier was lynched by the Klan in Alamance County (where Outlaw was politically active). On May 21, 1870, state senator and Freedmen’s Bureau agent John W. Stephens who had tried to organize the black population in Caswell County was assisnated by the Klan at the county court house. Governor Holden used state troops against the Klan, but captives were released by federal judges. Controlling the 1871 legislature, Democrats impeached Holden and removed him from office (the first governor in American history to suffer such a fate). The Republican Party did win the governorship in 1872 and nearly controlled the state convention of 1875 that revised the constitution for Democratic advantage. But in 1876, the Democratic Party established white supremacy in state government and used fraud to remain in power. Thus Jubilation turned to Jim Crow, and another uphill battle was begun. This legacy was still being felt by the time of the white overthrow of black government in Wilmington one of North Carolina’s most progressive towns in 1898 (popularly known as the “Wilmington Race Riot”). A few more African Americans from North Carolina did, however, serve in the U.S. Congress in the late nineteenth century, including James E. O’Hara (1883-1887); Henry P. Cheatham (1889-1893); and George Henry White (1897-1901). White was the only black member of Congress during his tenure, and 28 years would pass before another black member was seated. It would take diligent activism and new Civil Rights laws passed in the mid-1960s for the South to even begin to overcome the legacy of slavery. That struggle continues today. Return to History

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August 3, 2016   Posted in: Ku Klux Klan  Comments Closed

Ku Klux Klan – Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Ku Klux Klan is a hate group.[1] It was started in the southern United States on 3 March 1865. Most of its hate has been towards African-Americans, but it has also attacked Catholics, Jews and immigrants. It has sought to keep something called “white power”, often through very violent acts such as killing people. The first Ku Klux Klan broke up and does not exist anymore. However, other groups with the same name and the same ideas have been created. The Ku Klux Klan (acronym KKK) is an organization which was started in the South of the United States in 1865. This was after the American Civil War. It was to resist the Reconstruction of the United States. During this time, there were troops based in the ex-Confederacy states. The Klan was scared that the population in the South could lose their democratic rights. Also the Klan members believed that African Americans were inferior to (less than) white people. The Klan acted against black people. Republicans were also targets of attacks by the Klan. The methods of acting against people were often the same: the Klan members tried to frighten the people that the Klan wanted to go out of town. The KKK tried to scare people by burning crosses or by threatening them. If people did not react, the Klan sometimes killed them. The growing violence which was promoted by the KKK led to many lynchings (giving a person an unfair trial and killing them, often by hanging by the neck). The KKK was “prohibited” (made against the law) in 1871. After 1871, many KKK members were imprisoned (put in Prison). However, the Klan had achieved many of its original goals. For example, the occupation troops were moved out of the Southern states, to the West. The KKK affected many African Americans throughout the last century. In 1915, William J. Simmons started the Ku Klux Klan for a second time. Most of the rituals and traditions of the old Ku Klux Klan were kept. Any white Protestant man could join the KKK. The KKK still attacked African Americans, but they also attacked Jews and Catholics this time. In 1920, growing economic problems in rural areas caused the Klan to grow again. The KKK strongly argued for white supremacy. White supremacy says that people who are white (from European origins) are better than other racial groups and must rule them. The Klan killed many blacks. These were not legal executions because there were no trials. Many people now call these acts a kind of terrorism, because the KKK used fear to control African Americans and take away their political rights. In the middle of the 20s the Klan got smaller due to bad leaders and too much violence. After the Second World War, the Klan closed again because it owed more money than it could pay. In 1954, the United States Supreme Court (the highest court in the US) made an important decision. The case was Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. The court ruled (decided) that it was un-Constitutional to have different schools for black and white children. When this ruling passed, many independent groups using the Ku Klux Klan name attacked African Americans. In the summer of 1964, Edgar Killen killed three African Americans that participated in the civil rights movement. Killen was a member of the Ku Klux Klan. There was an early trial in 1967, but in this trial there was an all-white jury and so Killen was set free. In 1988 a movie called Mississippi Burning was made which talked about the events of this case. In 2005 there was another trial. Killen (now 80 years old) was sentenced to prison for 160 years. In 2011 they were estimated to be perhaps as many as 5,000 members.[2]

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August 1, 2016   Posted in: Ku Klux Klan  Comments Closed

KKK – Welcome to the Ku Klux Klan: Knights Party

Black Lives Matter . . . is pure hatred, and as it is directed against white cops, racist. After the massacre of five Dallas cops, during a protest of police shootings of black men in Louisiana and Minnesota, President Obama said, America is not as divided as some have suggested. Former D.C. Police Chief Charles Ramsey, an African-American, says we are sitting on a powder keg. Put me down as agreeing with the president. For when a real powder keg blew in the 60s, I was there. And this is not it. In 1965, the Watts area of Los Angeles exploded in the worst racial violence since the New York draft riot of 1863 when Lincoln had to send in veterans of Gettysburg. After six days of looting, shooting and arson in LA, there were 34 dead, 1,000 injured, 4,000 arrested. In 1967, Newark, New Jersey, and Detroit exploded, bringing out not only the Guard but the 82nd Airborne. After Dr. King was assassinated on April 4, 1968, a hundred American cities burst into flame. Troops defended the White House. Marines mounted machine guns on the Capitol steps. Thousands of soldiers patrolled the city. The 7th and 14th street corridors of my hometown, D.C., were gutted and would not be rebuilt for years. That was a powder kegthat went off. Read MORE

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July 29, 2016   Posted in: Ku Klux Klan  Comments Closed

Ku Klux Klan | NCpedia

by Allen W. Trelease, 2006 There have been three Ku Klux Klan KKK movements in North Carolina and the nation, similar in character but distinct organizationally and chronologically. The first Klan flourished in the Reconstruction era, its name derived from the Greek word kuklos for circle or band; it was almost exclusively southern in its membership and mission to perpetuate white supremacy. Beginning as a social fraternity in Pulaski, Tenn., in 1866, the KKK was soon taken over by former Confederate officers, including Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest, and transformed into a paramilitary force to oppose Republican policies, especially black suffrage, in Tennessee. In 1868 the order quickly spread across the South as other Republican state governments were established under the Congressional Reconstruction acts. The most Klan-ridden areas of North Carolina were Alamance and Caswell Counties in the northern Piedmont in 1869-70 and Rutherford and Cleveland Counties in the southern foothills a year later. Neighboring counties, such as Sampson, Lenoir, and Jones in the southeast, were also affected. In these places, disguised night riders roamed the countryside, dragging people from their homes; lynching, whipping, shooting, or otherwise assaulting them; driving them away, or destroying their property. Most of the victims were black, but white Republicans were also attacked, especially in Rutherford County. Around the turn of the twentieth century, the KKK, and the Confederate Lost Cause generally, took on for southerners a retrospective romantic appeal that had been lacking amid the suffering immediately after the war. This attraction was greatly stimulated by North Carolinian Thomas Dixon’s novel, The Clansman (1905), and D. W. Griffith’s film based on the novel, The Birth of a Nation (1915). The second incarnation of the KKK was born in that environment in Atlanta, Ga., in 1915, encouraging superpatriotism during World War I. After the war, its membership and geographic range expanded dramatically. During its heyday in the early 1920s, the second KKK numbered about 3 million members nationwide. It gained political power in Indiana, Oklahoma, Oregon, and other states but was comparatively weak in North Carolina. Unlike the first Klan, it was primarily urban, reflecting demographic changes in the country. Its members, drawn chiefly from the lower middle class, were often religious fundamentalists who felt threatened by the drift away from the small-town Protestant culture they had known growing up. They disdained immigrants, especially communists and other radicals, labor unions, Jews, Catholics, and the increasing number of blacks moving into both northern and southern cities. Some Klansmen resorted to the terrorism of earlier days, but the vast majority were nonviolent. The modern-day KKK emerged in 1946, two years after the second Klan had disbanded as a result of its legal, financial, and political crises. Although this new KKK was fueled by the fear of communism abroad and at home, practically all of its violent activities were directed at undermining efforts to secure the civil rights of African Americans in the South. In North Carolina, one of its banner states, the modern Klan thrived among mill workers and other blue-collar laborers in the Piedmont. One of its greatest embarrassments occurred in 1958, when a prospective KKK rally near Maxton (Robeson County) was broken up by a group of Lumbee Indians. Nationally, the peak in membership came during the civil rights demonstrations of the 1960s, when it may have reached 55,000 (9,800 members in North Carolina). By 1995 the Klan was at its lowest ebb in many years, nationally and locally. The modern Klan has been chronically fragmented and prone to internal conflicts over policy and leadership. Groups have differed in their readiness to embrace violence. In 1979 Klansmen attacked a Communist Workers Party “Death to the Klan” march in Greensboro, killing five people. They have sometimes forged alliances with like-minded organizations, as when North Carolina Klansmen (also in 1979) briefly formed a United Racist Front with the state’s tiny Nazi Party. For all of its ability to make headlines, the KKK historically has failed to accomplish its major objectives. It did not end southern Reconstruction in the 1870s; that was more nearly the work of organized rioters and Red Shirt campaigners. It did not significantly deflect the nation’s progress toward a pluralistic, democratic society in the 1920s. And its major effect on the civil rights movement was to hasten the triumph of that cause when Klan bloodshed mobilized public support for passage of landmark civil rights legislation in the 1960s.

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July 29, 2016   Posted in: Ku Klux Klan  Comments Closed


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