Archive for the ‘World War II’ Category

World War II Fast Facts – CNN

Causes of World War II:The Peace of Paris – The treaties worked out in Paris at the end of World War I satisfied few. Germany, Austria, and the other countries on the losing side of the war were especially unhappy with the Paris Agreement, which required them to give up arms and make reparations. Germany agreed to sign the Treaty of Versailles only after the victorious countries threatened to invade if Germany did not sign it. Germany made the last payment on reparations in 2010.

Economic Issues – World War I was devastating to countries’ economies. Although the European economy had stabilized by the 1920s, the Great Depression in the United States led to economic downfall in Europe. Communism and fascism gained strength in the wake of economic problems.

Nationalism – An extreme form of patriotism that grew in Europe became even stronger after World War I, especially for countries that were defeated.

Failure of Appeasement – Czechoslovakia had become an independent nation after World War I, but by 1938, was surrounded by German territory. Hitler wanted to annex the Sudetenland, an area in western Czechoslovakia where many Germans lived. British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain wanted to appease Hitler and agreed to his demands for the Sudetenland after Hitler promised he would not demand more territory. Hitler seized the rest of Czechoslovakia in March of 1939.

Axis Powers:Germany, Japan, and Italy formed a coalition called the Axis Powers. Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania and two German-created states–Croatia and Slovakia–eventually joined.

Allied Powers:The United States, Great Britain, China and the Soviet Union made up the Allies, the group fighting the Axis. Between 1939 and 1944 at least 50 nations would eventually fight together. Thirteen more nations would join by 1945 including: Australia, Belgium, Brazil, British Commonwealth of Nations, Canada, India, New Zealand, South Africa, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France, Greece, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Philippines and Yugoslavia.

Major Players:United States – Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Great Britain – Winston Churchill, Prime Minister China – Chiang Kai-Shek, General Soviet Union – Joseph Stalin, General

US Deaths:Battle: 291,557Non-Battle: 113,842Total In-Theatre: 405,399

Other Military Casualties by Country 1939-1945 (selected):Australia: 23,365 dead; 39,803 woundedAustria: 380,000 dead; 350,117 woundedBelgium: 7,760 dead; 14,500 woundedBulgaria: 10,000 dead; 21,878 woundedCanada: 37,476 dead; 53,174 woundedChina: 2,200,000 dead; 1,762,000 woundedFrance: 210,671 dead; 390,000 woundedGermany: 3,500,000 dead; 7,250,000 woundedGreat Britain: 329,208 dead; 348,403 woundedHungary: 140,000 dead; 89,313 woundedItaly: 77,494 dead; 120,000 woundedJapan: 1,219,000 dead; 295,247 woundedPoland: 320,000 dead; 530,000 woundedRomania: 300,000 dead; wounded unknownSoviet Union: 7,500,000 dead; 5,000,000 woundedUnited States: 405,399 dead; 670,846 wounded

Other Facts:About 70 million people fought in the armed forces of the Allied and Axis nations.

Finland never officially joined either the Allies or the Axis and was at war with the Soviet Union at the outbreak of World War II. Needing help in 1940, the Finnish joined forces with Nazi Germany to repel the Soviets. When peace between Finland the Soviet Union was declared in 1944, Finland joined with the Soviets to oust the Germans.

Switzerland, Spain, Portugal and Sweden declared neutrality during the war.

The Soviet Union lost the most soldiers, in excess of seven million.

The number of civilian casualties in World War II may never be known. Many deaths were caused by bombing raids, massacres, starvation and other war-related causes.

June 10, 1940 – Italy joins the war on the side of Germany by declaring war against Britain (UK) and France. Fighting spreads to Greece and Northern Africa.

June 14, 1940 – German troops march into Paris.

July 1940-September 1940 – Germany and Great Britain fight an air war, the Battle of Britain, along the English coastline.

September 7, 1940-May 1941 – German bombing campaign of nightly air raids over London, known as the Blitz.

June 22, 1941 – Germany invades the Soviet Union.

September 1941 – Japanese troops invade Indochina.

December 7, 1941 – Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, destroying more than half of the fleet of aircraft, and damaging all eight battleships. Japan also attacks Clark and Iba airfields in the Philippines destroying over half of the US Army’s aircraft there.

December 8, 1941 – Roosevelt delivers the “a date which will live in infamy” speech to Congress, and the US declares war on Japan. Japan invades Hong Kong, Guam, the Wake Islands, Singapore and British Malaya.

December 11, 1941 – Germany and Italy declare war on the United States.

By Christmas 1941 – Japan had taken Thailand, Guam, Hong Kong and Wake Island.

1942 – The Allies stop the Axis Powers’ advance in Northern Africa and the Soviet Union.

February 1942 – Japan invades the Malay Peninsula. Singapore surrenders within a week.

June 4-6, 1942 – Japan’s plans to invade the Hawaiian Islands, starting at Midway Island, but the United States cracks the code of the mission. Japan attacks Midway and loses four aircraft carriers and over 200 planes and pilots in the first clear victory for the United States.

August 19, 1942 – The battle for Stalingrad begins as Germany pushes further into Russia.

August 1942-February 1943 – US Marines fight for and hold the Pacific island of Guadalcanal.

October 23, 1942 – British troops push Axis troops into retreating to Tunisia in the Second Battle of El Alamein.

February 1, 1943 – The German troops in Stalingrad surrender, defeated in large part by the Soviet winter. The defeat marks the halt of Germany’s eastbound advance.

July 10, 1943 – Allied forces land in Italy.

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World War II Fast Facts – CNN

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World War II in Europe | The Holocaust Encyclopedia

The Holocaust took place in the broader context of World War II. Still reeling from Germany’s defeat in World War I, Hitler’s government envisioned a vast, new empire of “living space” (Lebensraum) in eastern Europe. The realization of German dominance in Europe, its leaders calculated, would require war.

World War II: Maps

After securing the neutrality of the Soviet Union (through the August 1939 German-Soviet Pact of nonaggression), Germany started World War II by invading Poland on September 1, 1939. Britain and France responded by declaring war on Germany on September 3. Within a month, Poland was defeated by a combination of German and Soviet forces and was partitioned between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union.

The relative lull in fighting which followed the defeat of Poland ended on April 9, 1940, when German forces invaded Norway and Denmark. On May 10, 1940, Germany began its assault on western Europe by invading the Low Countries (Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg), which had taken neutral positions in the war, as well as France. On June 22, 1940, France signed an armistice with Germany, which provided for the German occupation of the northern half of the country and permitted the establishment of a collaborationist regime in the south with its seat in the city of Vichy.

With German encouragement, the Soviet Union occupied the Baltic states in June 1940 and formally annexed them in August 1940. Italy, a member of the Axis (countries allied with Germany), joined the war on June 10, 1940. From July 10 to October 31, 1940, the Nazis waged, and ultimately lost, an air war over England, known as the Battle of Britain.

After securing the Balkan region by invading Yugoslavia and Greece on April 6, 1941, the Germans and their allies invaded the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, in direct violation of the German-Soviet Pact. In June and July 1941, the Germans also occupied the Baltic states. Soviet leader Joseph Stalin then became a major wartime Allied leader, in opposition to Nazi Germany and its Axis allies. During the summer and autumn of 1941, German troops advanced deep into the Soviet Union, but stiffening Red Army resistance prevented the Germans from capturing the key cities of Leningrad and Moscow. On December 6, 1941, Soviet troops launched a significant counteroffensive that drove German forces permanently from the outskirts of Moscow. One day later, on December 7, 1941, Japan (one of the Axis powers) bombed Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The United States immediately declared war on Japan. On December 11, Germany and Italy declared war on the United States as the military conflict widened.

In May 1942, the British Royal Air Force carried out a raid on the German city of Cologne with a thousand bombers, for the first time bringing war home to Germany. For the next three years, Allied air forces systematically bombed industrial plants and cities all over the Reich, reducing much of urban Germany to rubble by 1945. In late 1942 and early 1943, the Allied forces achieved a series of significant military triumphs in North Africa. The failure of French armed forces to prevent Allied occupation of Morocco and Algeria triggered a German occupation of collaborationist Vichy France on November 11, 1942. Axis military units in Africa, approximately 150,000 troops in all, surrendered in May 1943.

On the eastern front, during the summer of 1942, the Germans and their Axis allies renewed their offensive in the Soviet Union, aiming to capture Stalingrad on the Volga River, as well as the city of Baku and the Caucasian oil fields. The German offensive stalled on both fronts in the late summer of 1942. In November, Soviet troops launched a counteroffensive at Stalingrad and on February 2, 1943, the German Sixth Army surrendered to the Soviets. The Germans mounted one more offensive at Kursk in July 1943, the biggest tank battle in history, but Soviet troops blunted the attack and assumed a military predominance that they would not again relinquish during the course of the war.

In July 1943, the Allies landed in Sicily and in September went ashore on the Italian mainland. After the Italian Fascist Party’s Grand Council deposed Italian premier Benito Mussolini (an ally of Hitler), the Italian military took over and negotiated a surrender to Anglo-American forces on September 8. German troops stationed in Italy seized control of the northern half of the peninsula, and continued to resist. Mussolini, who had been arrested by Italian military authorities, was rescued by German SS commandos in September and established (under German supervision) a neo-Fascist puppet regime in northern Italy. German troops continued to hold northern Italy until surrendering on May 2, 1945.

On June 6, 1944 (D-Day), as part of a massive military operation, over 150,000 Allied soldiers landed in France, which was liberated by the end of August. On September 11, 1944, the first US troops crossed into Germany, one month after Soviet troops crossed the eastern border. In mid-December the Germans launched an unsuccessful counterattack in Belgium and northern France, known as the Battle of the Bulge. Allied air forces attacked Nazi industrial plants, such as the one at the Auschwitz camp (though the gas chambers were never targeted).

The Soviets began an offensive on January 12, 1945, liberating western Poland and forcing Hungary (an Axis ally) to surrender. In mid-February 1945, the Allies bombed the German city of Dresden, killing approximately 35,000 civilians. American troops crossed the Rhine River on March 7, 1945. A final Soviet offensive on April 16, 1945, enabled Soviet forces to encircle the German capital, Berlin.

As Soviet troops fought their way towards the Reich Chancellery, Hitler committed suicide on April 30, 1945. On May 7, 1945, Germany surrendered unconditionally to the Western Allies at Reims and on May 9 to the Soviets in Berlin. In August, the war in the Pacific ended soon after the US dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, killing 120,000 civilians. Japan formally surrendered on September 2.

World War II resulted in an estimated 55 million deaths worldwide. It was the largest and most destructive conflict in history.

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World War II in Europe | The Holocaust Encyclopedia

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Military Resources: World War II | National Archives

NARA Resources

Any Bonds Today: Selling Support for World War IILesson plan from the National Archives at New York City about the selling of war bonds during World War II.

Archives Surviving from World War IIAn excerpt copied with permission of the author, Gerhard Weinberg, from his book A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II.

“Buddies: Soldiers and Animals in World War II”Lisa B. Auel wrote this Prologue article.

Continuing the Fight: Harry S. Truman and World War IIThis Truman Library website contains a collection of documents, photographs, and eyewitness accounts concerning the latter stages of World War II.

Day of Infamy SpeechAudio of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s speech to Congress the day after the attack on Pearl Harbor.

“Getting the Message Out: The Poster Boys of World War II”Prologue article by Robert Ellis about government-produced posters from World War II.

Holocaust Era AssetsInformation about the records and research available in the National Archives and Records Administration regarding Holocaust Era Assets.

Information Concerning Philippine Army and Guerrilla RecordsThis NARA site gives in-depth information on the collection of records of World War II Philippine Army and Guerrilla members, which have recently been transferred to the National Personnel Records Center.

“Irving Berlin: This Is the Army”This article by Laurence Bergreen is from the Summer 1996 issue of the NARA publication Prologue, and presents an in-depth look at Irving Berlin’s production of This is the Army.

Japan SurrendersOn September 2, 1945, Japanese representatives signed the official Instrument of Surrender. Both pages of the short document are available as digital images.

“Jim Crow, Meet Lieutenant Robinson: A 1944 Court-Martial”John Vernon’s Prologue article about the court-martial of Second Lieutenant Jack (Jackie) Roosevelt Robinson

Journey of the Philippine Archives Collection”The Philippine Archives Collection constitutes an invaluable source of information on the Pacific war during World War II, particularly concerning the treatment of prisoners of war (POWs); military operations in the Philippines, 1941-1942; guerrilla warfare in the Philippines; and conditions in the Philippines under Japanese occupation.”

“Let the Records Bark!: Personal Stories of Some Special Marines in World War II”M. C. Lang’s Prologue article about Dog Record Books of each canine who enrolled in the Army and Marine Corps from December 15, 1942, to August 15, 1945.

“The Lions’ History: Researching World War II Images of African Americans”An article from the Summer 1997 issue of NARA’s publication, Prologue by Barbara L. Burger.

Memorandum Regarding the Enlistment of Navajo IndiansA Teaching With Documents Lesson Plan that provides background on the Marine Corps’ decision to enlist and train the Navajos as messengers during World War II.

“Mission to techovice: How Americans Took Nazi Documents from Czechoslovakia And Created a Diplomatic Crisis”A Prologue article by T. Dennis Reece about the seizure of Nazi documents by Allied forces.

Mobilizing for War: Poster Art of World War IIA Truman Library online exhibit of a selection of posters illustrating such topics as “wartime security, enlistment, production of food and war materials, salvage and conservation, patriotic inspiration, relief efforts, and funding of the war through the sale of war bonds.”

“The Mystery of the Sinking of the Royal T. Frank”Prologue article by Peter von Buol describing the sinking of a U.S. Army transport ship off the coast of Hawaii by the Japanese in 1942.

“Nazi Looted Art: The Holocaust Records Preservation Project”A three-part Prologue article by Anne Rothfeld about the Holocaust Records Project (HRP) which was tasked with “identifying, preserving, describing, and microfilming more than twenty million pages of records created by the Allies in occupied Europe regarding Nazi looted art and the restitution of national treasures.”

Nazi War Criminal Records Interagency Working Group (IWG)”The Nazi War Crimes and Japanese Imperial Government Records Interagency Working Group (IWG) locates, identifies, inventories, and recommends for declassification, currently classified U.S. records relating to Nazi and Japanese Imperial Government war crimes.”

“Operation Blissful: How the Marines Lured the Japanese Away from a Key Target And How ‘the Brute’ Got Some Help from JFK”Prologue article by Greg Bradsher about a diversionary mission in the South Pacific.

“Remembering Pearl Harbor . . . 70 Years Later”Prologue article by Lopez Matthews, Zachary Dabbs, and Eliza Mbughuni discusses deck logs of ships docked in Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941.

“Return to Sender U.S. Censorship of Enemy Alien Mail in World War II”Lois Fiset’s Prologue article on the U.S. government’s mail examination and censorship programs on the correspondence of enemy aliens during World War II.

“Safeguarding Hoover Dam during World War II”Christine Pfaff’s Prologue article on the measures taken during World War II to thwart potential sabotage of the Hoover Dam.

“Sage Prophet or Loose Cannon?: Skilled Intelligence Officer in World War II Foresaw Japan’s Plans, but Annoyed Navy Brass”Prologue article by David A. Pfeiffer about Capt. Ellis M. Zacharias.

“‘Semper Fidelis, Code Talkers'”Adam Jevec’s Prologue article on the impenetrable Navajo language code used by U.S. Marine Forces in World War II.

“Sixty Years Later, the Story of PT-109 Still Captivates”Stephen Plotkin’s Prologue article on the sinking of a Patrol Torpedo boat commanded by John F. Kennedy in the South Pacific in August 1943.

“Two Americans and the Angry Russian Bear: Army Air Force Pilots Court-Martialed for Offending the Soviet Union during World War II”Prologue article by Fred L. Borch.

Veterans Gallery: Faces of the Men and Women Who Served during World War IIThis collection of photographs of military servicemen and servicewomen was compiled by the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library from submissions by the public.

“Wearing Lipstick to War: An American Woman in World War II England and France”James H. Madison wrote this Prologue article about Elizabeth A. Richardson, who joined the American Red Cross and died in France in 1945.

World War II PhotosThis collection of photographs of military servicemen and servicewomen was compiled by the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library from submissions by the public.

World War II Remembered: Leaders, Battles & Heroes”This multi-year exhibit commemorates the 70th anniversaries of WWII and will change often as we progress through the timeline of the war.” From the Eisenhower Presidential Library, Museum, and Boyhood Home.

“The ‘Z Plan’ Story: Japan’s 1944 Naval Battle Strategy Drifts into U.S. Hands”Greg Bradsher’s Prologue article about “how the Z Plan drifted into American hands in one of World War II’s greatest intelligence victories, leading to a crushing defeat for Japan in the Southwest Pacific in 1944.”

Other Resources

After the Day of Infamy: “Man-on-the-Street” Interviews Following the Attack on Pearl Harbor “Approximately twelve hours of opinions recorded in the days and months following the bombing of Pearl Harbor from more than two hundred individuals in cities and towns across the United States.”

Combat Chronicles of U.S. Army Divisions in World War II”The following combat chronicles, current as of October 1948, are reproduced from The Army Almanac: A Book of Facts Concerning the Army of the United States, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1950, pp. 510-592.”

FBIS Against the Axis, 1941-1945: Open-Source Intelligence From the AirwavesStephen Mercado’s article provides extensive information on the establishment and operation of the Foreign Broadcast Monitoring Service, an agency devoted to monitoring and analyzing foreign radio broadcasts for intelligence purposes, during World War II.

A Guide to World War II Materials “Links to World War II related resources throughout the Library of Congress Web site.”

Hawaii War Records Depository Photos “The HWRD includes 880 photographs taken by the U.S. Army Signal Corps and the U.S. Navy during World War II. These photographs, taken between 1941 and 1946, document the impact of World War II in Hawaii.”

Historic Government Publications from World War II This digital collection from Southern Methodist University Central University Libraries’ Government Information Department “contains 343 Informational pamphlets, government reports, instructions, regulations, declarations, speeches, and propaganda materials distributed by the U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO) during the Second World War.”

Hyperwar: U.S. Navy in World War IIProvides lists of ships, Naval Intelligence Combat Narratives, U.S. Naval Operations, Naval Stations and Facilities, U.S. Coast Guard members, and U.S. Navy Histories from World War II.

July, 1942: United We StandThis is a companion web site for a Smithsonian Institution temporary exhibit that ran through October 2002. The exhibit highlights nearly 300 magazine covers featuring American flags, the slogan “United We Stand”, and appeals to buy war bonds.

Medal of Honor Recipients: World War IIU.S. Army Center Center of Military History site that provides the names of Medal of Honor recipients and the actions that are commemorated.

Naval Aviation Chronology in World War IIInformation compiled by the Naval History & Heritage Command.

Nuremberg Trials Project: A Digital Document CollectionMaintained by the Harvard Law School Library, this site provides access to trial documents and transcripts from the Medical Case held in 1946-1947 against 23 defendants accused of crimes against humanity in the form of harmful or fatal medical experiments and procedures. The site also provides a list of additional resources related to the Nuremberg Trials.

The OSS and Italian Partisans in World War IIPeter Tompkins, CIA, is the author of this article on the intelligence and operational support for the Anti-Nazi Resistance.

The Perilous Fight: America’s World War II in ColorThis PBS site is a companion to its program of the same name. It includes color photographs and videos that were shot to document the war.

Ration Coupons on the Home Front, 1942-1945″Shows how the U.S. government controlled and conserved vehicles, typewriters, sugar, shoes, fuel, and food.”

Stalag Luft I OnlineThe family of Dick Williams Jr., a prisoner of war during World War II, began this site as a tribute to his service. It now includes stories, photos, and letters that document the experiences of the POWs held at Stalag Luft I.

Student Voices from World War II and the McCarthy EraA compilation of narratives from Brooklyn College students during World War II and the McCarthy era. Includes the oral histories of both participants in the school’s Farm Labor Project and employees of the student newspaper.

Untold Stories of D-DayThis National Geographic site is an online gallery of stories and photographs telling the D-Day story.

The U. S. Coast Guard in World War IIThe U. S. Coast Guard maintains this site, which includes Official Histories, Oral Histories of Coast Guard Veterans, and more.

U.S.-Russia Joint Commission Documents DatabaseThe documents found in the U.S.-Russia Joint Commission Database consist mainly of translations of Russian-language documents retrieved from various archives in the Russian Federation pertaining to American personnel missing from World War II to the present.

Victory at SeaFrom The Atlantic Monthly, this article describes the sea battles of World War II.

War LettersThis PBS website provides context to their film War Letters, based on Andrew Carroll’s book of personal correspondence from the Revolutionary War through the Gulf War. Features letters, biographies, timelines, cartoons, and local resources.

World War IIFordham University provides links to documents relating to World War II, including sections on the Lead Up to War, War In Europe, War In Asia, and After the War.

World War II: Documents The Avalon Project’s collection of World War II documents are available on this site, including British War Blue Book, Japanese Surrender Documents, Tripartite Pact and Associated Documents, and much more.

World War II Gallery This site from the National Museum of the U.S. Air Force includes descriptions and images of World War II era aircraft, engines, weapons, and more.

World War II HistoryFrom the Internet Public Library, this site includes print and Internet resources for high school and college students beginning research on World War II.

World War II Military Situation MapsThis Library of Congress collection “contains maps showing troop positions beginning on June 6, 1944 to July 26, 1945. Starting with the D-Day Invasion, the maps give daily details on the military campaigns in Western Europe, showing the progress of the Allied Forces as they push towards Germany.”

World War II Poster CollectionThe Government Publications Department at Northwestern University Library has a comprehensive collection of over 300 posters issued by U.S. Federal agencies from the start of the war through 1945.

World War II: The Photos We RememberA collection of photographs published in Life Magazine during World War II.

World War II Time LineProvides a timeline of the major events of World War II.

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WWII Memorial

The World War II Memorial honors the 16 million who served in the armed forces of the U.S., the more than 400,000 who died, and all who supported the war effort from home. Symbolic of the defining event of the 20th Century, the memorial is a monument to the spirit, sacrifice, and commitment of the American people. The Second World War is the only 20th Century event commemorated on the National Malls central axis. The memorial opened to the public on April 29, 2004 and was dedicated one month later on May 29. It is located on 17th Street, between Constitution and Independence Avenues, and is flanked by the Washington Monument to the east and the Lincoln Memorial to the west. The memorial is operated by the National Park Service and is open to visitors 24 hours a day, seven days a week. For more information about visiting the memorial, accessibility, parking, directions, special events and other details, please visit the National Park Service Web site at www.nps.gov/nwwm or call the Park Service at 202-208-3818.

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Live World War II-era anti-tank round found near US-Mexico …

A World War II-era live ammunition round was found near the U.S.-Mexico border fence in Arizona. (U.S. Customs and Border Protection)

Border agents patrolling near the U.S.-Mexico border fence last week came across an unlikely sight: a live, unexploded World War II-era ammunition round.

The agent, who was assigned to the Brian A. Terry Station in Bisbee, Arizona, found an unexploded MKII 37mm ordnance round, U.S. Customs and Border Protection said Tuesday.

A safety perimeter was set up around the ordnance round and an airman with the Explosive Ordinance Disposal Unit from Davis Monthan Air Force Base responded to the scene Tuesday.

After confirming it was a live round, the airman detonated it in place.

The MK2 37 mm round was used by the 37 mm Gun M3, the first dedicated anti-tank gun fielded by the U.S. and first introduced in 1940. It became the standard anti-tank gun of the U.S. infantry as its size allowed for it to be pulled by a jeep.

The U.S. Army used the 37 mm anti-tank gun M3 during World War II, primarily in the Pacific.(U.S. Army)

However, it was rendered ineffective in the battles in Europe because of the rapid improvement of German tanks and, by 1943, it was gradually replaced by the more powerful British-developed 57 mm Gun M1. It remained in service until the end of the war in the Pacific.

Its unclear how the ammunition round ended up at the border fence.

Lucia I. Suarez Sang is a Reporter for FoxNews.com.Follow her on Twitter @luciasuarezsang

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World War II intelligence officer gets congressional medal …

DERRY, N.H. A 98-year-old World War II intelligence officer received the highest congressional honor Monday for what a historian described as “defending our country in the shadowy place between diplomacy and war.”

Retired Army Capt. Martin Gelb was part of the Office of Strategic Services, which was created during World War II and was the precursor to the Central Intelligence Agency. He served in England, France and Germany on missions that included supporting U.S. and British operations during the D-Day invasion and assisting with the liberation of the Buchenwald concentration camp.

U.S. Sen. Jeanne Shaheen, who presented Gelb with a bronze replica of the Congressional Gold Medal, said only about 100 of Gelb’s fellow officers are still living and called him a true American hero.

“Capt. Gelb and his fellow operatives fought a secret war. They collected intelligence, they worked behind enemy lines, they developed and advanced weapons and communications equipment, they rescued downed pilots, they helped liberate concentration camps, and yet the courage and bravery was kept classified,” Shaheen said.

From angering his mother by taking apart the family radio at age 7 to a long post-war career at the phone company, Gelb showed a lifelong fascination with how things work. He took apart an early personal computer in the 1980s, and until a few months ago, he was writing computer programs, said his daughter, Nancy Sag.

But the self-described “wiseguy from Brooklyn” initially found himself ill-suited to military life until his radio and electrical skills were noticed and he joined the Office of Strategic Services. Sag didn’t know he was part of the OSS until she was in her 60s.

Gelb said he was overwhelmed by the new attention, which he called “unbelievable.” He said what he most remembers about his time in the Army is the friends he made.

“Unfortunately, I’m the only one that’s still alive. I think of them all the time,” he said. “This occasion has opened up a lot of memories which were stored in my mind that I chose to forget about, but unfortunately, it brings up good and bad memories.”

CIA historian Brent Geary said it wasn’t until the creation of the OSS that the country professionalized intelligence gathering.

“It was courageous, creative and patriotic OSS officers like Capt. Martin Gelb who cleared the way for all of us who have come after, defending our country in the shadowy places between diplomacy and war, collecting information our adversaries want desperately to hide and providing our leaders with the best analysis we can offer of the world’s threats and opportunities,” he said.

But Gelb was humble when an Iraq war veteran stood to thank him for helping set standards that made later wartime victories possible.

“I love the country we have, and I don’t care what anybody says, this is one great country,” he said. “It called upon me and guys like me to perform a task, and we did the best we could.”

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World war ii | Define World war ii at Dictionary.com

A war fought from 1939 to 1945 between the Axis powers Germany, Italy, and Japan and the Allies, including France and Britain, and later the Soviet Union and the United States. The war began when the Germans, governed by the Nazi party, invaded Poland in September 1939 (see invasion of Poland). Germany then conquered France, using blitzkrieg tactics, and forced a desperate British withdrawal at Dunkirk. The Germans tried to wear down the British by heavy bombing, but the British withstood the attacks (see Battle of Britain). The Soviet Union signed a treaty with Adolf Hitler but entered the war on the side of the Allies after Germany invaded Russia in 1941. The United States was drawn into the war in 1941, when the Japanese suddenly attacked the American naval base at Pearl Harbor. Japan made extensive conquests in east Asia but was checked by American victories at the Battle of Midway Island and elsewhere. The German invasion of Russia was halted at the Battle of Stalingrad. Allied forces took much of Italy in 1943, forcing its surrender. Beginning with the invasion of Normandy in 1944 (see D-Day), the Allies liberated France from German occupation and pressed on in Europe, defeating the Germans in the Battle of the Bulge and elsewhere. Germany surrendered in May 1945 (see V-E Day). The war in the Pacific ended in September 1945 (see V-J Day), after the United States dropped atomic bombs (see also atomic bomb) on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima (see also Hiroshima) and Nagasaki. In the aftermath of World War II, more constructive and less punitive measures were applied to the defeated countries than after World War I (see Marshall Plan, Nuremberg trials, and United Nations).

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World War II Navajo Code Talker dies at 92 | Fox News

WINDOW ROCK, Ariz. A Navajo Code Talker who used his native language to confound the Japanese in World War II has died.

The Navajo Nation says Roy Hawthorne Sr. died Saturday. He was 92.

Hawthorne enlisted in the U.S. Marine Corps at 17 and became part of a famed group of Navajos who transmitted hundreds of messages in their language without error.

The code was never broken.

Hawthorne was one of the most visible survivors of the group. He appeared at public events and served as vice president of a group representing the men.

He never considered himself a hero.

Hawthorne later served with the U.S. Army.

He’s survived by five children and more than a dozen grandchildren.

A funeral service is scheduled Friday.

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Opinion | The Hamilton of World War II – The New York Times

The American musical theater would never be the same, and neither would Rodgers and Hammerstein, who would go on to resounding successes with Carousel, South Pacific, The King and I and The Sound of Music. At the peak of their powers, in 1957, 14 years to the day after the opening of Oklahoma! Rodgers and Hammerstein produced a live television version of Cinderella for CBS starring Julie Andrews. It was the most-watched television event in history to that point, seen by 107 million viewers at a time when the population of the United States was 170 million.

But it was Oklahoma! that started it all. Beginning on the morning of April 1, 1943, tickets became all but unobtainable for the next four years. When Hammersteins tenant farmer in Pennsylvania asked for a pair for his sons wedding, the lyricist responded, Whens the wedding? The farmers answer: The day you can get the tickets.

The show was a huge cultural phenomenon that resonated with home-front America in the midst of World War II. The story may have been set in turn-of-the century Indian Territory on the verge of statehood, but its subtext was the determination it had taken to tame the frontier and by implication the courage it would take to defeat fascism in Germany and Japan. When the characters sang the joyous title song, with its proud anticipation of a brand-new state! audiences heard the promise of a brand-new world, one in which the citizens of the newly created United Nations might actually behave and act like brothers, in the words of The Farmer and the Cowman.

There had been no such promise in Green Grow the Lilacs, the Theatre Guild play on which Oklahoma! was based, and which had a Broadway run of just 64 performances, in 1931. Its author, Lynn Riggs, a 29-year-old gay cowboy turned poet and playwright, had written an atmospheric tale in which Stephen Sondheim, for one, has discerned a hidden subtext about the loneliness of gay life in the American West. It was Oscar Hammerstein, a passionate liberal activist and, eventually, a staunch proponent of a movement that dreamed of a workable world government, who gave Oklahoma! its political content and message.

That message was not lost on members of the shows original cast. Celeste Holm, who played Ado Annie, the girl who caint say no, would recall how her grandmother, the chairwoman of the drama committee of the New York State Federation of Womens Clubs, had assured her that the play would be the most wonderful musical for right now, when people are going to fight for this country, and may die for it, to be reminded of the kind of courage, the unselfconscious courage, that settled this country. And, indeed, at every performance, there were rows of men in uniform, sitting in seats especially reserved for them, or taking standing room before shipping out overseas. Sometimes, the New York City Fire Department bent the rules and let them stand in the wings.

Read the rest here:

Opinion | The Hamilton of World War II – The New York Times

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World War II Fast Facts – CNN

Causes of World War II:The Peace of Paris – The treaties worked out in Paris at the end of World War I satisfied few. Germany, Austria, and the other countries on the losing side of the war were especially unhappy with the Paris Agreement, which required them to give up arms and make reparations. Germany agreed to sign the Treaty of Versailles only after the victorious countries threatened to invade if Germany did not sign it. Germany made the last payment on reparations in 2010. Economic Issues – World War I was devastating to countries’ economies. Although the European economy had stabilized by the 1920s, the Great Depression in the United States led to economic downfall in Europe. Communism and fascism gained strength in the wake of economic problems. Nationalism – An extreme form of patriotism that grew in Europe became even stronger after World War I, especially for countries that were defeated. Failure of Appeasement – Czechoslovakia had become an independent nation after World War I, but by 1938, was surrounded by German territory. Hitler wanted to annex the Sudetenland, an area in western Czechoslovakia where many Germans lived. British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain wanted to appease Hitler and agreed to his demands for the Sudetenland after Hitler promised he would not demand more territory. Hitler seized the rest of Czechoslovakia in March of 1939. Axis Powers:Germany, Japan, and Italy formed a coalition called the Axis Powers. Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania and two German-created states–Croatia and Slovakia–eventually joined. Allied Powers:The United States, Great Britain, China and the Soviet Union made up the Allies, the group fighting the Axis. Between 1939 and 1944 at least 50 nations would eventually fight together. Thirteen more nations would join by 1945 including: Australia, Belgium, Brazil, British Commonwealth of Nations, Canada, India, New Zealand, South Africa, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France, Greece, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Philippines and Yugoslavia. Major Players:United States – Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Great Britain – Winston Churchill, Prime Minister China – Chiang Kai-Shek, General Soviet Union – Joseph Stalin, General US Deaths:Battle: 291,557Non-Battle: 113,842Total In-Theatre: 405,399 Other Military Casualties by Country 1939-1945 (selected):Australia: 23,365 dead; 39,803 woundedAustria: 380,000 dead; 350,117 woundedBelgium: 7,760 dead; 14,500 woundedBulgaria: 10,000 dead; 21,878 woundedCanada: 37,476 dead; 53,174 woundedChina: 2,200,000 dead; 1,762,000 woundedFrance: 210,671 dead; 390,000 woundedGermany: 3,500,000 dead; 7,250,000 woundedGreat Britain: 329,208 dead; 348,403 woundedHungary: 140,000 dead; 89,313 woundedItaly: 77,494 dead; 120,000 woundedJapan: 1,219,000 dead; 295,247 woundedPoland: 320,000 dead; 530,000 woundedRomania: 300,000 dead; wounded unknownSoviet Union: 7,500,000 dead; 5,000,000 woundedUnited States: 405,399 dead; 670,846 wounded Other Facts:About 70 million people fought in the armed forces of the Allied and Axis nations. Finland never officially joined either the Allies or the Axis and was at war with the Soviet Union at the outbreak of World War II. Needing help in 1940, the Finnish joined forces with Nazi Germany to repel the Soviets. When peace between Finland the Soviet Union was declared in 1944, Finland joined with the Soviets to oust the Germans. Switzerland, Spain, Portugal and Sweden declared neutrality during the war. The Soviet Union lost the most soldiers, in excess of seven million. The number of civilian casualties in World War II may never be known. Many deaths were caused by bombing raids, massacres, starvation and other war-related causes. June 10, 1940 – Italy joins the war on the side of Germany by declaring war against Britain (UK) and France. Fighting spreads to Greece and Northern Africa. June 14, 1940 – German troops march into Paris. July 1940-September 1940 – Germany and Great Britain fight an air war, the Battle of Britain, along the English coastline. September 7, 1940-May 1941 – German bombing campaign of nightly air raids over London, known as the Blitz. June 22, 1941 – Germany invades the Soviet Union. September 1941 – Japanese troops invade Indochina. December 7, 1941 – Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, destroying more than half of the fleet of aircraft, and damaging all eight battleships. Japan also attacks Clark and Iba airfields in the Philippines destroying over half of the US Army’s aircraft there. December 8, 1941 – Roosevelt delivers the “a date which will live in infamy” speech to Congress, and the US declares war on Japan. Japan invades Hong Kong, Guam, the Wake Islands, Singapore and British Malaya. December 11, 1941 – Germany and Italy declare war on the United States. By Christmas 1941 – Japan had taken Thailand, Guam, Hong Kong and Wake Island. 1942 – The Allies stop the Axis Powers’ advance in Northern Africa and the Soviet Union. February 1942 – Japan invades the Malay Peninsula. Singapore surrenders within a week. June 4-6, 1942 – Japan’s plans to invade the Hawaiian Islands, starting at Midway Island, but the United States cracks the code of the mission. Japan attacks Midway and loses four aircraft carriers and over 200 planes and pilots in the first clear victory for the United States. August 19, 1942 – The battle for Stalingrad begins as Germany pushes further into Russia. August 1942-February 1943 – US Marines fight for and hold the Pacific island of Guadalcanal. October 23, 1942 – British troops push Axis troops into retreating to Tunisia in the Second Battle of El Alamein. February 1, 1943 – The German troops in Stalingrad surrender, defeated in large part by the Soviet winter. The defeat marks the halt of Germany’s eastbound advance. July 10, 1943 – Allied forces land in Italy.

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World War II in Europe | The Holocaust Encyclopedia

The Holocaust took place in the broader context of World War II. Still reeling from Germany’s defeat in World War I, Hitler’s government envisioned a vast, new empire of “living space” (Lebensraum) in eastern Europe. The realization of German dominance in Europe, its leaders calculated, would require war. World War II: Maps After securing the neutrality of the Soviet Union (through the August 1939 German-Soviet Pact of nonaggression), Germany started World War II by invading Poland on September 1, 1939. Britain and France responded by declaring war on Germany on September 3. Within a month, Poland was defeated by a combination of German and Soviet forces and was partitioned between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. The relative lull in fighting which followed the defeat of Poland ended on April 9, 1940, when German forces invaded Norway and Denmark. On May 10, 1940, Germany began its assault on western Europe by invading the Low Countries (Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg), which had taken neutral positions in the war, as well as France. On June 22, 1940, France signed an armistice with Germany, which provided for the German occupation of the northern half of the country and permitted the establishment of a collaborationist regime in the south with its seat in the city of Vichy. With German encouragement, the Soviet Union occupied the Baltic states in June 1940 and formally annexed them in August 1940. Italy, a member of the Axis (countries allied with Germany), joined the war on June 10, 1940. From July 10 to October 31, 1940, the Nazis waged, and ultimately lost, an air war over England, known as the Battle of Britain. After securing the Balkan region by invading Yugoslavia and Greece on April 6, 1941, the Germans and their allies invaded the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, in direct violation of the German-Soviet Pact. In June and July 1941, the Germans also occupied the Baltic states. Soviet leader Joseph Stalin then became a major wartime Allied leader, in opposition to Nazi Germany and its Axis allies. During the summer and autumn of 1941, German troops advanced deep into the Soviet Union, but stiffening Red Army resistance prevented the Germans from capturing the key cities of Leningrad and Moscow. On December 6, 1941, Soviet troops launched a significant counteroffensive that drove German forces permanently from the outskirts of Moscow. One day later, on December 7, 1941, Japan (one of the Axis powers) bombed Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The United States immediately declared war on Japan. On December 11, Germany and Italy declared war on the United States as the military conflict widened. In May 1942, the British Royal Air Force carried out a raid on the German city of Cologne with a thousand bombers, for the first time bringing war home to Germany. For the next three years, Allied air forces systematically bombed industrial plants and cities all over the Reich, reducing much of urban Germany to rubble by 1945. In late 1942 and early 1943, the Allied forces achieved a series of significant military triumphs in North Africa. The failure of French armed forces to prevent Allied occupation of Morocco and Algeria triggered a German occupation of collaborationist Vichy France on November 11, 1942. Axis military units in Africa, approximately 150,000 troops in all, surrendered in May 1943. On the eastern front, during the summer of 1942, the Germans and their Axis allies renewed their offensive in the Soviet Union, aiming to capture Stalingrad on the Volga River, as well as the city of Baku and the Caucasian oil fields. The German offensive stalled on both fronts in the late summer of 1942. In November, Soviet troops launched a counteroffensive at Stalingrad and on February 2, 1943, the German Sixth Army surrendered to the Soviets. The Germans mounted one more offensive at Kursk in July 1943, the biggest tank battle in history, but Soviet troops blunted the attack and assumed a military predominance that they would not again relinquish during the course of the war. In July 1943, the Allies landed in Sicily and in September went ashore on the Italian mainland. After the Italian Fascist Party’s Grand Council deposed Italian premier Benito Mussolini (an ally of Hitler), the Italian military took over and negotiated a surrender to Anglo-American forces on September 8. German troops stationed in Italy seized control of the northern half of the peninsula, and continued to resist. Mussolini, who had been arrested by Italian military authorities, was rescued by German SS commandos in September and established (under German supervision) a neo-Fascist puppet regime in northern Italy. German troops continued to hold northern Italy until surrendering on May 2, 1945. On June 6, 1944 (D-Day), as part of a massive military operation, over 150,000 Allied soldiers landed in France, which was liberated by the end of August. On September 11, 1944, the first US troops crossed into Germany, one month after Soviet troops crossed the eastern border. In mid-December the Germans launched an unsuccessful counterattack in Belgium and northern France, known as the Battle of the Bulge. Allied air forces attacked Nazi industrial plants, such as the one at the Auschwitz camp (though the gas chambers were never targeted). The Soviets began an offensive on January 12, 1945, liberating western Poland and forcing Hungary (an Axis ally) to surrender. In mid-February 1945, the Allies bombed the German city of Dresden, killing approximately 35,000 civilians. American troops crossed the Rhine River on March 7, 1945. A final Soviet offensive on April 16, 1945, enabled Soviet forces to encircle the German capital, Berlin. As Soviet troops fought their way towards the Reich Chancellery, Hitler committed suicide on April 30, 1945. On May 7, 1945, Germany surrendered unconditionally to the Western Allies at Reims and on May 9 to the Soviets in Berlin. In August, the war in the Pacific ended soon after the US dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, killing 120,000 civilians. Japan formally surrendered on September 2. World War II resulted in an estimated 55 million deaths worldwide. It was the largest and most destructive conflict in history.

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Military Resources: World War II | National Archives

NARA Resources Any Bonds Today: Selling Support for World War IILesson plan from the National Archives at New York City about the selling of war bonds during World War II. Archives Surviving from World War IIAn excerpt copied with permission of the author, Gerhard Weinberg, from his book A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II. “Buddies: Soldiers and Animals in World War II”Lisa B. Auel wrote this Prologue article. Continuing the Fight: Harry S. Truman and World War IIThis Truman Library website contains a collection of documents, photographs, and eyewitness accounts concerning the latter stages of World War II. Day of Infamy SpeechAudio of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s speech to Congress the day after the attack on Pearl Harbor. “Getting the Message Out: The Poster Boys of World War II”Prologue article by Robert Ellis about government-produced posters from World War II. Holocaust Era AssetsInformation about the records and research available in the National Archives and Records Administration regarding Holocaust Era Assets. Information Concerning Philippine Army and Guerrilla RecordsThis NARA site gives in-depth information on the collection of records of World War II Philippine Army and Guerrilla members, which have recently been transferred to the National Personnel Records Center. “Irving Berlin: This Is the Army”This article by Laurence Bergreen is from the Summer 1996 issue of the NARA publication Prologue, and presents an in-depth look at Irving Berlin’s production of This is the Army. Japan SurrendersOn September 2, 1945, Japanese representatives signed the official Instrument of Surrender. Both pages of the short document are available as digital images. “Jim Crow, Meet Lieutenant Robinson: A 1944 Court-Martial”John Vernon’s Prologue article about the court-martial of Second Lieutenant Jack (Jackie) Roosevelt Robinson Journey of the Philippine Archives Collection”The Philippine Archives Collection constitutes an invaluable source of information on the Pacific war during World War II, particularly concerning the treatment of prisoners of war (POWs); military operations in the Philippines, 1941-1942; guerrilla warfare in the Philippines; and conditions in the Philippines under Japanese occupation.” “Let the Records Bark!: Personal Stories of Some Special Marines in World War II”M. C. Lang’s Prologue article about Dog Record Books of each canine who enrolled in the Army and Marine Corps from December 15, 1942, to August 15, 1945. “The Lions’ History: Researching World War II Images of African Americans”An article from the Summer 1997 issue of NARA’s publication, Prologue by Barbara L. Burger. Memorandum Regarding the Enlistment of Navajo IndiansA Teaching With Documents Lesson Plan that provides background on the Marine Corps’ decision to enlist and train the Navajos as messengers during World War II. “Mission to techovice: How Americans Took Nazi Documents from Czechoslovakia And Created a Diplomatic Crisis”A Prologue article by T. Dennis Reece about the seizure of Nazi documents by Allied forces. Mobilizing for War: Poster Art of World War IIA Truman Library online exhibit of a selection of posters illustrating such topics as “wartime security, enlistment, production of food and war materials, salvage and conservation, patriotic inspiration, relief efforts, and funding of the war through the sale of war bonds.” “The Mystery of the Sinking of the Royal T. Frank”Prologue article by Peter von Buol describing the sinking of a U.S. Army transport ship off the coast of Hawaii by the Japanese in 1942. “Nazi Looted Art: The Holocaust Records Preservation Project”A three-part Prologue article by Anne Rothfeld about the Holocaust Records Project (HRP) which was tasked with “identifying, preserving, describing, and microfilming more than twenty million pages of records created by the Allies in occupied Europe regarding Nazi looted art and the restitution of national treasures.” Nazi War Criminal Records Interagency Working Group (IWG)”The Nazi War Crimes and Japanese Imperial Government Records Interagency Working Group (IWG) locates, identifies, inventories, and recommends for declassification, currently classified U.S. records relating to Nazi and Japanese Imperial Government war crimes.” “Operation Blissful: How the Marines Lured the Japanese Away from a Key Target And How ‘the Brute’ Got Some Help from JFK”Prologue article by Greg Bradsher about a diversionary mission in the South Pacific. “Remembering Pearl Harbor . . . 70 Years Later”Prologue article by Lopez Matthews, Zachary Dabbs, and Eliza Mbughuni discusses deck logs of ships docked in Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. “Return to Sender U.S. Censorship of Enemy Alien Mail in World War II”Lois Fiset’s Prologue article on the U.S. government’s mail examination and censorship programs on the correspondence of enemy aliens during World War II. “Safeguarding Hoover Dam during World War II”Christine Pfaff’s Prologue article on the measures taken during World War II to thwart potential sabotage of the Hoover Dam. “Sage Prophet or Loose Cannon?: Skilled Intelligence Officer in World War II Foresaw Japan’s Plans, but Annoyed Navy Brass”Prologue article by David A. Pfeiffer about Capt. Ellis M. Zacharias. “‘Semper Fidelis, Code Talkers'”Adam Jevec’s Prologue article on the impenetrable Navajo language code used by U.S. Marine Forces in World War II. “Sixty Years Later, the Story of PT-109 Still Captivates”Stephen Plotkin’s Prologue article on the sinking of a Patrol Torpedo boat commanded by John F. Kennedy in the South Pacific in August 1943. “Two Americans and the Angry Russian Bear: Army Air Force Pilots Court-Martialed for Offending the Soviet Union during World War II”Prologue article by Fred L. Borch. Veterans Gallery: Faces of the Men and Women Who Served during World War IIThis collection of photographs of military servicemen and servicewomen was compiled by the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library from submissions by the public. “Wearing Lipstick to War: An American Woman in World War II England and France”James H. Madison wrote this Prologue article about Elizabeth A. Richardson, who joined the American Red Cross and died in France in 1945. World War II PhotosThis collection of photographs of military servicemen and servicewomen was compiled by the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library from submissions by the public. World War II Remembered: Leaders, Battles & Heroes”This multi-year exhibit commemorates the 70th anniversaries of WWII and will change often as we progress through the timeline of the war.” From the Eisenhower Presidential Library, Museum, and Boyhood Home. “The ‘Z Plan’ Story: Japan’s 1944 Naval Battle Strategy Drifts into U.S. Hands”Greg Bradsher’s Prologue article about “how the Z Plan drifted into American hands in one of World War II’s greatest intelligence victories, leading to a crushing defeat for Japan in the Southwest Pacific in 1944.” Other Resources After the Day of Infamy: “Man-on-the-Street” Interviews Following the Attack on Pearl Harbor “Approximately twelve hours of opinions recorded in the days and months following the bombing of Pearl Harbor from more than two hundred individuals in cities and towns across the United States.” Combat Chronicles of U.S. Army Divisions in World War II”The following combat chronicles, current as of October 1948, are reproduced from The Army Almanac: A Book of Facts Concerning the Army of the United States, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1950, pp. 510-592.” FBIS Against the Axis, 1941-1945: Open-Source Intelligence From the AirwavesStephen Mercado’s article provides extensive information on the establishment and operation of the Foreign Broadcast Monitoring Service, an agency devoted to monitoring and analyzing foreign radio broadcasts for intelligence purposes, during World War II. A Guide to World War II Materials “Links to World War II related resources throughout the Library of Congress Web site.” Hawaii War Records Depository Photos “The HWRD includes 880 photographs taken by the U.S. Army Signal Corps and the U.S. Navy during World War II. These photographs, taken between 1941 and 1946, document the impact of World War II in Hawaii.” Historic Government Publications from World War II This digital collection from Southern Methodist University Central University Libraries’ Government Information Department “contains 343 Informational pamphlets, government reports, instructions, regulations, declarations, speeches, and propaganda materials distributed by the U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO) during the Second World War.” Hyperwar: U.S. Navy in World War IIProvides lists of ships, Naval Intelligence Combat Narratives, U.S. Naval Operations, Naval Stations and Facilities, U.S. Coast Guard members, and U.S. Navy Histories from World War II. July, 1942: United We StandThis is a companion web site for a Smithsonian Institution temporary exhibit that ran through October 2002. The exhibit highlights nearly 300 magazine covers featuring American flags, the slogan “United We Stand”, and appeals to buy war bonds. Medal of Honor Recipients: World War IIU.S. Army Center Center of Military History site that provides the names of Medal of Honor recipients and the actions that are commemorated. Naval Aviation Chronology in World War IIInformation compiled by the Naval History & Heritage Command. Nuremberg Trials Project: A Digital Document CollectionMaintained by the Harvard Law School Library, this site provides access to trial documents and transcripts from the Medical Case held in 1946-1947 against 23 defendants accused of crimes against humanity in the form of harmful or fatal medical experiments and procedures. The site also provides a list of additional resources related to the Nuremberg Trials. The OSS and Italian Partisans in World War IIPeter Tompkins, CIA, is the author of this article on the intelligence and operational support for the Anti-Nazi Resistance. The Perilous Fight: America’s World War II in ColorThis PBS site is a companion to its program of the same name. It includes color photographs and videos that were shot to document the war. Ration Coupons on the Home Front, 1942-1945″Shows how the U.S. government controlled and conserved vehicles, typewriters, sugar, shoes, fuel, and food.” Stalag Luft I OnlineThe family of Dick Williams Jr., a prisoner of war during World War II, began this site as a tribute to his service. It now includes stories, photos, and letters that document the experiences of the POWs held at Stalag Luft I. Student Voices from World War II and the McCarthy EraA compilation of narratives from Brooklyn College students during World War II and the McCarthy era. Includes the oral histories of both participants in the school’s Farm Labor Project and employees of the student newspaper. Untold Stories of D-DayThis National Geographic site is an online gallery of stories and photographs telling the D-Day story. The U. S. Coast Guard in World War IIThe U. S. Coast Guard maintains this site, which includes Official Histories, Oral Histories of Coast Guard Veterans, and more. U.S.-Russia Joint Commission Documents DatabaseThe documents found in the U.S.-Russia Joint Commission Database consist mainly of translations of Russian-language documents retrieved from various archives in the Russian Federation pertaining to American personnel missing from World War II to the present. Victory at SeaFrom The Atlantic Monthly, this article describes the sea battles of World War II. War LettersThis PBS website provides context to their film War Letters, based on Andrew Carroll’s book of personal correspondence from the Revolutionary War through the Gulf War. Features letters, biographies, timelines, cartoons, and local resources. World War IIFordham University provides links to documents relating to World War II, including sections on the Lead Up to War, War In Europe, War In Asia, and After the War. World War II: Documents The Avalon Project’s collection of World War II documents are available on this site, including British War Blue Book, Japanese Surrender Documents, Tripartite Pact and Associated Documents, and much more. World War II Gallery This site from the National Museum of the U.S. Air Force includes descriptions and images of World War II era aircraft, engines, weapons, and more. World War II HistoryFrom the Internet Public Library, this site includes print and Internet resources for high school and college students beginning research on World War II. World War II Military Situation MapsThis Library of Congress collection “contains maps showing troop positions beginning on June 6, 1944 to July 26, 1945. Starting with the D-Day Invasion, the maps give daily details on the military campaigns in Western Europe, showing the progress of the Allied Forces as they push towards Germany.” World War II Poster CollectionThe Government Publications Department at Northwestern University Library has a comprehensive collection of over 300 posters issued by U.S. Federal agencies from the start of the war through 1945. World War II: The Photos We RememberA collection of photographs published in Life Magazine during World War II. World War II Time LineProvides a timeline of the major events of World War II.

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WWII Memorial

The World War II Memorial honors the 16 million who served in the armed forces of the U.S., the more than 400,000 who died, and all who supported the war effort from home. Symbolic of the defining event of the 20th Century, the memorial is a monument to the spirit, sacrifice, and commitment of the American people. The Second World War is the only 20th Century event commemorated on the National Malls central axis. The memorial opened to the public on April 29, 2004 and was dedicated one month later on May 29. It is located on 17th Street, between Constitution and Independence Avenues, and is flanked by the Washington Monument to the east and the Lincoln Memorial to the west. The memorial is operated by the National Park Service and is open to visitors 24 hours a day, seven days a week. For more information about visiting the memorial, accessibility, parking, directions, special events and other details, please visit the National Park Service Web site at www.nps.gov/nwwm or call the Park Service at 202-208-3818.

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Live World War II-era anti-tank round found near US-Mexico …

A World War II-era live ammunition round was found near the U.S.-Mexico border fence in Arizona. (U.S. Customs and Border Protection) Border agents patrolling near the U.S.-Mexico border fence last week came across an unlikely sight: a live, unexploded World War II-era ammunition round. The agent, who was assigned to the Brian A. Terry Station in Bisbee, Arizona, found an unexploded MKII 37mm ordnance round, U.S. Customs and Border Protection said Tuesday. A safety perimeter was set up around the ordnance round and an airman with the Explosive Ordinance Disposal Unit from Davis Monthan Air Force Base responded to the scene Tuesday. After confirming it was a live round, the airman detonated it in place. The MK2 37 mm round was used by the 37 mm Gun M3, the first dedicated anti-tank gun fielded by the U.S. and first introduced in 1940. It became the standard anti-tank gun of the U.S. infantry as its size allowed for it to be pulled by a jeep. The U.S. Army used the 37 mm anti-tank gun M3 during World War II, primarily in the Pacific.(U.S. Army) However, it was rendered ineffective in the battles in Europe because of the rapid improvement of German tanks and, by 1943, it was gradually replaced by the more powerful British-developed 57 mm Gun M1. It remained in service until the end of the war in the Pacific. Its unclear how the ammunition round ended up at the border fence. Lucia I. Suarez Sang is a Reporter for FoxNews.com.Follow her on Twitter @luciasuarezsang

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World War II intelligence officer gets congressional medal …

DERRY, N.H. A 98-year-old World War II intelligence officer received the highest congressional honor Monday for what a historian described as “defending our country in the shadowy place between diplomacy and war.” Retired Army Capt. Martin Gelb was part of the Office of Strategic Services, which was created during World War II and was the precursor to the Central Intelligence Agency. He served in England, France and Germany on missions that included supporting U.S. and British operations during the D-Day invasion and assisting with the liberation of the Buchenwald concentration camp. U.S. Sen. Jeanne Shaheen, who presented Gelb with a bronze replica of the Congressional Gold Medal, said only about 100 of Gelb’s fellow officers are still living and called him a true American hero. “Capt. Gelb and his fellow operatives fought a secret war. They collected intelligence, they worked behind enemy lines, they developed and advanced weapons and communications equipment, they rescued downed pilots, they helped liberate concentration camps, and yet the courage and bravery was kept classified,” Shaheen said. From angering his mother by taking apart the family radio at age 7 to a long post-war career at the phone company, Gelb showed a lifelong fascination with how things work. He took apart an early personal computer in the 1980s, and until a few months ago, he was writing computer programs, said his daughter, Nancy Sag. But the self-described “wiseguy from Brooklyn” initially found himself ill-suited to military life until his radio and electrical skills were noticed and he joined the Office of Strategic Services. Sag didn’t know he was part of the OSS until she was in her 60s. Gelb said he was overwhelmed by the new attention, which he called “unbelievable.” He said what he most remembers about his time in the Army is the friends he made. “Unfortunately, I’m the only one that’s still alive. I think of them all the time,” he said. “This occasion has opened up a lot of memories which were stored in my mind that I chose to forget about, but unfortunately, it brings up good and bad memories.” CIA historian Brent Geary said it wasn’t until the creation of the OSS that the country professionalized intelligence gathering. “It was courageous, creative and patriotic OSS officers like Capt. Martin Gelb who cleared the way for all of us who have come after, defending our country in the shadowy places between diplomacy and war, collecting information our adversaries want desperately to hide and providing our leaders with the best analysis we can offer of the world’s threats and opportunities,” he said. But Gelb was humble when an Iraq war veteran stood to thank him for helping set standards that made later wartime victories possible. “I love the country we have, and I don’t care what anybody says, this is one great country,” he said. “It called upon me and guys like me to perform a task, and we did the best we could.”

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World war ii | Define World war ii at Dictionary.com

A war fought from 1939 to 1945 between the Axis powers Germany, Italy, and Japan and the Allies, including France and Britain, and later the Soviet Union and the United States. The war began when the Germans, governed by the Nazi party, invaded Poland in September 1939 (see invasion of Poland). Germany then conquered France, using blitzkrieg tactics, and forced a desperate British withdrawal at Dunkirk. The Germans tried to wear down the British by heavy bombing, but the British withstood the attacks (see Battle of Britain). The Soviet Union signed a treaty with Adolf Hitler but entered the war on the side of the Allies after Germany invaded Russia in 1941. The United States was drawn into the war in 1941, when the Japanese suddenly attacked the American naval base at Pearl Harbor. Japan made extensive conquests in east Asia but was checked by American victories at the Battle of Midway Island and elsewhere. The German invasion of Russia was halted at the Battle of Stalingrad. Allied forces took much of Italy in 1943, forcing its surrender. Beginning with the invasion of Normandy in 1944 (see D-Day), the Allies liberated France from German occupation and pressed on in Europe, defeating the Germans in the Battle of the Bulge and elsewhere. Germany surrendered in May 1945 (see V-E Day). The war in the Pacific ended in September 1945 (see V-J Day), after the United States dropped atomic bombs (see also atomic bomb) on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima (see also Hiroshima) and Nagasaki. In the aftermath of World War II, more constructive and less punitive measures were applied to the defeated countries than after World War I (see Marshall Plan, Nuremberg trials, and United Nations).

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June 6, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: World War II  Comments Closed

World War II Navajo Code Talker dies at 92 | Fox News

WINDOW ROCK, Ariz. A Navajo Code Talker who used his native language to confound the Japanese in World War II has died. The Navajo Nation says Roy Hawthorne Sr. died Saturday. He was 92. Hawthorne enlisted in the U.S. Marine Corps at 17 and became part of a famed group of Navajos who transmitted hundreds of messages in their language without error. The code was never broken. Hawthorne was one of the most visible survivors of the group. He appeared at public events and served as vice president of a group representing the men. He never considered himself a hero. Hawthorne later served with the U.S. Army. He’s survived by five children and more than a dozen grandchildren. A funeral service is scheduled Friday.

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April 24, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: World War II  Comments Closed

Opinion | The Hamilton of World War II – The New York Times

The American musical theater would never be the same, and neither would Rodgers and Hammerstein, who would go on to resounding successes with Carousel, South Pacific, The King and I and The Sound of Music. At the peak of their powers, in 1957, 14 years to the day after the opening of Oklahoma! Rodgers and Hammerstein produced a live television version of Cinderella for CBS starring Julie Andrews. It was the most-watched television event in history to that point, seen by 107 million viewers at a time when the population of the United States was 170 million. But it was Oklahoma! that started it all. Beginning on the morning of April 1, 1943, tickets became all but unobtainable for the next four years. When Hammersteins tenant farmer in Pennsylvania asked for a pair for his sons wedding, the lyricist responded, Whens the wedding? The farmers answer: The day you can get the tickets. The show was a huge cultural phenomenon that resonated with home-front America in the midst of World War II. The story may have been set in turn-of-the century Indian Territory on the verge of statehood, but its subtext was the determination it had taken to tame the frontier and by implication the courage it would take to defeat fascism in Germany and Japan. When the characters sang the joyous title song, with its proud anticipation of a brand-new state! audiences heard the promise of a brand-new world, one in which the citizens of the newly created United Nations might actually behave and act like brothers, in the words of The Farmer and the Cowman. There had been no such promise in Green Grow the Lilacs, the Theatre Guild play on which Oklahoma! was based, and which had a Broadway run of just 64 performances, in 1931. Its author, Lynn Riggs, a 29-year-old gay cowboy turned poet and playwright, had written an atmospheric tale in which Stephen Sondheim, for one, has discerned a hidden subtext about the loneliness of gay life in the American West. It was Oscar Hammerstein, a passionate liberal activist and, eventually, a staunch proponent of a movement that dreamed of a workable world government, who gave Oklahoma! its political content and message. That message was not lost on members of the shows original cast. Celeste Holm, who played Ado Annie, the girl who caint say no, would recall how her grandmother, the chairwoman of the drama committee of the New York State Federation of Womens Clubs, had assured her that the play would be the most wonderful musical for right now, when people are going to fight for this country, and may die for it, to be reminded of the kind of courage, the unselfconscious courage, that settled this country. And, indeed, at every performance, there were rows of men in uniform, sitting in seats especially reserved for them, or taking standing room before shipping out overseas. Sometimes, the New York City Fire Department bent the rules and let them stand in the wings.

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April 14, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: World War II  Comments Closed


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