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Dr. Morris Dees III, MD – Jacksonville Beach, FL …

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Morris Dees | American civil rights lawyer | Britannica.com

Alternative Titles:Morris Seligman Dees, Jr.

Morris Dees, in full Morris Seligman Dees, Jr., (born December 16, 1936, Shorter, Alabama, U.S.), American lawyer and civil rights activist who is known for founding the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) with American attorney Joseph Levin in 1971 in Montgomery, Alabama. Under Deess leadership, the SPLC won several unprecedented lawsuits against hate organizations and their leaders.

Dees was the son of Morris Seligman Dees, a tenant cotton farmer, and Annie Ruth Dees. Although he was brought up in segregationist Alabama, his parents imparted strong Christian values, and he experienced warm interactions with African American families.

Dees received an undergraduate degree and a law degree (1960) from the University of Alabama. He then became a successful entrepreneur in the direct-mail publishing business with American lawyer and entrepreneur Millard Fuller, the founder of Habitat for Humanity. Dees bought Fuller out of the business in 1965. He sold the company to the Times Mirror Company in 1967 after reading Clarence Darrows The Story of My Life (1932), which provoked him into committing his full attention to a law practice devoted to civil rights legislation. The law firm, which he shared with Levin, evolved into the SPLC in 1971.

Deess legal career was marked by a number of landmark cases and decisions. His efforts helped to integrate the Montgomery, Alabama, Young Mens Christian Association (YMCA) in 1969 . The SPLC introduced lawsuits that held white supremacist organizations financially and criminally responsible for murders and other unlawful actions against immigrants and persons of colour. Substantial monetary awards against groups such as the United Klans of America and Aryan Nations in 1991, in fact, forced some such organizations to disband. Despite the critical advances against hate organizations, Deess decision to make such lawsuits an SPLC priority prompted some of its personnel who disagreed with the new legal focus to leave the organization. Additionally, critics outside the SPLC accused Dees of drawing few distinctions between white supremacists and groups that support limits to immigration, controls on population growth, or the right to bear arms.

During the 1970s and 1980s, Dees was also a prominent Democratic fund-raiser for presidential candidate George McGovern, Pres. Jimmy Carter, and Sen. Ted Kennedy. His books include Hate on Trial: The Case Against Americas Most Dangerous Neo-Nazi (1993) and Gathering Storm: Americas Militia Threat (1996). In addition, Dees received numerous awards, including the ABA Medal (2012), the highest honour bestowed by the American Bar Association.

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2016-2017

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Parwez AlamRobert W. ByrdTony DattiloSandra F. DiamondHolly H. DuncanMyra K. ElliottDaniel K. FlatleyRobert L. GravesNancy S. KaylorS. M. Sally KiserRonald D. LancasterThomas C. LokeySusan L. OrneckMargot PequignotCynthia J. PetellePatricia PlumleeJames W. RasmussenCharles F. RobinsonPatricia A. RosserCozee Lynn Smith

Mindy BaconMichael D. BollenbackRobert K. ClarkJean CookKaren C. CrownMartha H. FolwellDora H. HarrisonDavid P. HealeyWilliams M. HollowayJean Ann HughesThomas U. KnappRoberta S. KoronesJohn LawrenceThomas J. McQueenLinda K. ParkerJames W. PfisterSara Sue Sopkin PrughWalter L. Schafer, Jr.Eric S. SekeresJames S. WatrousCynthia Nash Weller

Alan C. BomsteinRobert B. BoothR. William Bramberg, Jr.Thomas C. BrownMaria P. CantonisElizabeth J. DanielsJohn P. FrazerTim J. GelvinGay LancasterMichael E. LewisEdward Maur, Jr.Sallie A. ParksJudith B. Powers-JonesR. Grable Stoutamire *Stephen G. Watts

Paul P. BurroughsBrandt C. Downey, IIIJulie W. FeatherstoneMichael R. GorsageCharles E. HartPaul J. Kaslander *Matthew A. KludingKy M. KochSharon S. LarsonJean F. Ruff MageeMark McCutcheonPaul A. MeissnerCarolyn F. PhillipsDavid J. RosserJ. Ellis RueDyne SappN. John Simmons, Jr.Darrell W. StephensCary StiffJoel R. TewKenneth N. Waters*Bob Watson*

Patricia BauerSusan J. BrownLorin W. BryanJanice B. CaseMichael CroseJeff S. DavisJ. Jey Deifell, Jr.Paul R. EspositoRichard E. GehringBarry M. GlennRuth Heineman GoodwinKenneth G. HamiltonMatile G. HendryAida Y. JuradoPatrick W. KerrJerry R. ParkerFred L. RobbinsGyneth S. StanleyRobert Stiff, Jr.Mary Lou Miller Wagstaff

Joyce M. BarnettScott A. BraueerKenneth R. BurnsideAmelia Davis CareySondra G. GoldenfarbTom L. HorneDale L. PadenThomas E. Penick, Jr.Jim PittsJane M. Pope-ArnettJ. Paul RaymondPriscilla RogersR.Z. Sandy SafleyGlenn T. WarrenLeon Jeff Whitehurst

H. Emerson Atkinson, Jr.Georgia BarnesburgRobert BurnsideDavid Burton, Jr.Sam CasellaM. Therese ChamberlinMary CummingsJoseph ElliotTheodosios G. FrantzisTimothy JohnsonNicholas G. KarayDonald L. LeonardAndrew W. MacGillPat McFrederickMike McWeeneyJames E. PhillipsJohn S. Jay Rhoades, IIIRonald M. RicardoDon SkinnerRobert M. Tharin, Jr.Donald TurnerMike WnchickJohn WyllysKurt Youngstrom

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History of Vancleave | Ocean Springs Archives

A HISTORY OF VANCLEAVE, MISSISSIPPI

Abstract

Vancleave, located in west-central Jackson County, Mississippi, is a small community which developed in the early to mid-19thCentury, on Bluff Creek, a small tributary of the Pascagoula River, several miles north of the Mexican Gulf. It was known originally as Bluff Creek, until the postmaster in 1870, named itVancleavein honor of a former merchant,Robert A.Van Cleave(1840-1908). Ocean Springs family historian, Vertalee Bradford Van Cleave (1916-1999), related that the progenitor of the Van Cleave family in America was Jan Van Cleef, a 1653 Dutchmigrto New York. It is interesting to note that there is a town called Kleve in extreme western Germany less than twenty miles from its present border with Holland. Could the first American Van Cleave been Jan van Kleve, i.e. John from Kleve? (The History of Jackson County, Mississippi, 1989, p. 376 and National Geographic Atlas Of The World, 1981, p. 152)

The first European settlement in the Vancleave area occurred in 1721, when French colonists settled the short-lived Chaumont Concession. With the creation of the Mississippi Territory in 1798, and the West Florida Rebellion of 1810, the United States rested Spanish West Florida from its Iberian masters. Jackson County was created and united with the Territory of Orleans in 1812, and joined the Union in 1817, with the State of Mississippi.

Even before Mississippis statehood, restless Americans in the Carolinas and Georgia began settling the southwestern frontier, which included the Vancleave region. They were subsistence farmers and hunter-gatherers who brought their Protestant religion to this predominantly Roman Catholic coastal section.

Charcoal wagon en route to the L&N Railroad at Fontainebleau?

By 1850, the virgin forests, predominantly pine, of the region along the tributaries of the lower Pascagoula River, began to be exploited for timber, charcoal, and naval stores. These activities created a commerce, which resulted in small trading posts being built on Johns Bayou and lower Bluff Creek. Shallow draft schooners loaded with charcoal, agricultural products, and naval stores sailed the “lake” waters of the Mississippi Sound to New Orleans and returned with tools, food staples, and mercantile goods to these riverine outposts.Black slaves, primarily from North Carolina, were brought to work the turpentine orchards. After the Civil War, they were emancipated and remained in the region to provide the primary labor force for the naval stores industry. Black families owned the high land northwest of Moungers Creek, which became the primary Vancleave settlement, after they sold out to white families and merchants in the late 19thCentury. Black communities developed further north and west at Greenhead Creek.

Another group of people, locally called “Creoles”, but probably indigenous, descendants of Muskogean speaking, Native Americans inhabit the Vancleave region. They made their livelihoods primarily as subsistence farmers and charcoal burners. When public education in the region commenced in the late 19thCentury, Creole and Blacks were educated together, but by 1917, they were segregated and a separate school created, called Live Oak Pond, north of Vancleave. This aberration was unique in that it created three separate schools for White, Black and Creole children. The Creole people have slowly been assimilated into the local community through interracial marriages.

The early settlers brought sheep to the pine savannas and allowed them to forage on the open range. Soon Vancleave, with Woolmarket in Harrison County, became important exporters of wool. World War I enhanced the demand for wool and prices and production rose dramatically during the conflict.

At the turn of the 20thCentury, the Dantzler Lumber Company began to exploit virgin timber stands away from the rivers. They utilized tram railways to penetrate deep into the woods to reach virgin timber passed over because of its remoteness from water borne transportation routes. This venture brought a population increase, which encouraged the erection of new schools, churches, a hotel, boarding houses, and dwellings. The timber boom and sheep-wool activities subsided dramatically by the1930s. The virgin timber was depleting rapidly and stock laws, which curtailed open range foraging, and foreign competition had a deleterious effect on commercial wool production.

Pecan orchards, tung nut trees, and some citrus were grown in the Vancleave vicinity before the Great Depression of the 1930s. Orchard men from the Midwest developed nut crops initially south of Vancleave on the Ocean Springs Road and to the southwest and west along Seaman and Jim Ramsay Roads.

The Great Depression furthered exacerbated the economic situation at Vancleave. The people of the area responded to this dour situation by erecting a canning plant for fruit and vegetables, a sewing factory, and a shuttle mill. Naval stores and a dying charcoal industry continued weakly, until WW II revived the national economy. Shipbuilding at Pascagoula and Mobile created many wartime employment opportunities. Pulp wood for paper manufacturing became important after the war.

In the mid-1950s, the Bluff Creek Canning Company was organized. It produced a fish-based cat food and was sold to the John Morrell & Company of Chicago. A short-lived attempt to can yellow fin tuna caught in the Gulf of Mexico was also commenced at a Bluff Creek site south of Vancleave in the 1950s. The continued growth of the chemical and petrochemical industries along Bayou Cassotte near Pascagoula, has provided stable, regional, employment opportunities through several decades. Pulp wood harvesting for the Moss Point paper mill has continued in the area.

The population and status quo in the Vancleave region remained fairly constant until the late 1980s and early 1990s. At this time, a steady and continuous migration of people from the lower coastal urban areas, seeking cheaper land, relief from high taxes, crime and industrial pollution, began to move into the Vancleave area. The expansion of the US Naval presence, conversion of deep-water oil and gas exploration drilling rigs, and continued shipbuilding at Pascagoula and environs, with the exponential growth of dock side casino gaming in nearby Harrison County, has continued to fuel the migration into Vancleave.

Currently, new commercial ventures and subdivisions blossom each day. A new elementary school and medical center are now under construction. Are incorporation and local government awaiting Vancleave in the New Millennium??

A Vancleave History

Vancleave, originally calledBluff Creek, as late as 1869, when Andrew W. Ramsay (1830-1916) was postmaster of this small village, is the geographic name of a community, which has existed in T6S-R7W of Jackson County, Mississippi for well over a century. The name Vancleave comes from the merchant, Robert Adrian Van Cleave (1840-1908), who established a trading post on Paige Bayou in the 1870s. In June 1870, when the US Post Office established a station in the SE/4 of Section 27, T6S-R7W, it was called Vancleaves. R.A.Van Cleave, a Civil War veteran from Hinds County, later settled at Ocean Springs where he was a successful merchant, post master, and first provisional mayor of that town. (The Mississippi Press, July 18, 1988)

In June 1880, when a weekly mail route was established between Ocean Springs and Vancleave, Robert Adrian Van Cleave (1840-1908) was postmaster at Ocean Springs who was described as, “clever and good-humored”. William Seymour carried the mail to the store of George W. Davis at Vancleave. The post office was named after R.A. Van Cleave. (The Pascagoula Democrat-Star, June 18, 1880, p. 3)

Today, Vancleave is the general geographic term used for that region of west central Jackson County within T6S-R7W and T5S-R7W. This is an area of approximately seventy-two square miles. Specifically, Vancleave is a rapidly developing unincorporated village in Sections 9 and 16 of T6S-R7W, flanked by Highway 57. Historically within the “Vancleave area”, there have been many smaller settlements around public schools and churches, such as: Mount Pleasant, Greenhead, Ebenezer, Evergreen, Live Oak Pond, Dead Lake, and Fort Bayou.

18thCentury

Colonial Days 1699-1811

The Amerinds

Assuredly, Native Americans hunted the forests and fished the streams in the Vancleave region, centuries before the first Europeans arrived. Their past presence is indicated on the Pascagoula River by several French cartographic sketches and charts of the period. The closest village to present day Vancleave was that of the Capinians, probably also called Moctobi. Its location appears to be about one mile south of the Wade Bridge. (Carte de la Louisiane by DAnville-1732)

Jay Higginbotham, noted French Colonial historian and Archivist for the City of Mobile, relates that he has seen several “curios mounds” north and south of the Wade Bridge. He was unable to determine if they were constructed by the Amerinds. (Higginbotham, 1967, p. 15)

Jean-Baptiste Baudrau-First permanent settler in western Jackson County

Jean-Baptiste Baudrau (1671- ca 1762), dit Graveline, was born at Montreal in New France (Canada). In 1700, he landed with Pierre Le Moyne, dIberville (1761-1706) at Fort Maurepas in present day Ocean Springs. Iberville was a military commander sent by King Louis XIV (1638-1715) of France to establish and protect La Louisiane, the 1682 French claim of Rene Robert Cavalier de La Salle (1643-1687). French Louisiana was defined by La Salle as the watershed of the Mississippi River and its tributaries.

In 1702, Jean-Baptiste Baudreau abandoned Biloxy, the region around Fort Maurepas. With his French cohorts, led by Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, de Bienville (1684-1778), Baudrau relocated to Old Mobile. Circa 1718, Baudreau left Dauphin Island to return permanently to what is now Jackson County, Mississippi. He and his family resided on the west side of the Pascagoula River. (Adkinson, et al, 1991, pp. 95-98)

Initially Graveline managed a farm in the present day Martins Bluff section. He raised livestock, primarily horned cattle. Graveline utilized Negro and Indian slave labor to work the plantation and tend livestock. (Conrad, 1970, p. 2 and p. 50)

Baudrau descendants

The descendant of Jean-Baptise Baudrau are numbered in the tens of thousands. From this French Canadian adventurer, some of the first families of the Mississippi Coast, which still exist today, Ladner, Bosarge, Fayard, Moran, Grelot (Gollott), Fournier, Ryan, Bang, and Seymour, can trace some of their lineage.

Jean Baptiste Baudrau dit Graveline had married an Indian woman who brought forth two children, Magdeleine Baudrau and Jean-Baptiste Baudrau II (d. 1757). Magdelaine married Pierre Paquet Jr. Circa 1758, their daughter, Marie Anne Pacquet (b. 1742) wedded Nicholas Ladner (b. ca 1736-1799) dit Christian. Of further interest in this line, Marie Angelique Baudreau (1776-1853), the daughter of Jean-Batiste Baudrau III (b. ca 1735) and Marie Louise Fayard (b. 1746), married Nicholas Ladner II (1759-ca 1793), son of Nicholas Ladner dit Christian and Marie Anne Pacquet. She married Jacob Bingle (Bang) after the demise of Nicholas Ladner II. (Cassibry II, 1988, pp. 700-704)

The brother of Nicholas Ladner II, Pierre Ladner (1764-1809+), settled on the Pascagoula River in 1809, on Claim No. 133, which was one of actual settlers who had no claim from either the French, British, or Spanish Governments. Pierre Ladners homestead was in Section 39, T6S-R6W about 1.5 miles east of the Evergreen community.(The American State Papers, 1994, p. 38)

Jean-Baptise Baudreau II (d. 1757) married Marie Catherine Vinconnau. Their daughter Catherine Louise Baudreau (1742-1806) married Joseph Bosarge (1733-1794) of Poitiers, France in June 1762. They are the progenitors of the large Bosarge family of coastal Alabama and Mississippi. (Atkinson, 1991, p. 23)

Another daughter of Baudrau II, Genevieve Baudrau, married Charles Leblanc in 1783. Their son, Joseph, born in 1788, became known as St. Cyr Seymour (1788-1845). His issue with Marie-Joseph Ryan (1786-1876) commenced the large Seymour family of our region. (Lepre, 1995 , pp. 54-61 )

The Seymour family has its roots on the north shore of Graveline Lake in Section 5, T8S-R7W. Here the children of St. Cyr and Marie-Joseph made their livelihoods as subsistence farmers and stockmen in the same manner as their great great grandfather, Jean-Baptiste Baudrau dit Graveline. They left their family homestead to settle at Biloxi Latimer, Fort Bayou, Ocean Springs, and North Biloxi. (The Ocean Springs Record, January 15, 1998)

The Chaumont Plantation

With the French beachhead at Fort Maurepas in 1699, and the subsequent founding of military posts at Mobile (1709), Nachitoches (1714), Natchez (1716), New Orleans (1718), and Nouveau Biloxy (1720) colonists of French and German origins began the settlement of French Louisiana. In late 1719, a 16,000-acre concession on the Pascagoula River, located about 40 miles up stream from the Gulf of Mexico, was granted by John Law s Company of the West to a wealthy Parisian, Antoine Chaumont, honorary secretary to King Louis XV, and his wife, Marie-Catherine Barre, Madame de Chaumont.

Chaumont Plantation Locator Map

In 1721, French settlers with slave labor established the Chaumont Plantation, the first European settlement in the Vancleave region. It was probably located on the west side of the Pascagoula River, about one mile seaward of the Wade Bridge, probably in Section 19, T5S-R6W. Monsieur Revillion, the plantation manager, was able to produce one good wheat crop before departing the Pascagoula River farm for Paris in 1722. He had received no money or supplies from the Chaumonts and went to France to bring litigation against them. By 1732, the Chaumont Plantation had been entirely abandoned. (Higginbotham, 1974, pp. 353-362)

The French Mills and the Lewis Claim

In 1811, Edwin Lewis (1782-1830), a Virginia born lawyer, married Margaret Baudreau (1791-1865), the great granddaughter of Jean-Baptiste Baudrau dit Graveline. Her parents were J.B. Baudrau III (b. ca 1735) and Marie Louise Fayard (b. 1746). He immediately began to assert the claim that Gravelines heirs were the rightful owners of the 40,000-acre Chaumont concession granted by the Company of the West. The land commissioner denied his request, but affirmed the Baudrau heirs claim of 1280 acres at Belle Fontaine. In a letter dated October 20, 1829, Edwin Lewis wrote:

..the original claim filed by me for the heirs of Jean Bte. Baudreau de Graveline for 40,000 acres on the west side of the Pascagoula River at and including the old French mills, the former home of our ancestorsour claim is for 40,000 acres granted by the French Government to the Count Chaumont and the long residence of our ancestors never abandoned by the family but was evacuated only from the trouble of Indians against whom the Spanish Government afforded no protection and which land was never re-granted by the English or Spanish government or permits given to settle on itI married the daughter of J.B. Baudreau directly after the Baton Rouge convention in 1811. The next day after which her father who was heir to half the land informed me that he gave my wife his half and that I might take possession of it when I pleased. I visited the place. I found two pretty extensive mill dams and part of the frame remaining. I found the place vacant but a log house was standing at a small distance from the mills and where our ancestors had resided before they were obliged to leave it by ? of Indians. I inquired who built the house. My father-in-law informed me one Durand, a Spaniard, from Pensacola who had a permit to settle on vacant land had built the log cabin to stay until he could select a place and that he had offered to purchase the land from him but he would not sell it as he had children to give it toI moved my family between this cabin and the mills and had nearly finished building one of the mills when (Jonathan) Sulcer came there who had also made several offers to Baudro for the lands and brought a forcible entry and detainer against me which was dropped before Old Judge Toulmin who turned me and my family out of doors(from the files of the Mobile Genealogical Library-Mobile, Alabama)

The location of the French mills from the above missive of Edwin Lewis is on the west side of the Pascagoula River in Section 24, T5S-R7W, east of the Magnolia Baptist Church on River Road. It known with a high degree of certitude that Jonathan Sulcer was here in December 1808, and that the original settler of this tract was Alexander Durant. This land is referred to, as Claim No. 170, in the list of actual settlers in the district east of the Pearl River, who have no claims derived from the French, British, or Spanish Governments. (The American State Papers, 1994, p. 38)

Interestingly and corroborating the above information, the description of French mills tract by Edwin Lewis is west of the indicated position of the 1721 Chaumont Plantation in Section 19, T5S-R6W. It appears that wheat grown on the plantation was ground into flour by the water-powered grist mills. The topographic nature of the high bluff on the west side of the Pascagoula River in Section 24, T5S-R7W is conducive for the construction of mill dams as there are several streams dissecting the bluff creating small but deep canyons here. (USGS Topographic Map, “Vancleave”, 1982)

Alfred E. Lewis (1812-1885), the son of Edwin Lewis, settled on former Baudrau lands situated on the Mississippi Sound west of the Pascagoula River mouth. Here in 1845, he erected Lewis-Sha, a plantation home, which is extant at Gautier today and is known as Oldfields. (The History of Jackson County, Mississippi, 1989, pp. 46-47)

19thCentury

Enter the Americans 1811-1861

The early years of the 19thCentury were tumultuous for the old American Southwest, which included the Vancleave area. After the Mississippi Territory was created in 1798, American settlers, chiefly white, Anglo-Saxon Protestants, began a steady migration from the Carolinas and Georgia into the new frontier. Soon, these pioneers began crossing south of the 31stparallel into the longleaf pine belt of coastal Mississippi. As there were still Indian and Spanish claims in this region, these Americans were sensed as trespassers by the Spanish who possessed the area, including what would later become Vancleave, as a part of Spanish West Florida.

Before 1810, trails and primitive roads were penetrating the primeval forest of the longleaf pine belt in the Bluff Creek region. The pioneers who came here made their livelihoods by herding cattle and swine, hunting-gathering, and subsistence farming. They were independent, freedom loving and had a dislike for the Indians and the Spanish. At this time it was reported that there were eighteen families on the lower Pascagoula River and more upstream.

The 1810 West Florida Rebellion and the 1811 annexation of the of that portion of Spanish West Florida from the Mississippi River to the Perdido River into the Orleans Territory by Governor William Charles Cole Claiborne (1775-1817), brought the American settlers of this region into the United States. Jackson County of the Mississippi Territory was created in 1812, and it entered the Union with the State of Mississippi on March 1, 1817. (The History of Jackson County, Mississippi, 1989, p. 1)

On January 13, 1811, Dr. Flood of New Orleans, the representative of Governor W.C.C. Claiborne, landed at Pascagoula and raised the American flag. He appointed Captain George Farragut (1755-1817) as Justice of the Peace for Pascagoula Parish of the Territory of Orleans. Dr. Flood wrote the following to Claiborne on January 25, 1811:

Finding no one able to read or write in the Pascagoula settlement, and the inhabitants expressing great confidence in and attachment for Capt. George Farragut, sailing master in the Navy, on this station, I prevailed on him to accept the commission for the parish. Benjamin Goodin, the other magistrate, resides on the river twenty miles up..The population of the Pascagoula Parish is about three hundred and fifty. (Claiborne, 1978, p. 307)

It is interesting to note that George Farragut, a native of Minorca, one of the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea, was the father of Union Admiral David Farragut (1801-1870). During the Civil War, Admiral Farraguts fleet captured New Orleans (1862) and won the Battle of Mobile Bay (1864). He commissioned two local immigrant seaman, Martin Freeman (1814-1894) of Pascagoula and Antoine V. Bellande (1829-1918) of Back Bay, now DIberville, Mississippi as acting ensigns and pilots in the Union Navy. At Mobile Bay in August 1864, Freeman piloted the USS Hartford, Farraguts flagship, while Bellande was aboard theUSS Monongahela, which rammed theCSA Tennessee.

Land Offices and the Jackson County Courthouse

Soon after Spanish West Florida became a part of the United States, two districts to process and ascertain land claims was established. The Vancleave region was placed in the land district East of the Pearl River, which was managed from St. Stephens on the Tombigbee River in present day Alabama. In 1819, a land office for Jackson County was created at “Jackson Courthouse” which was probably at the residence of Surveyor, Thomas Bilbo. In 1822, the Jackson County land office was move to Augusta in Perry County. (Cain, 1983, Vol. I, pp.168-169)

The first courthouse at Jackson County was located in present day George County, near Benndale. By 1823, the seat of county government had relocated to Brewers Bluff, northeast of Vancleave, and then in 1826 to Americus, on the east side of the Pascagoula River, where it would remain until 1871, when what appears to be the permanent government base, was founded at Scranton (Pascagoula). The location of the county seat in the northern portion of Jackson County until 1871, reflects that this was indeed the focus of early American settlement. (The History of Jackson County, Mississippi 1989, pp. 10-12)

As previously noted, the coastline was the focus of early European settlement. These early colonists brought the French language and Roman Catholic faith. After nearly three hundred years, some cultural differences still exist between the descendants of the early Americans and those of European heritage.

Vancleave Region Pioneers

A study of the land claims, which existed in the District East of the Pearl River in the early 19thCentury, reveals that the earliest settlers in the Vancleave region, homesteaded northeast and east of the future village. These pioneers chose the high bluff on the west side of the Pascagoula River as their place of settlement. Among the first of these homesteaders and their lands were:

Settler Date Settlement Original Settler

John Havens*1802? Poticaw Bayou areaJames Ware 1803 Section 12, T7S-R7W J.B. Baudrau

Benjamin Lanier 1807 Sec. 41, T5S-R7W and Sec. 22, T5S-R6W

Pierre Ladner 1809 Section 39, T6S-R6W John Haven

Laird Graham 1809 Section 38, T5S-R7WJoseph Graham 1810 Section 37, T5S-R7WAlexis Nicholas (Ladner) 1810 Section 38, T6S-R7WJonathan Selser 1810 Sec. 24, T5R7W Alexander Durant

George Farragutt 1811 Section 37, T7S-R7WJohn Brewer 1812 Section 1, T5S-R7WJohn Brewer Jr. 1812? Section 2, T5S-R7WWilliam Cates 1812 Sec. 38, T6S-R6W, Sec. 42,T5S-7W, Sec. 37, T6S-R7W

Joshua Cates 1812 Section 42, T5S-R7Wand Section 40, T5S-R6W

John Haven 1812 Section 11, T5S-R7W James Haven

Link:

History of Vancleave | Ocean Springs Archives

Fair Usage Law

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Our History | Southern Poverty Law Center

By the late 1960s, the civil rights movement had ushered in the promise of racial equality as new federal laws and decisions by the U.S. Supreme Court ended Jim Crow segregation. But resistance was strong, and these laws had not yet brought the fundamental changes needed in the South.

African Americans were still excluded from good jobs, decent housing, public office, a quality education and a range of other opportunities. There were few places for the disenfranchised and the poor to turn for justice. Enthusiasm for the civil rights movement had waned, and few lawyers in the South were willing to take controversial cases to test new civil rights laws.

Alabama lawyer and businessman Morris Dees sympathized with the plight of the poor and the powerless. The son of an Alabama farmer, he had witnessed firsthand the devastating consequences of bigotry and racial injustice. Dees decided to sell his successful book publishing business to start a civil rights law practice that would provide a voice for the disenfranchised.

I had made up my mind, Dees wrote in his autobiography, A Season for Justice. I would sell the company as soon as possible and specialize in civil rights law. All the things in my life that had brought me to this point, all the pulls and tugs of my conscience, found a singular peace. It did not matter what my neighbors would think, or the judges, the bankers, or even my relatives.

His decision led to the founding of the Southern Poverty Law Center.

Dees joined forces with another young Montgomery lawyer, Joe Levin. They took pro bono cases few others were willing to pursue the outcome of which had far-reaching effects. Some of their early lawsuits resulted in the desegregation of recreational facilities, the reapportionment of the Alabama Legislature, the integration of the Alabama state trooper force and reforms in the state prison system.

The lawyers formally incorporated the SPLC in 1971, and civil rights activist Julian Bond was named the first president. Dees and Levin began seeking nationwide support for their work. People from across the country responded with generosity, establishing a sound financial base for the new organization.

In the decades since its founding, the SPLC shut down some of the nations most violent white supremacist groups by winning crushing, multimillion-dollar jury verdicts on behalf of their victims. It dismantled vestiges of Jim Crow, reformed juvenile justice practices, shattered barriers to equality for women, children, the LGBT community and the disabled, protected low-wage immigrant workers from exploitation, and more.

In the 1980s, the SPLC began monitoring white supremacist activity amid a resurgence of the Klan and today its Intelligence Project is internationally known for tracking and exposing a wide variety of hate and extremist organizations throughout the United States.

In the early 1990s, the SPLC launched its pioneering Teaching Tolerance program to provide educators with free, anti-bias classroom resources such as classroom documentaries and lesson plans. Today, it reaches millions of schoolchildren with award-winning materials that teach them to respect others and help educators create inclusive, equitable school environments.

As the country has grown increasingly diverse, our work has only become more vital. And our history is evidence of an unwavering resolve to promote and protect our nations most cherished ideals by standing up for those who have no other champions.

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Our History | Southern Poverty Law Center

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McDonald’s – Wikipedia

McDonald’sPublicTradedasISINUS5801351017IndustryRestaurantsGenreFast food restaurantFoundedMcDonald’s: May15, 1940; 77 years ago(1940-05-15)San Bernardino, CaliforniaMcDonald’s Corporation: April15, 1955; 62 years ago(1955-04-15)Des Plaines, IllinoisFoundersMcDonald’s: Richard and Maurice McDonaldMcDonald’s Corporation: Ray KrocHeadquartersOak Brook, Illinois, U.S. (moving to Chicago in 2018)[1]

Number of locations

Area served

Key people

Number of employees

corporate.mcdonalds.com/mcd.htmlwww.mcdonalds.com/us/en-us.html

McDonald’s is a fast food company that was founded in 1940 as a restaurant operated by Richard and Maurice McDonald, in San Bernardino, California, United States. They rechristened their business as a hamburger stand. The first time a McDonald’s franchise used the Golden Arches logo was in 1953 at a location in Phoenix, Arizona. In 1955, Ray Kroc, a businessman, joined the company as a franchise agent and proceeded to purchase the chain from the McDonald brothers. McDonald’s had its original headquarters in Oak Brook, Illinois, but has approved plans to move its global headquarters to Chicago by 2018.[4][5]

McDonald’s is the world’s largest restaurant chain by revenue[6], serving over 69 million customers daily in over 100 countries[7] across approximately 36,900 outlets as of 2016.[8] Although McDonald’s is known for its hamburgers, they also sell cheeseburgers, chicken products, french fries, breakfast items, soft drinks, milkshakes, wraps, and desserts. In response to changing consumer tastes and a negative backlash because of the unhealthiness of their food,[9] the company has added to its menu salads, fish, smoothies, and fruit. The McDonald’s Corporation revenues come from the rent, royalties, and fees paid by the franchisees, as well as sales in company-operated restaurants. According to a BBC report published in 2012, McDonald’s is the world’s second largest private employer (behind Walmart with 1.9 million employees), 1.5 million of whom work for franchises.

The siblings Richard and Maurice McDonald opened in 1940 the first McDonald’s at 1398 North E Street at West 14th Street in San Bernardino, California (at 340732N 1171741W / 34.1255N 117.2946W / 34.1255; -117.2946) but it was not the McDonald’s recognizable today; Ray Kroc made changes to the brothers business that modernized it. The brothers introduced the “Speedee Service System” in 1948, putting into expanded use the principles of the modern fast-food restaurant that their predecessor White Castle had put into practice more than two decades earlier.[citation needed]. The original mascot of McDonald’s was a chef hat on top of a hamburger who was referred to as “Speedee”. In 1962, the Golden Arches replaced Speedee as the universal mascot. The symbol, Ronald McDonald, was introduced in 1965. The clown, Ronald McDonald, appeared in advertising to target their audience of children.[10]

On May 4, 1961, McDonald’s first filed for a U.S. trademark on the name “McDonald’s” with the description “Drive-In Restaurant Services”, which continues to be renewed. By September 13, 1961, McDonald’s under the guidance of Ray Kroc, filed for a trademark on a new logoan overlapping, double-arched “M” symbol. But before the double arches, McDonald’s used the a single arch for the architecture of their buildings. Although the “Golden Arches” logo appeared in various forms, the present version was not used until November 18, 1968, when the company was favored a U.S. trademark.

The present corporation credits its founding to franchised businessman Ray Kroc in on April 15, 1955, this was in fact the ninth opened McDonald’s restaurant overall; although this location was destroyed and rebuilt in 1984. Kroc later purchased the McDonald brothers’ equity in the company and begun the companies worldwide reach. Kroc was recorded as being an aggressive business partner, driving the McDonald brothers out of the industry.

Kroc and the McDonald brothers fought for control of the business, as documented in Kroc’s autobiography. The San Bernardino restaurant was eventually torn down (1971, according to Juan Pollo) and the site was sold to the Juan Pollo chain in 1976. This area now serves as headquarters for the Juan Pollo chain, and a McDonald’s and Route 66 museum.[11] With the expansion of McDonald’s into many international markets, the company has become a symbol of globalization and the spread of the American way of life. Its prominence has also made it a frequent topic of public debates about obesity, corporate ethics, and consumer responsibility.

McDonald’s restaurants are found in 120 countries and territories around the world and serve 68 million customers each day.[12][13] McDonald’s operates 36,899 restaurants worldwide, employing more than 375,000 people as of the end of 2016.[8][12] There are currently a total of 5,669 company-owned locations and 31,230 franchised locations, which includes 21,559 locations franchised to conventional franchisees, 6,300 locations licensed to developmental licensees, and 3,371 locations licensed to foreign affiliates, primarily Japan.[8]

Focusing on its core brand, McDonald’s began divesting itself of other chains it had acquired during the 1990s. The company owned a majority stake in Chipotle Mexican Grill until October 2006, when McDonald’s fully divested from Chipotle through a stock exchange.[14][15] Until December 2003, it also owned Donatos Pizza, and it owned a small share of Aroma Cafe from 1999 to 2001. On August 27, 2007, McDonald’s sold Boston Market to Sun Capital Partners.[16]

Notably, McDonald’s has increased shareholder dividends for 25 consecutive years,[17] making it one of the S&P 500 Dividend Aristocrats.[18][19] In October 2012, its monthly sales fell for the first time in nine years.[20] In 2014, its quarterly sales fell for the first time in seventeen years, when its sales dropped for the entirety of 1997.[21]

In the United States, it is reported that drive-throughs account for 70 percent of sales.[22][23] McDonald’s closed down 184 restaurants in the United States in 2015, which was 59 more than what they planned to open.[24][25] This move was also the first time McDonald’s had a net decrease in the number of locations in the United States since 1970.[25]

The company currently owns all the land, valued at an estimated $16 to $18 billion, on which its restaurants are situated.[citation needed] The company earns a significant portion of its revenue from rental payments from franchisees. These rent payments rose 26 percent between 2010 and 2015, accounting for one-fifth of the company’s total revenue at the end of the period.[26] In recent times, there have been calls to spin off the company’s US holdings into a potential real estate investment trust, but the company announced at its investor conference on November 10, 2015, that this would not happen. The CEO, Steve Easterbrook discussed that pursuing the REIT option would pose too large a risk to the company’s business model.[27]

The United Kingdom and Ireland business model is different from the U.S, in that fewer than 30 percent of restaurants are franchised, with the majority under the ownership of the company. McDonald’s trains its franchisees and management at Hamburger University in Oak Brook, Illinois.[28][29] In other countries, McDonald’s restaurants are operated by joint ventures of McDonald’s Corporation and other, local entities or governments.[30]

According to Fast Food Nation by Eric Schlosser (2001), nearly one in eight workers in the U.S. have at some time been employed by McDonald’s. Employees are encouraged by McDonald’s Corp. to maintain their health by singing along to their favorite songs in order to relieve stress, attending church services in order to have a lower blood pressure, and taking two vacations annually in order to reduce risk for myocardial infarction.[31] Fast Food Nation also states that McDonald’s is the largest private operator of playgrounds in the U.S., as well as the single largest purchaser of beef, pork, potatoes, and apples. The selection of meats McDonald’s uses varies to some extent based on the culture of the host country.[32]

The McDonald’s headquarters complex, McDonald’s Plaza, is located in Oak Brook, Illinois. It sits on the site of the former headquarters and stabling area of Paul Butler, the founder of Oak Brook.[33] McDonald’s moved into the Oak Brook facility from an office within the Chicago Loop in 1971.[34]

On June 13, 2016, McDonald’s confirmed plans to move its global headquarters to Chicago’s West Loop neighborhood in the Near West Side. The 608,000-square-foot structure will be built on the former site of Harpo Productions (where the Oprah Winfrey Show and several other Harpo productions taped) and open in early 2018.[4][5]

As of November 2014, the board of directors had the following members:[35]

On March 1, 2015, after being chief brand officer of McDonald’s and its former head in the UK and northern Europe, Steve Easterbrook became CEO, succeeding Don Thompson, who stepped down on January 28, 2015.

McDonald’s has become emblematic of globalization, sometimes referred to as the “McDonaldization” of society. The Economist newspaper uses the “Big Mac Index”: the comparison of a Big Mac’s cost in various world currencies can be used to informally judge these currencies’ purchasing power parity. Switzerland has the most expensive Big Mac in the world as of July 2015, while the country with the least expensive Big Mac is India[36][37] (albeit for a Maharaja Macthe next cheapest Big Mac is Hong Kong).[38]

Thomas Friedman once said that no country with a McDonald’s had gone to war with another.[39][40] However, the “Golden Arches Theory of Conflict Prevention” is not strictly true. Exceptions are the 1989 United States invasion of Panama, NATO’s bombing of Serbia in 1999, the 2006 Lebanon War, and the 2008 South Ossetia war. McDonald’s suspended operations in its corporate-owned stores in Crimea after Russia annexed the region in 2014.[41] On August 20, 2014, as tensions between the United States and Russia strained over events in Ukraine, and the resultant U.S. sanctions, the Russian government temporarily shut down four McDonald’s outlets in Moscow, citing sanitary concerns. The company has operated in Russia since 1990 and at August 2014 had 438 stores across the country.[42] On August 23, 2014, Russian Deputy Prime Minister Arkady Dvorkovich ruled out any government move to ban McDonald’s and dismissed the notion that the temporary closures had anything to do with the sanctions.[43]

Some observers have suggested that the company should be given credit for increasing the standard of service in markets that it enters. A group of anthropologists in a study entitled Golden Arches East[44] looked at the impact McDonald’s had on East Asia and Hong Kong, in particular. When it opened in Hong Kong in 1975, McDonald’s was the first restaurant to consistently offer clean restrooms, driving customers to demand the same of other restaurants and institutions. McDonald’s has taken to partnering up with Sinopec, the second largest oil company in the People’s Republic of China, as it takes advantage of the country’s growing use of personal vehicles by opening numerous drive-thru restaurants.[45] McDonald’s has opened a McDonald’s restaurant and McCaf on the underground premises of the French fine arts museum, The Louvre.[46]

The company stated it would open vegetarian-only restaurants in India by mid-2013.[47] Foreign restaurants are banned in Bermuda, with the exception of KFC, which was present before the current law was passed. Therefore, there are no McDonald’s in Bermuda.[48][unreliable source?]

On January 9, 2017, 80% of the franchise rights in the mainland China and in Hong Kong were sold for US$2.080 billion to a consortium of CITIC Limited (for 32%) and private equity funds managed by CITIC Capital (for 20%) and Carlyle (for 20%), which CITIC Limited and CITIC Capital would also formed a joint venture to own the stake.[49]

McDonald’s predominantly sells hamburgers, various types of chicken, chicken sandwiches, French fries, soft drinks, breakfast items, and desserts. In most markets, McDonald’s offers salads and vegetarian items, wraps and other localized fare. On a seasonal basis, McDonald’s offers the McRib sandwich. Some speculate the seasonality of the McRib adds to its appeal.[50]

Products are offered as either “eat-in” (where the customer opts to eat in the restaurant) or “take-out” (where the customer opts to take the food for consumption off the premises). “Eat-in” meals are provided on a plastic tray with a paper insert on the floor of the tray. “Take-out” meals are usually delivered with the contents enclosed in a distinctive McDonald’s-branded brown paper bag. In both cases, the individual items are wrapped or boxed as appropriate.

Since Steve Easterbrook became CEO of the company, McDonald’s has streamlined the menu which in the United States contained nearly 200 items. The company has also looked to introduce healthier options, and removed high-fructose corn syrup from hamburger buns. The company has also removed artificial preservatives from Chicken McNuggets,[51] replacing chicken skin, safflower oil and citric acid found in Chicken McNuggets with pea starch, rice starch and powdered lemon juice.[52]

Restaurants in several countries, particularly in Asia, serve soup. This local deviation from the standard menu is a characteristic for which the chain is particularly known, and one which is employed either to abide by regional food taboos (such as the religious prohibition of beef consumption in India) or to make available foods with which the regional market is more familiar (such as the sale of McRice in Indonesia, or Ebi (prawn) Burger in Singapore and Japan).

In Germany and some other Western European countries, McDonald’s sells beer. In New Zealand, McDonald’s sells meat pies, after the local affiliate partially relaunched the Georgie Pie fast food chain it bought out in 1996.

In the United States, after limited trials on a regional basis, McDonald’s plans to offer an all-day breakfast menu whenever its restaurants are open, although eggs cannot be cooked at the same time on the same equipment as hamburgers due to different temperature requirements.[citation needed]

Most standalone McDonald’s restaurants offer both counter service and drive-through service, with indoor and sometimes outdoor seating.[53] Drive-Thru, Auto-Mac, Pay and Drive, or “McDrive” as it is known in many countries, often has separate stations for placing, paying for, and picking up orders, though the latter two steps are frequently combined;[53] it was first introduced in Arizona in 1975, following the lead of other fast-food chains. The first such restaurant in Britain opened at Fallowfield, Manchester in 1986.[54]

In some countries, “McDrive” locations near highways offer no counter service or seating.[55] In contrast, locations in high-density city neighborhoods often omit drive-through service.[56] There are also a few locations, located mostly in downtown districts, that offer a “Walk-Thru” service in place of Drive-Thru.[57]

McCaf is a caf-style accompaniment to McDonald’s restaurants and is a concept created by McDonald’s Australia (also known, and marketed, as “Macca’s” in Australia), starting with Melbourne in 1993.[58] As of 2016, most McDonald’s in Australia have McCafs located within the existing McDonald’s restaurant. In Tasmania, there are McCafs in every restaurant, with the rest of the states quickly following suit.[53] After upgrading to the new McCaf look and feel, some Australian restaurants have noticed up to a 60 percent increase in sales. At the end of 2003, there were over 600 McCafs worldwide.

From 20152016, McDonald’s tried a new gourmet burger service/restaurant concept based on other gourmet restaurants such as Shake Shack and Grill’d. It was rolled out for the first time in Australia during the early months of 2015 and expanded to China, Hong Kong, Singapore, Arabia and New Zealand, with ongoing trials in the US market. In dedicated “Create Your Taste” (CYT) kiosks, customers could choose all ingredients including type of bun and meat along with optional extras. In late 2015 the Australian CYT service introduced CYT salads.

After a person had ordered, McDonald’s advised that wait times were between 1015 minutes. When the food was ready, trained crew (‘hosts’) brought the food to the customer’s table. Instead of McDonald’s usual cardboard and plastic packaging, CYT food was presented on wooden boards, fries in wire baskets and salads in china bowls with metal cutlery. A higher price applied.

In November 2016, Create Your Taste was replaced by a “Signature Crafted Recipes” program designed to be more efficient and less expensive.[59]

Some locations are connected to gas stations/convenience stores,[60] while others called McExpress have limited seating and/or menu or may be located in a shopping mall. Other McDonald’s are located in Walmart stores. McStop is a location targeted at truckers and travelers which may have services found at truck stops.[61]

In Sweden, customers who order a happy meal can use the meal’s container for a pair of happy goggles.[62] The company created a game for the goggles known as “Slope Stars.[62]” McDonald’s predicts happy goggles will continue in other countries.[62] In the Netherlands, McDonald’s has introduced McTrax that doubles as a recording studio; it reacts to touch.[62] They can create their own beats with a synth and tweak sounds with special effects.[62]

The first kosher McDonald’s was established in 1997 at the Abasto de Buenos Aires mall in Buenos Aires, Argentina. There are also many kosher branches in Israel.[63][64]

McDonald’s playgrounds are called McDonald’s PlayPlace. Some McDonald’s in suburban areas and certain cities feature large indoor or outdoor playgrounds. The first PlayPlace with the familiar crawl-tube design with ball pits and slides was introduced in 1987 in the US, with many more being constructed soon after.

McDonald’s Next use open-concept design and offer “Create Your Taste” digital ordering. The concept store also offering free mobile device charging and table service after 6:00 pm. The first store opened in Hong Kong in December 2015.[65]

In 2006, McDonald’s introduced its “Forever Young” brand by redesigning all of its restaurants, the first major redesign since the 1970s.[66][67]

The goal of the redesign is to be more like a coffee shop, similar to Starbucks. The design includes wooden tables, faux-leather chairs, and muted colors; the red was muted to terracotta, the yellow was shifted to golden for a more “sunny” look, and olive and sage green were also added.

To create a warmer look, the restaurants have less plastic and more brick and wood, with modern hanging lights to produce a softer glow. Many restaurants now feature free Wi-Fi and flat-screen TVs. Other upgrades include double drive-thrus, flat roofs instead of the angled red roofs, and replacing fiber glass with wood. Also, instead of the familiar golden arches, the restaurants now feature “semi-swooshes” (half of a golden arch), similar to the Nike swoosh.[68]

McDonald’s began banning smoking in 1994 when it banned smoking within its 1,400 wholly owned restaurants.[69]

Since the late 1990s, McDonald’s has attempted to replace employees with electronic kiosks which would perform actions such taking orders and accepting money. In 1999, McDonald’s first tested “E-Clerks” in suburban Chicago, Illinois, and Wyoming, Michigan, with the devices being able to “save money on live staffers” and attracting larger purchase amounts than average employees.[70]

In 2013, the University of Oxford estimated that in the succeeding decades, there was a 92% probability of food preparation and serving to become automated in fast food establishments.[71] By 2016, McDonald’s “Create Your Taste” electronic kiosks were seen in some restaurants internationally where customers could custom order meals. As employees pushed for higher wages in the late-2010s, some believed that fast food companies such as McDonald’s would use the devices to cut costs for employing individuals.[72]

On August 5, 2013, The Guardian revealed that 90 percent of McDonald’s UK workforce are on zero hour contracts, making it possibly the largest such private sector employer in the country.[73] A study released by Fast Food Forward conducted by Anzalone Liszt Grove Research showed that approximately 84 percent of all fast food employees working in New York City in April 2013 had been paid less than their legal wages by their employers.[74]

From 2007 to 2011, fast food workers in the US drew an average of $7 billion of public assistance annually resulting from receiving low wages.[75] The McResource website advised employees to break their food into smaller pieces to feel fuller, seek refunds for unopened holiday purchases, sell possessions online for quick cash, and to “quit complaining” as “stress hormone levels rise by 15 percent after ten minutes of complaining.”[76] In December 2013, McDonald’s shut down the McResource website amidst negative publicity and criticism. McDonald’s plans to continue an internal telephone help line through which its employees can obtain advice on work and life problems.[77]

Liberal thinktank the Roosevelt Institute accuses some McDonald’s restaurants of actually paying less than the minimum wage to entry positions due to ‘rampant’ wage theft.[78] In South Korea, McDonald’s pays part-time employees $5.50 an hour and is accused of paying less with arbitrary schedules adjustments and pay delays.[79] In late 2015, Anonymous aggregated data collected by Glassdoor suggests that McDonald’s in the United States pays entry-level employees between $7.25 an hour and $11 an hour, with an average of $8.69 an hour. Shift managers get paid an average of $10.34 an hour. Assistant managers get paid an average of $11.57 an hour.[80] McDonald’s CEO, Steve Easterbrook, currently earns an annual salary of $1,100,000.[81]

McDonald’s workers have on occasions decided to strike over pay, with most of the employees on strike seeking to be paid $15.00.[82] When interviewed about the strikes occurring, former McDonald’s CEO Ed Rensi stated: “It’s cheaper to buy a $35,000 robotic arm than it is to hire an employee who’s inefficient making $15 an hour bagging french fries” with Rensi explaining that increasing employee wages could possibly take away from entry-level jobs.[83] However, according to Easterbrook, increasing wages and benefits for workers saw a 6% increase in customer satisfaction when comparing 2015’s first quarter data to the first quarter of 2016, with greater returns seen as a result.[83]

In September 2017, two British McDonald’s stores agreed to a strike over zero hours contracts for staff. Picket lines were formed around the two stores in Crayford and Cambridge. The strike was supported by the Leader of the Opposition, Jeremy Corbyn.[84][85]

In March 2015, McDonald’s workers in 19 US cities filed 28 health and safety complaints with the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration which allege that low staffing, lack of protective gear, poor training and pressure to work fast has resulted in injuries. The complaints also allege that, because of a lack of first aid supplies, workers were told by management to treat burn injuries with condiments such as mayonnaise and mustard.[86] The Fight for $15 labor organization aided the workers in filing the complaints.[87]

In 2015, McDonald’s pledged to stop using eggs from battery cage facilities by 2025. Since McDonald’s purchases over 2 billion eggs per year or 4 percent of eggs produced in the United States, the switch is expected to have a major impact on the egg industry and is part of a general trend toward cage-free eggs driven by consumer concern over the harsh living conditions of hens.[88][89] The aviary systems from which the new eggs will be sourced are troubled by much higher mortality rates, as well as introducing environmental and worker safety problems.[90] The high hen mortality rate, which is more than double that of battery cage systems, will require new research to mitigate. The facilities also have higher ammonia levels due to faeces being kicked up into the air. Producers raised concerns about the production cost, which is expected to increase by 36 percent.[91]

McDonald’s continues to source pork from facilities that use gestation crates, and in 2012 pledged to phase them out.[92]

McDonald’s has for decades maintained an extensive advertising campaign. In addition to the usual media (television, radio, and newspaper), the company makes significant use of billboards and signage, sponsors sporting events ranging from Little League to the FIFA World Cup and Olympic Games.[93] Television has played a central role in the company’s advertising strategy.[94] To date, McDonald’s has used 23 different slogans in United States advertising, as well as a few other slogans for select countries and regions.[95]

McDonald’s and NASA explored an advertising agreement for a planned mission to the asteroid 449 Hamburga; however, the spacecraft was eventually cancelled.[96]

McDonald’s is the title sponsor of the McDonald’s All-American Game, all-star basketball games played each year for American and Canadian boys’ and girls’ high school basketball graduates.

McHappy Day is an annual event at McDonald’s, where a percentage of the day’s sales go to charity. It is the signature fundraising event for Ronald McDonald House Charities.[97]

In 2007, it was celebrated in 17 countries: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, the United States, Finland, France, Guatemala, Hungary, England, Ireland, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and Uruguay.

According to the Australian McHappy Day website, McHappy Day raised $20.4 million in 2009. The goal for 2010 was $20.8 million.[98]

In 1995, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital received an anonymous letter postmarked in Dallas, Texas, containing a $1 million winning McDonald’s Monopoly game piece. McDonald’s officials came to the hospital, accompanied by a representative from the accounting firm Arthur Andersen, who examined the card under a jeweler’s eyepiece, handled it with plastic gloves, and verified it as a winner.[99] Although game rules prohibited the transfer of prizes, McDonald’s waived the rule and has made the annual $50,000 annuity payments, even after learning that the piece was sent by an individual involved in an embezzlement scheme intended to defraud McDonald’s (see McDonald’s Monopoly).

McRefugees are poor people in Hong Kong, Japan, and China who use McDonald’s 24-hour restaurants as a temporary hostel. One in five of Hong Kong’s population lives below the poverty line. The rise of McRefugees was first documented by photographer Suraj Katra in 2013.[100]

In 1990, activists from a small group known as London Greenpeace (no connection to the international group Greenpeace) distributed leaflets entitled What’s wrong with McDonald’s?, criticizing its environmental, health, and labor record. The corporation wrote to the group demanding they desist and apologize, and, when two of the activists refused to back down, sued them for libel in one of the longest cases in British civil law. A documentary film of the McLibel Trial has been shown in several countries.[101]

In the late 1980s, Phil Sokolof, a millionaire businessman who had suffered a heart attack at the age of 43, took out full-page newspaper ads in New York, Chicago, and other large cities accusing McDonald’s menu of being a threat to American health, and asking them to stop using beef tallow to cook their french fries.[102]

Despite the objections of McDonald’s, the term “McJob” was added to Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary in 2003.[103] The term was defined as “a low-paying job that requires little skill and provides little opportunity for advancement”.[104]

In 2001, Eric Schlosser’s book Fast Food Nation included criticism of the business practices of McDonald’s. Among the critiques were allegations that McDonald’s (along with other companies within the fast food industry) uses its political influence to increase its profits at the expense of people’s health and the social conditions of its workers. The book also brought into question McDonald’s advertisement techniques in which it targets children. While the book did mention other fast-food chains, it focused primarily on McDonald’s.

In 2002, vegetarian groups, largely Hindu and Buddhist, successfully sued McDonald’s for misrepresenting its French fries as vegetarian, when they contained beef broth.[105]

Morgan Spurlock’s 2004 documentary film Super Size Me claimed that McDonald’s food was contributing to the increase of obesity in society and that the company was failing to provide nutritional information about its food for its customers. Six weeks after the film premiered, McDonald’s announced that it was eliminating the super size option, and was creating the adult Happy Meal.

In 2006, an unsanctioned McDonald’s Video Game by Italian group Molleindustria was released online. It is parody of the business practices of the corporate giant, taking the guise of a tycoon style business simulation game. In the game, the player plays the role of a McDonald’s CEO, choosing whether or not to use controversial practices like genetically altered cow feed, plowing over rainforests, and corrupting public officials. McDonald’s issued a statement distancing itself from the game.[106]

In January 2014, it was reported that McDonald’s was accused of having used a series of tax maneuvers to avoid taxes in France. The company confirmed that tax authorities had visited McDonald’s French headquarters in Paris but insisted that it had not done anything wrong, saying, “McDonald’s firmly denies the accusation made by L’Express according to which McDonald’s supposedly hid part of its revenue from taxes in France.”[107]

In response to public pressure, McDonald’s has sought to include more healthy choices in its menu and has introduced a new slogan to its recruitment posters: “Not bad for a McJob”.[108] The word McJob, first attested in the mid-1980s[103] and later popularized by Canadian novelist Douglas Coupland in his book Generation X, has become a buzz word for low-paid, unskilled work with few prospects or benefits and little security. McDonald’s disputes this definition of McJob. In 2007, the company launched an advertising campaign with the slogan “Would you like a career with that?” on Irish television, asserting that its jobs have good prospects.

In an effort to respond to growing consumer awareness of food provenance, the fast-food chain changed its supplier of both coffee beans and milk. UK chief executive Steve Easterbrook said: “British consumers are increasingly interested in the quality, sourcing, and ethics of the food and drink they buy”.[109] In a bid to tap into the ethical consumer market,[110] McDonald’s switched to using coffee beans taken from stocks that are certified by the Rainforest Alliance, a conservation group. Additionally, in response to pressure, McDonald’s UK started using organic milk supplies for its bottled milk and hot drinks, although it still uses conventional milk in its milkshakes, and in all of its dairy products in the United States.[111] According to a report published by Farmers Weekly in 2007, the quantity of milk used by McDonald’s could have accounted for as much as 5 percent of the UK’s organic milk output.[112]

McDonald’s announced on May 22, 2008, that, in the United States and Canada, it would switch to using cooking oil that contains no trans fats for its french fries, and canola-based oil with corn and soy oils, for its baked items, pies and cookies, by year’s end.[113][114]

With regard to acquiring chickens from suppliers who use CAK/CAS methods of slaughter, McDonald’s says that it needs to see more research “to help determine whether any CAS system in current use is optimal from an animal welfare perspective.”[115]

In April 2008, McDonald’s announced that 11 of its Sheffield, England restaurants have been engaged in a biomass trial that had cut its waste and carbon footprint by half in the area. In this trial, wastes from the restaurants were collected by Veolia Environmental Services and were used to produce energy at a power plant. McDonald’s plans to expand this project, although the lack of biomass power plants in the United States will prevent this plan from becoming a national standard anytime soon.[116] In addition, in Europe, McDonald’s has been recycling vegetable grease by converting it to fuel for its diesel trucks.[117]

McDonald’s has been using a corn-based bioplastic to produce containers for some of its products. The environmental benefits of this technology are controversial, with critics noting that biodegradation is slow, produces greenhouse gases and that contamination of traditional plastic waste streams with bioplastics can complicate recycling efforts.[118]

In 1990, McDonald’s worked with the Environmental Defense Fund to stop using “clam shell” shaped styrofoam food containers to house its food products.[119] 20 years later, McDonald’s announced they would try replacing styrofoam coffee cups with an alternative material.[120]

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has recognized McDonald’s continuous effort to reduce solid waste by designing more efficient packaging and by promoting the use of recycled-content materials.[121] McDonald’s reports that it is committed towards environmental leadership by effectively managing electric energy, by conserving natural resources through recycling and reusing materials, and by addressing water management issues within the restaurant.[122]

In an effort to reduce energy usage by 25 percent in its restaurants, McDonald’s opened a prototype restaurant in Chicago in 2009 with the intention of using the model in its other restaurants throughout the world. Building on past efforts, specifically a restaurant it opened in Sweden in 2000 that was the first to intentionally incorporate green ideas, McDonald’s designed the Chicago site to save energy by incorporating old and new ideas such as managing storm water, using skylights for more natural lighting and installing some partitions and tabletops made from recycled goods.[123]

When McDonald’s received criticism for its environmental policies in the 1970s, it began to make substantial progress in reducing its use of materials.[124] For instance, an “average meal” in the 1970sa Big Mac, fries, and a drinkrequired 46grams of packaging; today, it requires only 25grams, allowing a 46 percent reduction.[125] In addition, McDonald’s eliminated the need for intermediate containers for cola by having a delivery system that pumps syrup directly from the delivery truck into storage containers, saving two million pounds (910 tonnes) of packaging annually.[126] Overall, weight reductions in packaging and products, as well as the increased usage of bulk packaging ultimately decreased packaging by twenty-four million pounds (11,000 tonnes) annually.[127]

McDonald’s has been involved in a number of lawsuits and other legal cases, most of which involved trademark disputes. The company has threatened many food businesses with legal action unless it drops the Mc or Mac from trading names.

On September 8, 2009, McDonald’s Malaysian operations lost a lawsuit to prevent another restaurant calling itself McCurry. McDonald’s lost in an appeal to Malaysia’s highest court, the Federal Court.[128]

In April 2007, in Perth, Western Australia, McDonald’s pleaded guilty to five charges relating to the employment of children under 15 in one of its outlets and was fined A$8,000.[129]

In 2016, the Australian Taxation Office revealed that McDonald’s Asia-Pacific Consortium had generated $478 million in revenue in 201314, but had paid no tax on those earnings whatsoever.[130]

McDonald’s has defended itself in several cases involving workers’ rights.[citation needed]

The longest running legal action of all time in the UK was the McLibel case against 2 defendants who criticized a number of aspects of the company. The trial lasted 10 years and called 130 witnesses. The European Court of Human Rights deemed that the unequal resources of the litigants breached the defendants rights to freedom of speech and biased the trial. The result was widely seen as a “PR disaster.”[131]

A famous legal case in the US involving McDonald’s was the 1994 decision in Liebeck v. McDonald’s Restaurants where Stella Liebeck was awarded several million dollars after she suffered third-degree burns after spilling a scalding cup of McDonald’s coffee on herself.[132]

In April 2014, it was reported that McDonald’s in Europe will use chicken meat that was produced by using genetically modified animal feed. Greenpeace argues that McDonald’s saves less than one Eurocent for each chicken burger and goes down a path not desired by its customers.[133]

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Morris Dees is a child molester | Racism

Taken from here

Til the Cash Comes Flowing Like a River

In an article titled Poverty Palace, Morris Dees told journalist John Edgerton that I had a traditional white Southerners feeling for segregation.

Morris Dees and I [Millard Fuller], from the first day of our partnership, shared one overriding purpose: to make a pile of money. We were not particular about how we did it; we just wanted to be independently rich. During the eight years we worked together we never wavered in that resolve.

In 1961 when Freedom Riders were beaten by a white mob at a Montgomery bus station, Dees [and Fuller] expressed openly his sympathies and support for what had happened at the bus station.

When one of the men charged with beating the Freedom Riders came to their office for legal representation, Dees and Fuller took the case. The legal fee was paid by the Ku Klux Klan and the White Citizens Council. [Fuller, Millard. Love in the Mortar Joints. New Century Press: 1980 and The Progressive, July 1988]

Arrested and removed from court in 1975 for attempting to suborn perjury [bribing a witness] in the Joan Little murder trial in North Carolina.

Acted as a fundraiser for both Ted Kennedys 1980 and Gary Harts 1984 presidential campaigns and received their mailing lists as reward. [Ibid.]

Perhaps explaining the SPLCs Gay rights activism, Dees was cited in 1979 by his ex-wife with a homosexual encounter during their marriage. She also cited numerous affairs with women including his daughter-in-law and underage stepdaughter.

The SPLCs fundraising practices have provoked the disapproval of watchdog groups that monitor charities: In 1993, the American Institute of Philanthropy assigned the SPLC a D grade on a scale of A to F. [American Institute of Philanthropy 1993 Charity Watchdog Report]

Today, the SPLCs treasury bulges with $120 million, and it spends twice as much on fund-raising-$5.76 million last year-as it does on legal services for victims of civil rights abuses

What is the Southern Poverty Law Center doing? Mostly making money

In 1994 the Montgomery Advertiser won a journalism award for a series of incisive and penetrating investigative articles exposing the unethical fundraising practices of Dees and the Southern Poverty Law Center

The SPLC which has crusaded for the rights of blacks for 23 years, is controlled by whites. It has hired only two black staff attorneys in its history, both of whom left unhappy. 12 of 13 former Black employees interviewed by the Montgomery Advertiser complained they experienced or observed racial problems during their employment. Several said the SPLC was more like a plantation.

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Austin Home Search – Austin real estate | Homes for Sale …

Austin Home Search is the official site of the Austin Board of REALTORS

Do you see this “Down Payments Made Easy” symbol listed with a property?

Ask your REALTOR how Down Payment Resource can help find your new home!

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What is ‘hate’ and who defines it? The SPLC? – WND.com

A headline on Drudge this week declares that Google is teaming up with liberal groups to snuff out conservative websites. Apparently, the search-engine giant is partnering with the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) and other left-wing groups to document and publicize hate crimes and events in America.

After the terrible events in Charlottesville, any God-fearing, rational American would welcome this news, correct? The problem, however, is that Google allowing groups like the SPLC to define what is hate and who is a hater shows how dangerous this development could be.

Jerry Boykin of the Family Research Council, an organization once attacked by a man convicted as a domestic terrorist because it was included on the SPLC Hate Map, said, The Southern Poverty Law Center is reckless in labeling groups as hate groups or labeling individuals as hate mongers, and they do both. They have no authority to do so.

I work for a group, D. James Kennedy Ministries, the SPLC has falsely designated a hate group because we dont believe in same-sex marriage. That view doesnt make us unique. Up until the last few years, the majority of Americans did not believe in it either nor did Barack Obama or Hillary Clinton, according to their public statements up until 2012.

Yet, according to the SPLC, were haters. The irony that Im supposedly a hater is that I am anything but. Daily I strive to pray the Prayer of St. Francis: Lord, make me an instrument of Your peace. Where there is hatred, let me replace it with love and so on.

Former Alabama Chief Justice Roy Moore lost his office twice, in part because of actions by the SPLC. First, they joined with other liberal groups to sue him for a public display of the Ten Commandments. Then in 2012, he won the election as Alabama chief justice again, but the SPLC filed a legal complaint against him for his stance in favor of traditional marriage a stance that 81 percent of the voters in Alabama took in 2006 to amend their constitution.

I got to interview Chief Justice Moore recently for our television program, Profit$ of Hate, about the Southern Poverty Law Center. Moore accused the SPLC essentially of psychological projection.

Moore, who is now running for the U.S. Senate, said, The Southern Poverty Law Center has had Ben Carson [the renowned neurosurgeon] on their hate list. Theyve had Tony Perkins and his organization [the above-mentioned Family Research Council] on their hate list. The truth is: theyre the ones that hate. They hate God, and they hate the acknowledgment of God; and [yet] they call other people haters.

The SPLC likes to fancy itself as doing the unfinished work of the civil rights movement which they have now linked to same-sex marriage and transgender rights.

For our program, I also got to interview Ricardo Davis, an African-American who is the president of Georgia Right to Life and is also the state chairman of the Constitution Party of Georgia, which is on the SPLCs hate list as an alleged anti-government group. Davis commends the SPLC for the good work they did in the waning days of the civil rights movement, but he notes that Dr. Martin Luther Kings movement was undergirded by faith in God and in the Bible. In contrast, what the SPLC is promoting today is often in contradiction to faith in God and in the Bible.

Davis told our viewers, If I could say something to [SPLC co-founder] Morris Dees right now, what I would say is, Morris, you came alongside my fathers generation to help them get out from under injustice, and it was unjust because it violated Gods Word but now, youre on the wrong side of history.’

Critics note that even many of the actual hate groups on the Southern Poverty Law Centers Hate Map (such as the Ku Klux Klan) have been on the wane for decades. But Morris Dees and the SPLC manage to make huge profits by scaring people into thinking that behind virtually every bush in America is some sort of hate-monger.

Davis added, What did Jesus say? What does it profit a man if he gains the whole world if he keeps his mailing list up to date, if he rakes in millions and millions of dollars yet loses his soul? And The Southern Poverty Law Center in particular is an organization that has lost the soul and energy behind the civil rights movement. The honorable thing to do would be to repent and believe the gospel.

We should all work to end true hate in America. But defining the politics of someone you merely disagree with as hate just muddies the waters and further divides us as a nation.

Media wishing to interview Jerry Newcombe, please contact [emailprotected].

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Dr. Morris Dees III, MD – Jacksonville Beach, FL …

0 Malpractice ClaimsWhat is medical malpractice? No malpractice history found for Florida. No sanctions history found for the years that Healthgrades collects data. No board actions found for the years that Healthgrades collects data.

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Morris Dees | American civil rights lawyer | Britannica.com

Alternative Titles:Morris Seligman Dees, Jr. Morris Dees, in full Morris Seligman Dees, Jr., (born December 16, 1936, Shorter, Alabama, U.S.), American lawyer and civil rights activist who is known for founding the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) with American attorney Joseph Levin in 1971 in Montgomery, Alabama. Under Deess leadership, the SPLC won several unprecedented lawsuits against hate organizations and their leaders. Dees was the son of Morris Seligman Dees, a tenant cotton farmer, and Annie Ruth Dees. Although he was brought up in segregationist Alabama, his parents imparted strong Christian values, and he experienced warm interactions with African American families. Dees received an undergraduate degree and a law degree (1960) from the University of Alabama. He then became a successful entrepreneur in the direct-mail publishing business with American lawyer and entrepreneur Millard Fuller, the founder of Habitat for Humanity. Dees bought Fuller out of the business in 1965. He sold the company to the Times Mirror Company in 1967 after reading Clarence Darrows The Story of My Life (1932), which provoked him into committing his full attention to a law practice devoted to civil rights legislation. The law firm, which he shared with Levin, evolved into the SPLC in 1971. Deess legal career was marked by a number of landmark cases and decisions. His efforts helped to integrate the Montgomery, Alabama, Young Mens Christian Association (YMCA) in 1969 . The SPLC introduced lawsuits that held white supremacist organizations financially and criminally responsible for murders and other unlawful actions against immigrants and persons of colour. Substantial monetary awards against groups such as the United Klans of America and Aryan Nations in 1991, in fact, forced some such organizations to disband. Despite the critical advances against hate organizations, Deess decision to make such lawsuits an SPLC priority prompted some of its personnel who disagreed with the new legal focus to leave the organization. Additionally, critics outside the SPLC accused Dees of drawing few distinctions between white supremacists and groups that support limits to immigration, controls on population growth, or the right to bear arms. During the 1970s and 1980s, Dees was also a prominent Democratic fund-raiser for presidential candidate George McGovern, Pres. Jimmy Carter, and Sen. Ted Kennedy. His books include Hate on Trial: The Case Against Americas Most Dangerous Neo-Nazi (1993) and Gathering Storm: Americas Militia Threat (1996). In addition, Dees received numerous awards, including the ABA Medal (2012), the highest honour bestowed by the American Bar Association.

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May 25, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Morris Dees  Comments Closed

Alumni Leadership Pinellas

2016-2017 Heather CiampiniLorrie ClineJenn CowanJoe CoyleCourtney DavidsonMeagan DeckerDenis DeMarinoJoe DeRingJarrett DixonMatt EvansMark FazziniScott FergusonDenise FougereEric GandyBrenna HaggarGreg HauensteinChad HawkinsonMelissa HoneycuttTom JamisonMike JansenJustin KellyTim KnowlesNatalie LambDon LehrianEmmanuel LelekisDebbie LeousLeigh LillaMeg LokeyHolly McBride DennisMarilyn MillerPam MooreValerie MurrayRich NalvenJenny NoblesKathy PerrottJP PetersonSeema RamroopBruce RectorFranco RippleSuzanne RuleyDan SarackiRea SieberMargie SwopeLauren VonderauZak WhiteDoug WhittingtonJulie WhittleBobby Morig Wendy BarmoreWoody BrownChad BurgessLindsay CarsonJoanna CheshireJim ConlinMatt CrumDavid DanzigLeslie DiPaciEkaterini Gerakios-SirenShane GillAdonis HarrisDane HeptnerJeff HobergTaylor HustonFrank JurkovicRobin LavitchChris LewisTim LimaDamon ListerAshley LoweryVictor LucasLaura MaioccoSean McGillenNancy MeyerShirley MiaoulisAnthony MonteDiane MorseJordan MyersJim NicholsJay OzbunDebb PauleyRon PiccininiCyndi Raskin-SchmittTammy RobicontiJill SomersJudith TiltonKatrina TrumpRosemary WindsorTish Wold Adrian ArnoldDavid BantherShelly BeachSherrie BroadwayMike ButlerRichard Ricky ButlerJason ButtsMatthew CampbellEric CarverPatrick CravenChristopher CJ CrooksBrian CurtissValerie DiGennaroErin EmnettEmily FasnachtAudrey FordJoyce FrustaciJoseph GallinaBruce GriffinHoyt HamiltonLori HedmanAndrea HenningRichard Scoop JacksonEric JohansonNathan Skip KatzSean KingJames KleinsorgeTraci KosterKimberly LacinaSara Sally McLaneAnnNixonPam OraJulie PerrelliKali RoseSarah Sally SeymourCorey SilvermanSuzy SoferDiane SteinTammy Strickling Amelia CampbellTammy CapplemanKaren CarliMichael CarliJen CarlisleAl CarrierRey ClaudioTina M. 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Velez, Jr.Mia Colleen Welch Brian BarkerSarah BrownBrandon BurgAllie CantonisJason ClementJackie DrydenPaul DunhamScott EsterAndrea GregorDonald HallRobin HedmanAbby Kennedy HoltCarrie JannazoKaryn Johnson MahorneySusanna Johnston VersandiKaren JubrailKim KaszubaKate KellyLynda LeedyJessica LillesandRandy LoosJaymie PatelJim PenningtonDavid PhillipsKevin PiccarretoSuzan Decker RossMark RomanMel SamsDawn ScottJim SpicerAimee TrachtenbergAdam VassalloBonnie WaltersMark WeinkrantzMark WhittleTodd Willsie Rebekah AppleGary BanloweJeanine BlakeAdam BouchardJosh BouchardLaura Krueger BrockBob ChildressFranklin ClarkMorgan CookMary DavidNick DiCeglieClaire EnickJason EsterBeth Hinesley GettigSteven GraneseVickie GlennJamie HicksErin Michele HintonCorey JudgeHollee KierTiffany KruegerChris MaggiErik MathenevMichah MaxwellStarla MetzBobby Metz, Jr.Gretchen MitchellDave MottJames NicholsDev PathikMike SahrKathryn ScheneMatt SpoorTina TenretScott WheelerLynn WeltjenJohn Wintermeier Ileane AltamuraRob BollenbackKelly BosettiSusan Hudak BossMichael Mike BrundageRichard G Rick BuschartCathy BushAndrea CampagnaWilliam Russell Bill Cosgray JrMichael DiBrizziAnthony DiTinnoRichard B Brett DulaneyMorgan GaynorEd HoffmanJerry HubbellJason JensenSarah MillerMary MorrowDenise MurphyBarry NiemannDana NovakNeil PalenzuelaTimothy PappBarbara PickellGary PolanskyJoy PollackKim PraitanoGary RegoliRon SchultzStephanie SmithLisa MatznerLaura Leigh SnellTom Steiner IIIJennifer StengerAaron StuartBob SymanskiMario TelfairKaren Van De PutteThomas Wright Eric BeckDonna BlazevicJulie Ward BujalskiStephen BunchPat CarlisleJamie CataldoBob ChiavacciKristie DenboEd DotteryCharlie DyeKevin EssexSandie GrimesSirena IonataShannon Long SprowlsRoberta KlarPerry LopezStephanie MartinBenjamin McBrideGeorgie S. 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BriggsJ. Patrick CallanSherwood Flip ColemanCynthia Davis-GryceJeffrey DiamondKelly C. EdgarJeffrey D. FriedmanBufus E. GammonsFrank HibbardJanice B. HillRobert C. IronsmithBruce V. LivingstonAmy MartinRichard P. McClearyPamela J. MontanariRosalie MurrayDonna NettestadRobb ReslerArthur C. ShandJean R. ShapiroWendy SpencerJerry SpilatroChuck A. SullivanJohn F. SzaboDavid WhiteVonda K. WhiteJudy WoodStephanie Zaragoza David AbelsonRick BaconNina BandoniLula Lu BanksDavid J. Becker, MDRobert Burwell, JrGloria CampbellJeff ColemanHarriet Coren *Connie DavisDebbie DiroffPat DonnellyCynthia FoxKaren FranceClarence HulseSherri JohnsonWilliam Bill JonsonW. Garrison JusticeJohn MangineElizabeth MannionJennifer Klinge McGrailSandra McKennaDiane NelsonCarol ParksJacqueline RiveraCharlie Robinson, Jr.Debra RothbergThomas Tom SewellOla SeifertGail SimpsonJanis SmithThomas Tom TarulliJeff TomeoKaren Vann *Amanda WagnerKeith Zayac * Beverly AlandDavid O. ArchieKaren BrayboyNeil BrickfieldTeddy BuellJohn CoheeSteve ColeDarlene DavisJohn ElbareDouglas EvelethRose Aleta GrebisPam HawthorneJane HelmsEd HooperLisa HughesBetteann HultgrenWard JohansenR. Dennis MacaleerCary McCulloughThomas Wm. McGrewMichael MeidelNadine Spring NickesonJane OldsJanet A. PanebiancoVicki G. PappageorgeJeffrey L. PattersonMarion RichNancy RidenourAndrew J. Rodnite, Jr.Susan RolstonLarry SandeferTheresa Kym SanzKathleen SimonSonja StefanadisAmy Van DellGeneva WatersJohn H. Williams, IIIDonald Wood Marcia AlbaneseStephen S. BarrettKimberly BerfieldLinda ChamberlainSolange DepompeoMelody FigurskiRobin ForninoCaroline GoodrichMarcus GreeneBarbara JacobsMary Taylor JacobsSusan KirbyDale KleineKoni ManleyRobert MarmonSuze MartinJoe McCreightScott McIntyreLois MillerScott MooreVicki MorganBeth NorthcuttSusan PawlakJoe PidalaDavid RothbergKristin ScheurerMcBride Mack SigmonMargaret SimmonsPat E. 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Williams Karen L. BailCarrie BeemSue BerfieldRay BouchardKimberly R. BowmanRussel A. Bowman, IIFredric BuchholtzSusan Horsey DeesD. A. Skip DvornikSally H. FooteCandace GardnerGary S. GrayArlita HallamFrank J. Hancock*Mark JornsDebbie Kerin-TrujilloOdalys LaraThomas W. LattoEileen McAllisterRoberta E. McIntoshDavid PetersonElizabeth PhillipsMarvin L. PinkardDavid Charles SmithRay Gene Ulmer, Jr.Yvonne UlmerEduardo Tito Vargas James D. Jim AppeltStephen H. BilsJanice L. BirchJohn E. BurciagaPam CorbinoJudith M. CottrellScott L. DanielsPaige J. Fisher-SimpsonJanet Nelson HendersonLynne M. JenningsThomas F. KennedyPamela Leousis-DinsmoreMary Ellen LewisJ. William LockhartRichard A. LuceH. Mary McKeownHubert L. Pascoe, Jr.Patricia Perzel-GellerSue PorterKathy RiceChristina K. RoddeyJack E. Russell, IIITimothy C. SchulerPolly A. Jester StannardElla J. SmithJoan M. VecchioliEric D. WilliamsLinda S. WilliamsM. Elizabeth Williams W. 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Mounts WilderElise K. Winters John C. AppelDouglas R. BirchNancy L. BrownRobert C. Dickinson, IIIAaron R. FodimanRaymond O. GrossH. Sandra HuggSandra C. JamiesonSheila W. JaquishRobert J. KruegerTheresa S. Lintz *Randolph A. MabryAndrew J. McAdamsRonald M. McElrathElizabeth E. McMahonRichard L. Pearse, Jr.Lili Sikorski SmithMary Frances TaymansWilliam T. TrautweinHelen B. UmbergKaren K. WalkerCharles W. WhetstoneRichard C. Young Steve CarlisleJames M. CourtneyRonnie G. CriderMary CrosbyElizabeth DeptulaCrockett FarnellMartha C. GrayDonna HarperPaula HarveyHarry B. JamiesonRandall C. JohnsonHerbert E. Langford, Jr.Peggy McLeodSandra G. MillspaughBrenda Harris NixonMary OReillyDilman K. ThomasMaria Nieves EdmondsBarbara WerderPeter Woodham Carol AllmanVance ArnettLana BracewellAlan Braswell, Jr.Margaret Word BurnsideThomas W. CareySue E. Pringle ClearyAleta CozartRichard Buzz DavidHeather FoderinghamJean JohnstonJohn C. LockeCarolyn Crochet MatherLinda MielkeDavid R. Moores *W. 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May 25, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Morris Dees  Comments Closed

History of Vancleave | Ocean Springs Archives

A HISTORY OF VANCLEAVE, MISSISSIPPI Abstract Vancleave, located in west-central Jackson County, Mississippi, is a small community which developed in the early to mid-19thCentury, on Bluff Creek, a small tributary of the Pascagoula River, several miles north of the Mexican Gulf. It was known originally as Bluff Creek, until the postmaster in 1870, named itVancleavein honor of a former merchant,Robert A.Van Cleave(1840-1908). Ocean Springs family historian, Vertalee Bradford Van Cleave (1916-1999), related that the progenitor of the Van Cleave family in America was Jan Van Cleef, a 1653 Dutchmigrto New York. It is interesting to note that there is a town called Kleve in extreme western Germany less than twenty miles from its present border with Holland. Could the first American Van Cleave been Jan van Kleve, i.e. John from Kleve? (The History of Jackson County, Mississippi, 1989, p. 376 and National Geographic Atlas Of The World, 1981, p. 152) The first European settlement in the Vancleave area occurred in 1721, when French colonists settled the short-lived Chaumont Concession. With the creation of the Mississippi Territory in 1798, and the West Florida Rebellion of 1810, the United States rested Spanish West Florida from its Iberian masters. Jackson County was created and united with the Territory of Orleans in 1812, and joined the Union in 1817, with the State of Mississippi. Even before Mississippis statehood, restless Americans in the Carolinas and Georgia began settling the southwestern frontier, which included the Vancleave region. They were subsistence farmers and hunter-gatherers who brought their Protestant religion to this predominantly Roman Catholic coastal section. Charcoal wagon en route to the L&N Railroad at Fontainebleau? By 1850, the virgin forests, predominantly pine, of the region along the tributaries of the lower Pascagoula River, began to be exploited for timber, charcoal, and naval stores. These activities created a commerce, which resulted in small trading posts being built on Johns Bayou and lower Bluff Creek. Shallow draft schooners loaded with charcoal, agricultural products, and naval stores sailed the “lake” waters of the Mississippi Sound to New Orleans and returned with tools, food staples, and mercantile goods to these riverine outposts.Black slaves, primarily from North Carolina, were brought to work the turpentine orchards. After the Civil War, they were emancipated and remained in the region to provide the primary labor force for the naval stores industry. Black families owned the high land northwest of Moungers Creek, which became the primary Vancleave settlement, after they sold out to white families and merchants in the late 19thCentury. Black communities developed further north and west at Greenhead Creek. Another group of people, locally called “Creoles”, but probably indigenous, descendants of Muskogean speaking, Native Americans inhabit the Vancleave region. They made their livelihoods primarily as subsistence farmers and charcoal burners. When public education in the region commenced in the late 19thCentury, Creole and Blacks were educated together, but by 1917, they were segregated and a separate school created, called Live Oak Pond, north of Vancleave. This aberration was unique in that it created three separate schools for White, Black and Creole children. The Creole people have slowly been assimilated into the local community through interracial marriages. The early settlers brought sheep to the pine savannas and allowed them to forage on the open range. Soon Vancleave, with Woolmarket in Harrison County, became important exporters of wool. World War I enhanced the demand for wool and prices and production rose dramatically during the conflict. At the turn of the 20thCentury, the Dantzler Lumber Company began to exploit virgin timber stands away from the rivers. They utilized tram railways to penetrate deep into the woods to reach virgin timber passed over because of its remoteness from water borne transportation routes. This venture brought a population increase, which encouraged the erection of new schools, churches, a hotel, boarding houses, and dwellings. The timber boom and sheep-wool activities subsided dramatically by the1930s. The virgin timber was depleting rapidly and stock laws, which curtailed open range foraging, and foreign competition had a deleterious effect on commercial wool production. Pecan orchards, tung nut trees, and some citrus were grown in the Vancleave vicinity before the Great Depression of the 1930s. Orchard men from the Midwest developed nut crops initially south of Vancleave on the Ocean Springs Road and to the southwest and west along Seaman and Jim Ramsay Roads. The Great Depression furthered exacerbated the economic situation at Vancleave. The people of the area responded to this dour situation by erecting a canning plant for fruit and vegetables, a sewing factory, and a shuttle mill. Naval stores and a dying charcoal industry continued weakly, until WW II revived the national economy. Shipbuilding at Pascagoula and Mobile created many wartime employment opportunities. Pulp wood for paper manufacturing became important after the war. In the mid-1950s, the Bluff Creek Canning Company was organized. It produced a fish-based cat food and was sold to the John Morrell & Company of Chicago. A short-lived attempt to can yellow fin tuna caught in the Gulf of Mexico was also commenced at a Bluff Creek site south of Vancleave in the 1950s. The continued growth of the chemical and petrochemical industries along Bayou Cassotte near Pascagoula, has provided stable, regional, employment opportunities through several decades. Pulp wood harvesting for the Moss Point paper mill has continued in the area. The population and status quo in the Vancleave region remained fairly constant until the late 1980s and early 1990s. At this time, a steady and continuous migration of people from the lower coastal urban areas, seeking cheaper land, relief from high taxes, crime and industrial pollution, began to move into the Vancleave area. The expansion of the US Naval presence, conversion of deep-water oil and gas exploration drilling rigs, and continued shipbuilding at Pascagoula and environs, with the exponential growth of dock side casino gaming in nearby Harrison County, has continued to fuel the migration into Vancleave. Currently, new commercial ventures and subdivisions blossom each day. A new elementary school and medical center are now under construction. Are incorporation and local government awaiting Vancleave in the New Millennium?? A Vancleave History Vancleave, originally calledBluff Creek, as late as 1869, when Andrew W. Ramsay (1830-1916) was postmaster of this small village, is the geographic name of a community, which has existed in T6S-R7W of Jackson County, Mississippi for well over a century. The name Vancleave comes from the merchant, Robert Adrian Van Cleave (1840-1908), who established a trading post on Paige Bayou in the 1870s. In June 1870, when the US Post Office established a station in the SE/4 of Section 27, T6S-R7W, it was called Vancleaves. R.A.Van Cleave, a Civil War veteran from Hinds County, later settled at Ocean Springs where he was a successful merchant, post master, and first provisional mayor of that town. (The Mississippi Press, July 18, 1988) In June 1880, when a weekly mail route was established between Ocean Springs and Vancleave, Robert Adrian Van Cleave (1840-1908) was postmaster at Ocean Springs who was described as, “clever and good-humored”. William Seymour carried the mail to the store of George W. Davis at Vancleave. The post office was named after R.A. Van Cleave. (The Pascagoula Democrat-Star, June 18, 1880, p. 3) Today, Vancleave is the general geographic term used for that region of west central Jackson County within T6S-R7W and T5S-R7W. This is an area of approximately seventy-two square miles. Specifically, Vancleave is a rapidly developing unincorporated village in Sections 9 and 16 of T6S-R7W, flanked by Highway 57. Historically within the “Vancleave area”, there have been many smaller settlements around public schools and churches, such as: Mount Pleasant, Greenhead, Ebenezer, Evergreen, Live Oak Pond, Dead Lake, and Fort Bayou. 18thCentury Colonial Days 1699-1811 The Amerinds Assuredly, Native Americans hunted the forests and fished the streams in the Vancleave region, centuries before the first Europeans arrived. Their past presence is indicated on the Pascagoula River by several French cartographic sketches and charts of the period. The closest village to present day Vancleave was that of the Capinians, probably also called Moctobi. Its location appears to be about one mile south of the Wade Bridge. (Carte de la Louisiane by DAnville-1732) Jay Higginbotham, noted French Colonial historian and Archivist for the City of Mobile, relates that he has seen several “curios mounds” north and south of the Wade Bridge. He was unable to determine if they were constructed by the Amerinds. (Higginbotham, 1967, p. 15) Jean-Baptiste Baudrau-First permanent settler in western Jackson County Jean-Baptiste Baudrau (1671- ca 1762), dit Graveline, was born at Montreal in New France (Canada). In 1700, he landed with Pierre Le Moyne, dIberville (1761-1706) at Fort Maurepas in present day Ocean Springs. Iberville was a military commander sent by King Louis XIV (1638-1715) of France to establish and protect La Louisiane, the 1682 French claim of Rene Robert Cavalier de La Salle (1643-1687). French Louisiana was defined by La Salle as the watershed of the Mississippi River and its tributaries. In 1702, Jean-Baptiste Baudreau abandoned Biloxy, the region around Fort Maurepas. With his French cohorts, led by Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, de Bienville (1684-1778), Baudrau relocated to Old Mobile. Circa 1718, Baudreau left Dauphin Island to return permanently to what is now Jackson County, Mississippi. He and his family resided on the west side of the Pascagoula River. (Adkinson, et al, 1991, pp. 95-98) Initially Graveline managed a farm in the present day Martins Bluff section. He raised livestock, primarily horned cattle. Graveline utilized Negro and Indian slave labor to work the plantation and tend livestock. (Conrad, 1970, p. 2 and p. 50) Baudrau descendants The descendant of Jean-Baptise Baudrau are numbered in the tens of thousands. From this French Canadian adventurer, some of the first families of the Mississippi Coast, which still exist today, Ladner, Bosarge, Fayard, Moran, Grelot (Gollott), Fournier, Ryan, Bang, and Seymour, can trace some of their lineage. Jean Baptiste Baudrau dit Graveline had married an Indian woman who brought forth two children, Magdeleine Baudrau and Jean-Baptiste Baudrau II (d. 1757). Magdelaine married Pierre Paquet Jr. Circa 1758, their daughter, Marie Anne Pacquet (b. 1742) wedded Nicholas Ladner (b. ca 1736-1799) dit Christian. Of further interest in this line, Marie Angelique Baudreau (1776-1853), the daughter of Jean-Batiste Baudrau III (b. ca 1735) and Marie Louise Fayard (b. 1746), married Nicholas Ladner II (1759-ca 1793), son of Nicholas Ladner dit Christian and Marie Anne Pacquet. She married Jacob Bingle (Bang) after the demise of Nicholas Ladner II. (Cassibry II, 1988, pp. 700-704) The brother of Nicholas Ladner II, Pierre Ladner (1764-1809+), settled on the Pascagoula River in 1809, on Claim No. 133, which was one of actual settlers who had no claim from either the French, British, or Spanish Governments. Pierre Ladners homestead was in Section 39, T6S-R6W about 1.5 miles east of the Evergreen community.(The American State Papers, 1994, p. 38) Jean-Baptise Baudreau II (d. 1757) married Marie Catherine Vinconnau. Their daughter Catherine Louise Baudreau (1742-1806) married Joseph Bosarge (1733-1794) of Poitiers, France in June 1762. They are the progenitors of the large Bosarge family of coastal Alabama and Mississippi. (Atkinson, 1991, p. 23) Another daughter of Baudrau II, Genevieve Baudrau, married Charles Leblanc in 1783. Their son, Joseph, born in 1788, became known as St. Cyr Seymour (1788-1845). His issue with Marie-Joseph Ryan (1786-1876) commenced the large Seymour family of our region. (Lepre, 1995 , pp. 54-61 ) The Seymour family has its roots on the north shore of Graveline Lake in Section 5, T8S-R7W. Here the children of St. Cyr and Marie-Joseph made their livelihoods as subsistence farmers and stockmen in the same manner as their great great grandfather, Jean-Baptiste Baudrau dit Graveline. They left their family homestead to settle at Biloxi Latimer, Fort Bayou, Ocean Springs, and North Biloxi. (The Ocean Springs Record, January 15, 1998) The Chaumont Plantation With the French beachhead at Fort Maurepas in 1699, and the subsequent founding of military posts at Mobile (1709), Nachitoches (1714), Natchez (1716), New Orleans (1718), and Nouveau Biloxy (1720) colonists of French and German origins began the settlement of French Louisiana. In late 1719, a 16,000-acre concession on the Pascagoula River, located about 40 miles up stream from the Gulf of Mexico, was granted by John Law s Company of the West to a wealthy Parisian, Antoine Chaumont, honorary secretary to King Louis XV, and his wife, Marie-Catherine Barre, Madame de Chaumont. Chaumont Plantation Locator Map In 1721, French settlers with slave labor established the Chaumont Plantation, the first European settlement in the Vancleave region. It was probably located on the west side of the Pascagoula River, about one mile seaward of the Wade Bridge, probably in Section 19, T5S-R6W. Monsieur Revillion, the plantation manager, was able to produce one good wheat crop before departing the Pascagoula River farm for Paris in 1722. He had received no money or supplies from the Chaumonts and went to France to bring litigation against them. By 1732, the Chaumont Plantation had been entirely abandoned. (Higginbotham, 1974, pp. 353-362) The French Mills and the Lewis Claim In 1811, Edwin Lewis (1782-1830), a Virginia born lawyer, married Margaret Baudreau (1791-1865), the great granddaughter of Jean-Baptiste Baudrau dit Graveline. Her parents were J.B. Baudrau III (b. ca 1735) and Marie Louise Fayard (b. 1746). He immediately began to assert the claim that Gravelines heirs were the rightful owners of the 40,000-acre Chaumont concession granted by the Company of the West. The land commissioner denied his request, but affirmed the Baudrau heirs claim of 1280 acres at Belle Fontaine. In a letter dated October 20, 1829, Edwin Lewis wrote: ..the original claim filed by me for the heirs of Jean Bte. Baudreau de Graveline for 40,000 acres on the west side of the Pascagoula River at and including the old French mills, the former home of our ancestorsour claim is for 40,000 acres granted by the French Government to the Count Chaumont and the long residence of our ancestors never abandoned by the family but was evacuated only from the trouble of Indians against whom the Spanish Government afforded no protection and which land was never re-granted by the English or Spanish government or permits given to settle on itI married the daughter of J.B. Baudreau directly after the Baton Rouge convention in 1811. The next day after which her father who was heir to half the land informed me that he gave my wife his half and that I might take possession of it when I pleased. I visited the place. I found two pretty extensive mill dams and part of the frame remaining. I found the place vacant but a log house was standing at a small distance from the mills and where our ancestors had resided before they were obliged to leave it by ? of Indians. I inquired who built the house. My father-in-law informed me one Durand, a Spaniard, from Pensacola who had a permit to settle on vacant land had built the log cabin to stay until he could select a place and that he had offered to purchase the land from him but he would not sell it as he had children to give it toI moved my family between this cabin and the mills and had nearly finished building one of the mills when (Jonathan) Sulcer came there who had also made several offers to Baudro for the lands and brought a forcible entry and detainer against me which was dropped before Old Judge Toulmin who turned me and my family out of doors(from the files of the Mobile Genealogical Library-Mobile, Alabama) The location of the French mills from the above missive of Edwin Lewis is on the west side of the Pascagoula River in Section 24, T5S-R7W, east of the Magnolia Baptist Church on River Road. It known with a high degree of certitude that Jonathan Sulcer was here in December 1808, and that the original settler of this tract was Alexander Durant. This land is referred to, as Claim No. 170, in the list of actual settlers in the district east of the Pearl River, who have no claims derived from the French, British, or Spanish Governments. (The American State Papers, 1994, p. 38) Interestingly and corroborating the above information, the description of French mills tract by Edwin Lewis is west of the indicated position of the 1721 Chaumont Plantation in Section 19, T5S-R6W. It appears that wheat grown on the plantation was ground into flour by the water-powered grist mills. The topographic nature of the high bluff on the west side of the Pascagoula River in Section 24, T5S-R7W is conducive for the construction of mill dams as there are several streams dissecting the bluff creating small but deep canyons here. (USGS Topographic Map, “Vancleave”, 1982) Alfred E. Lewis (1812-1885), the son of Edwin Lewis, settled on former Baudrau lands situated on the Mississippi Sound west of the Pascagoula River mouth. Here in 1845, he erected Lewis-Sha, a plantation home, which is extant at Gautier today and is known as Oldfields. (The History of Jackson County, Mississippi, 1989, pp. 46-47) 19thCentury Enter the Americans 1811-1861 The early years of the 19thCentury were tumultuous for the old American Southwest, which included the Vancleave area. After the Mississippi Territory was created in 1798, American settlers, chiefly white, Anglo-Saxon Protestants, began a steady migration from the Carolinas and Georgia into the new frontier. Soon, these pioneers began crossing south of the 31stparallel into the longleaf pine belt of coastal Mississippi. As there were still Indian and Spanish claims in this region, these Americans were sensed as trespassers by the Spanish who possessed the area, including what would later become Vancleave, as a part of Spanish West Florida. Before 1810, trails and primitive roads were penetrating the primeval forest of the longleaf pine belt in the Bluff Creek region. The pioneers who came here made their livelihoods by herding cattle and swine, hunting-gathering, and subsistence farming. They were independent, freedom loving and had a dislike for the Indians and the Spanish. At this time it was reported that there were eighteen families on the lower Pascagoula River and more upstream. The 1810 West Florida Rebellion and the 1811 annexation of the of that portion of Spanish West Florida from the Mississippi River to the Perdido River into the Orleans Territory by Governor William Charles Cole Claiborne (1775-1817), brought the American settlers of this region into the United States. Jackson County of the Mississippi Territory was created in 1812, and it entered the Union with the State of Mississippi on March 1, 1817. (The History of Jackson County, Mississippi, 1989, p. 1) On January 13, 1811, Dr. Flood of New Orleans, the representative of Governor W.C.C. Claiborne, landed at Pascagoula and raised the American flag. He appointed Captain George Farragut (1755-1817) as Justice of the Peace for Pascagoula Parish of the Territory of Orleans. Dr. Flood wrote the following to Claiborne on January 25, 1811: Finding no one able to read or write in the Pascagoula settlement, and the inhabitants expressing great confidence in and attachment for Capt. George Farragut, sailing master in the Navy, on this station, I prevailed on him to accept the commission for the parish. Benjamin Goodin, the other magistrate, resides on the river twenty miles up..The population of the Pascagoula Parish is about three hundred and fifty. (Claiborne, 1978, p. 307) It is interesting to note that George Farragut, a native of Minorca, one of the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea, was the father of Union Admiral David Farragut (1801-1870). During the Civil War, Admiral Farraguts fleet captured New Orleans (1862) and won the Battle of Mobile Bay (1864). He commissioned two local immigrant seaman, Martin Freeman (1814-1894) of Pascagoula and Antoine V. Bellande (1829-1918) of Back Bay, now DIberville, Mississippi as acting ensigns and pilots in the Union Navy. At Mobile Bay in August 1864, Freeman piloted the USS Hartford, Farraguts flagship, while Bellande was aboard theUSS Monongahela, which rammed theCSA Tennessee. Land Offices and the Jackson County Courthouse Soon after Spanish West Florida became a part of the United States, two districts to process and ascertain land claims was established. The Vancleave region was placed in the land district East of the Pearl River, which was managed from St. Stephens on the Tombigbee River in present day Alabama. In 1819, a land office for Jackson County was created at “Jackson Courthouse” which was probably at the residence of Surveyor, Thomas Bilbo. In 1822, the Jackson County land office was move to Augusta in Perry County. (Cain, 1983, Vol. I, pp.168-169) The first courthouse at Jackson County was located in present day George County, near Benndale. By 1823, the seat of county government had relocated to Brewers Bluff, northeast of Vancleave, and then in 1826 to Americus, on the east side of the Pascagoula River, where it would remain until 1871, when what appears to be the permanent government base, was founded at Scranton (Pascagoula). The location of the county seat in the northern portion of Jackson County until 1871, reflects that this was indeed the focus of early American settlement. (The History of Jackson County, Mississippi 1989, pp. 10-12) As previously noted, the coastline was the focus of early European settlement. These early colonists brought the French language and Roman Catholic faith. After nearly three hundred years, some cultural differences still exist between the descendants of the early Americans and those of European heritage. Vancleave Region Pioneers A study of the land claims, which existed in the District East of the Pearl River in the early 19thCentury, reveals that the earliest settlers in the Vancleave region, homesteaded northeast and east of the future village. These pioneers chose the high bluff on the west side of the Pascagoula River as their place of settlement. Among the first of these homesteaders and their lands were: Settler Date Settlement Original Settler John Havens*1802? Poticaw Bayou areaJames Ware 1803 Section 12, T7S-R7W J.B. Baudrau Benjamin Lanier 1807 Sec. 41, T5S-R7W and Sec. 22, T5S-R6W Pierre Ladner 1809 Section 39, T6S-R6W John Haven Laird Graham 1809 Section 38, T5S-R7WJoseph Graham 1810 Section 37, T5S-R7WAlexis Nicholas (Ladner) 1810 Section 38, T6S-R7WJonathan Selser 1810 Sec. 24, T5R7W Alexander Durant George Farragutt 1811 Section 37, T7S-R7WJohn Brewer 1812 Section 1, T5S-R7WJohn Brewer Jr. 1812? Section 2, T5S-R7WWilliam Cates 1812 Sec. 38, T6S-R6W, Sec. 42,T5S-7W, Sec. 37, T6S-R7W Joshua Cates 1812 Section 42, T5S-R7Wand Section 40, T5S-R6W John Haven 1812 Section 11, T5S-R7W James Haven

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April 24, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Morris Dees  Comments Closed

Our History | Southern Poverty Law Center

By the late 1960s, the civil rights movement had ushered in the promise of racial equality as new federal laws and decisions by the U.S. Supreme Court ended Jim Crow segregation. But resistance was strong, and these laws had not yet brought the fundamental changes needed in the South. African Americans were still excluded from good jobs, decent housing, public office, a quality education and a range of other opportunities. There were few places for the disenfranchised and the poor to turn for justice. Enthusiasm for the civil rights movement had waned, and few lawyers in the South were willing to take controversial cases to test new civil rights laws. Alabama lawyer and businessman Morris Dees sympathized with the plight of the poor and the powerless. The son of an Alabama farmer, he had witnessed firsthand the devastating consequences of bigotry and racial injustice. Dees decided to sell his successful book publishing business to start a civil rights law practice that would provide a voice for the disenfranchised. I had made up my mind, Dees wrote in his autobiography, A Season for Justice. I would sell the company as soon as possible and specialize in civil rights law. All the things in my life that had brought me to this point, all the pulls and tugs of my conscience, found a singular peace. It did not matter what my neighbors would think, or the judges, the bankers, or even my relatives. His decision led to the founding of the Southern Poverty Law Center. Dees joined forces with another young Montgomery lawyer, Joe Levin. They took pro bono cases few others were willing to pursue the outcome of which had far-reaching effects. Some of their early lawsuits resulted in the desegregation of recreational facilities, the reapportionment of the Alabama Legislature, the integration of the Alabama state trooper force and reforms in the state prison system. The lawyers formally incorporated the SPLC in 1971, and civil rights activist Julian Bond was named the first president. Dees and Levin began seeking nationwide support for their work. People from across the country responded with generosity, establishing a sound financial base for the new organization. In the decades since its founding, the SPLC shut down some of the nations most violent white supremacist groups by winning crushing, multimillion-dollar jury verdicts on behalf of their victims. It dismantled vestiges of Jim Crow, reformed juvenile justice practices, shattered barriers to equality for women, children, the LGBT community and the disabled, protected low-wage immigrant workers from exploitation, and more. In the 1980s, the SPLC began monitoring white supremacist activity amid a resurgence of the Klan and today its Intelligence Project is internationally known for tracking and exposing a wide variety of hate and extremist organizations throughout the United States. In the early 1990s, the SPLC launched its pioneering Teaching Tolerance program to provide educators with free, anti-bias classroom resources such as classroom documentaries and lesson plans. Today, it reaches millions of schoolchildren with award-winning materials that teach them to respect others and help educators create inclusive, equitable school environments. As the country has grown increasingly diverse, our work has only become more vital. And our history is evidence of an unwavering resolve to promote and protect our nations most cherished ideals by standing up for those who have no other champions.

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April 19, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Morris Dees  Comments Closed

McDonald’s – Wikipedia

McDonald’sPublicTradedasISINUS5801351017IndustryRestaurantsGenreFast food restaurantFoundedMcDonald’s: May15, 1940; 77 years ago(1940-05-15)San Bernardino, CaliforniaMcDonald’s Corporation: April15, 1955; 62 years ago(1955-04-15)Des Plaines, IllinoisFoundersMcDonald’s: Richard and Maurice McDonaldMcDonald’s Corporation: Ray KrocHeadquartersOak Brook, Illinois, U.S. (moving to Chicago in 2018)[1] Number of locations Area served Key people Number of employees corporate.mcdonalds.com/mcd.htmlwww.mcdonalds.com/us/en-us.html McDonald’s is a fast food company that was founded in 1940 as a restaurant operated by Richard and Maurice McDonald, in San Bernardino, California, United States. They rechristened their business as a hamburger stand. The first time a McDonald’s franchise used the Golden Arches logo was in 1953 at a location in Phoenix, Arizona. In 1955, Ray Kroc, a businessman, joined the company as a franchise agent and proceeded to purchase the chain from the McDonald brothers. McDonald’s had its original headquarters in Oak Brook, Illinois, but has approved plans to move its global headquarters to Chicago by 2018.[4][5] McDonald’s is the world’s largest restaurant chain by revenue[6], serving over 69 million customers daily in over 100 countries[7] across approximately 36,900 outlets as of 2016.[8] Although McDonald’s is known for its hamburgers, they also sell cheeseburgers, chicken products, french fries, breakfast items, soft drinks, milkshakes, wraps, and desserts. In response to changing consumer tastes and a negative backlash because of the unhealthiness of their food,[9] the company has added to its menu salads, fish, smoothies, and fruit. The McDonald’s Corporation revenues come from the rent, royalties, and fees paid by the franchisees, as well as sales in company-operated restaurants. According to a BBC report published in 2012, McDonald’s is the world’s second largest private employer (behind Walmart with 1.9 million employees), 1.5 million of whom work for franchises. The siblings Richard and Maurice McDonald opened in 1940 the first McDonald’s at 1398 North E Street at West 14th Street in San Bernardino, California (at 340732N 1171741W / 34.1255N 117.2946W / 34.1255; -117.2946) but it was not the McDonald’s recognizable today; Ray Kroc made changes to the brothers business that modernized it. The brothers introduced the “Speedee Service System” in 1948, putting into expanded use the principles of the modern fast-food restaurant that their predecessor White Castle had put into practice more than two decades earlier.[citation needed]. The original mascot of McDonald’s was a chef hat on top of a hamburger who was referred to as “Speedee”. In 1962, the Golden Arches replaced Speedee as the universal mascot. The symbol, Ronald McDonald, was introduced in 1965. The clown, Ronald McDonald, appeared in advertising to target their audience of children.[10] On May 4, 1961, McDonald’s first filed for a U.S. trademark on the name “McDonald’s” with the description “Drive-In Restaurant Services”, which continues to be renewed. By September 13, 1961, McDonald’s under the guidance of Ray Kroc, filed for a trademark on a new logoan overlapping, double-arched “M” symbol. But before the double arches, McDonald’s used the a single arch for the architecture of their buildings. Although the “Golden Arches” logo appeared in various forms, the present version was not used until November 18, 1968, when the company was favored a U.S. trademark. The present corporation credits its founding to franchised businessman Ray Kroc in on April 15, 1955, this was in fact the ninth opened McDonald’s restaurant overall; although this location was destroyed and rebuilt in 1984. Kroc later purchased the McDonald brothers’ equity in the company and begun the companies worldwide reach. Kroc was recorded as being an aggressive business partner, driving the McDonald brothers out of the industry. Kroc and the McDonald brothers fought for control of the business, as documented in Kroc’s autobiography. The San Bernardino restaurant was eventually torn down (1971, according to Juan Pollo) and the site was sold to the Juan Pollo chain in 1976. This area now serves as headquarters for the Juan Pollo chain, and a McDonald’s and Route 66 museum.[11] With the expansion of McDonald’s into many international markets, the company has become a symbol of globalization and the spread of the American way of life. Its prominence has also made it a frequent topic of public debates about obesity, corporate ethics, and consumer responsibility. McDonald’s restaurants are found in 120 countries and territories around the world and serve 68 million customers each day.[12][13] McDonald’s operates 36,899 restaurants worldwide, employing more than 375,000 people as of the end of 2016.[8][12] There are currently a total of 5,669 company-owned locations and 31,230 franchised locations, which includes 21,559 locations franchised to conventional franchisees, 6,300 locations licensed to developmental licensees, and 3,371 locations licensed to foreign affiliates, primarily Japan.[8] Focusing on its core brand, McDonald’s began divesting itself of other chains it had acquired during the 1990s. The company owned a majority stake in Chipotle Mexican Grill until October 2006, when McDonald’s fully divested from Chipotle through a stock exchange.[14][15] Until December 2003, it also owned Donatos Pizza, and it owned a small share of Aroma Cafe from 1999 to 2001. On August 27, 2007, McDonald’s sold Boston Market to Sun Capital Partners.[16] Notably, McDonald’s has increased shareholder dividends for 25 consecutive years,[17] making it one of the S&P 500 Dividend Aristocrats.[18][19] In October 2012, its monthly sales fell for the first time in nine years.[20] In 2014, its quarterly sales fell for the first time in seventeen years, when its sales dropped for the entirety of 1997.[21] In the United States, it is reported that drive-throughs account for 70 percent of sales.[22][23] McDonald’s closed down 184 restaurants in the United States in 2015, which was 59 more than what they planned to open.[24][25] This move was also the first time McDonald’s had a net decrease in the number of locations in the United States since 1970.[25] The company currently owns all the land, valued at an estimated $16 to $18 billion, on which its restaurants are situated.[citation needed] The company earns a significant portion of its revenue from rental payments from franchisees. These rent payments rose 26 percent between 2010 and 2015, accounting for one-fifth of the company’s total revenue at the end of the period.[26] In recent times, there have been calls to spin off the company’s US holdings into a potential real estate investment trust, but the company announced at its investor conference on November 10, 2015, that this would not happen. The CEO, Steve Easterbrook discussed that pursuing the REIT option would pose too large a risk to the company’s business model.[27] The United Kingdom and Ireland business model is different from the U.S, in that fewer than 30 percent of restaurants are franchised, with the majority under the ownership of the company. McDonald’s trains its franchisees and management at Hamburger University in Oak Brook, Illinois.[28][29] In other countries, McDonald’s restaurants are operated by joint ventures of McDonald’s Corporation and other, local entities or governments.[30] According to Fast Food Nation by Eric Schlosser (2001), nearly one in eight workers in the U.S. have at some time been employed by McDonald’s. Employees are encouraged by McDonald’s Corp. to maintain their health by singing along to their favorite songs in order to relieve stress, attending church services in order to have a lower blood pressure, and taking two vacations annually in order to reduce risk for myocardial infarction.[31] Fast Food Nation also states that McDonald’s is the largest private operator of playgrounds in the U.S., as well as the single largest purchaser of beef, pork, potatoes, and apples. The selection of meats McDonald’s uses varies to some extent based on the culture of the host country.[32] The McDonald’s headquarters complex, McDonald’s Plaza, is located in Oak Brook, Illinois. It sits on the site of the former headquarters and stabling area of Paul Butler, the founder of Oak Brook.[33] McDonald’s moved into the Oak Brook facility from an office within the Chicago Loop in 1971.[34] On June 13, 2016, McDonald’s confirmed plans to move its global headquarters to Chicago’s West Loop neighborhood in the Near West Side. The 608,000-square-foot structure will be built on the former site of Harpo Productions (where the Oprah Winfrey Show and several other Harpo productions taped) and open in early 2018.[4][5] As of November 2014, the board of directors had the following members:[35] On March 1, 2015, after being chief brand officer of McDonald’s and its former head in the UK and northern Europe, Steve Easterbrook became CEO, succeeding Don Thompson, who stepped down on January 28, 2015. McDonald’s has become emblematic of globalization, sometimes referred to as the “McDonaldization” of society. The Economist newspaper uses the “Big Mac Index”: the comparison of a Big Mac’s cost in various world currencies can be used to informally judge these currencies’ purchasing power parity. Switzerland has the most expensive Big Mac in the world as of July 2015, while the country with the least expensive Big Mac is India[36][37] (albeit for a Maharaja Macthe next cheapest Big Mac is Hong Kong).[38] Thomas Friedman once said that no country with a McDonald’s had gone to war with another.[39][40] However, the “Golden Arches Theory of Conflict Prevention” is not strictly true. Exceptions are the 1989 United States invasion of Panama, NATO’s bombing of Serbia in 1999, the 2006 Lebanon War, and the 2008 South Ossetia war. McDonald’s suspended operations in its corporate-owned stores in Crimea after Russia annexed the region in 2014.[41] On August 20, 2014, as tensions between the United States and Russia strained over events in Ukraine, and the resultant U.S. sanctions, the Russian government temporarily shut down four McDonald’s outlets in Moscow, citing sanitary concerns. The company has operated in Russia since 1990 and at August 2014 had 438 stores across the country.[42] On August 23, 2014, Russian Deputy Prime Minister Arkady Dvorkovich ruled out any government move to ban McDonald’s and dismissed the notion that the temporary closures had anything to do with the sanctions.[43] Some observers have suggested that the company should be given credit for increasing the standard of service in markets that it enters. A group of anthropologists in a study entitled Golden Arches East[44] looked at the impact McDonald’s had on East Asia and Hong Kong, in particular. When it opened in Hong Kong in 1975, McDonald’s was the first restaurant to consistently offer clean restrooms, driving customers to demand the same of other restaurants and institutions. McDonald’s has taken to partnering up with Sinopec, the second largest oil company in the People’s Republic of China, as it takes advantage of the country’s growing use of personal vehicles by opening numerous drive-thru restaurants.[45] McDonald’s has opened a McDonald’s restaurant and McCaf on the underground premises of the French fine arts museum, The Louvre.[46] The company stated it would open vegetarian-only restaurants in India by mid-2013.[47] Foreign restaurants are banned in Bermuda, with the exception of KFC, which was present before the current law was passed. Therefore, there are no McDonald’s in Bermuda.[48][unreliable source?] On January 9, 2017, 80% of the franchise rights in the mainland China and in Hong Kong were sold for US$2.080 billion to a consortium of CITIC Limited (for 32%) and private equity funds managed by CITIC Capital (for 20%) and Carlyle (for 20%), which CITIC Limited and CITIC Capital would also formed a joint venture to own the stake.[49] McDonald’s predominantly sells hamburgers, various types of chicken, chicken sandwiches, French fries, soft drinks, breakfast items, and desserts. In most markets, McDonald’s offers salads and vegetarian items, wraps and other localized fare. On a seasonal basis, McDonald’s offers the McRib sandwich. Some speculate the seasonality of the McRib adds to its appeal.[50] Products are offered as either “eat-in” (where the customer opts to eat in the restaurant) or “take-out” (where the customer opts to take the food for consumption off the premises). “Eat-in” meals are provided on a plastic tray with a paper insert on the floor of the tray. “Take-out” meals are usually delivered with the contents enclosed in a distinctive McDonald’s-branded brown paper bag. In both cases, the individual items are wrapped or boxed as appropriate. Since Steve Easterbrook became CEO of the company, McDonald’s has streamlined the menu which in the United States contained nearly 200 items. The company has also looked to introduce healthier options, and removed high-fructose corn syrup from hamburger buns. The company has also removed artificial preservatives from Chicken McNuggets,[51] replacing chicken skin, safflower oil and citric acid found in Chicken McNuggets with pea starch, rice starch and powdered lemon juice.[52] Restaurants in several countries, particularly in Asia, serve soup. This local deviation from the standard menu is a characteristic for which the chain is particularly known, and one which is employed either to abide by regional food taboos (such as the religious prohibition of beef consumption in India) or to make available foods with which the regional market is more familiar (such as the sale of McRice in Indonesia, or Ebi (prawn) Burger in Singapore and Japan). In Germany and some other Western European countries, McDonald’s sells beer. In New Zealand, McDonald’s sells meat pies, after the local affiliate partially relaunched the Georgie Pie fast food chain it bought out in 1996. In the United States, after limited trials on a regional basis, McDonald’s plans to offer an all-day breakfast menu whenever its restaurants are open, although eggs cannot be cooked at the same time on the same equipment as hamburgers due to different temperature requirements.[citation needed] Most standalone McDonald’s restaurants offer both counter service and drive-through service, with indoor and sometimes outdoor seating.[53] Drive-Thru, Auto-Mac, Pay and Drive, or “McDrive” as it is known in many countries, often has separate stations for placing, paying for, and picking up orders, though the latter two steps are frequently combined;[53] it was first introduced in Arizona in 1975, following the lead of other fast-food chains. The first such restaurant in Britain opened at Fallowfield, Manchester in 1986.[54] In some countries, “McDrive” locations near highways offer no counter service or seating.[55] In contrast, locations in high-density city neighborhoods often omit drive-through service.[56] There are also a few locations, located mostly in downtown districts, that offer a “Walk-Thru” service in place of Drive-Thru.[57] McCaf is a caf-style accompaniment to McDonald’s restaurants and is a concept created by McDonald’s Australia (also known, and marketed, as “Macca’s” in Australia), starting with Melbourne in 1993.[58] As of 2016, most McDonald’s in Australia have McCafs located within the existing McDonald’s restaurant. In Tasmania, there are McCafs in every restaurant, with the rest of the states quickly following suit.[53] After upgrading to the new McCaf look and feel, some Australian restaurants have noticed up to a 60 percent increase in sales. At the end of 2003, there were over 600 McCafs worldwide. From 20152016, McDonald’s tried a new gourmet burger service/restaurant concept based on other gourmet restaurants such as Shake Shack and Grill’d. It was rolled out for the first time in Australia during the early months of 2015 and expanded to China, Hong Kong, Singapore, Arabia and New Zealand, with ongoing trials in the US market. In dedicated “Create Your Taste” (CYT) kiosks, customers could choose all ingredients including type of bun and meat along with optional extras. In late 2015 the Australian CYT service introduced CYT salads. After a person had ordered, McDonald’s advised that wait times were between 1015 minutes. When the food was ready, trained crew (‘hosts’) brought the food to the customer’s table. Instead of McDonald’s usual cardboard and plastic packaging, CYT food was presented on wooden boards, fries in wire baskets and salads in china bowls with metal cutlery. A higher price applied. In November 2016, Create Your Taste was replaced by a “Signature Crafted Recipes” program designed to be more efficient and less expensive.[59] Some locations are connected to gas stations/convenience stores,[60] while others called McExpress have limited seating and/or menu or may be located in a shopping mall. Other McDonald’s are located in Walmart stores. McStop is a location targeted at truckers and travelers which may have services found at truck stops.[61] In Sweden, customers who order a happy meal can use the meal’s container for a pair of happy goggles.[62] The company created a game for the goggles known as “Slope Stars.[62]” McDonald’s predicts happy goggles will continue in other countries.[62] In the Netherlands, McDonald’s has introduced McTrax that doubles as a recording studio; it reacts to touch.[62] They can create their own beats with a synth and tweak sounds with special effects.[62] The first kosher McDonald’s was established in 1997 at the Abasto de Buenos Aires mall in Buenos Aires, Argentina. There are also many kosher branches in Israel.[63][64] McDonald’s playgrounds are called McDonald’s PlayPlace. Some McDonald’s in suburban areas and certain cities feature large indoor or outdoor playgrounds. The first PlayPlace with the familiar crawl-tube design with ball pits and slides was introduced in 1987 in the US, with many more being constructed soon after. McDonald’s Next use open-concept design and offer “Create Your Taste” digital ordering. The concept store also offering free mobile device charging and table service after 6:00 pm. The first store opened in Hong Kong in December 2015.[65] In 2006, McDonald’s introduced its “Forever Young” brand by redesigning all of its restaurants, the first major redesign since the 1970s.[66][67] The goal of the redesign is to be more like a coffee shop, similar to Starbucks. The design includes wooden tables, faux-leather chairs, and muted colors; the red was muted to terracotta, the yellow was shifted to golden for a more “sunny” look, and olive and sage green were also added. To create a warmer look, the restaurants have less plastic and more brick and wood, with modern hanging lights to produce a softer glow. Many restaurants now feature free Wi-Fi and flat-screen TVs. Other upgrades include double drive-thrus, flat roofs instead of the angled red roofs, and replacing fiber glass with wood. Also, instead of the familiar golden arches, the restaurants now feature “semi-swooshes” (half of a golden arch), similar to the Nike swoosh.[68] McDonald’s began banning smoking in 1994 when it banned smoking within its 1,400 wholly owned restaurants.[69] Since the late 1990s, McDonald’s has attempted to replace employees with electronic kiosks which would perform actions such taking orders and accepting money. In 1999, McDonald’s first tested “E-Clerks” in suburban Chicago, Illinois, and Wyoming, Michigan, with the devices being able to “save money on live staffers” and attracting larger purchase amounts than average employees.[70] In 2013, the University of Oxford estimated that in the succeeding decades, there was a 92% probability of food preparation and serving to become automated in fast food establishments.[71] By 2016, McDonald’s “Create Your Taste” electronic kiosks were seen in some restaurants internationally where customers could custom order meals. As employees pushed for higher wages in the late-2010s, some believed that fast food companies such as McDonald’s would use the devices to cut costs for employing individuals.[72] On August 5, 2013, The Guardian revealed that 90 percent of McDonald’s UK workforce are on zero hour contracts, making it possibly the largest such private sector employer in the country.[73] A study released by Fast Food Forward conducted by Anzalone Liszt Grove Research showed that approximately 84 percent of all fast food employees working in New York City in April 2013 had been paid less than their legal wages by their employers.[74] From 2007 to 2011, fast food workers in the US drew an average of $7 billion of public assistance annually resulting from receiving low wages.[75] The McResource website advised employees to break their food into smaller pieces to feel fuller, seek refunds for unopened holiday purchases, sell possessions online for quick cash, and to “quit complaining” as “stress hormone levels rise by 15 percent after ten minutes of complaining.”[76] In December 2013, McDonald’s shut down the McResource website amidst negative publicity and criticism. McDonald’s plans to continue an internal telephone help line through which its employees can obtain advice on work and life problems.[77] Liberal thinktank the Roosevelt Institute accuses some McDonald’s restaurants of actually paying less than the minimum wage to entry positions due to ‘rampant’ wage theft.[78] In South Korea, McDonald’s pays part-time employees $5.50 an hour and is accused of paying less with arbitrary schedules adjustments and pay delays.[79] In late 2015, Anonymous aggregated data collected by Glassdoor suggests that McDonald’s in the United States pays entry-level employees between $7.25 an hour and $11 an hour, with an average of $8.69 an hour. Shift managers get paid an average of $10.34 an hour. Assistant managers get paid an average of $11.57 an hour.[80] McDonald’s CEO, Steve Easterbrook, currently earns an annual salary of $1,100,000.[81] McDonald’s workers have on occasions decided to strike over pay, with most of the employees on strike seeking to be paid $15.00.[82] When interviewed about the strikes occurring, former McDonald’s CEO Ed Rensi stated: “It’s cheaper to buy a $35,000 robotic arm than it is to hire an employee who’s inefficient making $15 an hour bagging french fries” with Rensi explaining that increasing employee wages could possibly take away from entry-level jobs.[83] However, according to Easterbrook, increasing wages and benefits for workers saw a 6% increase in customer satisfaction when comparing 2015’s first quarter data to the first quarter of 2016, with greater returns seen as a result.[83] In September 2017, two British McDonald’s stores agreed to a strike over zero hours contracts for staff. Picket lines were formed around the two stores in Crayford and Cambridge. The strike was supported by the Leader of the Opposition, Jeremy Corbyn.[84][85] In March 2015, McDonald’s workers in 19 US cities filed 28 health and safety complaints with the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration which allege that low staffing, lack of protective gear, poor training and pressure to work fast has resulted in injuries. The complaints also allege that, because of a lack of first aid supplies, workers were told by management to treat burn injuries with condiments such as mayonnaise and mustard.[86] The Fight for $15 labor organization aided the workers in filing the complaints.[87] In 2015, McDonald’s pledged to stop using eggs from battery cage facilities by 2025. Since McDonald’s purchases over 2 billion eggs per year or 4 percent of eggs produced in the United States, the switch is expected to have a major impact on the egg industry and is part of a general trend toward cage-free eggs driven by consumer concern over the harsh living conditions of hens.[88][89] The aviary systems from which the new eggs will be sourced are troubled by much higher mortality rates, as well as introducing environmental and worker safety problems.[90] The high hen mortality rate, which is more than double that of battery cage systems, will require new research to mitigate. The facilities also have higher ammonia levels due to faeces being kicked up into the air. Producers raised concerns about the production cost, which is expected to increase by 36 percent.[91] McDonald’s continues to source pork from facilities that use gestation crates, and in 2012 pledged to phase them out.[92] McDonald’s has for decades maintained an extensive advertising campaign. In addition to the usual media (television, radio, and newspaper), the company makes significant use of billboards and signage, sponsors sporting events ranging from Little League to the FIFA World Cup and Olympic Games.[93] Television has played a central role in the company’s advertising strategy.[94] To date, McDonald’s has used 23 different slogans in United States advertising, as well as a few other slogans for select countries and regions.[95] McDonald’s and NASA explored an advertising agreement for a planned mission to the asteroid 449 Hamburga; however, the spacecraft was eventually cancelled.[96] McDonald’s is the title sponsor of the McDonald’s All-American Game, all-star basketball games played each year for American and Canadian boys’ and girls’ high school basketball graduates. McHappy Day is an annual event at McDonald’s, where a percentage of the day’s sales go to charity. It is the signature fundraising event for Ronald McDonald House Charities.[97] In 2007, it was celebrated in 17 countries: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, the United States, Finland, France, Guatemala, Hungary, England, Ireland, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and Uruguay. According to the Australian McHappy Day website, McHappy Day raised $20.4 million in 2009. The goal for 2010 was $20.8 million.[98] In 1995, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital received an anonymous letter postmarked in Dallas, Texas, containing a $1 million winning McDonald’s Monopoly game piece. McDonald’s officials came to the hospital, accompanied by a representative from the accounting firm Arthur Andersen, who examined the card under a jeweler’s eyepiece, handled it with plastic gloves, and verified it as a winner.[99] Although game rules prohibited the transfer of prizes, McDonald’s waived the rule and has made the annual $50,000 annuity payments, even after learning that the piece was sent by an individual involved in an embezzlement scheme intended to defraud McDonald’s (see McDonald’s Monopoly). McRefugees are poor people in Hong Kong, Japan, and China who use McDonald’s 24-hour restaurants as a temporary hostel. One in five of Hong Kong’s population lives below the poverty line. The rise of McRefugees was first documented by photographer Suraj Katra in 2013.[100] In 1990, activists from a small group known as London Greenpeace (no connection to the international group Greenpeace) distributed leaflets entitled What’s wrong with McDonald’s?, criticizing its environmental, health, and labor record. The corporation wrote to the group demanding they desist and apologize, and, when two of the activists refused to back down, sued them for libel in one of the longest cases in British civil law. A documentary film of the McLibel Trial has been shown in several countries.[101] In the late 1980s, Phil Sokolof, a millionaire businessman who had suffered a heart attack at the age of 43, took out full-page newspaper ads in New York, Chicago, and other large cities accusing McDonald’s menu of being a threat to American health, and asking them to stop using beef tallow to cook their french fries.[102] Despite the objections of McDonald’s, the term “McJob” was added to Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary in 2003.[103] The term was defined as “a low-paying job that requires little skill and provides little opportunity for advancement”.[104] In 2001, Eric Schlosser’s book Fast Food Nation included criticism of the business practices of McDonald’s. Among the critiques were allegations that McDonald’s (along with other companies within the fast food industry) uses its political influence to increase its profits at the expense of people’s health and the social conditions of its workers. The book also brought into question McDonald’s advertisement techniques in which it targets children. While the book did mention other fast-food chains, it focused primarily on McDonald’s. In 2002, vegetarian groups, largely Hindu and Buddhist, successfully sued McDonald’s for misrepresenting its French fries as vegetarian, when they contained beef broth.[105] Morgan Spurlock’s 2004 documentary film Super Size Me claimed that McDonald’s food was contributing to the increase of obesity in society and that the company was failing to provide nutritional information about its food for its customers. Six weeks after the film premiered, McDonald’s announced that it was eliminating the super size option, and was creating the adult Happy Meal. In 2006, an unsanctioned McDonald’s Video Game by Italian group Molleindustria was released online. It is parody of the business practices of the corporate giant, taking the guise of a tycoon style business simulation game. In the game, the player plays the role of a McDonald’s CEO, choosing whether or not to use controversial practices like genetically altered cow feed, plowing over rainforests, and corrupting public officials. McDonald’s issued a statement distancing itself from the game.[106] In January 2014, it was reported that McDonald’s was accused of having used a series of tax maneuvers to avoid taxes in France. The company confirmed that tax authorities had visited McDonald’s French headquarters in Paris but insisted that it had not done anything wrong, saying, “McDonald’s firmly denies the accusation made by L’Express according to which McDonald’s supposedly hid part of its revenue from taxes in France.”[107] In response to public pressure, McDonald’s has sought to include more healthy choices in its menu and has introduced a new slogan to its recruitment posters: “Not bad for a McJob”.[108] The word McJob, first attested in the mid-1980s[103] and later popularized by Canadian novelist Douglas Coupland in his book Generation X, has become a buzz word for low-paid, unskilled work with few prospects or benefits and little security. McDonald’s disputes this definition of McJob. In 2007, the company launched an advertising campaign with the slogan “Would you like a career with that?” on Irish television, asserting that its jobs have good prospects. In an effort to respond to growing consumer awareness of food provenance, the fast-food chain changed its supplier of both coffee beans and milk. UK chief executive Steve Easterbrook said: “British consumers are increasingly interested in the quality, sourcing, and ethics of the food and drink they buy”.[109] In a bid to tap into the ethical consumer market,[110] McDonald’s switched to using coffee beans taken from stocks that are certified by the Rainforest Alliance, a conservation group. Additionally, in response to pressure, McDonald’s UK started using organic milk supplies for its bottled milk and hot drinks, although it still uses conventional milk in its milkshakes, and in all of its dairy products in the United States.[111] According to a report published by Farmers Weekly in 2007, the quantity of milk used by McDonald’s could have accounted for as much as 5 percent of the UK’s organic milk output.[112] McDonald’s announced on May 22, 2008, that, in the United States and Canada, it would switch to using cooking oil that contains no trans fats for its french fries, and canola-based oil with corn and soy oils, for its baked items, pies and cookies, by year’s end.[113][114] With regard to acquiring chickens from suppliers who use CAK/CAS methods of slaughter, McDonald’s says that it needs to see more research “to help determine whether any CAS system in current use is optimal from an animal welfare perspective.”[115] In April 2008, McDonald’s announced that 11 of its Sheffield, England restaurants have been engaged in a biomass trial that had cut its waste and carbon footprint by half in the area. In this trial, wastes from the restaurants were collected by Veolia Environmental Services and were used to produce energy at a power plant. McDonald’s plans to expand this project, although the lack of biomass power plants in the United States will prevent this plan from becoming a national standard anytime soon.[116] In addition, in Europe, McDonald’s has been recycling vegetable grease by converting it to fuel for its diesel trucks.[117] McDonald’s has been using a corn-based bioplastic to produce containers for some of its products. The environmental benefits of this technology are controversial, with critics noting that biodegradation is slow, produces greenhouse gases and that contamination of traditional plastic waste streams with bioplastics can complicate recycling efforts.[118] In 1990, McDonald’s worked with the Environmental Defense Fund to stop using “clam shell” shaped styrofoam food containers to house its food products.[119] 20 years later, McDonald’s announced they would try replacing styrofoam coffee cups with an alternative material.[120] The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has recognized McDonald’s continuous effort to reduce solid waste by designing more efficient packaging and by promoting the use of recycled-content materials.[121] McDonald’s reports that it is committed towards environmental leadership by effectively managing electric energy, by conserving natural resources through recycling and reusing materials, and by addressing water management issues within the restaurant.[122] In an effort to reduce energy usage by 25 percent in its restaurants, McDonald’s opened a prototype restaurant in Chicago in 2009 with the intention of using the model in its other restaurants throughout the world. Building on past efforts, specifically a restaurant it opened in Sweden in 2000 that was the first to intentionally incorporate green ideas, McDonald’s designed the Chicago site to save energy by incorporating old and new ideas such as managing storm water, using skylights for more natural lighting and installing some partitions and tabletops made from recycled goods.[123] When McDonald’s received criticism for its environmental policies in the 1970s, it began to make substantial progress in reducing its use of materials.[124] For instance, an “average meal” in the 1970sa Big Mac, fries, and a drinkrequired 46grams of packaging; today, it requires only 25grams, allowing a 46 percent reduction.[125] In addition, McDonald’s eliminated the need for intermediate containers for cola by having a delivery system that pumps syrup directly from the delivery truck into storage containers, saving two million pounds (910 tonnes) of packaging annually.[126] Overall, weight reductions in packaging and products, as well as the increased usage of bulk packaging ultimately decreased packaging by twenty-four million pounds (11,000 tonnes) annually.[127] McDonald’s has been involved in a number of lawsuits and other legal cases, most of which involved trademark disputes. The company has threatened many food businesses with legal action unless it drops the Mc or Mac from trading names. On September 8, 2009, McDonald’s Malaysian operations lost a lawsuit to prevent another restaurant calling itself McCurry. McDonald’s lost in an appeal to Malaysia’s highest court, the Federal Court.[128] In April 2007, in Perth, Western Australia, McDonald’s pleaded guilty to five charges relating to the employment of children under 15 in one of its outlets and was fined A$8,000.[129] In 2016, the Australian Taxation Office revealed that McDonald’s Asia-Pacific Consortium had generated $478 million in revenue in 201314, but had paid no tax on those earnings whatsoever.[130] McDonald’s has defended itself in several cases involving workers’ rights.[citation needed] The longest running legal action of all time in the UK was the McLibel case against 2 defendants who criticized a number of aspects of the company. The trial lasted 10 years and called 130 witnesses. The European Court of Human Rights deemed that the unequal resources of the litigants breached the defendants rights to freedom of speech and biased the trial. The result was widely seen as a “PR disaster.”[131] A famous legal case in the US involving McDonald’s was the 1994 decision in Liebeck v. McDonald’s Restaurants where Stella Liebeck was awarded several million dollars after she suffered third-degree burns after spilling a scalding cup of McDonald’s coffee on herself.[132] In April 2014, it was reported that McDonald’s in Europe will use chicken meat that was produced by using genetically modified animal feed. Greenpeace argues that McDonald’s saves less than one Eurocent for each chicken burger and goes down a path not desired by its customers.[133] Links to related articles

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February 17, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Morris Dees  Comments Closed

Morris Dees is a child molester | Racism

Taken from here Til the Cash Comes Flowing Like a River In an article titled Poverty Palace, Morris Dees told journalist John Edgerton that I had a traditional white Southerners feeling for segregation. Morris Dees and I [Millard Fuller], from the first day of our partnership, shared one overriding purpose: to make a pile of money. We were not particular about how we did it; we just wanted to be independently rich. During the eight years we worked together we never wavered in that resolve. In 1961 when Freedom Riders were beaten by a white mob at a Montgomery bus station, Dees [and Fuller] expressed openly his sympathies and support for what had happened at the bus station. When one of the men charged with beating the Freedom Riders came to their office for legal representation, Dees and Fuller took the case. The legal fee was paid by the Ku Klux Klan and the White Citizens Council. [Fuller, Millard. Love in the Mortar Joints. New Century Press: 1980 and The Progressive, July 1988] Arrested and removed from court in 1975 for attempting to suborn perjury [bribing a witness] in the Joan Little murder trial in North Carolina. Acted as a fundraiser for both Ted Kennedys 1980 and Gary Harts 1984 presidential campaigns and received their mailing lists as reward. [Ibid.] Perhaps explaining the SPLCs Gay rights activism, Dees was cited in 1979 by his ex-wife with a homosexual encounter during their marriage. She also cited numerous affairs with women including his daughter-in-law and underage stepdaughter. The SPLCs fundraising practices have provoked the disapproval of watchdog groups that monitor charities: In 1993, the American Institute of Philanthropy assigned the SPLC a D grade on a scale of A to F. [American Institute of Philanthropy 1993 Charity Watchdog Report] Today, the SPLCs treasury bulges with $120 million, and it spends twice as much on fund-raising-$5.76 million last year-as it does on legal services for victims of civil rights abuses What is the Southern Poverty Law Center doing? Mostly making money In 1994 the Montgomery Advertiser won a journalism award for a series of incisive and penetrating investigative articles exposing the unethical fundraising practices of Dees and the Southern Poverty Law Center The SPLC which has crusaded for the rights of blacks for 23 years, is controlled by whites. It has hired only two black staff attorneys in its history, both of whom left unhappy. 12 of 13 former Black employees interviewed by the Montgomery Advertiser complained they experienced or observed racial problems during their employment. Several said the SPLC was more like a plantation. Like Loading… Related

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February 8, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Morris Dees  Comments Closed

Austin Home Search – Austin real estate | Homes for Sale …

Austin Home Search is the official site of the Austin Board of REALTORS Do you see this “Down Payments Made Easy” symbol listed with a property? Ask your REALTOR how Down Payment Resource can help find your new home!

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December 29, 2017   Posted in: Morris Dees  Comments Closed

What is ‘hate’ and who defines it? The SPLC? – WND.com

A headline on Drudge this week declares that Google is teaming up with liberal groups to snuff out conservative websites. Apparently, the search-engine giant is partnering with the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) and other left-wing groups to document and publicize hate crimes and events in America. After the terrible events in Charlottesville, any God-fearing, rational American would welcome this news, correct? The problem, however, is that Google allowing groups like the SPLC to define what is hate and who is a hater shows how dangerous this development could be. Jerry Boykin of the Family Research Council, an organization once attacked by a man convicted as a domestic terrorist because it was included on the SPLC Hate Map, said, The Southern Poverty Law Center is reckless in labeling groups as hate groups or labeling individuals as hate mongers, and they do both. They have no authority to do so. I work for a group, D. James Kennedy Ministries, the SPLC has falsely designated a hate group because we dont believe in same-sex marriage. That view doesnt make us unique. Up until the last few years, the majority of Americans did not believe in it either nor did Barack Obama or Hillary Clinton, according to their public statements up until 2012. Yet, according to the SPLC, were haters. The irony that Im supposedly a hater is that I am anything but. Daily I strive to pray the Prayer of St. Francis: Lord, make me an instrument of Your peace. Where there is hatred, let me replace it with love and so on. Former Alabama Chief Justice Roy Moore lost his office twice, in part because of actions by the SPLC. First, they joined with other liberal groups to sue him for a public display of the Ten Commandments. Then in 2012, he won the election as Alabama chief justice again, but the SPLC filed a legal complaint against him for his stance in favor of traditional marriage a stance that 81 percent of the voters in Alabama took in 2006 to amend their constitution. I got to interview Chief Justice Moore recently for our television program, Profit$ of Hate, about the Southern Poverty Law Center. Moore accused the SPLC essentially of psychological projection. Moore, who is now running for the U.S. Senate, said, The Southern Poverty Law Center has had Ben Carson [the renowned neurosurgeon] on their hate list. Theyve had Tony Perkins and his organization [the above-mentioned Family Research Council] on their hate list. The truth is: theyre the ones that hate. They hate God, and they hate the acknowledgment of God; and [yet] they call other people haters. The SPLC likes to fancy itself as doing the unfinished work of the civil rights movement which they have now linked to same-sex marriage and transgender rights. For our program, I also got to interview Ricardo Davis, an African-American who is the president of Georgia Right to Life and is also the state chairman of the Constitution Party of Georgia, which is on the SPLCs hate list as an alleged anti-government group. Davis commends the SPLC for the good work they did in the waning days of the civil rights movement, but he notes that Dr. Martin Luther Kings movement was undergirded by faith in God and in the Bible. In contrast, what the SPLC is promoting today is often in contradiction to faith in God and in the Bible. Davis told our viewers, If I could say something to [SPLC co-founder] Morris Dees right now, what I would say is, Morris, you came alongside my fathers generation to help them get out from under injustice, and it was unjust because it violated Gods Word but now, youre on the wrong side of history.’ Critics note that even many of the actual hate groups on the Southern Poverty Law Centers Hate Map (such as the Ku Klux Klan) have been on the wane for decades. But Morris Dees and the SPLC manage to make huge profits by scaring people into thinking that behind virtually every bush in America is some sort of hate-monger. Davis added, What did Jesus say? What does it profit a man if he gains the whole world if he keeps his mailing list up to date, if he rakes in millions and millions of dollars yet loses his soul? And The Southern Poverty Law Center in particular is an organization that has lost the soul and energy behind the civil rights movement. The honorable thing to do would be to repent and believe the gospel. We should all work to end true hate in America. But defining the politics of someone you merely disagree with as hate just muddies the waters and further divides us as a nation. Media wishing to interview Jerry Newcombe, please contact [emailprotected].

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August 23, 2017   Posted in: Morris Dees  Comments Closed


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