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Martin Luther King Jr. – Biography – NobelPrize.org

Martin Luther King, Jr., (January 15, 1929-April 4, 1968) was born Michael Luther King, Jr., but later had his name changed to Martin. His grandfather began the familys long tenure as pastors of the Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta, serving from 1914 to 1931; his father has served from then until the present, and from 1960 until his death Martin Luther acted as co-pastor. Martin Luther attended segregated public schools in Georgia, graduating from high school at the age of fifteen; he received the B. A. degree in 1948 from Morehouse College, a distinguished Negro institution of Atlanta from which both his father and grandfather had graduated. After three years of theological study at Crozer Theological Seminary in Pennsylvania where he was elected president of a predominantly white senior class, he was awarded the B.D. in 1951. With a fellowship won at Crozer, he enrolled in graduate studies at Boston University, completing his residence for the doctorate in 1953 and receiving the degree in 1955. In Boston he met and married Coretta Scott, a young woman of uncommon intellectual and artistic attainments. Two sons and two daughters were born into the family.

In 1954, Martin Luther King became pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama. Always a strong worker for civil rights for members of his race, King was, by this time, a member of the executive committee of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, the leading organization of its kind in the nation. He was ready, then, early in December, 1955, to accept the leadership of the first great Negro nonviolent demonstration of contemporary times in the United States, the bus boycott described by Gunnar Jahn in his presentation speech in honor of the laureate. The boycott lasted 382 days. On December 21, 1956, after the Supreme Court of the United States had declared unconstitutional the laws requiring segregation on buses, Negroes and whites rode the buses as equals. During these days of boycott, King was arrested, his home was bombed, he was subjected to personal abuse, but at the same time he emerged as a Negro leader of the first rank.

In 1957 he was elected president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, an organization formed to provide new leadership for the now burgeoning civil rights movement. The ideals for this organization he took from Christianity; its operational techniques from Gandhi. In the eleven-year period between 1957 and 1968, King traveled over six million miles and spoke over twenty-five hundred times, appearing wherever there was injustice, protest, and action; and meanwhile he wrote five books as well as numerous articles. In these years, he led a massive protest in Birmingham, Alabama, that caught the attention of the entire world, providing what he called a coalition of conscience. and inspiring his Letter from a Birmingham Jail, a manifesto of the Negro revolution; he planned the drives in Alabama for the registration of Negroes as voters; he directed the peaceful march on Washington, D.C., of 250,000 people to whom he delivered his address, l Have a Dream, he conferred with President John F. Kennedy and campaigned for President Lyndon B. Johnson; he was arrested upwards of twenty times and assaulted at least four times; he was awarded five honorary degrees; was named Man of the Year by Time magazine in 1963; and became not only the symbolic leader of American blacks but also a world figure.

At the age of thirty-five, Martin Luther King, Jr., was the youngest man to have received the Nobel Peace Prize. When notified of his selection, he announced that he would turn over the prize money of $54,123 to the furtherance of the civil rights movement.

On the evening of April 4, 1968, while standing on the balcony of his motel room in Memphis, Tennessee, where he was to lead a protest march in sympathy with striking garbage workers of that city, he was assassinated.

Selected bibliography

Adams, Russell, Great Negroes Past and Present, pp. 106-107. Chicago, Afro-Am Publishing Co., 1963.

Bennett, Lerone, Jr., What Manner of Man: A Biography of Martin Luther King, Jr. Chicago, Johnson, 1964.

I Have a Dream: The Story of Martin Luther King in Text and Pictures. New York, Time Life Books, 1968.

King, Martin Luther, Jr., The Measure of a Man. Philadelphia. The Christian Education Press, 1959. Two devotional addresses.

King, Martin Luther, Jr., Strength to Love. New York, Harper & Row, 1963. Sixteen sermons and one essay entitled Pilgrimage to Nonviolence.

King, Martin Luther, Jr., Stride toward Freedom: The Montgomery Story. New York, Harper, 1958.

King, Martin Luther, Jr., The Trumpet of Conscience. New York, Harper & Row, 1968.

King, Martin Luther, Jr., Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community? New York, Harper & Row, 1967.

King, Martin Luther, Jr., Why We Cant Wait. New York, Harper & Row, 1963.

Man of the Year, Time, 83 (January 3, 1964) 13-16; 25-27.

Martin Luther King, Jr., in Current Biography Yearbook 1965, ed. by Charles Moritz, pp. 220-223. New York, H.W. Wilson.

Reddick, Lawrence D., Crusader without Violence: A Biography of Martin Luther King, Jr. New York, Harper, 1959.

From Nobel Lectures, Peace 1951-1970, Editor Frederick W. Haberman, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1972

This autobiography/biography was written at the time of the award and first published in the book series Les Prix Nobel. It was later edited and republished in Nobel Lectures. To cite this document, always state the source as shown above.

* Note from Nobelprize.org: This biography uses the word Negro. Even though this word today is considered inappropriate, the biography is published in its original version in view of keeping it as a historical document.

To cite this section MLA style: Martin Luther King Jr. Biography. NobelPrize.org. Nobel Media AB 2018. Sun. 9 Sep 2018.

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Martin Luther King, Jr. I Have A Dream Speech – YouTube

Martin Luther King, Jr., (January 15, 1929-April 4, 1968) was born Michael Luther King, Jr., but later had his name changed to Martin. His grandfather began the family’s long tenure as pastors of the Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta, serving from 1914 to 1931; his father has served from then until the present, and from 1960 until his death Martin Luther acted as co-pastor. Martin Luther attended segregated public schools in Georgia, graduating from high school at the age of fifteen; he received the B. A. degree in 1948 from Morehouse College, a distinguished Negro* institution of Atlanta from which both his father and grandfather had graduated. After three years of theological study at Crozer Theological Seminary in Pennsylvania where he was elected president of a predominantly white senior class, he was awarded the B.D. in 1951. With a fellowship won at Crozer, he enrolled in graduate studies at Boston University, completing his residence for the doctorate in 1953 and receiving the degree in 1955. In Boston he met and married Coretta Scott, a young woman of uncommon intellectual and artistic attainments. Two sons and two daughters were born into the family

In 1954, Martin Luther King became pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama. Always a strong worker for civil rights for members of his race, King was, by this time, a member of the executive committee of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, the leading organization of its kind in the nation. He was ready, then, early in December, 1955, to accept the leadership of the first great Negro nonviolent demonstration of contemporary times in the United States, the bus boycott described by Gunnar Jahn in his presentation speech in honor of the laureate. The boycott lasted 382 days. On December 21, 1956, after the Supreme Court of the United States had declared unconstitutional the laws requiring segregation on buses, Negroes and whites rode the buses as equals. During these days of boycott, King was arrested, his home was bombed, he was subjected to personal abuse, but at the same time he emerged as a Negro leader of the first rank.

In 1957 he was elected president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, an organization formed to provide new leadership for the now burgeoning civil rights movement. The ideals for this organization he took from Christianity; its operational techniques from Gandhi. In the eleven-year period between 1957 and 1968, King traveled over six million miles and spoke over twenty-five hundred times, appearing wherever there was injustice, protest, and action; and meanwhile he wrote five books as well as numerous articles. In these years, he led a massive protest in Birmingham, Alabama, that caught the attention of the entire world, providing what he called a coalition of conscience. and inspiring his “Letter from a Birmingham Jail”, a manifesto of the Negro revolution; he planned the drives in Alabama for the registration of Negroes as voters; he directed the peaceful march on Washington, D.C., of 250,000 people to whom he delivered his address, “l Have a Dream”, he conferred with President John F. Kennedy and campaigned for President Lyndon B. Johnson; he was arrested upwards of twenty times and assaulted at least four times; he was awarded five honorary degrees; was named Man of the Year by Time magazine in 1963; and became not only the symbolic leader of American blacks but also a world figure.

At the age of thirty-five, Martin Luther King, Jr., was the youngest man to have received the Nobel Peace Prize. When notified of his selection, he announced that he would turn over the prize money of $54,123 to the furtherance of the civil rights movement.

On the evening of April 4, 1968, while standing on the balcony of his motel room in Memphis, Tennessee, where he was to lead a protest march in sympathy with striking garbage workers of that city, he was assassinated.

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123 Of The Most Powerful Martin Luther King Jr. Quotes

Martin Luther King Jr. was born in Atlanta, Georgia on January 15th, 1929. He was a pivotal advocate for African Americans during the Civil Rights Movement in the United States.

King experienced racism from an early age, and those events stayed with and eventually brought him to a life of activism. After graduating college with a doctorate degree in theology, King became a pastor in Alabama. He began a seriesof peaceful protests in the south that eventually changed many laws dealing with the equality of African Americans. King gave hundreds of moving speeches across the country, and in 1964 was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

On April 4th, 1968, King was shot and killed while in Memphis, Tennessee. Although his life ended that day, the work that he had accomplished changed the nation. King will be remembered not only for his commitment to the cause of equality for African Americans but also for his profound speeches that moved so many.

Martin Luther King Jr.s words were spoken with hope that the future for African Americans would be brighter and that they would finally be given the equality they deserved.

The following 123 Martin Luther King Jr. quotes on life, love, progress, and freedom helped shape the progressive world we live in today.

We are not makers of history. We are made by history.

Lightning makes no sound until it strikes. -Martin Luther King Jr.

Every man must decide whether he will walk in the light of creative altruism or in the darkness of destructive selfishness.

Science investigates; religion interprets. Science gives man knowledge, which is power; religion gives man wisdom, which is control. Science deals mainly with facts; religion deals mainly with values. The two are not rivals.

We must use time creatively, in the knowledge that the time is always ripe to do right.

There is nothing more tragic than to find an individual bogged down in the length of life, devoid of breadth.

Property is intended to serve life, and no matter how much we surround it with rights and respect, it has no personal being. It is part of the earth man walks on. It is not man.

The function of education is to teach one to think intensively and to think critically. Intelligence plus character that is the goal of true education.

We may have all come on different ships, but were in the same boat now. -Martin Luther King Jr.

All labor that uplifts humanity has dignity and importance and should be undertaken with painstaking excellence.

An individual has not started living until he can rise above the narrow confines of his individualistic concerns to the broader concerns of all humanity.

Rarely do we find men who willingly engage in hard, solid thinking. There is an almost universal quest for easy answers and half-baked solutions. Nothing pains some people more than having to think.

Every man lives in two realms: the internal and the external. The internal is that realm of spiritual ends expressed in art, literature, morals, and religion. The external is that complex of devices, techniques, mechanisms, and instrumentalities by means of which we live.

Shallow understanding from people of good will is more frustrating than absolute misunderstanding from people of ill will.

There comes a time when people get tired of being pushed out of the glittering sunlight of lifes July and left standing amid the piercing chill of an alpine November.

The quality, not the longevity, of ones life is what is important. -Martin Luther King Jr.

A lie cannot live.

The past is prophetic in that it asserts loudly that wars are poor chisels for carving out peaceful tomorrows

The limitation of riots, moral questions aside, is that they cannot win and their participants know it. Hence, rioting is not revolutionary but reactionary because it invites defeat. It involves an emotional catharsis, but it must be followed by a sense of futility.

Love is the only force capable of transforming an enemy into friend. -Martin Luther King Jr.

He who is devoid of the power to forgive is devoid of the power to love.

I believe that unarmed truth and unconditional love will have the final word in reality. This is why right, temporarily defeated, is stronger than evil triumphant.

There can be no deep disappointment where there is not deep love.

We must develop and maintain the capacity to forgive. He who is devoid of the power to forgive is devoid of the power to love. There is some good in the worst of us and some evil in the best of us. When we discover this, we are less prone to hate our enemies.

I have decided to stick with love. Hate is too great a burden to bear. -Martin Luther King Jr.

Nonviolence is absolute commitment to the way of love. Love is not emotional bash; it is not empty sentimentalism. It is the active outpouring of ones whole being into the being of another.

Man must evolve for all human conflict a method which rejects revenge, aggression and retaliation. The foundation of such a method is love.

It is not enough to say we must not wage war. It is necessary to love peace and sacrifice for it.

If you cant fly then run, if you cant run then walk, if you cant walk then crawl, but whatever you do you have to keep moving forward.

Only in the darkness can you see the stars. -Martin Luther King Jr.

Let no man pull you so low as to hate him.

There comes a time when one must take a position that is neither safe nor politic nor popular, but he must take it because his conscience tells him it is right.

Everybody can be great because anybody can serve. You dont have to have a college degree to serve. You dont have to make your subject and verb agree to serve. You only need a heart full of grace. A soul generated by love.

No one really knows why they are alive until they know what theyd die for. -Martin Luther King Jr.

A man who wont die for something is not fit to live.

We must build dikes of courage to hold back the flood of fear.

We must accept finite disappointment, but never lose infinite hope.

Those who are not looking for happiness are the most likely to find it, because those who are searching forget that the surest way to be happy is to seek happiness for others.

Never succumb to the temptation of bitterness.

No person has the right to rain on your dreams. -Martin Luther King Jr.

You will change your mind; You will change your looks; You will change your smile,laugh, and ways but no matter what you change, you will always be you.

Whatever your lifes work is, do it well. A man should do his job so well that the living, the dead, and the unborn could do it no better.

Everything that we see is a shadow cast by that which we do not see.

We must concentrate not merely on the negative expulsion of war but the positive affirmation of peace.

The art of acceptance is the art of making someone who has just done you a small favor wish that he might have done you a greater one.

A riot is the language of the unheard.

A genuine leader is not a searcher for consensus but a molder of consensus. -Martin Luther King Jr.

Our lives begin to end the day we become silent about things that matter.

The ultimate measure of a man is not where he stands in moments of comfort and convenience, but where he stands at times of challenge and controversy.

Nothing in all the world is more dangerous than sincere ignorance and conscientious stupidity.

Never, never be afraid to do whats right, especially if the well-being of a person or animal is at stake. Societys punishments are small compared to the wounds we inflict on our soul when we look the other way.

Forgiveness is not an occasional act; it is a constant attitude.

Lifes most persistent and urgent question is, What are you doing for others?’ -Martin Luther King Jr.

Ten thousand fools proclaim themselves into obscurity, while one wise man forgets himself into immortality.

When you are right you cannot be too radical; when you are wrong, you cannot be too conservative.

That old law about an eye for an eye leaves everybody blind. The time is always right to do the right thing.

If I cannot do great things, I can do small things in a great way.

Change does not roll in on the wheels of inevitability, but comes through continuous struggle. -Martin Luther King Jr.

We are prone to judge success by the index of our salaries or the size of our automobiles rather than by the quality of our service and relationship to mankind.

Whatever affects one directly, affects all indirectly. I can never be what I ought to be until you are what you ought to be. This is the interrelated structure of reality.

Not everybody can be famous but everybody can be great because greatness is determined by service You only need a heart full of grace and a soul generated by love.

I came to the conclusion that there is an existential moment in your life when you must decide to speak for yourself; nobody else can speak for you. -Martin Luther King Jr.

Almost always, the creative dedicated minority has made the world better.

The soft-minded man always fears change. He feels security in the status quo, and he has an almost morbid fear of the new. For him, the greatest pain is the pain of a new idea.

We cannot walk alone.

He who passively accepts evil is as much involved in it as he who helps to perpetrate it. He who accepts evil without protesting against it is really cooperating with it.

I am not interested in power for powers sake, but Im interested in power that is moral, that is right and that is good.

Human progress is neither automatic nor inevitable Every step toward the goal of justice requires sacrifice, suffering, and struggle; the tireless exertions and passionate concern of dedicated individuals.

People fail to get along because they fear each other; they fear each other because they dont know each other; they dont know each other because they have not communicated with each other.

The ultimate tragedy is not the oppression and cruelty by the bad people but the silence over that by the good people. -Martin Luther King Jr.

I refuse to accept the view that mankind is so tragically bound to the starless midnight of racism and war that the bright daybreak of peace and brotherhood can never become a reality I believe that unarmed truth and unconditional love will have the final word.

We will remember not the words of our enemies, but the silence of our friends.

Law and order exist for the purpose of establishing justice and when they fail in this purpose they become the dangerously structured dams that block the flow of social progress.

People fail to get along because they fear each other; they fear each other because they dont know each other; they dont know each other because they have not communicated with each other. -Martin Luther King Jr.

We must learn to live together as brothers or perish together as fools.

Capitalism does not permit an even flow of economic resources. With this system, a small privileged few are rich beyond conscience, and almost all others are doomed to be poor at some level. Thats the way the system works. And since we know that the system will not change the rules, we are going to have to change the system.

Our scientific power has outrun our spiritual power. We have guided missiles and misguided men.

We must come to see that the end we seek is a society at peace with itself, a society that can live with its conscience.

I have a dream that one day little black boys and girls will be holding hands with little white boys and girls.

What is wrong in the world today is that the nations of the world are engaged in a bitter, colossal contest for supremacy.

I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character.

All progress is precarious, and the solution of one problem brings us face to face with another problem. -Martin Luther King Jr.

History will have to record that the greatest tragedy of this period of social transition was not the strident clamor of the bad people, but the appalling silence of the good people.

A nation or civilization that continues to produce soft-minded men purchases its own spiritual death on the installment plan.

The more there are riots, the more repressive action will take place, and the more we face the danger of a right-wing takeover and eventually a fascist society.

Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere. -Martin Luther King Jr.

No, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream.

The hope of a secure and livable world lies with disciplined nonconformists who are dedicated to justice, peace and brotherhood.

The moral arc of the universe bends at the elbow of justice.

It may be true that the law cannot make a man love me, but it can keep him from lynching me, and I think thats pretty important.

Of all the forms of inequality, injustice in health care is the most shocking and inhumane.

Never forget that everything Hitler did in Germany was legal.

I submit that an individual who breaks a law that conscience tells him is unjust, and who willingly accepts the penalty of imprisonment in order to arouse the conscience of the community over its injustice, is in reality expressing the highest respect for law.

The principle of self defense, even involving weapons and bloodshed, has never been condemned, even by Gandhi.

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Martin Luther King Jr. – Minister, Civil Rights Activist …

Martin Luther King Jr. was a Baptist minister and social activist, who led the Civil Rights Movement in the United States from the mid-1950s until his death by assassination in 1968.

Martin Luther King Jr. was born in 1929 in Atlanta, Georgia. King, a Baptist minister and civil-rights activist, had a seismic impact on race relations in the United States, beginning in the mid-1950s.

Among his many efforts, King headed the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Through his activism and inspirational speeches he played a pivotal role in ending the legal segregation of African-American citizens in the United States, as well as the creation of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

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King received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964, among several other honors. He was assassinated in April 1968, and continues to be remembered as one of the most influential and inspirational African-American leaders in history.

Born as Michael King Jr. on January 15, 1929, Martin Luther King Jr. was the middle child of Michael King Sr. and Alberta Williams King. The King and Williams families were rooted in rural Georgia. Martin Jr.’s grandfather, A.D. Williams, was a rural minister for years and then moved to Atlanta in 1893. He took over the small, struggling Ebenezer Baptist church with around 13 members and made it into a forceful congregation. He married Jennie Celeste Parks and they had one child that survived, Alberta. Michael King Sr. came from a sharecropper family in a poor farming community. He married Alberta in 1926 after an eight-year courtship. The newlyweds moved to A.D. Williams’ home in Atlanta.

Michael King Sr. stepped in as pastor of Ebenezer Baptist Church upon the death of his father-in-law in 1931. He too became a successful minister, and adopted the name Martin Luther King Sr. in honor of the German Protestant religious leader Martin Luther. In due time, Michael Jr. would follow his father’s lead and adopt the name himself.

Young Martin had an older sister, Willie Christine, and a younger brother, Alfred Daniel Williams King. The King children grew up in a secure and loving environment. Martin Sr. was more the disciplinarian, while his wife’s gentleness easily balanced out the father’s more strict hand. Though they undoubtedly tried, Martin Jr.s parents couldnt shield him completely from racism. Martin Luther King Sr. fought against racial prejudice, not just because his race suffered, but because he considered racism and segregation to be an affront to God’s will. He strongly discouraged any sense of class superiority in his children which left a lasting impression on Martin Jr.

Growing up in Atlanta, Georgia, Martin Luther King Jr. entered public school at age 5. In May, 1936 he was baptized, but the event made little impression on him. In May, 1941, Martin was 12 years old when is grandmother, Jennie, died of a heart attack. The event was traumatic for Martin, more so because he was out watching a parade against his parents’ wishes when she died. Distraught at the news, young Martin jumped from a second story window at the family home, allegedly attempting suicide.

King attended Booker T. Washington High School, where he was said to be a precocious student. He skipped both the ninth and eleventh grades, and entered Morehouse College in Atlanta at age 15, in 1944. He was a popular student, especially with his female classmates, but an unmotivated student who floated though his first two years. Although his family was deeply involved in the church and worship, young Martin questioned religion in general and felt uncomfortable with overly emotional displays of religious worship. This discomfort continued through much of his adolescence, initially leading him to decide against entering the ministry, much to his father’s dismay. But in his junior year, Martin took a Bible class, renewed his faith and began to envision a career in the ministry. In the fall of his senior year, he told his father of his decision.

In 1948, Martin Luther King Jr. earned a sociology degree from Morehouse College and attended the liberal Crozer Theological Seminary in Chester, Pennsylvania. He thrived in all his studies, and was valedictorian of his class in 1951, and elected student body president. He also earned a fellowship for graduate study. But Martin also rebelled against his fathers more conservative influence by drinking beer and playing pool while at college. He became involved with a white woman and went through a difficult time before he could break off the affair.

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During his last year in seminary, Martin Luther King Jr. came under the guidance of Morehouse College President Benjamin E. Mays who influenced Kings spiritual development. Mays was an outspoken advocate for racial equality and encouraged King to view Christianity as a potential force for social change. After being accepted at several colleges for his doctoral study, including Yale and Edinburgh in Scotland, King enrolled at Boston University.

During the work on his doctorate, Martin Luther King Jr. met Coretta Scott, an aspiring singer and musician, at the New England Conservatory school in Boston. They were married in June 1953 and had four children, Yolanda, Martin Luther King III, Dexter Scott and Bernice. In 1954, while still working on his dissertation, King became pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church of Montgomery, Alabama. He completed his Ph.D. and earned his degree in 1955. King was only 25 years old.

On March 2, 1955, a 15-year-old girl refused to give up her seat to a white man on a Montgomery city bus in violation of local law. Claudette Colvin was arrested and taken to jail. At first, the local chapter of the NAACP felt they had an excellent test case to challenge Montgomery’s segregated bus policy. But then it was revealed that she was pregnant and civil rights leaders feared this would scandalize the deeply religious black community and make Colvin (and, thus the group’s efforts) less credible in the eyes of sympathetic whites.

On December 1, 1955, they got another chance to make their case. That evening, 42-year-old Rosa Parks boarded the Cleveland Avenue bus to go home after an exhausting day at work. She sat in the first row of the “colored” section in the middle of the bus. As the bus traveled its route, all the seats in the white section filled up, then several more white passengers boarded the bus. The bus driver noted that there were several white men standing and demanded that Parks and several other African Americans give up their seats. Three other African American passengers reluctantly gave up their places, but Parks remained seated. The driver asked her again to give up her seat and again she refused. Parks was arrested and booked for violating the Montgomery City Code. At her trial a week later, in a 30-minute hearing, Parks was found guilty and fined $10 and assessed $4 court fee.

On the night that Rosa Parks was arrested, E.D. Nixon, head of the local NAACP chapter met with Martin Luther King Jr. and other local civil rights leaders to plan a citywide bus boycott. King was elected to lead the boycott because he was young, well-trained with solid family connections and had professional standing. But he was also new to the community and had few enemies, so it was felt he would have strong credibility with the black community.

In his first speech as the group’s president, King declared, “We have no alternative but to protest. For many years we have shown an amazing patience. We have sometimes given our white brothers the feeling that we liked the way we were being treated. But we come here tonight to be saved from that patience that makes us patient with anything less than freedom and justice.”

Martin Luther King Jr.’s skillful rhetoric put a new energy into the civil rights struggle in Alabama. The bus boycott involved 382 days of walking to work, harassment, violence and intimidation for the Montgomery’s African-American community. Both King’s and E.D. Nixon’s homes were attacked. But the African-American community also took legal action against the city ordinance arguing that it was unconstitutional based on the Supreme Court’s “separate is never equal” decision in Brown v. Board of Education. After being defeated in several lower court rulings and suffering large financial losses, the city of Montgomery lifted the law mandating segregated public transportation.

Flush with victory, African-American civil rights leaders recognized the need for a national organization to help coordinate their efforts. In January 1957, Martin Luther King Jr., Ralph Abernathy, and 60 ministers and civil rights activists founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference to harness the moral authority and organizing power of black churches. They would help conduct non-violent protests to promote civil rights reform. King’s participation in the organization gave him a base of operation throughout the South, as well as a national platform. The organization felt the best place to start to give African Americans a voice was to enfranchise them in the voting process. In February 1958, the SCLC sponsored more than 20 mass meetings in key southern cities to register black voters in the South. King met with religious and civil rights leaders and lectured all over the country on race-related issues.

In 1959, with the help of the American Friends Service Committee, and inspired by Gandhi’s success with non-violent activism, Martin Luther King visited Gandhi’s birthplace in India. The trip affected him in a deeply profound way, increasing his commitment to America’s civil rights struggle. African-American civil rights activist Bayard Rustin, who had studied Gandhi’s teachings, became one of King’s associates and counseled him to dedicate himself to the principles of non-violence. Rustin served as King’s mentor and advisor throughout his early activism and was the main organizer of the 1963 March on Washington. But Rustin was also a controversial figure at the time, being a homosexual with alleged ties to the Communist Party, USA. Though his counsel was invaluable to King, many of his other supporters urged him to distance himself from Rustin.

In February 1960, a group of African-American students began what became known as the “sit-in” movement in Greensboro, North Carolina. The students would sit at racially segregated lunch counters in the city’s stores. When asked to leave or sit in the colored section, they just remained seated, subjecting themselves to verbal and sometimes physical abuse. The movement quickly gained traction in several other cities. In April 1960, the SCLC held a conference at Shaw University in Raleigh, North Carolina with local sit-in leaders. Martin Luther King Jr. encouraged students to continue to use nonviolent methods during their protests. Out of this meeting, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee formed and for a time, worked closely with the SCLC. By August of 1960, the sit-ins had been successful in ending segregation at lunch counters in 27 southern cities.

By 1960, Martin Luther King Jr. was gaining national notoriety. He returned to Atlanta to become co-pastor with his father at Ebenezer Baptist Church, but also continued his civil rights efforts. On October 19, 1960, King and 75 students entered a local department store and requested lunch-counter service but were denied. When they refused to leave the counter area, King and 36 others were arrested. Realizing the incident would hurt the city’s reputation, Atlanta’s mayor negotiated a truce and charges were eventually dropped. But soon after, King was imprisoned for violating his probation on a traffic conviction. The news of his imprisonment entered the 1960 presidential campaign, when candidate John F. Kennedy made a phone call to Coretta Scott King. Kennedy expressed his concern for King’s harsh treatment for the traffic ticket and political pressure was quickly set in motion. King was soon released.

In the spring of 1963, Martin Luther King Jr. organized a demonstration in downtown Birmingham, Alabama. Entire families attended. City police turned dogs and fire hoses on demonstrators. Martin Luther King was jailed along with large numbers of his supporters, but the event drew nationwide attention. However, King was personally criticized by black and white clergy alike for taking risks and endangering the children who attended the demonstration. From the jail in Birmingham, King eloquently spelled out his theory of non-violence: “Nonviolent direct action seeks to create such a crisis and foster such a tension that a community, which has constantly refused to negotiate, is forced to confront the issue.”

By the end of the Birmingham campaign, Martin Luther King Jr. and his supporters were making plans for a massive demonstration on the nation’s capital composed of multiple organizations, all asking for peaceful change. On August 28, 1963, the historic March on Washington drew more than 200,000 people in the shadow of the Lincoln Memorial. It was here that King made his famous “I Have a Dream” speech, emphasizing his belief that someday all men could be brothers.

“I have a dream that my four children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.” Martin Luther King, Jr. / “I Have A Dream” speech, August 28, 1963

The rising tide of civil rights agitation produced a strong effect on public opinion. Many people in cities not experiencing racial tension began to question the nation’s Jim Crow laws and the near century second class treatment of African-American citizens. This resulted in the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 authorizing the federal government to enforce desegregation of public accommodations and outlawing discrimination in publicly owned facilities. This also led to Martin Luther King receiving the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964.

King’s struggle continued throughout the 1960s. Often, it seemed as though the pattern of progress was two steps forward and one step back. On March 7, 1965, a civil rights march, planned from Selma to Alabama’s capital in Montgomery, turned violent as police with nightsticks and tear gas met the demonstrators as they tried to cross the Edmund Pettus Bridge. King was not in the march, however the attack was televised showing horrifying images of marchers being bloodied and severely injured. Seventeen demonstrators were hospitalized in a day that would be called “Bloody Sunday.” A second march was cancelled due to a restraining order to prevent the march from taking place. A third march was planned and this time King made sure he was part of it. Not wanting to alienate southern judges by violating the restraining order, a different approach was taken. On March 9, 1965, a procession of 2,500 marchers, both black and white, set out once again to cross the Pettus Bridge and confronted barricades and state troopers. Instead of forcing a confrontation, King led his followers to kneel in prayer and they then turned back.Alabama governor George Wallace continued to try to prevent another march, however, President Lyndon Johnson pledged his support and ordered U.S. Army troops and the Alabama National Guard to protect the protestors. On March 21, approximately 2,000 people began a march from Selma to the capitol in Montgomery. On March 25, the number of marchers, which had grown to an estimated 25,000, gathered in front of the state capitol where Dr. King delivered a televised speech. Five months after the historic peaceful protest, President Johnson signed the 1965 Voting Rights Act.

From late 1965 through 1967, Martin Luther King Jr. expanded his civil rights efforts into other larger American cities, including Chicago and Los Angeles. But he met with increasing criticism and public challenges from young black power leaders. King’s patient, non-violent approach and appeal to white middle-class citizens alienated many black militants who considered his methods too weak, too late and ineffective. To address this criticism, King began making a link between discrimination and poverty, and he began to speak out against the Vietnam War. He felt that America’s involvement in Vietnam was politically untenable and the government’s conduct in the war discriminatory to the poor. He sought to broaden his base by forming a multi-race coalition to address economic and unemployment problems of all disadvantaged people.

By 1968, the years of demonstrations and confrontations were beginning to wear on Martin Luther King Jr. He had grown tired of marches, going to jail, and living under the constant threat of death. He was becoming discouraged at the slow progress of civil rights in America and the increasing criticism from other African-American leaders. Plans were in the works for another march on Washington to revive his movement and bring attention to a widening range of issues. In the spring of 1968, a labor strike by Memphis sanitation workers drew King to one last crusade. On April 3, he gave his final and what proved to be an eerily prophetic speech,Ive Been to the Mountaintop,in which he told supporters at the Mason Temple in Memphis, “I’ve seen the promised land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight that we, as a people, will get to the promised land.” The next day, while standing on a balcony outside his room at the Lorraine Motel, Martin Luther King Jr. was struck by a sniper’s bullet. The shooter, a malcontent drifter and former convict named James Earl Ray, was eventually apprehended after a two-month, international manhunt. The killing sparked riots and demonstrations in more than 100 cities across the country. In 1969, Ray pleaded guilty to assassinating King and was sentenced to 99 years in prison. He died in prison on April 23, 1998.

Martin Luther King Jr.’s life had a seismic impact on race relations in the United States. Years after his death, he is the most widely known African-American leader of his era. His life and work have been honored with a national holiday, schools and public buildings named after him, and a memorial on Independence Mall in Washington, D.C. But his life remains controversial as well. In the 1970s, FBI files, released under the Freedom of Information Act, revealed that he was under government surveillance, and suggested his involvement in adulterous relationships and communist influences. Over the years, extensive archival studies have led to a more balanced and comprehensive assessment of his life, portraying him as a complex figure: flawed, fallible and limited in his control over the mass movements with which he was associated, yet a visionary leader who was deeply committed to achieving social justice through nonviolent means.

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Dodge Super Bowl ad using Martin Luther King Jr’s speech …

A Super Bowl ad for Dodge Ram trucks using one of Martin Luther King Jr.’s last sermons drew a backlash on social media and a rebuke from some of the civil rights leader’s loved ones while winning support from others.

The one-minute ad watched by more than 100 million viewers featured King’s famous “The Drum Major Instinct” sermon he gave at Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta, Georgia, just two months before he was assassinated.

The King Center in Atlanta immediately condemned the ad, asserting in a tweet that neither it nor King’s daughter, Bernice King, “is the entity that approves the use of #MLK’s words or imagery for use in merchandise, entertainment (movies, music, artwork, etc) or advertisement, including tonight’s @Dodge #SuperBowl commercial.”

But the company that manages the former civil rights leader’s intellectual property, run by his son, Dexter King, issued a statement Monday morning saying it had approved the ad.

“We found that the overall message of the ad embodied Dr. King’s philosophy that true greatness is achieved by serving others. Thus we decided to be a part of Ram’s ‘Built To Serve’ Super Bowl program,” the firm, Intellectual Properties Management, said in its statement.

Besides promoting Dodge Ram pickup trucks, the ad was meant to publicize Ram Nation, the car company’s campaign to encourage volunteerism at food pantries, clean-up programs and other do-good projects in communities across the country.

The ad begins with the words “Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.” and gives the date Feb. 4, 1968, day 50 years ago to the day after when King gave his sermon.

As music plays, and King’s soaring voice is heard: “If you want to be important–wonderful. If you want to be recognized–wonderful. If you want to be great–wonderful.”

A black Dodge Ram truck appears in the commercial plowing through the mud as King reaches the apex of his sermon, saying, “But recognize that he who is greatest among you shall be your servant. That’s a new definition of greatness.”

Images of Americans show throughout the commercial, ranging from horse wranglers in the West to fishermen, teachers and Marines.

The ad was roundly bashed on social media with people calling it “tasteless” and “tone deaf.”

In a Twitter post, actress Justine Bateman wrote, “A Martin Luther King Jr speech to sell @Dodge Ram trucks? Totally offensive. #mlk.”

New York Times columnist Charles Blow, also took to Twitter, writing, “The blatant commodification of black culture, black struggle and black pain illustrates perfectly how America is perfectly willing to exploit blackness but perfectly incapable of honoring it. #DodgeRam #MLK.”

Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, which manufactures Dodge Ram trucks, defended the ad in a statement.

“It is 50 years to the day that Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. gave such a tremendous speech about the value of service,” the company said. “Ram was honored to have the privilege of working with the Estate of Martin Luther King Jr. to celebrate those words during the largest TV viewing event annually. We worked closely with the representatives of the Martin Luther King Jr. estate to receive the necessary approvals and estate representatives were a very important part of the creative process every step of the way.”

On ABC’s “Good Morning America” Monday, advertising executive Donny Deutch said there are different ways to look at the ad.

“You could come out two sides on that and say, ‘It’s quite exploitative,’ [and] on the other hand, you could say, ‘Well, just the more people that hear his voice, we’re better for this.'”

Deutch added that in today’s world, the commercial will most likely be forgotten.

“I always wonder at the end of the day do people remember?” he said. “Are they going to remember? ‘OK, I remember there was a Martin Luther King ad, but who was it for? I remember there was an ad about first responders, but who was it for?'”

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Trump administration celebrates Martin Luther King Jr.

Trump administration officials on Monday honored Dr. Martin Luther King, paying tribute to the fallen civil rights leader as the nation marked the day celebrating his legacy.

At a wreath-laying ceremony at the MLK Jr. Memorial in Washington, FBI Director Chris Wray and Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke praised King and said his words were just as important today.

Dr. King understood no man is an island and that we rise and fall together, Wray said. He noted that whatever effects one directly effects all indirectly, listing violent crime, discrimination and hatred.

We have made progress as a nation over the last 50 years, but it isnt enough, he said. We still havent reached that mountain top that Dr. King referenced so eloquently.

Wray said that the FBI was determined to ensure fairness and equality, and foster diversity to better reflect the communities they serve.

[Our job at the FBI] is simple and profound. To protect the American people, and uphold The Constitution, and to follow the facts independently wherever they may lead, he said, adding that protecting civil rights and observing civil liberties was at the heart of everything the bureau does.

Wray announced that the FBI now requires every new analyst and agent in training to take a course specifically dedicated to King, and to visit this memorial to understand how we can better do our jobs.

We will only continue to make progress as we continue to move forward together, he said. One day we will reach that mountain top together.

Zinke told the crowd that Kings dream was highly rooted in the dream of all Americans.

His dream was a fully integrated American for all people, all faiths, genders, religions, he said. We all have the obligation to make sure our fight for justice, equality the battle that we face every dayis fought and won because it is deeply rooted in us as a people.

Over the weekend, Vice President Pence and his wife visited the memorial for a private wreath laying.

Honored to lay a wreath at MLK Jr. Memorial w/ @SecondLady, Pence tweeted. He was a great American leader who inspired a movement & transformed a Nation. He took the words of our Founders to heart to forge a more perfect union based on the notion all men are created equal & in the image of God.

Also Monday, President Trump remembered King in a recorded White House weekly address posted on Twitter.

Dr. King’s dream is our dream, Trump said. It is the American Dream. It’s the promise stitched into the fabric of our Nation, etched into the hearts of our people, and written into the soul of humankind.”

He spent the day at his Florida resort, Mar-a-Lago, and the Trump International Golf Course in West Palm Beach.

Trump signed a Martin Luther King Jr. proclamation last week, amid criticism over comments he made Thursday at an Oval Office meeting on immigration with seven lawmakers in which he questioned why people from “sh–hole” countries like Haiti, Honduras, and African countries come to the United States.

King’s eldest son, Martin Luther King III, called out Trump’s comments on Monday.

“When a president insists that our nation needs more citizens from white states like Norway, I don’t even think we need to spend any time even talking about what it says and what it does,” King said. “We got to find a way to work on this man’s heart.”

Other critics have denounced Trump and accused him of being a racist.On Sunday Trump told reporters that he was “not a racist.” He also has denied making those comments.

First Lady Melania Trump also paid tribute Kings memory Monday.

“Today we honor Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. & his service to this great country. I am honored to be First Lady of a nation that continually strives for equality & justice for all.#MLKDay,” the first lady posted on her Twitter page.

Other administration officials, including White House Press Secretary Sarah Sanders, Ivanka Trump tweeted in commemoration of King.

The Associated Press contributed to this report.

Brooke Singman is a Politics Reporter for Fox News. Follow her on Twitter at @brookefoxnews.

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Trump signs law creating national historic park for Martin …

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signing a proclamation for Martin Luther King Jr. Day – cnn.com

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protest”,”duration”:”00:57″,”sourceName”:”CNN”,”sourceLink”:”http://www.cnn.com/”,”videoCMSUrl”:”/video/data/3.0/video/sports/2016/09/02/colin-kaepernick-national-anthem-orig-vstan-aa.cnn/index.xml”,”videoId”:”sports/2016/09/02/colin-kaepernick-national-anthem-orig-vstan-aa.cnn”,”videoImage”:”//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/160913103322-colin-kaepernick-la-rams-kneel-large-169.jpg”,”videoUrl”:”/videos/sports/2016/09/02/colin-kaepernick-national-anthem-orig-vstan-aa.cnn/video/playlists/donald-trump-and-race/”,”description”:”San Francisco 49ers quarterback Colin Kaepernick continues his protest by kneeling and sitting during the national anthem at NFL games. “,”descriptionText”:”San Francisco 49ers quarterback Colin Kaepernick continues his protest by kneeling and sitting during the national anthem at NFL games. “},{“title”:”Panelist: Trump’s NFL remark shows privilege”,”duration”:”01:41″,”sourceName”:”CNN”,”sourceLink”:”http://www.cnn.com/”,”videoCMSUrl”:”/video/data/3.0/video/politics/2017/09/23/donald-trump-nfl-anthem-protest-panel-sot.cnn/index.xml”,”videoId”:”politics/2017/09/23/donald-trump-nfl-anthem-protest-panel-sot.cnn”,”videoImage”:”//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/170923170521-panel-first-amendment-large-169.jpg”,”videoUrl”:”/videos/politics/2017/09/23/donald-trump-nfl-anthem-protest-panel-sot.cnn/video/playlists/donald-trump-and-race/”,”description”:”Former DC Democratic Party Chairman A. Scott Bolden rejects President Donald Trump’s suggestion that NFL owners should fire players for kneeling during the National Anthem. “,”descriptionText”:”Former DC Democratic Party Chairman A. Scott Bolden rejects President Donald Trump’s suggestion that NFL owners should fire players for kneeling during the National Anthem. “},{“title”:”Trump: Are Washington, Jefferson statues next?”,”duration”:”01:02″,”sourceName”:”CNN”,”sourceLink”:”http://www.cnn.com/”,”videoCMSUrl”:”/video/data/3.0/video/politics/2017/08/15/donald-trump-jefferson-washington-slaves-sot.cnn/index.xml”,”videoId”:”politics/2017/08/15/donald-trump-jefferson-washington-slaves-sot.cnn”,”videoImage”:”//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/170815172116-donald-trump-jefferson-washington-slaves-sot-00004524-large-169.jpg”,”videoUrl”:”/videos/politics/2017/08/15/donald-trump-jefferson-washington-slaves-sot.cnn/video/playlists/donald-trump-and-race/”,”description”:”President Trump references former Presidents George Washington and Thomas Jefferson’s ownership of slaves when speaking to the media about recent protests of Confederate monuments.”,”descriptionText”:”President Trump references former Presidents George Washington and Thomas Jefferson’s ownership of slaves when speaking to the media about recent protests of Confederate monuments.”},{“title”:”Former KKK leader invokes Trump’s name”,”duration”:”00:47″,”sourceName”:”CNN”,”sourceLink”:”http://www.cnn.com”,”videoCMSUrl”:”/video/data/3.0/video/politics/2017/08/12/david-duke-trump-charlottesville-protest-nr.cnn/index.xml”,”videoId”:”politics/2017/08/12/david-duke-trump-charlottesville-protest-nr.cnn”,”videoImage”:”//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/170812133947-david-duke-trump-charlottesville-protest-nr-00000000-large-169.jpg”,”videoUrl”:”/videos/politics/2017/08/12/david-duke-trump-charlottesville-protest-nr.cnn/video/playlists/donald-trump-and-race/”,”description”:”Former KKK leader David Duke invoked President Trump’s name at a white nationalist rally in Charlottesville, Virginia.”,”descriptionText”:”Former KKK leader David Duke invoked President Trump’s name at a white nationalist rally in Charlottesville, Virginia.”},{“title”:”Trump’s words are making racism OK”,”duration”:”02:00″,”sourceName”:”CNN”,”sourceLink”:””,”videoCMSUrl”:”/video/data/3.0/video/us/2017/08/14/trump-condemns-racism-jpm-orig.cnn/index.xml”,”videoId”:”us/2017/08/14/trump-condemns-racism-jpm-orig.cnn”,”videoImage”:”//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/170812140653-23-charlottesville-white-nationalist-protest-0812-large-169.jpg”,”videoUrl”:”/videos/us/2017/08/14/trump-condemns-racism-jpm-orig.cnn/video/playlists/donald-trump-and-race/”,”description”:”CNN’s Sara Sidner explains that while the President may have condemned racists by name, his earlier words may have sparked the movement.”,”descriptionText”:”CNN’s Sara Sidner explains that while the President may have condemned racists by name, his earlier words may have sparked the movement.”},{“title”:”Ana Navarro: Republicans need to grow a spine”,”duration”:”01:57″,”sourceName”:”CNN”,”sourceLink”:”http://www.cnn.com”,”videoCMSUrl”:”/video/data/3.0/video/politics/2017/08/16/trump-republicans-charlottesville-navarro-sot-ctn.cnn/index.xml”,”videoId”:”politics/2017/08/16/trump-republicans-charlottesville-navarro-sot-ctn.cnn”,”videoImage”:”//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/170815231324-navarro-don-8-15-large-169.jpg”,”videoUrl”:”/videos/politics/2017/08/16/trump-republicans-charlottesville-navarro-sot-ctn.cnn/video/playlists/donald-trump-and-race/”,”description”:”During “CNN Tonight” with Don Lemon, commentator Ana Navarro spoke directly to President Donald Trump, telling him that unless he can represent all Americans he should not be President. “,”descriptionText”:”During “CNN Tonight” with Don Lemon, commentator Ana Navarro spoke directly to President Donald Trump, telling him that unless he can represent all Americans he should not be President. “}],’js-video_headline-featured-9v94bs’,”,”js-video_source-featured-9v94bs”,true,true,’donald-trump-and-race’);if (typeof configObj.context !== ‘string’ || configObj.context.length

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Trump upgrades Martin Luther King birthplace to national …

A look at some of the most inspiring quotes from Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. USA TODAY

President Trump is accompanied by Alveda King, niece of civil rights activist Martin Luther King Jr. as he arrives at Dobbins Air Reserve Base in Marietta, Ga., Monday. Trump signed a bill expanding the Martin Luther King national historical site before attending college football’s national championship game in Atlanta.(Photo: Andrew Harnik, AP)

WASHINGTON President Trump signed a bill Monday to expand the Rev. Martin Luther King’s birthplace in Atlanta into a national historical parkthe first such park inGeorgia.

Trump signed Martin Luther King, Jr. National Historical Park Act of 2017 aboard Air Force One after touching down in Marietta, Ga., to attend the college football national championship game between the University of Alabama and the University of Georgia.

Alveda King,niece of the slain civil rights leader, joined Trump for a small, privatebill-signing ceremony aboard Air Force One.

“Through his life and work, Dr. Martin Luther KingJr. made America more just and free,” White House deputy press secretary Hogan Gidley told reporters aboard the plane. “This important historical park tells his story, and this bill will help ensure that the park continues to tell Dr. Kings story for generations to come.”

Earlier: Reserved Trump praises ‘true American heroes’ at Mississippi Civil Rights Museum

The national historical site in Atlanta already includes King’s birthplace, the church where he was baptized, and his burial place. The legislation Trump signed Monday upgrades the designation to a national historical park, and expands the boundaries to includethePrince Hall Masonic Temple.

The temple served as the headquarters of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, the civil rights group King co-founded.

More: President Trump signs executive order on rural broadband Internet

The bill was sponsored by Rep. John Lewis, D-Ga., who said the change would significantly improve the way the National Park Service preserves, sharesand presents King’s legacy to visitors.

The nation will celebrate a federal holiday named for King on Monday.

Earlier Monday, Trump signed a related bill, the African American Civil Rights Network Act of 2017, which requires the National Park Service to link various historical sites related to the civil rights movement.

He also signed the400 Years of African-American History Commission Act to commemorate the arrival of the first Africans in the English colonies at Point Comfort, Va., in 1619.

Follow Gregory Korte on Twitter: @gregorykorte

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Trump upgrades Martin Luther King birthplace to national …

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Martin Luther King Jr. – Biography – NobelPrize.org

Martin Luther King, Jr., (January 15, 1929-April 4, 1968) was born Michael Luther King, Jr., but later had his name changed to Martin. His grandfather began the familys long tenure as pastors of the Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta, serving from 1914 to 1931; his father has served from then until the present, and from 1960 until his death Martin Luther acted as co-pastor. Martin Luther attended segregated public schools in Georgia, graduating from high school at the age of fifteen; he received the B. A. degree in 1948 from Morehouse College, a distinguished Negro institution of Atlanta from which both his father and grandfather had graduated. After three years of theological study at Crozer Theological Seminary in Pennsylvania where he was elected president of a predominantly white senior class, he was awarded the B.D. in 1951. With a fellowship won at Crozer, he enrolled in graduate studies at Boston University, completing his residence for the doctorate in 1953 and receiving the degree in 1955. In Boston he met and married Coretta Scott, a young woman of uncommon intellectual and artistic attainments. Two sons and two daughters were born into the family. In 1954, Martin Luther King became pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama. Always a strong worker for civil rights for members of his race, King was, by this time, a member of the executive committee of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, the leading organization of its kind in the nation. He was ready, then, early in December, 1955, to accept the leadership of the first great Negro nonviolent demonstration of contemporary times in the United States, the bus boycott described by Gunnar Jahn in his presentation speech in honor of the laureate. The boycott lasted 382 days. On December 21, 1956, after the Supreme Court of the United States had declared unconstitutional the laws requiring segregation on buses, Negroes and whites rode the buses as equals. During these days of boycott, King was arrested, his home was bombed, he was subjected to personal abuse, but at the same time he emerged as a Negro leader of the first rank. In 1957 he was elected president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, an organization formed to provide new leadership for the now burgeoning civil rights movement. The ideals for this organization he took from Christianity; its operational techniques from Gandhi. In the eleven-year period between 1957 and 1968, King traveled over six million miles and spoke over twenty-five hundred times, appearing wherever there was injustice, protest, and action; and meanwhile he wrote five books as well as numerous articles. In these years, he led a massive protest in Birmingham, Alabama, that caught the attention of the entire world, providing what he called a coalition of conscience. and inspiring his Letter from a Birmingham Jail, a manifesto of the Negro revolution; he planned the drives in Alabama for the registration of Negroes as voters; he directed the peaceful march on Washington, D.C., of 250,000 people to whom he delivered his address, l Have a Dream, he conferred with President John F. Kennedy and campaigned for President Lyndon B. Johnson; he was arrested upwards of twenty times and assaulted at least four times; he was awarded five honorary degrees; was named Man of the Year by Time magazine in 1963; and became not only the symbolic leader of American blacks but also a world figure. At the age of thirty-five, Martin Luther King, Jr., was the youngest man to have received the Nobel Peace Prize. When notified of his selection, he announced that he would turn over the prize money of $54,123 to the furtherance of the civil rights movement. On the evening of April 4, 1968, while standing on the balcony of his motel room in Memphis, Tennessee, where he was to lead a protest march in sympathy with striking garbage workers of that city, he was assassinated. Selected bibliography Adams, Russell, Great Negroes Past and Present, pp. 106-107. Chicago, Afro-Am Publishing Co., 1963. Bennett, Lerone, Jr., What Manner of Man: A Biography of Martin Luther King, Jr. Chicago, Johnson, 1964. I Have a Dream: The Story of Martin Luther King in Text and Pictures. New York, Time Life Books, 1968. King, Martin Luther, Jr., The Measure of a Man. Philadelphia. The Christian Education Press, 1959. Two devotional addresses. King, Martin Luther, Jr., Strength to Love. New York, Harper & Row, 1963. Sixteen sermons and one essay entitled Pilgrimage to Nonviolence. King, Martin Luther, Jr., Stride toward Freedom: The Montgomery Story. New York, Harper, 1958. King, Martin Luther, Jr., The Trumpet of Conscience. New York, Harper & Row, 1968. King, Martin Luther, Jr., Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community? New York, Harper & Row, 1967. King, Martin Luther, Jr., Why We Cant Wait. New York, Harper & Row, 1963. Man of the Year, Time, 83 (January 3, 1964) 13-16; 25-27. Martin Luther King, Jr., in Current Biography Yearbook 1965, ed. by Charles Moritz, pp. 220-223. New York, H.W. Wilson. Reddick, Lawrence D., Crusader without Violence: A Biography of Martin Luther King, Jr. New York, Harper, 1959. From Nobel Lectures, Peace 1951-1970, Editor Frederick W. Haberman, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1972 This autobiography/biography was written at the time of the award and first published in the book series Les Prix Nobel. It was later edited and republished in Nobel Lectures. To cite this document, always state the source as shown above. * Note from Nobelprize.org: This biography uses the word Negro. Even though this word today is considered inappropriate, the biography is published in its original version in view of keeping it as a historical document. To cite this section MLA style: Martin Luther King Jr. Biography. NobelPrize.org. Nobel Media AB 2018. Sun. 9 Sep 2018.

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Martin Luther King, Jr. I Have A Dream Speech – YouTube

Martin Luther King, Jr., (January 15, 1929-April 4, 1968) was born Michael Luther King, Jr., but later had his name changed to Martin. His grandfather began the family’s long tenure as pastors of the Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta, serving from 1914 to 1931; his father has served from then until the present, and from 1960 until his death Martin Luther acted as co-pastor. Martin Luther attended segregated public schools in Georgia, graduating from high school at the age of fifteen; he received the B. A. degree in 1948 from Morehouse College, a distinguished Negro* institution of Atlanta from which both his father and grandfather had graduated. After three years of theological study at Crozer Theological Seminary in Pennsylvania where he was elected president of a predominantly white senior class, he was awarded the B.D. in 1951. With a fellowship won at Crozer, he enrolled in graduate studies at Boston University, completing his residence for the doctorate in 1953 and receiving the degree in 1955. In Boston he met and married Coretta Scott, a young woman of uncommon intellectual and artistic attainments. Two sons and two daughters were born into the family In 1954, Martin Luther King became pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama. Always a strong worker for civil rights for members of his race, King was, by this time, a member of the executive committee of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, the leading organization of its kind in the nation. He was ready, then, early in December, 1955, to accept the leadership of the first great Negro nonviolent demonstration of contemporary times in the United States, the bus boycott described by Gunnar Jahn in his presentation speech in honor of the laureate. The boycott lasted 382 days. On December 21, 1956, after the Supreme Court of the United States had declared unconstitutional the laws requiring segregation on buses, Negroes and whites rode the buses as equals. During these days of boycott, King was arrested, his home was bombed, he was subjected to personal abuse, but at the same time he emerged as a Negro leader of the first rank. In 1957 he was elected president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, an organization formed to provide new leadership for the now burgeoning civil rights movement. The ideals for this organization he took from Christianity; its operational techniques from Gandhi. In the eleven-year period between 1957 and 1968, King traveled over six million miles and spoke over twenty-five hundred times, appearing wherever there was injustice, protest, and action; and meanwhile he wrote five books as well as numerous articles. In these years, he led a massive protest in Birmingham, Alabama, that caught the attention of the entire world, providing what he called a coalition of conscience. and inspiring his “Letter from a Birmingham Jail”, a manifesto of the Negro revolution; he planned the drives in Alabama for the registration of Negroes as voters; he directed the peaceful march on Washington, D.C., of 250,000 people to whom he delivered his address, “l Have a Dream”, he conferred with President John F. Kennedy and campaigned for President Lyndon B. Johnson; he was arrested upwards of twenty times and assaulted at least four times; he was awarded five honorary degrees; was named Man of the Year by Time magazine in 1963; and became not only the symbolic leader of American blacks but also a world figure. At the age of thirty-five, Martin Luther King, Jr., was the youngest man to have received the Nobel Peace Prize. When notified of his selection, he announced that he would turn over the prize money of $54,123 to the furtherance of the civil rights movement. On the evening of April 4, 1968, while standing on the balcony of his motel room in Memphis, Tennessee, where he was to lead a protest march in sympathy with striking garbage workers of that city, he was assassinated.

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123 Of The Most Powerful Martin Luther King Jr. Quotes

Martin Luther King Jr. was born in Atlanta, Georgia on January 15th, 1929. He was a pivotal advocate for African Americans during the Civil Rights Movement in the United States. King experienced racism from an early age, and those events stayed with and eventually brought him to a life of activism. After graduating college with a doctorate degree in theology, King became a pastor in Alabama. He began a seriesof peaceful protests in the south that eventually changed many laws dealing with the equality of African Americans. King gave hundreds of moving speeches across the country, and in 1964 was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. On April 4th, 1968, King was shot and killed while in Memphis, Tennessee. Although his life ended that day, the work that he had accomplished changed the nation. King will be remembered not only for his commitment to the cause of equality for African Americans but also for his profound speeches that moved so many. Martin Luther King Jr.s words were spoken with hope that the future for African Americans would be brighter and that they would finally be given the equality they deserved. The following 123 Martin Luther King Jr. quotes on life, love, progress, and freedom helped shape the progressive world we live in today. We are not makers of history. We are made by history. Lightning makes no sound until it strikes. -Martin Luther King Jr. Every man must decide whether he will walk in the light of creative altruism or in the darkness of destructive selfishness. Science investigates; religion interprets. Science gives man knowledge, which is power; religion gives man wisdom, which is control. Science deals mainly with facts; religion deals mainly with values. The two are not rivals. We must use time creatively, in the knowledge that the time is always ripe to do right. There is nothing more tragic than to find an individual bogged down in the length of life, devoid of breadth. Property is intended to serve life, and no matter how much we surround it with rights and respect, it has no personal being. It is part of the earth man walks on. It is not man. The function of education is to teach one to think intensively and to think critically. Intelligence plus character that is the goal of true education. We may have all come on different ships, but were in the same boat now. -Martin Luther King Jr. All labor that uplifts humanity has dignity and importance and should be undertaken with painstaking excellence. An individual has not started living until he can rise above the narrow confines of his individualistic concerns to the broader concerns of all humanity. Rarely do we find men who willingly engage in hard, solid thinking. There is an almost universal quest for easy answers and half-baked solutions. Nothing pains some people more than having to think. Every man lives in two realms: the internal and the external. The internal is that realm of spiritual ends expressed in art, literature, morals, and religion. The external is that complex of devices, techniques, mechanisms, and instrumentalities by means of which we live. Shallow understanding from people of good will is more frustrating than absolute misunderstanding from people of ill will. There comes a time when people get tired of being pushed out of the glittering sunlight of lifes July and left standing amid the piercing chill of an alpine November. The quality, not the longevity, of ones life is what is important. -Martin Luther King Jr. A lie cannot live. The past is prophetic in that it asserts loudly that wars are poor chisels for carving out peaceful tomorrows The limitation of riots, moral questions aside, is that they cannot win and their participants know it. Hence, rioting is not revolutionary but reactionary because it invites defeat. It involves an emotional catharsis, but it must be followed by a sense of futility. Love is the only force capable of transforming an enemy into friend. -Martin Luther King Jr. He who is devoid of the power to forgive is devoid of the power to love. I believe that unarmed truth and unconditional love will have the final word in reality. This is why right, temporarily defeated, is stronger than evil triumphant. There can be no deep disappointment where there is not deep love. We must develop and maintain the capacity to forgive. He who is devoid of the power to forgive is devoid of the power to love. There is some good in the worst of us and some evil in the best of us. When we discover this, we are less prone to hate our enemies. I have decided to stick with love. Hate is too great a burden to bear. -Martin Luther King Jr. Nonviolence is absolute commitment to the way of love. Love is not emotional bash; it is not empty sentimentalism. It is the active outpouring of ones whole being into the being of another. Man must evolve for all human conflict a method which rejects revenge, aggression and retaliation. The foundation of such a method is love. It is not enough to say we must not wage war. It is necessary to love peace and sacrifice for it. If you cant fly then run, if you cant run then walk, if you cant walk then crawl, but whatever you do you have to keep moving forward. Only in the darkness can you see the stars. -Martin Luther King Jr. Let no man pull you so low as to hate him. There comes a time when one must take a position that is neither safe nor politic nor popular, but he must take it because his conscience tells him it is right. Everybody can be great because anybody can serve. You dont have to have a college degree to serve. You dont have to make your subject and verb agree to serve. You only need a heart full of grace. A soul generated by love. No one really knows why they are alive until they know what theyd die for. -Martin Luther King Jr. A man who wont die for something is not fit to live. We must build dikes of courage to hold back the flood of fear. We must accept finite disappointment, but never lose infinite hope. Those who are not looking for happiness are the most likely to find it, because those who are searching forget that the surest way to be happy is to seek happiness for others. Never succumb to the temptation of bitterness. No person has the right to rain on your dreams. -Martin Luther King Jr. You will change your mind; You will change your looks; You will change your smile,laugh, and ways but no matter what you change, you will always be you. Whatever your lifes work is, do it well. A man should do his job so well that the living, the dead, and the unborn could do it no better. Everything that we see is a shadow cast by that which we do not see. We must concentrate not merely on the negative expulsion of war but the positive affirmation of peace. The art of acceptance is the art of making someone who has just done you a small favor wish that he might have done you a greater one. A riot is the language of the unheard. A genuine leader is not a searcher for consensus but a molder of consensus. -Martin Luther King Jr. Our lives begin to end the day we become silent about things that matter. The ultimate measure of a man is not where he stands in moments of comfort and convenience, but where he stands at times of challenge and controversy. Nothing in all the world is more dangerous than sincere ignorance and conscientious stupidity. Never, never be afraid to do whats right, especially if the well-being of a person or animal is at stake. Societys punishments are small compared to the wounds we inflict on our soul when we look the other way. Forgiveness is not an occasional act; it is a constant attitude. Lifes most persistent and urgent question is, What are you doing for others?’ -Martin Luther King Jr. Ten thousand fools proclaim themselves into obscurity, while one wise man forgets himself into immortality. When you are right you cannot be too radical; when you are wrong, you cannot be too conservative. That old law about an eye for an eye leaves everybody blind. The time is always right to do the right thing. If I cannot do great things, I can do small things in a great way. Change does not roll in on the wheels of inevitability, but comes through continuous struggle. -Martin Luther King Jr. We are prone to judge success by the index of our salaries or the size of our automobiles rather than by the quality of our service and relationship to mankind. Whatever affects one directly, affects all indirectly. I can never be what I ought to be until you are what you ought to be. This is the interrelated structure of reality. Not everybody can be famous but everybody can be great because greatness is determined by service You only need a heart full of grace and a soul generated by love. I came to the conclusion that there is an existential moment in your life when you must decide to speak for yourself; nobody else can speak for you. -Martin Luther King Jr. Almost always, the creative dedicated minority has made the world better. The soft-minded man always fears change. He feels security in the status quo, and he has an almost morbid fear of the new. For him, the greatest pain is the pain of a new idea. We cannot walk alone. He who passively accepts evil is as much involved in it as he who helps to perpetrate it. He who accepts evil without protesting against it is really cooperating with it. I am not interested in power for powers sake, but Im interested in power that is moral, that is right and that is good. Human progress is neither automatic nor inevitable Every step toward the goal of justice requires sacrifice, suffering, and struggle; the tireless exertions and passionate concern of dedicated individuals. People fail to get along because they fear each other; they fear each other because they dont know each other; they dont know each other because they have not communicated with each other. The ultimate tragedy is not the oppression and cruelty by the bad people but the silence over that by the good people. -Martin Luther King Jr. I refuse to accept the view that mankind is so tragically bound to the starless midnight of racism and war that the bright daybreak of peace and brotherhood can never become a reality I believe that unarmed truth and unconditional love will have the final word. We will remember not the words of our enemies, but the silence of our friends. Law and order exist for the purpose of establishing justice and when they fail in this purpose they become the dangerously structured dams that block the flow of social progress. People fail to get along because they fear each other; they fear each other because they dont know each other; they dont know each other because they have not communicated with each other. -Martin Luther King Jr. We must learn to live together as brothers or perish together as fools. Capitalism does not permit an even flow of economic resources. With this system, a small privileged few are rich beyond conscience, and almost all others are doomed to be poor at some level. Thats the way the system works. And since we know that the system will not change the rules, we are going to have to change the system. Our scientific power has outrun our spiritual power. We have guided missiles and misguided men. We must come to see that the end we seek is a society at peace with itself, a society that can live with its conscience. I have a dream that one day little black boys and girls will be holding hands with little white boys and girls. What is wrong in the world today is that the nations of the world are engaged in a bitter, colossal contest for supremacy. I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character. All progress is precarious, and the solution of one problem brings us face to face with another problem. -Martin Luther King Jr. History will have to record that the greatest tragedy of this period of social transition was not the strident clamor of the bad people, but the appalling silence of the good people. A nation or civilization that continues to produce soft-minded men purchases its own spiritual death on the installment plan. The more there are riots, the more repressive action will take place, and the more we face the danger of a right-wing takeover and eventually a fascist society. Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere. -Martin Luther King Jr. No, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream. The hope of a secure and livable world lies with disciplined nonconformists who are dedicated to justice, peace and brotherhood. The moral arc of the universe bends at the elbow of justice. It may be true that the law cannot make a man love me, but it can keep him from lynching me, and I think thats pretty important. Of all the forms of inequality, injustice in health care is the most shocking and inhumane. Never forget that everything Hitler did in Germany was legal. I submit that an individual who breaks a law that conscience tells him is unjust, and who willingly accepts the penalty of imprisonment in order to arouse the conscience of the community over its injustice, is in reality expressing the highest respect for law. The principle of self defense, even involving weapons and bloodshed, has never been condemned, even by Gandhi.

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July 8, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Martin Luther King  Comments Closed

Martin Luther King Jr. – Minister, Civil Rights Activist …

Martin Luther King Jr. was a Baptist minister and social activist, who led the Civil Rights Movement in the United States from the mid-1950s until his death by assassination in 1968. Martin Luther King Jr. was born in 1929 in Atlanta, Georgia. King, a Baptist minister and civil-rights activist, had a seismic impact on race relations in the United States, beginning in the mid-1950s. Among his many efforts, King headed the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Through his activism and inspirational speeches he played a pivotal role in ending the legal segregation of African-American citizens in the United States, as well as the creation of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Thanks for watching!Visit Website King received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964, among several other honors. He was assassinated in April 1968, and continues to be remembered as one of the most influential and inspirational African-American leaders in history. Born as Michael King Jr. on January 15, 1929, Martin Luther King Jr. was the middle child of Michael King Sr. and Alberta Williams King. The King and Williams families were rooted in rural Georgia. Martin Jr.’s grandfather, A.D. Williams, was a rural minister for years and then moved to Atlanta in 1893. He took over the small, struggling Ebenezer Baptist church with around 13 members and made it into a forceful congregation. He married Jennie Celeste Parks and they had one child that survived, Alberta. Michael King Sr. came from a sharecropper family in a poor farming community. He married Alberta in 1926 after an eight-year courtship. The newlyweds moved to A.D. Williams’ home in Atlanta. Michael King Sr. stepped in as pastor of Ebenezer Baptist Church upon the death of his father-in-law in 1931. He too became a successful minister, and adopted the name Martin Luther King Sr. in honor of the German Protestant religious leader Martin Luther. In due time, Michael Jr. would follow his father’s lead and adopt the name himself. Young Martin had an older sister, Willie Christine, and a younger brother, Alfred Daniel Williams King. The King children grew up in a secure and loving environment. Martin Sr. was more the disciplinarian, while his wife’s gentleness easily balanced out the father’s more strict hand. Though they undoubtedly tried, Martin Jr.s parents couldnt shield him completely from racism. Martin Luther King Sr. fought against racial prejudice, not just because his race suffered, but because he considered racism and segregation to be an affront to God’s will. He strongly discouraged any sense of class superiority in his children which left a lasting impression on Martin Jr. Growing up in Atlanta, Georgia, Martin Luther King Jr. entered public school at age 5. In May, 1936 he was baptized, but the event made little impression on him. In May, 1941, Martin was 12 years old when is grandmother, Jennie, died of a heart attack. The event was traumatic for Martin, more so because he was out watching a parade against his parents’ wishes when she died. Distraught at the news, young Martin jumped from a second story window at the family home, allegedly attempting suicide. King attended Booker T. Washington High School, where he was said to be a precocious student. He skipped both the ninth and eleventh grades, and entered Morehouse College in Atlanta at age 15, in 1944. He was a popular student, especially with his female classmates, but an unmotivated student who floated though his first two years. Although his family was deeply involved in the church and worship, young Martin questioned religion in general and felt uncomfortable with overly emotional displays of religious worship. This discomfort continued through much of his adolescence, initially leading him to decide against entering the ministry, much to his father’s dismay. But in his junior year, Martin took a Bible class, renewed his faith and began to envision a career in the ministry. In the fall of his senior year, he told his father of his decision. In 1948, Martin Luther King Jr. earned a sociology degree from Morehouse College and attended the liberal Crozer Theological Seminary in Chester, Pennsylvania. He thrived in all his studies, and was valedictorian of his class in 1951, and elected student body president. He also earned a fellowship for graduate study. But Martin also rebelled against his fathers more conservative influence by drinking beer and playing pool while at college. He became involved with a white woman and went through a difficult time before he could break off the affair. Thanks for watching!Visit Website Thanks for watching!Visit Website During his last year in seminary, Martin Luther King Jr. came under the guidance of Morehouse College President Benjamin E. Mays who influenced Kings spiritual development. Mays was an outspoken advocate for racial equality and encouraged King to view Christianity as a potential force for social change. After being accepted at several colleges for his doctoral study, including Yale and Edinburgh in Scotland, King enrolled at Boston University. During the work on his doctorate, Martin Luther King Jr. met Coretta Scott, an aspiring singer and musician, at the New England Conservatory school in Boston. They were married in June 1953 and had four children, Yolanda, Martin Luther King III, Dexter Scott and Bernice. In 1954, while still working on his dissertation, King became pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church of Montgomery, Alabama. He completed his Ph.D. and earned his degree in 1955. King was only 25 years old. On March 2, 1955, a 15-year-old girl refused to give up her seat to a white man on a Montgomery city bus in violation of local law. Claudette Colvin was arrested and taken to jail. At first, the local chapter of the NAACP felt they had an excellent test case to challenge Montgomery’s segregated bus policy. But then it was revealed that she was pregnant and civil rights leaders feared this would scandalize the deeply religious black community and make Colvin (and, thus the group’s efforts) less credible in the eyes of sympathetic whites. On December 1, 1955, they got another chance to make their case. That evening, 42-year-old Rosa Parks boarded the Cleveland Avenue bus to go home after an exhausting day at work. She sat in the first row of the “colored” section in the middle of the bus. As the bus traveled its route, all the seats in the white section filled up, then several more white passengers boarded the bus. The bus driver noted that there were several white men standing and demanded that Parks and several other African Americans give up their seats. Three other African American passengers reluctantly gave up their places, but Parks remained seated. The driver asked her again to give up her seat and again she refused. Parks was arrested and booked for violating the Montgomery City Code. At her trial a week later, in a 30-minute hearing, Parks was found guilty and fined $10 and assessed $4 court fee. On the night that Rosa Parks was arrested, E.D. Nixon, head of the local NAACP chapter met with Martin Luther King Jr. and other local civil rights leaders to plan a citywide bus boycott. King was elected to lead the boycott because he was young, well-trained with solid family connections and had professional standing. But he was also new to the community and had few enemies, so it was felt he would have strong credibility with the black community. In his first speech as the group’s president, King declared, “We have no alternative but to protest. For many years we have shown an amazing patience. We have sometimes given our white brothers the feeling that we liked the way we were being treated. But we come here tonight to be saved from that patience that makes us patient with anything less than freedom and justice.” Martin Luther King Jr.’s skillful rhetoric put a new energy into the civil rights struggle in Alabama. The bus boycott involved 382 days of walking to work, harassment, violence and intimidation for the Montgomery’s African-American community. Both King’s and E.D. Nixon’s homes were attacked. But the African-American community also took legal action against the city ordinance arguing that it was unconstitutional based on the Supreme Court’s “separate is never equal” decision in Brown v. Board of Education. After being defeated in several lower court rulings and suffering large financial losses, the city of Montgomery lifted the law mandating segregated public transportation. Flush with victory, African-American civil rights leaders recognized the need for a national organization to help coordinate their efforts. In January 1957, Martin Luther King Jr., Ralph Abernathy, and 60 ministers and civil rights activists founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference to harness the moral authority and organizing power of black churches. They would help conduct non-violent protests to promote civil rights reform. King’s participation in the organization gave him a base of operation throughout the South, as well as a national platform. The organization felt the best place to start to give African Americans a voice was to enfranchise them in the voting process. In February 1958, the SCLC sponsored more than 20 mass meetings in key southern cities to register black voters in the South. King met with religious and civil rights leaders and lectured all over the country on race-related issues. In 1959, with the help of the American Friends Service Committee, and inspired by Gandhi’s success with non-violent activism, Martin Luther King visited Gandhi’s birthplace in India. The trip affected him in a deeply profound way, increasing his commitment to America’s civil rights struggle. African-American civil rights activist Bayard Rustin, who had studied Gandhi’s teachings, became one of King’s associates and counseled him to dedicate himself to the principles of non-violence. Rustin served as King’s mentor and advisor throughout his early activism and was the main organizer of the 1963 March on Washington. But Rustin was also a controversial figure at the time, being a homosexual with alleged ties to the Communist Party, USA. Though his counsel was invaluable to King, many of his other supporters urged him to distance himself from Rustin. In February 1960, a group of African-American students began what became known as the “sit-in” movement in Greensboro, North Carolina. The students would sit at racially segregated lunch counters in the city’s stores. When asked to leave or sit in the colored section, they just remained seated, subjecting themselves to verbal and sometimes physical abuse. The movement quickly gained traction in several other cities. In April 1960, the SCLC held a conference at Shaw University in Raleigh, North Carolina with local sit-in leaders. Martin Luther King Jr. encouraged students to continue to use nonviolent methods during their protests. Out of this meeting, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee formed and for a time, worked closely with the SCLC. By August of 1960, the sit-ins had been successful in ending segregation at lunch counters in 27 southern cities. By 1960, Martin Luther King Jr. was gaining national notoriety. He returned to Atlanta to become co-pastor with his father at Ebenezer Baptist Church, but also continued his civil rights efforts. On October 19, 1960, King and 75 students entered a local department store and requested lunch-counter service but were denied. When they refused to leave the counter area, King and 36 others were arrested. Realizing the incident would hurt the city’s reputation, Atlanta’s mayor negotiated a truce and charges were eventually dropped. But soon after, King was imprisoned for violating his probation on a traffic conviction. The news of his imprisonment entered the 1960 presidential campaign, when candidate John F. Kennedy made a phone call to Coretta Scott King. Kennedy expressed his concern for King’s harsh treatment for the traffic ticket and political pressure was quickly set in motion. King was soon released. In the spring of 1963, Martin Luther King Jr. organized a demonstration in downtown Birmingham, Alabama. Entire families attended. City police turned dogs and fire hoses on demonstrators. Martin Luther King was jailed along with large numbers of his supporters, but the event drew nationwide attention. However, King was personally criticized by black and white clergy alike for taking risks and endangering the children who attended the demonstration. From the jail in Birmingham, King eloquently spelled out his theory of non-violence: “Nonviolent direct action seeks to create such a crisis and foster such a tension that a community, which has constantly refused to negotiate, is forced to confront the issue.” By the end of the Birmingham campaign, Martin Luther King Jr. and his supporters were making plans for a massive demonstration on the nation’s capital composed of multiple organizations, all asking for peaceful change. On August 28, 1963, the historic March on Washington drew more than 200,000 people in the shadow of the Lincoln Memorial. It was here that King made his famous “I Have a Dream” speech, emphasizing his belief that someday all men could be brothers. “I have a dream that my four children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.” Martin Luther King, Jr. / “I Have A Dream” speech, August 28, 1963 The rising tide of civil rights agitation produced a strong effect on public opinion. Many people in cities not experiencing racial tension began to question the nation’s Jim Crow laws and the near century second class treatment of African-American citizens. This resulted in the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 authorizing the federal government to enforce desegregation of public accommodations and outlawing discrimination in publicly owned facilities. This also led to Martin Luther King receiving the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964. King’s struggle continued throughout the 1960s. Often, it seemed as though the pattern of progress was two steps forward and one step back. On March 7, 1965, a civil rights march, planned from Selma to Alabama’s capital in Montgomery, turned violent as police with nightsticks and tear gas met the demonstrators as they tried to cross the Edmund Pettus Bridge. King was not in the march, however the attack was televised showing horrifying images of marchers being bloodied and severely injured. Seventeen demonstrators were hospitalized in a day that would be called “Bloody Sunday.” A second march was cancelled due to a restraining order to prevent the march from taking place. A third march was planned and this time King made sure he was part of it. Not wanting to alienate southern judges by violating the restraining order, a different approach was taken. On March 9, 1965, a procession of 2,500 marchers, both black and white, set out once again to cross the Pettus Bridge and confronted barricades and state troopers. Instead of forcing a confrontation, King led his followers to kneel in prayer and they then turned back.Alabama governor George Wallace continued to try to prevent another march, however, President Lyndon Johnson pledged his support and ordered U.S. Army troops and the Alabama National Guard to protect the protestors. On March 21, approximately 2,000 people began a march from Selma to the capitol in Montgomery. On March 25, the number of marchers, which had grown to an estimated 25,000, gathered in front of the state capitol where Dr. King delivered a televised speech. Five months after the historic peaceful protest, President Johnson signed the 1965 Voting Rights Act. From late 1965 through 1967, Martin Luther King Jr. expanded his civil rights efforts into other larger American cities, including Chicago and Los Angeles. But he met with increasing criticism and public challenges from young black power leaders. King’s patient, non-violent approach and appeal to white middle-class citizens alienated many black militants who considered his methods too weak, too late and ineffective. To address this criticism, King began making a link between discrimination and poverty, and he began to speak out against the Vietnam War. He felt that America’s involvement in Vietnam was politically untenable and the government’s conduct in the war discriminatory to the poor. He sought to broaden his base by forming a multi-race coalition to address economic and unemployment problems of all disadvantaged people. By 1968, the years of demonstrations and confrontations were beginning to wear on Martin Luther King Jr. He had grown tired of marches, going to jail, and living under the constant threat of death. He was becoming discouraged at the slow progress of civil rights in America and the increasing criticism from other African-American leaders. Plans were in the works for another march on Washington to revive his movement and bring attention to a widening range of issues. In the spring of 1968, a labor strike by Memphis sanitation workers drew King to one last crusade. On April 3, he gave his final and what proved to be an eerily prophetic speech,Ive Been to the Mountaintop,in which he told supporters at the Mason Temple in Memphis, “I’ve seen the promised land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight that we, as a people, will get to the promised land.” The next day, while standing on a balcony outside his room at the Lorraine Motel, Martin Luther King Jr. was struck by a sniper’s bullet. The shooter, a malcontent drifter and former convict named James Earl Ray, was eventually apprehended after a two-month, international manhunt. The killing sparked riots and demonstrations in more than 100 cities across the country. In 1969, Ray pleaded guilty to assassinating King and was sentenced to 99 years in prison. He died in prison on April 23, 1998. Martin Luther King Jr.’s life had a seismic impact on race relations in the United States. Years after his death, he is the most widely known African-American leader of his era. His life and work have been honored with a national holiday, schools and public buildings named after him, and a memorial on Independence Mall in Washington, D.C. But his life remains controversial as well. In the 1970s, FBI files, released under the Freedom of Information Act, revealed that he was under government surveillance, and suggested his involvement in adulterous relationships and communist influences. Over the years, extensive archival studies have led to a more balanced and comprehensive assessment of his life, portraying him as a complex figure: flawed, fallible and limited in his control over the mass movements with which he was associated, yet a visionary leader who was deeply committed to achieving social justice through nonviolent means.

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May 24, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Martin Luther King  Comments Closed

Dodge Super Bowl ad using Martin Luther King Jr’s speech …

A Super Bowl ad for Dodge Ram trucks using one of Martin Luther King Jr.’s last sermons drew a backlash on social media and a rebuke from some of the civil rights leader’s loved ones while winning support from others. The one-minute ad watched by more than 100 million viewers featured King’s famous “The Drum Major Instinct” sermon he gave at Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta, Georgia, just two months before he was assassinated. The King Center in Atlanta immediately condemned the ad, asserting in a tweet that neither it nor King’s daughter, Bernice King, “is the entity that approves the use of #MLK’s words or imagery for use in merchandise, entertainment (movies, music, artwork, etc) or advertisement, including tonight’s @Dodge #SuperBowl commercial.” But the company that manages the former civil rights leader’s intellectual property, run by his son, Dexter King, issued a statement Monday morning saying it had approved the ad. “We found that the overall message of the ad embodied Dr. King’s philosophy that true greatness is achieved by serving others. Thus we decided to be a part of Ram’s ‘Built To Serve’ Super Bowl program,” the firm, Intellectual Properties Management, said in its statement. Besides promoting Dodge Ram pickup trucks, the ad was meant to publicize Ram Nation, the car company’s campaign to encourage volunteerism at food pantries, clean-up programs and other do-good projects in communities across the country. The ad begins with the words “Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.” and gives the date Feb. 4, 1968, day 50 years ago to the day after when King gave his sermon. As music plays, and King’s soaring voice is heard: “If you want to be important–wonderful. If you want to be recognized–wonderful. If you want to be great–wonderful.” A black Dodge Ram truck appears in the commercial plowing through the mud as King reaches the apex of his sermon, saying, “But recognize that he who is greatest among you shall be your servant. That’s a new definition of greatness.” Images of Americans show throughout the commercial, ranging from horse wranglers in the West to fishermen, teachers and Marines. The ad was roundly bashed on social media with people calling it “tasteless” and “tone deaf.” In a Twitter post, actress Justine Bateman wrote, “A Martin Luther King Jr speech to sell @Dodge Ram trucks? Totally offensive. #mlk.” New York Times columnist Charles Blow, also took to Twitter, writing, “The blatant commodification of black culture, black struggle and black pain illustrates perfectly how America is perfectly willing to exploit blackness but perfectly incapable of honoring it. #DodgeRam #MLK.” Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, which manufactures Dodge Ram trucks, defended the ad in a statement. “It is 50 years to the day that Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. gave such a tremendous speech about the value of service,” the company said. “Ram was honored to have the privilege of working with the Estate of Martin Luther King Jr. to celebrate those words during the largest TV viewing event annually. We worked closely with the representatives of the Martin Luther King Jr. estate to receive the necessary approvals and estate representatives were a very important part of the creative process every step of the way.” On ABC’s “Good Morning America” Monday, advertising executive Donny Deutch said there are different ways to look at the ad. “You could come out two sides on that and say, ‘It’s quite exploitative,’ [and] on the other hand, you could say, ‘Well, just the more people that hear his voice, we’re better for this.'” Deutch added that in today’s world, the commercial will most likely be forgotten. “I always wonder at the end of the day do people remember?” he said. “Are they going to remember? ‘OK, I remember there was a Martin Luther King ad, but who was it for? I remember there was an ad about first responders, but who was it for?'”

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February 8, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Martin Luther King  Comments Closed

Trump administration celebrates Martin Luther King Jr.

Trump administration officials on Monday honored Dr. Martin Luther King, paying tribute to the fallen civil rights leader as the nation marked the day celebrating his legacy. At a wreath-laying ceremony at the MLK Jr. Memorial in Washington, FBI Director Chris Wray and Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke praised King and said his words were just as important today. Dr. King understood no man is an island and that we rise and fall together, Wray said. He noted that whatever effects one directly effects all indirectly, listing violent crime, discrimination and hatred. We have made progress as a nation over the last 50 years, but it isnt enough, he said. We still havent reached that mountain top that Dr. King referenced so eloquently. Wray said that the FBI was determined to ensure fairness and equality, and foster diversity to better reflect the communities they serve. [Our job at the FBI] is simple and profound. To protect the American people, and uphold The Constitution, and to follow the facts independently wherever they may lead, he said, adding that protecting civil rights and observing civil liberties was at the heart of everything the bureau does. Wray announced that the FBI now requires every new analyst and agent in training to take a course specifically dedicated to King, and to visit this memorial to understand how we can better do our jobs. We will only continue to make progress as we continue to move forward together, he said. One day we will reach that mountain top together. Zinke told the crowd that Kings dream was highly rooted in the dream of all Americans. His dream was a fully integrated American for all people, all faiths, genders, religions, he said. We all have the obligation to make sure our fight for justice, equality the battle that we face every dayis fought and won because it is deeply rooted in us as a people. Over the weekend, Vice President Pence and his wife visited the memorial for a private wreath laying. Honored to lay a wreath at MLK Jr. Memorial w/ @SecondLady, Pence tweeted. He was a great American leader who inspired a movement & transformed a Nation. He took the words of our Founders to heart to forge a more perfect union based on the notion all men are created equal & in the image of God. Also Monday, President Trump remembered King in a recorded White House weekly address posted on Twitter. Dr. King’s dream is our dream, Trump said. It is the American Dream. It’s the promise stitched into the fabric of our Nation, etched into the hearts of our people, and written into the soul of humankind.” He spent the day at his Florida resort, Mar-a-Lago, and the Trump International Golf Course in West Palm Beach. Trump signed a Martin Luther King Jr. proclamation last week, amid criticism over comments he made Thursday at an Oval Office meeting on immigration with seven lawmakers in which he questioned why people from “sh–hole” countries like Haiti, Honduras, and African countries come to the United States. King’s eldest son, Martin Luther King III, called out Trump’s comments on Monday. “When a president insists that our nation needs more citizens from white states like Norway, I don’t even think we need to spend any time even talking about what it says and what it does,” King said. “We got to find a way to work on this man’s heart.” Other critics have denounced Trump and accused him of being a racist.On Sunday Trump told reporters that he was “not a racist.” He also has denied making those comments. First Lady Melania Trump also paid tribute Kings memory Monday. “Today we honor Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. & his service to this great country. I am honored to be First Lady of a nation that continually strives for equality & justice for all.#MLKDay,” the first lady posted on her Twitter page. Other administration officials, including White House Press Secretary Sarah Sanders, Ivanka Trump tweeted in commemoration of King. The Associated Press contributed to this report. Brooke Singman is a Politics Reporter for Fox News. Follow her on Twitter at @brookefoxnews.

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January 16, 2018   Posted in: Martin Luther King  Comments Closed

Trump signs law creating national historic park for Martin …

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Fair Usage Law

January 14, 2018   Posted in: Martin Luther King  Comments Closed

signing a proclamation for Martin Luther King Jr. Day – cnn.com

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Trump upgrades Martin Luther King birthplace to national …

A look at some of the most inspiring quotes from Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. USA TODAY President Trump is accompanied by Alveda King, niece of civil rights activist Martin Luther King Jr. as he arrives at Dobbins Air Reserve Base in Marietta, Ga., Monday. Trump signed a bill expanding the Martin Luther King national historical site before attending college football’s national championship game in Atlanta.(Photo: Andrew Harnik, AP) WASHINGTON President Trump signed a bill Monday to expand the Rev. Martin Luther King’s birthplace in Atlanta into a national historical parkthe first such park inGeorgia. Trump signed Martin Luther King, Jr. National Historical Park Act of 2017 aboard Air Force One after touching down in Marietta, Ga., to attend the college football national championship game between the University of Alabama and the University of Georgia. Alveda King,niece of the slain civil rights leader, joined Trump for a small, privatebill-signing ceremony aboard Air Force One. “Through his life and work, Dr. Martin Luther KingJr. made America more just and free,” White House deputy press secretary Hogan Gidley told reporters aboard the plane. “This important historical park tells his story, and this bill will help ensure that the park continues to tell Dr. Kings story for generations to come.” Earlier: Reserved Trump praises ‘true American heroes’ at Mississippi Civil Rights Museum The national historical site in Atlanta already includes King’s birthplace, the church where he was baptized, and his burial place. The legislation Trump signed Monday upgrades the designation to a national historical park, and expands the boundaries to includethePrince Hall Masonic Temple. The temple served as the headquarters of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, the civil rights group King co-founded. More: President Trump signs executive order on rural broadband Internet The bill was sponsored by Rep. John Lewis, D-Ga., who said the change would significantly improve the way the National Park Service preserves, sharesand presents King’s legacy to visitors. The nation will celebrate a federal holiday named for King on Monday. Earlier Monday, Trump signed a related bill, the African American Civil Rights Network Act of 2017, which requires the National Park Service to link various historical sites related to the civil rights movement. He also signed the400 Years of African-American History Commission Act to commemorate the arrival of the first Africans in the English colonies at Point Comfort, Va., in 1619. Follow Gregory Korte on Twitter: @gregorykorte Autoplay Show Thumbnails Show Captions Read or Share this story: https://usat.ly/2CQ0PqJ

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