Israel’s Ethiopian Jews keep ancient language alive in prayer – Al-Monitor

New Jewish immigrants are seen during a welcoming ceremony after arriving on a flight from Ethiopia at Ben-Gurion Airport, near Tel Aviv, Israel, Oct. 29, 2012.(photo byUriel Sinai/Getty Images)

Author:Mordechai Goldman Posted June 29, 2017

On June 7, another group of about 70 Falash Mura (peopleof Jewish origin) immigrated to Israel from Ethiopia. Their arrival revived discussions ofthe preservation of Ethiopian Jewry’s ancient traditions, particularlytheir language,Ge’ez.

Ge’ez is an ancient Semitic language with its own unique alphabet. Itserved as the national language of the Ethiopian Empire until about one thousand years ago. It is survived by its close relatives,the contemporary Semitic languages of Ethiopia:Tigre, Tigrinyaand Amharic. With the penetration and growth of Amharic, Ge’ez was increasingly marginalized. Now, it is only usedas the liturgical language of the Ethiopian Church, the Eritrean Churchand the Ethiopian Jewish community.

Samai Elias, therabbi or “kes”of the Ethiopian community of Rishon LeTzion and chairman of the Spiritual Council of Kessim (Rabbis), told Al-Monitor,”Ge’ez is not a spoken language at all today. It is the language of our prayers and our Torah scrolls. Kessimlearn the language, but as a spoken tongue, it is in danger of immediate extinction. What gives it a longer shelf life is that our prayers are still recited in it. These prayers preserve the language, if only on a low flame.”

“You could say that the relative survival of theGe’ez language could be credited mainly to the Jews of Ethiopia,” addedAbeje Medhani, the documentation coordinator at the Israeli State Center for Ethiopian Jewish Heritage. He is responsible for various projects working onthe preservation, documentation and recognition of the culture and heritage of Ethiopian Jewry. “Although it is a sacred language for the church as well, only we have continued to use it in our prayers for the past thousand years. Knowing Ge’ez is, in effect, the threshold that anyone who wants to become a kes must pass. A kes must know the prayers and the Torah in the Ge’ez language. Modern researchers make frequent use of Jewish materials to study the Ge’ez language. Jewish monks in the 15th century composed the prayers and religious law books of the Jewish community in Ge’ez.”

While Ge’ez is being preserved in some way, the Qwara language, which originated in the Qwara province of Ethiopia, has almost completely disappeared, though it was once considered the “Yiddish” (a colloquial and colorful language mixof Hebrew and German) of the Ethiopian Jewish community. “Until a few years ago, elders of the community who arrived from the Qwara region still knew the language, which was once in general use among the Jews of Ethiopia. Missionaries and researchers who visited the region in the 18th and 19th centuries testifiedthat it was used by most Ethiopian Jews,” saidMedhani. “Today, however, you could say that the language is completely extinct.”

Elias added, “The Qwara language is unique to the Jews of Ethiopia. As far as I know, there is no one in the world today who speaks Qwara or even knows Qwara. I am envious of Yiddish, which has enjoyed something of a renaissance and revival recently. I think that in contrast, the fate of Qwara is sealed.”

Medhani, who speaks Ge’ez, recently published a Ge’ez prayer book, though according to Ethiopian tradition, prayers are recited by heart and not read. “I reached the conclusion that preserving the language will occur through the liturgy,” he said, “if Ge’ez isn’tbrought back to use.” Medhani is now working on an Amharic-Ge’ez dictionary. His dream is to see the first nonreligious text published in Ge’ez.

When asked about why it is so important to preserve the heritage of the Ethiopian exilesonce the community immigratesto Israel, Elias stressed,”It is an ancient Jewish heritage that cannot be dismissed.”

“We are talking about prayers that were recited by Jews for hundreds of years. Their forms and melodies are unique. They were not copied from other communities or religions. We have a variety of original material. That obligates us to preserve the language. Similarly, the Kaddish prayer is recited in Aramaic, and that has not been changed over the years. We are preserving a heritage,” he added.

This desire to preserve Ethiopian culture, especiallythe Ge’ez language, has intensified in recent years, oncethe Ethiopian immigrant community became establishedand startedintegrating into Israeli society. “With the first waves of immigration, there was a very strong tendency to sever ties with our roots and to distance ourselves from our language and traditions. There were concerns that people would stop praying in that language. Over the last decade, however, there has been something of a return to itand a larger quest for Ethiopian identity,” saidMedhani.

Elias is convinced that the reasonmany young Ethiopians are returning to their traditional practices, such as using Ethiopian names and embracing Ge’ez cultural activities,has to do with the discriminationthe communityfaces. “What changed thingswas the attitude of the government, which refused to recognize the spiritual leadership of the Ethiopian Jewish community. This had a boomerang effect,” he explained. “Israel’s Chief Rabbinate revoked the authority of the kessim. They are not allowed to perform marriage ceremonies for young members of the community or to grant kosher certification, based on the community’s customs and norms. Young people today want to show that the community has not abandoned the kessim. That is the source of the revival of tradition.”

Elias added, “We’ve been in Israel for 30 years now. During the first 15 years, not a single kes was ordained in Israel. In the last 15 years, 30 new kessim, some born in Israel, were ordained. In 2010, the government decided to recognize the 15 kessimwho were ordained in Israeland granted them the authority to serve their communities. We are now facing a much bigger struggle, not only to obtain government salaries for them, but also to recognize kessim as Jewish spiritual leaders with authority over matters of marriage and kashrut. Much to our surprise, there was a certain readiness in the government to consider the issue seriously and to give it a voice. They see that the younger generation has no plans to give up.”

Read More: http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2017/06/geez-language-only-left-in-lithurgy.html

See original here:

Israel’s Ethiopian Jews keep ancient language alive in prayer – Al-Monitor

Related Post

June 29, 2017   Posted in: Ethiopian Jews |

Fair Use Disclaimer

"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances."

Under the 'fair use' rule of copyright law, an author may make limited use of another author's work without asking permission. Fair use is based on the belief that the public is entitled to freely use portions of copyrighted materials for purposes of commentary and criticism. The fair use privilege is perhaps the most significant limitation on a copyright owner's exclusive rights.

Fair use as described at 17 U.S.C. Section 107:

"Notwithstanding the provisions of section 106 and 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phono-records or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright.

In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include:

  • (1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for or nonprofit educational purposes,
  • (2) the nature of the copyrighted work,
  • (3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole, and
  • (4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work."