World War I Fast Facts – CNN

The Central Powers consisted of Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany and the Ottoman Empire (now Turkey).

The United States declared neutrality until German submarine warfare threatened American commercial shipping.

Timeline:June 28, 1914 – Gavrilo Princip, who has ties to the Serbian terrorist-type group the Black Hand, assassinates Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary.

July 28, 1914 – Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia.

August 1, 1914 – Germany declares war on Russia.

August 4, 1914 – Germany invades Belgium. President Woodrow Wilson declares that the United States is neutral. Britain declares war on Germany.

August 10, 1914 – Austria-Hungary invades Russia, opening the fighting on the Eastern Front.

August 26-30, 1914 – Battle of Tannenberg, Prussia.

September 12, 1914 – First battle of the Aisne in France begins, marking the beginning of trench warfare.

November 3, 1914 – Russia declares war on the Ottoman Empire.

November 5, 1914 – Great Britain and France declare war on the Ottoman Empire.

April 22-May 25, 1915 – Second Battle of Ypres, marking the first wide-scale use of poison gas by Germany.

May 7, 1915 – A German U-20 submarine sinks the British passenger ship, the Lusitania; 1,198 are killed, including 128 Americans.

June 1915-November 1917 – Battles of the Isonzo, Italy.

1915 – Battle of Krithia, Gallipoli peninsula, Ottoman Empire.

February 21-July 1916 – Battle of Verdun, France, the war’s longest battle, with almost a million casualties.

May 31-June 1, 1916 – Battle of Jutland, North Sea near Denmark – a sea battle between British and German navies.

July 1, 1916-November 1916 – First Battle of the Somme River, France. The British introduce the tank.

June 26, 1917 – American troops begin landing in France.

November 20, 1917 – Battle of Cambrai, France.

December 3, 1917 – Russia signs an armistice with Germany.

March 3, 1918 – Russia signs the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, ending hostilities with the Central Powers and withdrawing Russia from this war.

March 21-April 5, 1918 – Second Battle of the Somme River.

September 29, 1918 – Bulgaria signs an armistice.

October 30, 1918 – Ottoman Empire signs an armistice.

November 3, 1918 – Austria-Hungary signs an armistice.

November 11, 1918 – Germany accepts the armistice terms demanded by the Allies, ending the war.

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World War I Fast Facts – CNN

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Hate crimes, racist graffiti after election; Trump says …

Hate crimes, racist graffiti after election; Trump says ‘stop it’ – CNN ‘);$vidEndSlate.removeClass(‘video__end-slate–inactive’).addClass(‘video__end-slate–active’);}};CNN.autoPlayVideoExist = (CNN.autoPlayVideoExist === true) ? true : false;var configObj = {thumb: ‘none’,video: ‘politics/2016/11/19/hate-crimes-after-election-increase-sandoval-newday-pkg.cnn’,width: ‘100%’,height: ‘100%’,section: ‘domestic’,profile: ‘expansion’,network: ‘cnn’,markupId: ‘large-media_0’,adsection: ‘const-article-carousel-pagetop’,frameWidth: ‘100%’,frameHeight: ‘100%’,posterImageOverride: {“mini”:{“height”:124,”width”:220,”type”:”jpg”,”uri”:”//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/161119073121-hate-crimes-after-election-increase-sandoval-newday-pkg-00000000-small-169.jpg”},”xsmall”:{“height”:173,”width”:307,”type”:”jpg”,”uri”:”//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/161119073121-hate-crimes-after-election-increase-sandoval-newday-pkg-00000000-medium-plus-169.jpg”},”small”:{“height”:259,”width”:460,”type”:”jpg”,”uri”:”//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/161119073121-hate-crimes-after-election-increase-sandoval-newday-pkg-00000000-large-169.jpg”},”medium”:{“height”:438,”width”:780,”type”:”jpg”,”uri”:”//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/161119073121-hate-crimes-after-election-increase-sandoval-newday-pkg-00000000-exlarge-169.jpg”},”large”:{“height”:619,”width”:1100,”type”:”jpg”,”uri”:”//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/161119073121-hate-crimes-after-election-increase-sandoval-newday-pkg-00000000-super-169.jpg”},”full16x9″:{“height”:900,”width”:1600,”type”:”jpg”,”uri”:”//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/161119073121-hate-crimes-after-election-increase-sandoval-newday-pkg-00000000-full-169.jpg”},”mini1x1″:{“height”:120,”width”:120,”type”:”jpg”,”uri”:”//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/161119073121-hate-crimes-after-election-increase-sandoval-newday-pkg-00000000-small-11.jpg”}}},autoStartVideo = false,isVideoReplayClicked = false,callbackObj,containerEl,currentVideoCollection = [{“title”:”Report: Hate crimes increase after election”,”duration”:”02:01″,”sourceName”:”CNN”,”sourceLink”:”http://www.cnn.com”,”videoCMSUrl”:”/video/data/3.0/video/politics/2016/11/19/hate-crimes-after-election-increase-sandoval-newday-pkg.cnn/index.xml”,”videoId”:”politics/2016/11/19/hate-crimes-after-election-increase-sandoval-newday-pkg.cnn”,”videoImage”:”//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/161119073121-hate-crimes-after-election-increase-sandoval-newday-pkg-00000000-large-169.jpg”,”videoUrl”:”/videos/politics/2016/11/19/hate-crimes-after-election-increase-sandoval-newday-pkg.cnn/video/playlists/hate-crimes/”,”description”:”u003ca href=”https://www.splcenter.org/hatewatch/2016/11/18/update-incidents-hateful-harassment-election-day-now-number-701″ target=”_blank”>The Southern Poverty Law Center has counted more than 700 incidents u003c/a>of harassment and intimidation since the election. 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CNN’s u003ca href=”http://www.cnn.com/profiles/ryan-young-profile”>Ryan Youngu003c/a> reports.”},{“title”:”Victim: ‘I expected his magazine to be empty'”,”duration”:”00:56″,”sourceName”:”CNN”,”sourceLink”:””,”videoCMSUrl”:”/video/data/3.0/video/us/2017/02/24/kansas-bar-shooting-orig-mss.cnn/index.xml”,”videoId”:”us/2017/02/24/kansas-bar-shooting-orig-mss.cnn”,”videoImage”:”//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/170224103709-kansas-bar-shooting-orig-mss-00000118-large-169.jpg”,”videoUrl”:”/videos/us/2017/02/24/kansas-bar-shooting-orig-mss.cnn/video/playlists/hate-crimes/”,”description”:”The FBI has joined an investigation to determine whether a shooting that killed one man and injured two others at a crowded bar in Kansas is a hate crime.”,”descriptionText”:”The FBI has joined an investigation to determine whether a shooting that killed one man and injured two others at a crowded bar in Kansas is a hate crime.”},{“title”:”Officer creates shelter for hate crime victims”,”duration”:”02:15″,”sourceName”:”CNN”,”sourceLink”:”http://www.cnn.com”,”videoCMSUrl”:”/video/data/3.0/video/us/2017/02/24/btc-officer-creates-shelter-ganim-pkg-nd.cnn/index.xml”,”videoId”:”us/2017/02/24/btc-officer-creates-shelter-ganim-pkg-nd.cnn”,”videoImage”:”//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/170224082154-btc-seattle-safe-place-ganim-pkg-large-169.jpg”,”videoUrl”:”/videos/us/2017/02/24/btc-officer-creates-shelter-ganim-pkg-nd.cnn/video/playlists/hate-crimes/”,”description”:”Two years ago, Seattle Police Officer Jim Ritter started a program to combat under-reporting of hate crimes. With the recent rise in hate crime incidents around the country, Ritter’s program is seen as a model.”,”descriptionText”:”Two years ago, Seattle Police Officer Jim Ritter started a program to combat under-reporting of hate crimes. With the recent rise in hate crime incidents around the country, Ritter’s program is seen as a model.”},{“title”:”Van rams Muslim worshippers in London attack”,”duration”:”02:12″,”sourceName”:”CNN”,”sourceLink”:””,”videoCMSUrl”:”/video/data/3.0/video/world/2017/06/19/van-rams-muslim-worshippers-in-london-clarissa-ward-pkg.cnn/index.xml”,”videoId”:”world/2017/06/19/van-rams-muslim-worshippers-in-london-clarissa-ward-pkg.cnn”,”videoImage”:”//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/170619044335-27-finsbury-park-attack-0619-large-169.jpg”,”videoUrl”:”/videos/world/2017/06/19/van-rams-muslim-worshippers-in-london-clarissa-ward-pkg.cnn/video/playlists/hate-crimes/”,”description”:”One person died and eight people were wounded after a van rammed into people leaving Ramadan prayers in Finsbury Park, north London. CNN’s Clarissa Ward reports.”,”descriptionText”:”One person died and eight people were wounded after a van rammed into people leaving Ramadan prayers in Finsbury Park, north London. 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CNN’s Polo Sandoval reports. “},{“title”:”Jewish center bomb threats across nation”,”duration”:”01:20″,”sourceName”:”CNN”,”sourceLink”:”http://www.cnn.com/”,”videoCMSUrl”:”/video/data/3.0/video/us/2017/02/28/jewish-community-centers-twelve-new-bomb-threats-gingras.cnn/index.xml”,”videoId”:”us/2017/02/28/jewish-community-centers-twelve-new-bomb-threats-gingras.cnn”,”videoImage”:”//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/170216114418-jcc-bomb-threats-1-large-169.jpg”,”videoUrl”:”/videos/us/2017/02/28/jewish-community-centers-twelve-new-bomb-threats-gingras.cnn/video/playlists/hate-crimes/”,”description”:”More and more bomb threats are being called into Jewish community centers and day schools in at least 12 states, according to statements from the Anti-Defamation League and JCCA.”,”descriptionText”:”More and more bomb threats are being called into Jewish community centers and day schools in at least 12 states, according to statements from the Anti-Defamation League and JCCA.”},{“title”:”Pence: Anti-Semitism has no place in US”,”duration”:”00:45″,”sourceName”:”CNN”,”sourceLink”:”www.cnn.com”,”videoCMSUrl”:”/video/data/3.0/video/us/2017/02/25/jewish-supporters-pence-sot.cnn/index.xml”,”videoId”:”us/2017/02/25/jewish-supporters-pence-sot.cnn”,”videoImage”:”//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/170225011148-jewish-supporters-pence-sot-00000000-large-169.jpg”,”videoUrl”:”/videos/us/2017/02/25/jewish-supporters-pence-sot.cnn/video/playlists/hate-crimes/”,”description”:”Vice President Mike Pence delivered an ode to the Republican Jewish establishment that once was deeply skeptical of his boss. “,”descriptionText”:”Vice President Mike Pence delivered an ode to the Republican Jewish establishment that once was deeply skeptical of his boss. “},{“title”:”Anti-Semitic incidents on the rise in the US”,”duration”:”02:28″,”sourceName”:”CNN”,”sourceLink”:”http://www.cnn.com/shows/ac-360″,”videoCMSUrl”:”/video/data/3.0/video/us/2017/02/18/rise-in-anti-semitism-in-us-tuchman-ac360.cnn/index.xml”,”videoId”:”us/2017/02/18/rise-in-anti-semitism-in-us-tuchman-ac360.cnn”,”videoImage”:”//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/170218143350-rise-in-anti-semitism-in-us-tuchman-ac360-00012813-large-169.jpg”,”videoUrl”:”/videos/us/2017/02/18/rise-in-anti-semitism-in-us-tuchman-ac360.cnn/video/playlists/hate-crimes/”,”description”:”Reports of anti-Semitic incidents across the US are being investigated by police and the FBI. 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CNN’s Gary Tuchman reports.”},{“title”:”What is a hate crime?”,”duration”:”00:56″,”sourceName”:”CNN”,”sourceLink”:””,”videoCMSUrl”:”/video/data/3.0/video/us/2017/03/01/hate-crime-explainer-cevallos-orig-llr.cnn/index.xml”,”videoId”:”us/2017/03/01/hate-crime-explainer-cevallos-orig-llr.cnn”,”videoImage”:”//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/161111144807-02-durham-racist-graffiti-1111-large-169.jpg”,”videoUrl”:”/videos/us/2017/03/01/hate-crime-explainer-cevallos-orig-llr.cnn/video/playlists/hate-crimes/”,”description”:”CNN legal analyst Danny Cevallos explains why the justice system labels certain crimes as hate crimes.”,”descriptionText”:”CNN legal analyst Danny Cevallos explains why the justice system labels certain crimes as hate crimes.”},{“title”:”Is hate on the rise in America?”,”duration”:”02:09″,”sourceName”:”CNN”,”sourceLink”:”http://www.cnn.com”,”videoCMSUrl”:”/video/data/3.0/video/us/2017/06/03/is-hate-speech-on-the-rise-in-america-holmes-pkg.cnn/index.xml”,”videoId”:”us/2017/06/03/is-hate-speech-on-the-rise-in-america-holmes-pkg.cnn”,”videoImage”:”//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/170602154140-02-portland-moment-of-silence-0602-large-169.jpg”,”videoUrl”:”/videos/us/2017/06/03/is-hate-speech-on-the-rise-in-america-holmes-pkg.cnn/video/playlists/hate-crimes/”,”description”:”Is the current US political climate to blame for the recent uptick in hate crimes across America? CNN’s u003ca href=”http://www.cnn.com/profiles/kristen-holmes-bio”>Kristen Holmesu003c/a> has more.”,”descriptionText”:”Is the current US political climate to blame for the recent uptick in hate crimes across America? CNN’s u003ca href=”http://www.cnn.com/profiles/kristen-holmes-bio”>Kristen Holmesu003c/a> has more.”},{“title”:”Police identify Portland stabbing suspect”,”duration”:”01:44″,”sourceName”:”CNN”,”sourceLink”:”http://www.cnn.com/”,”videoCMSUrl”:”/video/data/3.0/video/us/2017/05/28/portland-oregon-attack-stabbing-train-anti-everything-slurs-lieberman-pkg.cnn/index.xml”,”videoId”:”us/2017/05/28/portland-oregon-attack-stabbing-train-anti-everything-slurs-lieberman-pkg.cnn”,”videoImage”:”//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/170527204000-portland-oregon-attack-stabbing-train-anti-everything-slurs-lieberman-pkg-00000913-large-169.jpg”,”videoUrl”:”/videos/us/2017/05/28/portland-oregon-attack-stabbing-train-anti-everything-slurs-lieberman-pkg.cnn/video/playlists/hate-crimes/”,”description”:”A man fatally stabbed two people and wounded a third on a commuter train in Portland, Oregon, as people confronted him for “yelling a gamut of anti-Muslim and anti-everything slurs,” a Portland police spokesman said. CNN’s Dan Lieberman reports.”,”descriptionText”:”A man fatally stabbed two people and wounded a third on a commuter train in Portland, Oregon, as people confronted him for “yelling a gamut of anti-Muslim and anti-everything slurs,” a Portland police spokesman said. CNN’s Dan Lieberman reports.”},{“title”:”Town tries to heal after racist incident”,”duration”:”02:16″,”sourceName”:”CNN”,”sourceLink”:””,”videoCMSUrl”:”/video/data/3.0/video/us/2017/03/02/douglasville-heals-after-verdict-jpm-orig.cnn/index.xml”,”videoId”:”us/2017/03/02/douglasville-heals-after-verdict-jpm-orig.cnn”,”videoImage”:”//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/170303072104-douglasville-heals-after-verdict-jpm-orig-00012625-large-169.jpg”,”videoUrl”:”/videos/us/2017/03/02/douglasville-heals-after-verdict-jpm-orig.cnn/video/playlists/hate-crimes/”,”description”:”A judge barred Jose Torres and Kayla Norton from Douglasvile, GA, after they made racist threats. But the community is still figuring out how to heal.”,”descriptionText”:”A judge barred Jose Torres and Kayla Norton from Douglasvile, GA, after they made racist threats. But the community is still figuring out how to heal.”},{“title”:”Couple gets prison for racial threats at party”,”duration”:”01:16″,”sourceName”:”CNN”,”sourceLink”:”http://www.cnn.com/”,”videoCMSUrl”:”/video/data/3.0/video/justice/2017/02/28/georgia-couple-confederate-flag-racial-armed-threats-ekr-orig-vstop.cnn/index.xml”,”videoId”:”justice/2017/02/28/georgia-couple-confederate-flag-racial-armed-threats-ekr-orig-vstop.cnn”,”videoImage”:”//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/170227220307-jose-torres-kayla-norton-court-large-169.jpg”,”videoUrl”:”/videos/justice/2017/02/28/georgia-couple-confederate-flag-racial-armed-threats-ekr-orig-vstop.cnn/video/playlists/hate-crimes/”,”description”:”A Georgia couple who rode with a Confederate flag-waving group that made armed threats against African-Americans at a child’s birthday party were sentenced to prison.”,”descriptionText”:”A Georgia couple who rode with a Confederate flag-waving group that made armed threats against African-Americans at a child’s birthday party were sentenced to prison.”},{“title”:”Kansas shooting survivor describes ordealn”,”duration”:”02:30″,”sourceName”:”CNN”,”sourceLink”:”http://www.cnn.com”,”videoCMSUrl”:”/video/data/3.0/video/world/2017/03/02/kansas-shooting-survivor-describes-ordeal.cnn/index.xml”,”videoId”:”world/2017/03/02/kansas-shooting-survivor-describes-ordeal.cnn”,”videoImage”:”//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/170302164130-kansas-shooting-victim-recalls-ordeal-large-169.jpg”,”videoUrl”:”/videos/world/2017/03/02/kansas-shooting-survivor-describes-ordeal.cnn/video/playlists/hate-crimes/”,”description”:”The survivor of a potential hate crime-related shooting in Olathe, Kansas, recalls the deadly night. CNN’s u003ca href=”http://www.cnn.com/profiles/ryan-young-profile”>Ryan Youngu003c/a> reports.”,”descriptionText”:”The survivor of a potential hate crime-related shooting in Olathe, Kansas, recalls the deadly night. CNN’s u003ca href=”http://www.cnn.com/profiles/ryan-young-profile”>Ryan Youngu003c/a> reports.”},{“title”:”Victim: ‘I expected his magazine to be empty'”,”duration”:”00:56″,”sourceName”:”CNN”,”sourceLink”:””,”videoCMSUrl”:”/video/data/3.0/video/us/2017/02/24/kansas-bar-shooting-orig-mss.cnn/index.xml”,”videoId”:”us/2017/02/24/kansas-bar-shooting-orig-mss.cnn”,”videoImage”:”//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/170224103709-kansas-bar-shooting-orig-mss-00000118-large-169.jpg”,”videoUrl”:”/videos/us/2017/02/24/kansas-bar-shooting-orig-mss.cnn/video/playlists/hate-crimes/”,”description”:”The FBI has joined an investigation to determine whether a shooting that killed one man and injured two others at a crowded bar in Kansas is a hate crime.”,”descriptionText”:”The FBI has joined an investigation to determine whether a shooting that killed one man and injured two others at a crowded bar in Kansas is a hate crime.”},{“title”:”Officer creates shelter for hate crime victims”,”duration”:”02:15″,”sourceName”:”CNN”,”sourceLink”:”http://www.cnn.com”,”videoCMSUrl”:”/video/data/3.0/video/us/2017/02/24/btc-officer-creates-shelter-ganim-pkg-nd.cnn/index.xml”,”videoId”:”us/2017/02/24/btc-officer-creates-shelter-ganim-pkg-nd.cnn”,”videoImage”:”//cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/170224082154-btc-seattle-safe-place-ganim-pkg-large-169.jpg”,”videoUrl”:”/videos/us/2017/02/24/btc-officer-creates-shelter-ganim-pkg-nd.cnn/video/playlists/hate-crimes/”,”description”:”Two years ago, Seattle Police Officer Jim Ritter started a program to combat under-reporting of hate crimes. 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By Holly Yan, Kristina Sgueglia and Kylie Walker, CNN

Updated 4:24 PM ET, Thu December 22, 2016

Chat with us in Facebook Messenger. Find out what’s happening in the world as it unfolds.

“They’ve been everywhere — in schools, in places of business like Walmart, on the street,” SPLC President Richard Cohen said.

Critics accused Trump of fostering xenophobia and Islamophobia during the divisive presidential campaign. Recent days have witnessed ugly episodes of racist or anti-Semitic, pro-Trump graffiti along with threats or attacks against Muslims.

The President-elect said he was “so saddened” to hear about vitriol hurled by some of his supporters against minorities.

“If it helps, I will say this, and I will say right to the cameras: Stop it,” Trump told CBS’ “60 Minutes.”

Overall, reported hate crimes spiked 6%, but the number could be higher because many incidents go unreported, Lynch said.

Here’s what some Americans are dealing with across the country:

INTIMIDATION, VIOLENCE AFTER TRUMP WIN

Mosques get letters calling for genocide

A group calling itself “Americans for a Better Way” sent copies of a letter to at least five California mosques, calling Muslims “a vile and filthy people” and advocating genocide.

“There’s a new sherriff [sic] in town — President Donald Trump,” reads the letter, which is addressed to “the Children of Satan.”

“He is going to cleanse America and make it shine again,” it continues. “And, he’s going to start with you muslims [sic]. He’s going to do to you muslims [sic] what Hitler did to the jews [sic]. You muslims [sic] would be wise to pack your bags and get out of Dodge.”

The San Jose Police Department called the letter a “hate-motivated” incident and said it will investigate.

‘Go home’ scrawled on car

A Puerto Rican family’s car was vandalized on November 17, with the words “Trump” and “Go home” scratched into the car in West Springfield, Massachusetts, according to police and one of the victims, who spoke to CNN.

Jorge Santiago, an Army veteran who has served two deployments overseas, noticed scratches in the family’s red sedan after he put his daughter on the bus to school, said his wife, Toni Santiago. He reported the vandalism to the West Springfield police soon afterward, she said.

West Springfield Police Department Capt. Daniel Spaulding said detectives are following up and the investigation is ongoing. They have not determined whether it was a hate crime.

The Santiagos are the only minority family on their street, Toni Santiago said. Their family supported Hillary Clinton during the election, but they didn’t have any signs on their lawn, Santiago said. They have one small Clinton sticker on their other car parked in their driveway closer to the house, which was not vandalized, Santiago said.

“It is terrible. It is horrific, and still, in a way, I’m not surprised,” Santiago said. “Racism was always there, but I feel now with our current President having been so vocal in some of the things he says, people feel more comfortable showing that racism, and our family was a target of it.”

Both Toni and Jorge are US citizens, Santiago said. Jorge was born in Puerto Rico and has lived in Massachusetts for many years, Santiago said. Toni grew up in Massachusetts and is a social worker in nearby Holyoke, Massachusetts, she said. They have three children, ages 2, 8 and 12. Toni posted a photo of the vandalism to Facebook and shared it with CNN.

“My first reaction is we need to get this out. We need to do something,” Santiago said. “People think ‘it’s not going to happen in my town,’ or Massachusetts is a liberal state, but this is real hate, and it’s not OK.”

Uber driver verbally assaulted

A motorist in a white SUV unleashed this hateful rant last week at an Uber driver in New York City.

The Uber driver, a Muslim and a US citizen originally from Morocco, captured the incident on video. It occurred in the Astoria section of Queens on November 17.

The Uber driver told CNN the motorist cut him off, yelled at him and continued to follow him for a few blocks.

When they both pulled up to a stop, the man asked the Uber driver to roll down his window. The motorist then spewed profane and racist abuse at the man.

One quote: “Trump is president a******, so you can kiss your visa goodbye, scumbag. They’ll deport you soon, don’t worry, you f***ing terrorist.”

The Uber driver, who came to the United States about seven years ago, asked CNN that his name not be used over concerns for his and his family’s safety.

Chris Cody, the Uber driver’s next passenger, asked him how his day was going. The driver explained what had just happened and showed Cody his video, Cody told CNN.

Cody asked if he could post it on social media and share it with others, he told CNN.

Later that day, Cody put the video on his Facebook page, writing, “this is not a political post… this is a post about the disgusting mentality that some uneducated & xenophobic Americans somehow still subscribe to in the 21st century.”

The video has gone viral.

Vandalism at Adam Yauch Park

The vandalism was discovered Friday afternoon, according to Shelton. A resident reported it to police, who are investigating the incident.

New York City Councilman Brad Lander, who represents that part of Brooklyn, wrote on Twitter: “Yet more hatred & anti-Semitism from Trump supporters.”

He also tweeted, “No place for hate. We will not be cowed.”

On Twitter, the Beastie Boys asked fans to join local officials Sunday morning at a rally in the park.

“Hate has no place in Brooklyn, NYC, or America,” the tweet said. “Join us … to stand against hate messages.

Lander told CNN the graffiti had been painted over. Instagram images show hearts and flowers over the graffiti.

The swastika discovered Friday in a Brooklyn park was the 13th reported in the city since Election Day, according to Robert Boyce, chief of detectives for the New York Police Department.

Other swastikas have been found in a school in Manhattan and a housing development in Brooklyn, Boyce told reporters. The number is up from two in the same period of time in November last year, Boyce said.

According to the New York police, the number of hate crimes in the city has increased 31.5% in the year to date from 2015 to 2016 — up from 250 to 328. Hate crimes targeting Muslims are up from 12 to 25, and hate crimes targeting Jews are up from 102 to 111, the police said.

Boyce said the swastika at the Brooklyn playground was the only one that included Trump’s name.

New York Mayor Bill de Blasio told reporters this week, “A lot of us are very concerned that a lot of divisive speech was used during the campaign by the President-elect, and we do not yet know what the impact of that will be on our country.”

A note with obscenities

A woman reported a frightening incident that happened while she was hiking at Mission Peak in Fremont, California.

“I was surprised, I was taken aback by the ignorance,” Pancholy said on “CNN Tonight” on Friday evening.

“It breaks my heart that violence is spewing everywhere,” Pancholy said. “It makes me wonder what our children will be facing, how will they cope with this? It’s a different America that they’re experiencing something that’s new to this generation.”

A swastika, the words ‘Trump’ and ‘die’ painted on car

In Denver, a transgender woman’s car was spray-painted early Wednesday morning with a swastika and the words “Trump” and “die,” among other derogatory terms.

Amber Timmons, 43, noticed the swastika as she was heading to her car to leave for work. She didn’t make it to work that day.

“You get shocked, you don’t believe it’s going to happen to you,” she said.

Before the vandalism, she had the words “love trumps hate” written on her back window, and #notmypresident on the windows of the rear doors. And she intends to put those messages back on.

“Me and a couple of really good friends got together and got the spray paint off,” said Timmons, who does not intend to press charges.

Her message to the perpetrators?

“That it’s OK,” she said. “It was done out of fear. That’s what hate is. Hate is fear. And we can fix that fear by love. It’s OK. I forgive them.”

The Denver Police Department’s Hate Crimes Unit is investigating the incident as a possible act of criminal mischief, though there are no suspects at the moment.

‘Build the wall’ chanted at high school tournament

Students from a small border town in northwest Texas say they were the target of ethnically charged slurs while warming up for a regional volleyball tournament.

Amid the verbal abuse from the stands, apparently from supporters of the Archer City team, Fort Hancock coach Melissa Saldana called a timeout.

“We’ve got to ignore what’s going on. We’ve got to stay focused and we’ve got to get tough,” Saldana said she told her players.

The Fort Hancock team lost, but Saldana said they were still victorious.

“My girls, they rose above and they handled themselves very well,” Saldana told KVIA.

The superintendent of the Archer City Independent School District apologized for the students’ actions, but Fort Hancock’s schools chief is still upset.

“What troubles us is that no game official, an official at the venue, even the officials at the game, school officials, nobody stood up to put an end to this,” Fort Hancock Independent School District Superintendent Jose Franco told the station.

‘Make America White Again,’ softball dugout reads

New York Gov. Andrew Cuomo ordered a joint investigation after someone painted a dugout wall in Wellsville, about 80 miles southeast of Buffalo.

The message: A swastika, surrounded by the words, ‘Make America White Again.”

The governor said both New York State Police and the State Division of Human Rights will investigate the alleged hate crime.

“New York has zero tolerance for bigotry, fear and hatred, and those who seek to undermine the core values this state and nation were founded upon,” Cuomo said.

‘Heil Trump’ painted on church

On Sunday morning, the Rev. Kelsey Hutto got the news that vandals had painted “Heil Trump,” an anti-gay slur and a swastika on the side of her church, Saint David’s Episcopal in Beanblossom, Indiana.

She told CNN’s Alisyn Camerota on Thursday that she was at first sad, but believes that the church was targeted because it has always been inclusive to everyone. So, she said, she is taking comfort that whoever did this actually did this for the right reason, because the church has always been welcoming to everyone.

“Doing the right thing is not always the popular thing.”

In that spirit, the church has decided to leave the graffiti as is until November 30.

“If we decide to look at these and be embarrassed, and consider them hateful and angry, and decide to cover them up, then we give power to the idea that hate is more powerful than love,” Hutto said. “And that’s not the case.”

The Brown County Sheriff’s Department tells CNN it is investigating the incident. Investigators don’t currently have any suspects or leads, but they have shared their report with the state police department and are hoping someone in the community will come forward with information if they have it.

Swastika, ‘Trump’ at New York campus

Hours after Cuomo reported the Wellsville incident, the governor announced another alleged hate crime — this one at the State University of New York College at Genese.

Someone spray-painted a swastika and the word “Trump” on a dorm building.

“It is unacceptable that this is the second investigation that we have had to announce in the last several hours,” Cuomo said in a statement Saturday.

“To any New Yorker who is scared, I want you to know that we have your back, that we will keep you safe, and that protecting your rights is what America stands for.”

Muslim student threatened with lighter

Police in Ann Arbor, Michigan, were investigating reports a man approached a Muslim student and threatened to set her on fire with a lighter unless she removed her hijab.

“Our nation’s leaders, and particularly President-elect Donald Trump, need to speak out forcefully against the wave of anti-Muslim incidents sweeping the country after Tuesday’s election,” Executive Director Dawud Walid said.

‘Trump!’ written on Muslim prayer room door in New York

At New York University’s Tandon School of Engineering, students discovered Trump’s name written on the door to a prayer room for Muslims on Wednesday, school officials said.

“Our campus is not immune to the bigotry that grips America,” the NYU Muslim Students Association said in a Facebook posting.

School spokesman Kathleen Hamilton said the school has many immigrant students, with about 20% from abroad.

“It’s a real melting pot here,” she said. “We all believe this very much, that the university is a place of free expression. It has to be safe to be so.”

New York police are investigating.

Graffiti in high school: ‘Trump,’ ‘Whites only,’ ‘White America’

Minnesota high school student Moses Karngbaye said he was terrified to see racist graffiti scrawled inside a bathroom.

Someone had written “#Go back to Africa” and “Make America great again” on a toilet paper dispenser at Maple Grove Senior High School.

The bathroom door was also covered with graffiti, including “Whites only,” “White America” and “Trump.”

Karngbaye sent photos of the graffiti to his mother, Denise Karngbaye, who told WCCO she takes the attack personally.

“I train my kids to respect everybody, regardless of their race, their ethnicity, their background,” she said.

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Knockout Game perp shot, killed – wnd.com

Tiffany Thompson got her wish: Demetrius Murphy met the Right Person and he will not be playing the Knockout Game any more. Ever.

A St. Louis homeowner shot Murphy dead late last week during a burglary. And a whole lot of people in St. Louis feel relieved, if not safer.

Murphy was a member of a group that is credited with making the Knockout Game a St. Louis tradition, then a national pasttime.

The rules of the Knockout Game are simple: Begin with a bunch of black people. Anywhere from three to 30.

Find a white person, but an Asian will do. Alone is important. Older is better. Weak and defenseless even more so.

Without warning, punch that person in the face as hard as you can. You win if you score a Knockout.

If not, keep punching until your arms and legs get too tired to continue. Or the person dies.

You can play anywhere, but vibrant and culturally mixed neighborhoods are probably the best. That is where the victims are: Asians, gays, artists, yuppies, seniors , college students people who wont fight back.

Over the last two years, hundreds of people around the country have become victims. Some say over 100 in St. Louis alone. Some died. Others, like Murphys victim Matt Quain, suffered broken bones in his face and jaw.

Last week, four members of the national Championship Alabama football team were arrested after three played the game two times, and the fourth tried to use a debit card taken during the attacks.

Many of these cases of black mob violence are documented in the book White Girl Bleed a Lot: The return racial violence and how the media ignore it.

Murphy and his friends were arrested in November 2011 when police found a 13-year-old girl who witnessed the Knockout Game assault on Quain. The charges were dismissed after she failed to show up. The mayor of St. Louis said there was no doubt in his mind the witness was intimidated and too frightened to testify. The mother of the witness said the same several months later.

The gang was jubilant, and took to FaceBook to say so. FREE ALL MY TKO GUYS, said one of the members of the mob that was freed, reported the St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Two days later, two members of the group tracked down Quain and threatened him again.

He threatened them with pepper spray and they ran.

The pace of the Knockout Game picked up in other places with other victims. That is when Tiffany Thompson made her wish at a news site reporting the results of the latest St. Louis victim:

as a black woman i will say this, i wish they would run into the right person who is armed to defend themselves with a firearmi bet we will see a drastic decrease in violence in our city. it is embarrassing and shameful the image these losers portray of blacks in st louis. i do not and never will reside anywhere besides the suburbs of this city, because no one is safe among these savages. do not get angry when people call them thugs, because that is exactly what they are and no excuses can be made for this barbaric behavior! its disgusting!!!

That right person was a St. Louis homeowner who found Murphy and a friend in his backyard at 1:30 a.m.

Missouri citizens are protected by the so-called Castle Doctrine that allows the use of deadly force against intruders.

But Murphys friend, a 17-year-old man, was charged with murder because he was an accomplice to a felony where a person was killed.

Murphys grandfather, Paul Furst, told KSDK that Murphy was mentally challenged did not deserve to die:

I believe this is another one of the Trayvon Martin stories where people are getting so gun happy they shoot just on impulse now. I could understand if he was a threat. But on the property, he was not a threat.

Murphys grandfather had nothing to say to a neighbor who said he, too, was a victim of Murphy: Jonathan Preiss told the St. Louis Post-Dispatch:

I live 3 houses down from where the shooting took place. I believe they are the ones who threw a rock and a brick into my window, stole my tv, ps3, wii and games as well right before this happened. They ransacked my room, no regard for my property. I am still freaked out over this whole thing. I hope this is a lesson of the consequences for violating my communitys privacy.

Murphy was 15 years old.

See the Big List of black mob violence.

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Lauren Southern – YouTube

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Lauren Southern – RationalWiki

Lauren Southern (1995) is a Canadian far-right[1] Islamophobe[2][3] who in March 2018 was banned from entering UK for distributing leaflets inciting religious hatred against Muslims.[4] Her political views are opposing Islam, liberalism, multiculturalism, feminism and LGBT rights, while supporting paleoconservatism, cultural nationalism, and the right to keep and bear arms. She is described as alt-right by the media and SPLC[5] but her rejection of white nationalism and neo-Nazism for a more moderate (albeit still xenophobic) cultural nationalism makes her alt-lite similar to Paul Joseph Watson. Southern was a contributor on The Rebel Media, a hard-right wing Canadian online political and social commentary media platform owned by conservative political activist Ezra Levant, where she hosted the talk show Stand Off with Lauren Southern.[6][7]

Southern was a former member of the Libertarian Party of Canada,[8] and she considers herself a cultural libertarian.[9][10][11] However she holds many conservative and nationalist views that are seemingly against libertarianism. She has expressed support for Donald Trump[12] and Nigel Farage.

Southern studied political science at the University of Fraser Valley for two years before dropping out, calling the program “a waste of money to pay for knowledge she could get on her own.” During her time there, she was heavily political to the point that most of her peers either saw her views as absurd or simply believed it better not to discuss politics with her due to how unpleasant she could get, and described herself as being into the kind of “Ayn Rand bitch style of libertarianism.” She applied to be a military intelligence officer after leaving the university but would become a poster child of the alt-right after attending a Toronto conference headed by Ezra Levant.[13]

Southern has run as a candidate for the Libertarian Party of Canada.[14] She is the force behind “The Triggering”, an event to “defend freedom of speech by posting ‘offensive content’ on social media”. “The Triggering” occurred on 9 March 2016, the day after International Women’s Day, which may have been intentional.[15] Needless to say, her fans rejoiced and took part in the event.

She appears to be buddies with British right-wing activist Milo Yiannopoulos, a former senior editor for far-right news and opinion website Breitbart News, as they appeared together in October of 2015 during a Slutwalk to share their “opinions” on rape culture.[16] She did the same thing in a Vancouver Slutwalk in June of that year.[17] Classy. At a transgender rally in early 2016, Southern might have had urine poured on her by a black bloc protester, for stating that only two genders exist.[18] She also attended an Antifa rally with The Rebel Media in London following Brexit and received a hostile reception from protesters.[19]

Southern has accused the left of promoting a culture of decadence and laziness, and wants the youth to resort to a culture of “traditional values”.[20]

#AltRightMeans I don’t have to be ashamed of my heritage.

The Anti-Fascist News branded Southern a mild supporter of the alt-right “who brings in a lot of their ideas and their cultural behavior without committing to the hard white nationalism”.[22] Regarding the alt-right, she stated, “It’s hard not to sympathize with a lot of the alt-right causes and I do align with a lot of them. I keep a healthy skepticism of any movement that I join or sympathize with, or just talk about. [] and the alt-right certainly deserves a healthy skepticism.”[23] Thus she definitely expressed some support to the alt-right agenda,[24] with reservations, although she stated that alt-right methods are “absolutely not” better than those of liberals.

Southern rejected her description as an alt-right journalist by Thunderf00t, saying, “While I certainly have crossover with alt-right on a decent amount of subjects, I don’t focus on white identity as one of my main topics. [] And because of this most of the alt-right do not refer to me as alt-right. [] Many people on [the] alt-right would find the description of me [as alt-right to be] inaccurate and laughable”.[25] In a tweet from September 19, 2016, she even used alt-right as a derogatory term, sarcastically stating “Wow the alt-right is really growing on Canadian campuses”[26] in regards to the video of The Rebel Media’s pranking college students where they asked them to sign a petition demanding authorities to “stamp out women’s suffrage” and they agreed, obviously having no idea what “suffrage” even means.[27]

Southern has since claimed allegiance to two radical alt-right groups, Defend Europe and Gnration Identitaire. Their activities have included interfering with humanitarian vessels trying to rescue migrants by shooting flares at them and yelling hate slogans.[28][29] She later in a Twitter video called for 4chan’s infamous /pol/ board to join the fight.[30]

The groups have been labeled as anti-Islam, anti-immigration factions that wish to protect Europeans from the threat of an invasion. Besides the obvious reactionary claims, they have also justified their xenophobia on the pretense of wishing to stop the alleged human trafficking of refugees drowning in the sea caused by corrupt humanitarian aid workers who supposedly cooperate with smugglers by… trying to sink boats of refugees themselves instead.[31]

As expected, international human rights activists have widely condemned the groups and their actions.[32] Perhaps then it’s not surprising that Patreon later deleted Southern’s account on the grounds that she was “raising funds in order to take part in activities that are likely to cause loss of life.”[33]

Southern supports immigration to Canada and the US as long as the immigrants are white like Afrikaner farmers[34] (and her own grandparents were immigrants from Denmark.[35]), but she strongly opposes Muslim immigration.

She thinks, pointing out to Ben Shapiro’s video “The Myth of the Tiny Radical Muslim Minority”,[36] that a majority of Muslims in the world hold views that “do not align with Western values”, and she states that she does not want such Muslims in the West, “changing the base culture of the West”.[37]

Despite claiming to dislike feminism and advocating a return to traditionalism, Southern (and other women in the Alt-right) has complained about harassment from male members of the Alt-right for not being married with children at age 22 years old. Gee, the racist and hateful audience that she has amassed are also sexist? Who could have guessed?! In a YouTube video, she argues that it would be more “degenerate” for her to have children now without finding the right man.[38] Regardless of whether she supports feminism or not, we’re sure many feminists would respect Southern’s right to marry and have children whenever she wants to.

When she was asked about her religion, specifically to the question whether she is Christian, she answered she is “searching”.[39]

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Lauren Southern – RationalWiki

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holocaust – Wiktionary

EtymologyEdit

From French holocauste, from Late Latin holocaustum, from the neuter form of Ancient Greek (holkaustos), from (hlos, whole) + (kausts, burnt), from (ka, I burn). Used to refer to mass killings since at least 1925.[1]

holocaust (plural holocausts)

annihilation of a group of animals or people

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Jews | Article about Jews by The Free Dictionary

Jews [from JudahJudah. 1 In the Bible he is the fourth son of Jacob and Leah and the eponymous ancestor of one of the 12 tribes of Israel. In the Book of Genesis, Judah emerges as a leader…… Click the link for more information. ], traditionally, descendants of Judah, the fourth son of Jacob, whose tribe, with that of his half-brother Benjamin, made up the kingdom of Judah; historically, members of the worldwide community of adherents to JudaismJudaism, the religious beliefs and practices and the way of life of the Jews. The term itself was first used by Hellenized Jews to describe their religious practice, but it is of predominantly modern usage; it is not used in the Bible or in Rabbinic literature and only rarely….. Click the link for more information. . The degree to which national and religious elements of Jewish culture interact has varied throughout history and has been a matter of considerable debate. There were approximately 17.8 million Jews in the world in 1990, with 8 million in the Americas (of which about 5.7 million were in the United States), 3.5 million in Israel, and 3.5 million in Europe. Biblical Period

According to the biblical account, much of which is impossible to verify in the archaeological record until late in the monarchial period, Jewish history begins with the patriarchs AbrahamAbraham[according to the Book of Genesis, Heb.,=father of many nations] or Abram[Heb.,=exalted father], in the Bible, progenitor of the Hebrews; in the Qur’an, ancestor of the Arabs…… Click the link for more information. , IsaacIsaac[Heb.,=laughter], according to the patriarchal narratives of the Book of Genesis, Isaac was the only son of Abraham and Sara. He married Rebecca, and their sons were Esau and Jacob. Ishmael was his half-brother…… Click the link for more information. , and JacobJacob, in the Bible, ancestor of the Hebrews, the younger of Isaac and Rebecca’s twin sons; the older was Esau. In exchange for a bowl of lentil soup, Jacob obtained Esau’s birthright and, with his mother’s help, received the blessing that the dying Isaac had intended for his….. Click the link for more information. , who considered Canaan (an area comprising present-day Israel and the West Bank) their home. Their history continues in Goshen, NE Egypt, where they settled as agriculturists many centuries before the Christian era. Under Ramses II the Jews were severely persecuted and, finally, Moses led them out of Egypt; at Mt. Sinai he delivered to them the Ten Commandments.

Many years of wandering in desert wildernesses followed before the Israelites conquered Canaan. SaulSaul,first king of the ancient Hebrews. He was a Benjamite and anointed king by Samuel. Saul’s territory was probably limited to the hill country of Judah and the region to the north, and his proximity to the Philistines brought him into constant conflict with them…… Click the link for more information. became the first king. Initially successful against the Philistines, he was finally defeated at Gilboa. DavidDavid,d. c.970 B.C., king of ancient Israel (c.1010970 B.C.), successor of Saul. The Book of First Samuel introduces him as the youngest of eight sons who is anointed king by Samuel to replace Saul, who had been deemed a failure…… Click the link for more information. , of the tribe of Judah, ruled, conquered the enemies of the Jews, expanded his territory across the Jordan River, and brought prosperity and peace to his people. The reign of his son SolomonSolomon,d. c.930 B.C., king of the ancient Hebrews (c.970c.930 B.C.), son and successor of David. His mother was Bath-sheba. His accession has been dated to c.970 B.C. According to the Bible…… Click the link for more information. , who built the first Templetemple,edifice or sometimes merely an enclosed area dedicated to the worship of a deity and the enshrinement of holy objects connected with such worship. The temple has been employed in most of the world’s religions. Although remains of Egyptian temples of c.2000 B.C…… Click the link for more information. , was the last before a period of disruption. The tribes of the north formed the kingdom of Israel; those of the south formed the smaller but more strongly united kingdom of Judah.

In 722 B.C., Sargon II captured Samaria, capital of Israel, and most of the Israelites (the lost tribeslost tribes,10 Israelite tribes that, according to the Bible, were transported to Assyria by Tiglathpileser III or Shalmaneser after the conquest of Israel in 722 B.C. Numerous conjectures have been advanced as to the fate of these tribes: they have been identified with the….. Click the link for more information. ) were exiled. Judah passed under Assyrian domination, then under Egyptian, and in 586 B.C., under Babylonian, when the Temple was destroyed and the people were exiled until their return was permitted by Cyrus the GreatCyrus the Great, d. 529 B.C., king of Persia, founder of the greatness of the Achaemenids and of the Persian Empire. According to Herodotus, he was the son of an Iranian noble, the elder Cambyses, and a Median princess, daughter of Astyages…… Click the link for more information. (538 B.C.). The rebuilding of the Temple was completed in 516 B.C. The Jews remained a strong religious group during the period of Hellenism, but regained political independence only under the MaccabeesMaccabeesor Machabees, Jewish family of the 2d and 1st cent. B.C. that brought about a restoration of Jewish political and religious life. They are also called Hasmoneans or Asmoneans after their ancestor, Hashmon…… Click the link for more information. . A rebellion, led by Bar KokbaBar Kokba, Simon,or Simon Bar Cochba[Heb.,=son of the star], d. A.D. 135, Hebrew hero and leader of a major revolt against Rome under Hadrian (132135). He may have claimed to be a Messiah; the Talmud relates that Akiba ben Joseph credited him with this title…… Click the link for more information. against the Romans in the 2d cent. A.D., ended in defeat. In 63 B.C. Rome conquered Palestine, and the second Temple was destroyed in A.D. 70.

As political aspirations subsided, the Jewish community was increasingly led by scholars and rabbis. Even during the period of Jewish sovereignty in Palestine, large Jewish communities developed in Egypt and Babylonia. After the fall of the Temple, Babylon’s Jewish community became the most important in world Jewry and its academies the most influential centers of Jewish learning. In 8th-century Iberia, a large Jewish community played an important part in intellectual and economic life. From the 9th to the 12th cent., Spanish Jewry enjoyed a golden age of literary efflorescence marked by a highly creative interaction between Jewish and Islamic culture.

From the time of the CrusadesCrusades, series of wars undertaken by European Christians between the 11th and 14th cent. to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims. First CrusadeOrigins

In the 7th cent., Jerusalem was taken by the caliph Umar…… Click the link for more information. date the persecutions that persisted until the 18th cent. During this period the ownership of land and most occupations other than petty trading and moneylending were forbidden to European Jews; the ghettoghetto, originally, a section of a city in which Jews lived; it has come to mean a section of a city where members of any racial group are segregated. In the early Middle Ages the segregation of Jews in separate streets or localities was voluntary…… Click the link for more information. came into existence. The Jews, who had earlier been an agricultural people, became an urban population. The Jews were expelled from England in 1290 and from France in 1306. In 1391, forced conversions began in Spain; in 1492 all remaining Jews were expelled. Many of the exiles perished; others found asylum in the Netherlands and in the Turkish possessions. The German Jews, who experienced periodic explusions throughout the 15th cent., fled to Poland, where, although subject to persecution, they build a thriving culture.

After 1492, Spanish Jews (see SephardimSephardim, one of the two major geographic divisions of the Jewish people, consisting of those Jews whose forebears in the Middle Ages resided in the Iberian Peninsula, as distinguished from those who lived in Germanic lands, who came to be known as the Ashkenazim (see….. Click the link for more information. ) spread throughout the Mediterranean world, often absorbing smaller Jewish communities they encountered. In some places they continued to speak a Judeo-Spanish language known as Judezmo or Ladino into the 20th cent. Some Sephardim also migrated to Western Europe. The other large branch of the Jewish people, known as Ashkenazim, formed in the 9th cent. with the settlement of Jews in the Rhine valley. Marked by their use of Yiddish, a German-Jewish language, the Ashkenazim also migrated east into Poland. The Polish-Lithuanian community became a major center of world Jewry in the 16th cent., distinguished by its high level of Talmudic scholarship. The political vulnerability and religious faith of the Jews led to the rise of several messianic movements; one of the most important was led by Sabbatai ZeviSabbatai Zevi, 162676, Jewish mystic and pseudo-Messiah, founder of the Sabbatean sect, b. Smyrna. After a period of study of Lurianic kabbalah (see Luria, Isaac ben Solomon), he became deeply influenced by its ideas of imminent national redemption…… Click the link for more information. . In the 18th cent. HasidismHasidismor Chassidism[Heb.,=the pious], Jewish religious movement founded in Poland in the 18th cent. by Baal-Shem-Tov. Its name derives from Hasidim. Hasidism, which stressed the mercy of God and encouraged joyous religious expression through music and dance, spread….. Click the link for more information. arose among the Jews of Eastern Europe.

Modern political emancipation of the Jews began with the American and French revolutions. In Germany and Austria emancipation of the Jews was proclaimed after the Revolution of 1848. Simultaneously, the HaskalahHaskalah, [Heb.,=enlightenment] Jewish movement in Europe active from the 1770s to the 1880s. Beginning in Germany in the circle of the German Jewish philosopher Moses Mendelssohn and spreading to Galicia and Russia, the Haskalah called for increased secularization of Jewish….. Click the link for more information. encouraged the secularization of Jewish life, and the integration of the Jews into the societies in which they lived. Especially in Western Europe, this led to considerable acculturation, and even assimilation, of Jewish communities. The religious Reform movement advocated a form of Judaism shorn of its national elements and emphasizing ethical content rather than adherence to traditional Jewish law.

In Eastern Europe in the late 1800s, new secular movements arose, particularly after a wave of pogromspogrom, Russian term, originally meaning “riot,” that came to be applied to a series of violent attacks on Jews in Russia in the late 19th and early 20th cent. Pogroms were few before the assassination of Alexander II in 1881; after that, with the connivance of, or at least….. Click the link for more information. in 1881. These movements sought to ameliorate the Jewish condition and establish Jewish life on a new national basis. ZionismZionism,modern political movement for reconstituting a Jewish national state in Palestine. Early Years

The rise of the Zionist movement in the late 19th cent…… Click the link for more information. advocated the return of the Jews to Palestine. The Zionist movement was formally established in Basel in 1897. During the 19th and early 20th cent., there was a mass migration of Jews westward from Eastern and Central Europe and the Ottoman Empire. During the period 1880 to 1924 some 2.5 million Jews emigrated to the United States, which after 1939 was home to the largest Jewish community in the world. Smaller numbers, under the influence of Zionism, settled in Palestine.

Between 1933, when the Nazis rose to power in Germany, and 1945, when Germany was defeated in World War II, the Jews faced persecution of unprecedented scope and violence; thousands were driven into exile and close to 6 million were systematically slaughtered (see anti-Semitismanti-Semitism, form of prejudice against Jews, ranging from antipathy to violent hatred. Before the 19th cent., anti-Semitism was largely religious and was expressed in the later Middle Ages by sporadic persecutions and expulsionsnotably the expulsion from Spain under….. Click the link for more information. ; HolocaustHolocaust, name given to the period of persecution and extermination of European Jews by Nazi Germany. Romani (Gypsies), homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses, the disabled, and others were also victims of the Holocaust…… Click the link for more information. ). After the war, great numbers of Jews sought refuge in Palestine. The Jewish state of IsraelIsrael, officially State of Israel, republic (2005 est. pop. 6,277,000, including Israelis in occupied Arab territories), 7,992 sq mi (20,700 sq km), SW Asia, on the Mediterranean Sea…… Click the link for more information. was established in 1948 from portions of Palestine, and in succeeding years absorbed many Jews from the Middle East and North Africa. Arab-Jewish relations have been complicated by the hostilities that have resulted in and from the Arab-Israeli WarsArab-Israeli Wars,conflicts in 194849, 1956, 1967, 197374, and 1982 between Israel and the Arab states. Tensions between Israel and the Arabs have been complicated and heightened by the political, strategic, and economic interests in the area of the great powers…… Click the link for more information. of 1956, 1967, 1973, and 1982.

See H. Graetz, History of the Jews (6 vol., tr. 1926; repr. 1956); A. L. Sachar, A History of the Jews (5th ed. 1965); C. Roth, The Jewish Contribution to Civilization (3d ed. 1956) and A Short History of the Jewish People (rev. ed. 1969); H. Feingold, Zion in America (1974); R. Seltzer, Jewish People, Jewish Thought (1981); S. W. Baron, A Social and Religious History of the Jews (27 vol., 195283); N. de Lange, ed., The Illustrated History of the Jewish People (1997); S. Friedlnder, Nazi Germany and the Jews (2 vol., 19972007); A. Hertzberg and A. Hirt-Manheimer, Jews (1998); D. Vital, A People Apart (1999); M. Konner, Unsettled: An Anthropology of the Jews (2003); J. R. Baskin and K. Seeskin, The Cambridge Guide to Jewish History, Religion, and Culture (2010); S. Schama, The Story of the Jews (2 vol., 201417).

the common ethnic name of the national groups historically derived from the ancient Hebrews. Jews live in different countries and share the same economic, social, political, and cultural life with the basic population of these countries. The overwhelming majority of Jewish believers practice Judaism.

Two ancient Jewish states existed in the first millennium B.C.: the kingdom of Israel and the kingdom of Judea. The conquest of Israel by Assyria in 722 B.C. and of Judea by Babylon in 586 B.C. set the beginning of the dispersion of the Jews throughout the countries of the world, which was intensified after the conquest of Judea by Rome in 63 B.C. Large groups of Jews settled in the countries of the Near East, North Africa, and southern Europe.

During the Middle Ages, Jews also settled in many other countries of Europe and Asia. The development of trade in the European countries also contributed to the migration of the Jews. They adopted the language and culture of the local population but retained their religion and some elements of their culture and mores, which set them apart from the surrounding population. Many European countries had laws imposing on Jews legal and occupational restrictions, particularly with respect to the right of the possession and use of land. As a rule Jews settled in cities, where they usually lived in closed communities in special quarters called ghettoes and engaged primarily in trade and crafts. The richer Jews practiced money lending. The dogmas of the Jewish religion provided for separate Jewish communities, a development that was furthered by the policy of the ruling classes and the Christian church. Jews were not admitted to shops and guilds. The competition of the Jews with the local merchants and artisans contributed to the spread of anti-Semitism.

The bourgeois revolutions of the 17th through the 19th century removed the restrictions on the rights of Jews in a number of European countries, and Jews were drawn into the general economic and cultural life of their countries of residence; a process of assimilation with the local population began. However, under the conditions of the bourgeois system the rights of Jews, as of other national minorities, remained curtailed. In addition to national oppression, poor Jews were also subject to the class oppression of the capitalist and clerical elite (rabbis) of the Jewish community. In a number of countries of Eastern Europe, including Russia, there were legislative restrictions on Jewish residence (the so-called pale of settlement), as well as legal and economic restrictions. In the late 19th and the early 20th centuries the tsarist government organized a number of mass pogroms of Jews through the Black Hundreds. Many Jews, especially those from Central and Eastern Europe, emigrated to the United States and other countries of America. In the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century the Jewish working masses actively participated in the revolutionary movement in Russia and Western Europe.

In the late 19th century a reactionary nationalist movement, Zionism, arose among the Jewish bourgeoisie of several countries. Zionism proclaimed as its aim the re-settlement of all Jews to Palestine and preached the idea of the class cooperation of all Jews, an idea that was profoundly inimical to the labor movement. Jewish nationalists tried to split the Jewish proletariat from the general revolutionary struggle by setting up separate nationalist parties such as the Bund. The Bolsheviks, headed by V. I. Lenin, vigorously opposed the separatism of the Bund and called on the Jewish working people to unite in the all-Russian social democratic movement.

The Great October Socialist Revolution opened a new era in the history of all the peoples of Russia, including the Jews. The legislation of the Soviet government abolished all restrictions on the rights of Jews and proclaimed a vigorous struggle against anti-Semitism. In 1934 the Jewish Autonomous Oblast was set up as part of Khabarovsk Krai. United by common economic, political, and ideological interests and the principles of proletarian internationalism, Jews participated with all the peoples of the USSR in the building of a new society. All restrictions on Jews have also been fully abolished in the other socialist countries.

In the capitalist countries anti-Semitism continues to exist; this found its most extreme expression in fascist Germany. The Nazis carried out a policy of mass extermination of the Jews; about 6 million Jews were murdered in World War II (193945).

After World War II, chauvinist tendencies and Zionist ideology, with its antiscientific assertion of the messianic role of the Jews and the idea of the chosen people, were artificially revived among Jews in the developed capitalist countries. Zionism has become an ideology of militant chauvinism and anticommunism, acting in the interests of international imperialism.

The Jewish state of Israel, which was created in 1948 on the basis of a decision of the United Nations General Assembly, has proclaimed Zionism its official ideology.

In 1967 there were about 13.5 million Jews in the world, of whom 5.7 million live in the United States, over 2,5 million in Israel (1970 estimate), 2.151 million in the USSR (1970 census), over 500,000 in France, about 480,000 in Great Britain, about 450,000 in Argentina, about 270,000 in Canada, about 130,000 in Brazil, about 110,000 in the Republic of South Africa, and about 110,000 in Rumania. Most Jews speak the language of their country of residence. Some Jews in Europe and America also speak Yiddish, a language in which there is a literature; in the USSR, according to 1970 census, 17.7 percent of Jews declared Yiddish as their native language. The official language of the Jews of Israel is Hebrew, which developed on the basis of the ancient Hebrew of the scriptures and which Jews in other countries use only in religious worship. Some Jews in the Mediterranean coun-tries (the so-called Sephardim) speak Ladino, a language that is similar to Spanish.

REFERENCESMarx, K. K evreiskomu voprosu. K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 1.Marx, K., and F. Engels. Sviatoe semeistvo, ill Kritika kriticheskii kritiki. Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 2.Lenin, V. I. Polozhenie Bunda v partii. Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 8.Lenin, V. I. K evreiskim rabochim. Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 10.Lenin, V. I. Kriticheskie zametki po natsionalnomu voprosu. Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 24.Lenin, V. I. Zakonnoproekt o natsionalnom ravnopravii. Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 25.Lenin, V. I. O pogromnoi travle evreev. Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 38.Tiumenev, A. Evrei v drevnosti i v srednie veka. Petrograd, 1922.Gessen, lu. l.Istoriia evreiskogo naroda v Rossii, vols. 12. Leningrad, 192527.Margulis, U. Geshikhte fun idn Rusland, vol. 1 (17721861). Moscow, 1930.Kolar, F. J. Sionizm i antisemitizm. Moscow, 1971. (Translated from Czech.)

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Nationalism – Wikipedia

Nationalism is a political, social and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland. The political ideology of nationalism holds that a nation should govern themselves, free from outside interference and is linked to the concept of self-determination. Nationalism is further oriented towards developing and maintaining a national identity based on shared, social characteristics, such as culture and language, religion and politics, and a belief in a common ancestry.[1][2] Nationalism, therefore, seeks to preserve a nation’s culture, by way of pride in national achievements, and is closely linked to patriotism, which, in some cases, includes the belief that the nation should control the country’s government and the means of production.[3]

Historically, nationalism is a modern concept dating from the 18th century, of an ideological scope greater than a peoples’ attachment to family, to local authority, and to the native land.[4] Politically and sociologically, there are three paradigms for understanding the origins and bases of nationalism. The first paradigm is primordialism (perennialism), which proposes nationalism as a natural phenomenon, that nations have always existed. The second paradigm is ethnosymbolism, a complex, historical perspective, which explains nationalism as a dynamic, evolutionary phenomenon imbued with historical meaning, by way of the nation’s subjective ties to national symbols. The third paradigm is modernism, which proposes that nationalism is a recent social phenomenon that requires the socio-economic structures of modern society to exist.[5]

There are various definitions for what constitutes a nation, however, which leads to several different strands of nationalism. It can be a belief that citizenship in a state should be limited to one ethnic, cultural, religious, or identity group, or that multinationality in a single state should necessarily comprise the right to express and exercise national identity even by minorities.The adoption of national identity in terms of historical development has commonly been the result of a response by influential groups unsatisfied with traditional identities due to inconsistency between their defined social order and the experience of that social order by its members, resulting in a situation of anomie that nationalists seek to resolve. This anomie results in a society or societies reinterpreting identity, retaining elements that are deemed acceptable and removing elements deemed unacceptable, to create a unified community. This development may be the result of internal structural issues or the result of resentment by an existing group or groups towards other communities, especially foreign powers that are or are deemed to be controlling them.National symbols and flags, national anthems, national languages, national myths and other symbols of national identity are highly important in nationalism.[9][10][11]

The word nation was used before 1800 in Europe to refer to the inhabitants of a country as well as to collective identities that could include shared history, law, language, political rights, religion and traditions, in a sense more akin to the modern conception.[12]

Nationalism is a newer word; in English the term dates from 1844, although the concept is older.[13] It became important in the 19th century.[14] The term increasingly became negative in its connotations after 1914. Glenda Sluga notes that “The twentieth century, a time of profound disillusionment with nationalism, was also the great age of globalism.”[15]

Nationalism has been a recurring facet of civilizations since ancient times, though the modern sense of national political autonomy and self-determination was formalized in the late 18th century.[16] Examples of nationalist movements can be found throughout history, from the Jewish revolts of the 2nd century, to the re-emergence of Persian culture during the Sasanid period of Persia, to the re-emergence of Latin culture in the Western Roman Empire during the 4th and 5th centuries, as well as many others. In modern times, examples can be seen in the emergence of German nationalism as a reaction against Napoleonic control of Germany as the Confederation of the Rhine around 180514.[17][18] Linda Colley in Britons, Forging the Nation 17071837 (Yale University Press, 1992) explores how the role of nationalism emerged about 1700 and developed in Britain reaching full form in the 1830s. Typically historians of nationalism in Europe begin with the French Revolution (1789), not only for its impact on French nationalism but even more for its impact on Germans and Italians and on European intellectuals.[19] Some historians see the American Revolution as an early form of modern nationalism.[20]

Due to the Industrial Revolution, there was an emergence of an integrated, nation-encompassing economy and a national public sphere, where the British people began to identify with the country at large, rather than the smaller units of their province, town or family. The early emergence of a popular patriotic nationalism took place in the mid-18th century, and was actively promoted by the British government and by the writers and intellectuals of the time.[21] National symbols, anthems, myths, flags and narratives were assiduously constructed by nationalists and widely adopted. The Union Jack was adopted in 1801 as the national one.[22] Thomas Arne composed the patriotic song “Rule, Britannia!” in 1740,[23] and the cartoonist John Arbuthnot invented the character of John Bull as the personification of the English national spirit in 1712.[24]

The political convulsions of the late 18th century associated with the American and French revolutions massively augmented the widespread appeal of patriotic nationalism.[25][26]

The Prussian scholar Johann Gottfried Herder (17441803) originated the term in 1772 in his “Treatise on the Origin of Language” stressing the role of a common language.[27][28] He attached exceptional importance to the concepts of nationality and of patriotism “he that has lost his patriotic spirit has lost himself and the whole worlds about himself”, whilst teaching that “in a certain sense every human perfection is national”.[29]

The political development of nationalism and the push for popular sovereignty culminated with the ethnic/national revolutions of Europe. During the 19th century nationalism became one of the most significant political and social forces in history; it is typically listed among the top causes of World War I.[30][31]

Napoleon’s conquests of the German and Italian states around 180006 played a major role in stimulating nationalism and the demands for national unity.[32]

Nationalism in France gained early expressions in France’s revolutionary government. In 1793, that government declared a mass conscription (leve en masse) with a call to service:

Henceforth, until the enemies have been driven from the territory of the Republic, all the French are in permanent requisition for army service. The young men shall go to battle; the married men shall forge arms in the hospitals; the children shall turn old linen to lint; the old men shall repair to the public places, to stimulate the courage of the warriors and preach the unity of the Republic and the hatred of kings.[33]

This nationalism gained pace after the French Revolution came to a close. Defeat in war, with a loss in territory, was a powerful force in nationalism. In France, revenge and return of Alsace-Lorraine was a powerful motivating force for a quarter century after their defeat by Germany in 1871. However, after 1895 French nationalists focused on Dreyfus and internal subversion, and the Alsace issue petered out.[34]

The French reaction was a famous case of Revanchism (“revenge”) which demands the return of lost territory that “belongs” to the national homeland. Revanchism draws its strength from patriotic and retributionist thought and is often motivated by economic or geo-political factors. Extreme revanchist ideologues often represent a hawkish stance, suggesting that their desired objectives can be achieved through the positive outcome of another war. It is linked with irredentism, the conception that a part of the cultural and ethnic nation remains “unredeemed” outside the borders of its appropriate nation state. Revanchist politics often rely on the identification of a nation with a nation state, often mobilizing deep-rooted sentiments of ethnic nationalism, claiming territories outside the state where members of the ethnic group live, while using heavy-handed nationalism to mobilize support for these aims. Revanchist justifications are often presented as based on ancient or even autochthonous occupation of a territory since “time immemorial”, an assertion that is usually inextricably involved in revanchism and irredentism, justifying them in the eyes of their proponents.[35]

The Dreyfus Affair in France 1894-1906 made the battle against treason and disloyalty a central theme for conservative Catholic French nationalists. Dreyfus, a Jew, was an outsider, that is in the views of intense nationalists, not a true Frenchman, not one to be trusted, not one to be given the benefit of the doubt. True loyalty to the nation, from the conservative viewpoint, was threatened by liberal and republican principles of liberty and equality that were leading the country to disaster.[36]

In the German states west of Prussia, Napoleon abolished many of the old or medieval relics, such as dissolving the Holy Roman Empire in 1806.[37] He imposed rational legal systems and demonstrated how dramatic changes were possible. His organization of the Confederation of the Rhine in 1806 promoted a feeling of nationalism.

Nationalists sought to encompass masculinity in their quest for strength and unity.[38] It was Prussian chancellor Otto von Bismarck who achieved German unification through a series of highly successful short wars against Denmark, Austria and France which thrilled the pan-German nationalists in the smaller German states. They fought in his wars and eagerly joined the new German Empire, which Bismarck ran as a force for balance and peace in Europe after 1871.[39]

In the 19th century German nationalism was promoted by Hegelian-oriented academic historians who saw Prussia as the true carrier of the German spirit, and the power of the state as the ultimate goal of nationalism. The three main historians were Johann Gustav Droysen (18081884), Heinrich von Sybel (18171895) and Heinrich von Treitschke (18341896). Droysen moved from liberalism to an intense nationalism that celebrated Prussian Protestantism, efficiency, progress, and reform, in striking contrast to Austrian Catholicism, impotency and backwardness. He idealized the Hohenzollern kings of Prussia. His large-scale History of Prussian Politics (14 vol 18551886) was foundational for nationalistic students and scholars. Von Sybel founded and edited the leading academic history journal, Historische Zeitschrift and as the director of the Prussian state archives published massive compilations that were devoured by scholars of nationalism.[40]

The most influential of the German nationalist historians, was Treitschke who had an enormous influence on elite students at Heidelberg and Berlin universities.[41] Treitschke vehemently attacked parliamentarianism, socialism, pacifism, the English, the French, the Jews, and the internationalists. The core of his message was the need for a strong, unified statea unified Germany under Prussian supervision. “It is the highest duty of the State to increase its power,” he stated. Although he was a descendant of a Czech family he considered himself not Slavic but German: “I am 1000 times more the patriot than a professor.”[42]

Italian nationalism emerged in the 19th century and was the driving force for Italian unification or the “Risorgimento” (meaning the Resurgence or revival). It was the political and intellectual movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861. The memory of the Risorgimento is central to Italian nationalism but it was based in the liberal middle classes and proved weak.[43] Two major groups remained opposed, the South (called the Mezzogiorno) and the devout Catholics. The new government treated the South as a conquered province with ridicule for its “backward” and poverty stricken society, its poor grasp of the Italian language, and its traditions. The liberals had always been strong opponents of the pope and the very well organized Catholic Church. The pope had been in political control of central Italy; he lost that in 1860 and lost Rome in 1870. He had long been the leader of opposition to modern liberalism and refused to accept the terms offered by the new government. He called himself a prisoner in the Vatican and forbade Catholics to vote or engage in politics. The Catholic alienation lasted until 1929. The liberal government under Francesco Crispi sought to enlarge his political base by emulating Bismarck and firing up Italian nationalism with a hyper-aggressive foreign policy. It crashed and his cause was set back. Historian R.J.B. Bosworth says of his nationalistic foreign policy that Crispi:

Meanwhile, a third major group emerged that was hostile to nationalism as radical socialist elements became a force in the industrial North, and they too rejected liberalism. Italy joined the Allies in the First World War after getting promises of territory, but its war effort was a fiasco that discredited liberalism and paved the way for Benito Mussolini and his fascism. That involved a highly aggressive nationalism that led to a series of wars, an alliance with Hitler’s Germany, and humiliation and hardship in the Second World War. After 1945 the Catholics returned to government and tensions eased somewhat, but the Mezzogiorno remained poor and ridiculed. The working class now voted for the Communist Party, and it looked to Moscow not Rome for inspiration, and was kept out of the national government even as it controlled industrial cities across the North. In the 21st century the Communists are gone but political and cultural tensions remained high as shown by separatist Padanian nationalism in the North.[45]

The Greek drive for independence from the Ottoman Empire in the 1820s and 1830s inspired supporters across Christian Europe, especially in Britain. France, Russia and Britain critically intervened to ensure the success of this nationalist endeavour.[46]

For centuries the Orthodox Christian Serbs were ruled by the Muslim Ottoman Empire. The success of the Serbian Revolution against Ottoman rule in 1817 marked the birth of the Principality of Serbia. It achieved de facto independence in 1867 and finally gained international recognition in 1878. Serbia had sought to liberate and unite with Bosnia and Herzegovina to the west and Old Serbia (Kosovo and Vardar Macedonia) to the south. Nationalist circles in both Serbia and Croatia (in the Habsburg Empire) began to advocate for a greater South Slavic union in the 1860s, claiming Bosnia as their common land based on shared language and tradition.[47] In 1914, Yugoslavist revolutionaries in Bosnia assassinated Archduke Ferdinand. Austria-Hungary, with German backing, tried to crush Serbia in 1914 but Russia intervened, thus igniting the First World War in which Austria dissolved into nation states.[48]

In 1918, the region of Vojvodina proclaimed its secession from Austria-Hungary to unite with Serbia; the Kingdom of Serbia joined the union with State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs on 1 December 1918, and the country was named Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. It was renamed Yugoslavia, and a Yugoslav identity was promoted, which ultimately failed. After the Second World War, Yugoslav Communists established a new socialist republic of Yugoslavia. That state broke up in the 1990s.[49]

The cause of Polish nationalism was repeatedly frustrated before 1918. In the 1790s, Austria, Prussia, and Russia invaded, annexed, and subsequently partitioned Poland. Napoleon set up the Duchy of Warsaw, a new Polish state that ignited a spirit of nationalism. Russia took it over in 1815 as Congress Poland with the tsar proclaimed as “King of Poland”. Large-scale nationalist revolts erupted in 1830 and 186364 but were harshly crushed by Russia, which tried to Russify the Polish language, culture and religion. The collapse of the Russian Empire in the First World War enabled the major powers to re-establish an independent Poland, which survived until 1939. Meanwhile, Poles in areas controlled by Germany moved into heavy industry but their religion came under attack by Bismarck in the Kulturkampf of the 1870s. The Poles joined German Catholics in a well-organized new Centre Party, and defeated Bismarck politically. He responded by stopping the harassment and cooperating with the Centre Party.[50][51]

In the late 19th and early 20th century, many Polish nationalist leaders endorsed the Piast Concept. It held there was a Polish utopia during the Piast Dynasty a thousand years before, and modern Polish nationalists should restore its central values of Poland for the Poles. Jan Poplawski had developed the “Piast Concept” in the 1890s, and it formed the centerpiece of Polish nationalist ideology, especially as presented by the National Democracy Party, known as the “Endecja,” which was led by Roman Dmowski. In contrast with the Jagiellon concept, there was no concept for a multi-ethnic Poland.[52]

The Piast concept stood in opposition to the “Jagiellon Concept,” which allowed for multi-ethnicism and Polish rule over numerous minority groups such as those in the Kresy. The Jagiellon Concept was the official policy of the government in the 1920s and 1930s. Soviet dictator Josef Stalin at Tehran in 1943 rejected the Jagiellon Concept because it involved Polish rule over Ukrainians and Belarusians. He instead endorsed the Piast Concept, which justified a massive shift of Poland’s frontiers to the west.[53] After 1945 the Soviet-back puppet communist regime wholeheartedly adopted the Piast Concept, making it the centerpiece of their claim to be the “true inheritors of Polish nationalism”. After all the killings, including Nazi German occupation, terror in Poland and population transfers during and after the war, the nation was officially declared as 99% ethnically Polish.[54]

Jewish nationalism arose in the latter half of the 19th century and was largely correlated with the Zionist movement. This term originated from the word Zion, which was one of the Torahs names for the city of Jerusalem. The end goal of the nationalists and Zionists was to establish a sovereign Jewish state in the land of Palestine. A tumultuous history of living in oppressive, foreign, and uncertain circumstances led the supporters of the movement to draft a declaration of independence, claiming Israel as a birthplace. The first and second destructions of the temple and ancient Torah prophecies largely shaped the incentives of the Jewish nationalists. Many prominent theories in Jewish theology and eschatology were formed by supporters and opposers of the movement in this era.

It was the French Revolution of 1789, which sparked new waves of thinking across Europe regarding governance and sovereignty. A shift from the traditional hierarchy-based system towards political individualism and citizen-states posed a dilemma for the Jews. Citizenship was now essential, when it came to ensuring basic legal and residential rights. This resulted in more and more Jews choosing to identify with certain nationalities in order to maintain these rights. Logic said that a nation-based system of states would require the Jews themselves to claim their own right to be considered a nation due to a distinguishable language and history. Historian David Engel has explained that Zionism was more about fear that a majority of worldwide Jews would end up dispersed and unprotected, rather than fulfilling old prophecies and traditions of historical texts.[55]

An upsurge in nationalism in Latin America in 1810s and 1820s sparked revolutions that cost Spain nearly all its colonies there.[56] Spain was at war with Britain from 1798 to 1808, and the British Royal Navy cut off its contacts with its colonies so nationalism flourished and trade with Spain was suspended. The colonies set up temporary governments or juntas which were effectively independent from Spain. The division exploded between Spaniards who were born in Spain (called “peninsulares”) versus those of Spanish descent born in New Spain (called “criollos” in Spanish or “creoles” in English). The two groups wrestled for power, with the criollos leading the call for independence. Spain tried to use its armies to fight back but had no help from European powers. Indeed, Britain[citation needed] and the United States worked against Spain, enforcing the Monroe Doctrine. Spain lost all of its American colonies, except Cuba and Puerto Rico, in a complex series of revolts from 1808 to 1826.[57]

The awakening of nationalism across Asia helped shape the history of the continent. The key episode was the decisive defeat of Russia by Japan in 1905, demonstrating the military superiority of non-Europeans in a modern war. The defeat which quickly led to manifestations of a new interest in nationalism in China, as well as Turkey, and Persia.[58] In China Sun Yat-sen (18661925) launched his new party the Kuomintang (National People’s Party) in defiance of the decrepit Empire, which was run by outsiders. Kuomintang recruits pledged:

The Kuomintang largely ran China until the Communists took over in 1949. but the latter had also been strongly influence by Sun’s nationalism as well as by the May Fourth Movement in 1919. It was a nationwide protest movement about the domestic backwardness of China and has often been depicted as the intellectual foundation for Chinese Communism.[60] The New Culture Movement stimulated by the May Fourth Movement waxed strong throughout the 1920s and 1930s. According to historian Patricia Ebrey:

In the 1880s the European powers divided up almost all of Africa (only Ethiopia and Liberia were independent). They ruled until after World War II when forces of nationalism grew much stronger. In the 1950s and 1960s the colonial holdings became independent states. The process was usually peaceful but there were several long bitter bloody civil wars, as in Algeria,[62] Kenya[63] and elsewhere. Across Africa nationalism drew upon the organizational skills that natives learned in the British and French and other armies in the world wars. It led to organizations that were not controlled by or endorsed by either the colonial powers not the traditional local power structures that were collaborating with the colonial powers. Nationalistic organizations began to challenge both the traditional and the new colonial structures and finally displaced them. Leaders of nationalist movements took control when the European authorities exited; many ruled for decades or until they died off. These structures included political, educational, religious, and other social organizations. In recent decades, many African countries have undergone the triumph and defeat of nationalistic fervor, changing in the process the loci of the centralizing state power and patrimonial state.[64][65][66]

South Africa, a British colony, was exceptional in that it became virtually independent by 1931. From 1948 to 1994, it was controlled by white Afrikaner nationalists focused on racial segregation and white minority rule known officially as apartheid. The black nationalist movement fought them until success was achieved by the African National Congress in 1994 and Nelson Mandela was elected President.[67]

Arab nationalism, a movement toward liberating and empowering the Arab peoples of the Middle East, emerged during the latter 19th century, inspired by other independence movements of the 18th and 19th centuries. As the Ottoman Empire declined and the Middle East was carved up by the Great Powers of Europe, Arabs sought to establish their own independent nations ruled by Arabs rather than foreigners. Syria was established in 1920; Transjordan (later Jordan) gradually gained independence between 1921 and 1946; Saudi Arabia was established in 1932; and Egypt achieved gradually gained independence between 1922 and 1952. The Arab League was established in 1945 to promote Arab interests and cooperation between the new Arab states.

Parallel to these efforts was the Zionist movement which emerged among European Jews in the 19th century. Beginning in 1882 Jews, predominantly from Europe, began emigrating to Ottoman Palestine with the goal of establishing a new Jewish homeland. The effort culminated in the declaration of the State of Israel in 1948. As this move conflicted with the belief among Arab nationalists that Palestine was part of the Arab nation, the neighboring Arab nations launched an invasion to claim the region. The invasion was only partly successful and led to decades of clashes between the Arab and Jewish nationalist ideologies.

There was a rise in extreme nationalism after the collapse of communism in the 1990s. When communism fell, it left many people with no identity. The people under communist rule had to integrate, and found themselves free to choose. Given free choice, long dormant conflicts rose up and created sources of serious conflict.[68] When communism fell in Yugoslavia, serious conflict arose, which led to the rise in extreme nationalism.

In his 1992 article Jihad vs. McWorld, Benjamin Barber proposed that the fall of communism will cause large numbers of people to search for unity and that small scale wars will become common; groups will attempt to redraw boundaries, identities, cultures and ideologies.[69] Communism’s fall also allowed for an “us vs. them” mentality to sprout up.[70] Governments become vehicles for social interests and the country will attempt to form national policies based on the majority, for example culture, religion or ethnicity.[68] Some newly sprouted democracies have large differences in policies on matters that ranged from immigration and human rights to trade and commerce.

Academic Steven Berg felt that at the root of nationalist conflicts is the demand for autonomy and a separate existence.[68] This nationalism can give rise to strong emotions that may lead to a group fighting to survive, especially as after the fall of communism, political boundaries did not match ethnic boundaries.[68] Serious conflicts often arose and escalated very easily as individuals and groups acted upon their beliefs, causing death and destruction.[68] When this would happen, those states who were unable to contain the conflict ran the risk of slowing their democratization progress.

Yugoslavia was established after WWI and was a merger of three separate ethnic groups; Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. The national census numbers for a ten-year span 19711981 measured an increase from 1.3 to 5.4% in their population that ethnically identified as Yugoslav.[71] This meant that the country, almost as a whole, was divided by distinctive religious, ethnic or national loyalties after nearly 50 years.

Within Yugoslavia, separating Croatia and Slovenia from the rest of Yugoslavia is an invisible line of previous conquests of the region. Croatia and Slovenia to the northwest were conquered by Catholics or Protestants, and benefited from European history; the Renaissance, French Revolution, Industrial Revolution and are more inclined towards democracy.[70] The remaining Yugoslavian territory was conquered by the Ottoman or Tsarists empires; are Orthodox or Muslims, are less economically advanced and are less inclined toward democracy.

In the 1970s the leadership of the separate territories within Yugoslavia protected only territorial interests at the expense of other territories. In Croatia, there was almost a split within the territory between Serbs and Croats so any political decision would kindle unrest, and tensions could cross the territories adjacent; Bosnia and Herzegovina.[71] Within Bosnia there was no group who had a majority; Muslim, Serb, Croat, and Yugoslav were all there so the leadership could not advance here either. Political organizations were not able to deal successfully with such diverse nationalism. Within the territories the leadership could not compromise. To do so would create a winner in one ethnic group and a loser in another, raising the possibility of a serious conflict. This strengthened the political stance promoting ethnic identities. This caused intense and divided political leadership within Yugoslavia.

In the 1980s Yugoslavia began to break into fragments.[69] The economic conditions within Yugoslavia were deteriorating. Conflict in the disputed territories was stimulated by the rise in mass nationalism and inter-ethnic hostilities.[71] The per-capita income of people in the northwest territory, encompassing Croatia and Slovenia, in contrast to the southern territory were several times higher. This combined with escalating violence from ethnic Albanians and Serbs within Kosovo intensified economic conditions.[71] This violence greatly contributed to the rise of extreme nationalism of Serbs in Serbia and within Yugoslavia. The ongoing conflict in Kosovo was propagandized by Communist Serbian Slobodan Milosevic to further increase Serb nationalism. As mentioned, this nationalism did give rise to powerful emotions which grew the force of Serbian nationalism through highly nationalist demonstrations in Vojvodina, Serbia, Montenegro, and Kosovo. Serbian nationalism was so high, Slobodan Milosevic was able to oust leaders in Vojvodina and Montenegro, further repressed Albanians within Kosovo and eventually controlled four of the eight regions/territories.[71] Slovenia, one of the four regions not under Communist control, favoring a democratic state.

Within Slovenia, fear was mounting because Milosevic was using the militia to suppress a in Kosovo, what would he do to Slovenia.[71] Half of Yugoslavia wanted to be democratic, the other wanted a new nationalist authoritarian regime. In fall of 1989 tensions came to a head and Slovenia asserted its political and economic independence from Yugoslavia and seceded. In January 1990, there was a total break with Serbia at the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, an institution conceived by Milosevic to strengthen unity and became the backdrop for the fall of communism within Yugoslavia.

In August 1990, a warning to the region was issued when ethnically divided groups attempted to alter the government structure. The republic borders established by the Communist regime in the postwar period were extremely vulnerable to challenges from ethnic communities.Ethnic communities arose because they did not share the identity with everyone within the new post-Communist borders.[71] This threatened the new governments. The same disputes were erupting that were in place prior to Milosevic and were compounded by actions from his regime.

Also within the territory the Croats and the Serbs were in direct competition for control of government. Elections were held and increased potential conflicts between Serb and Croat nationalism. Serbia wanted to be separate and decide its own future based on its own ethnic composition. But this would then give Kosovo encouragement to become independent from Serbia. Albanians in Kosovo were already independent from Kosovo. Serbia didn’t want to let Kosovo become independent. Muslims nationalists wanted their own territory but it would require a redrawing of the map, and would threaten neighboring territories. When communism fell in Yugoslavia, serious conflict arose, which led to the rise in extreme nationalism.

Nationalism again gave rise to powerful emotions which evoked in some extreme cases, a willingness to die for what you believe in, a fight for the survival of the group.[68] The end of communism began a long period of conflict and war for the region. In the six years following the collapse 200,000-500-000 people died in the Bosnian war.[72] Bosnian Muslims suffered at the hands of the Serbs and Croats.[70] The war garnered assistance from groups; Muslim, Orthodox and Western Christian as well as state actors who supplied all sides; Saudi Arabia and Iran supported Bosnia, Russia supported Serbia, Central European and Western countries including the U.S. supported Croatia, and the Pope supported Slovenia and Croatia.

Arab nationalism began to decline in the 21st century leading to localized nationalism, culminating in a series of revolts against authoritarian regimes between 2010 and 2012, known as the Arab Spring. Following these revolts, which mostly failed to improve conditions in the affected nations, Arab nationalism and even most local nationalistic movements declined dramatically.[73] A consequence of the Arab Spring as well as the 2003 invasion of Iraq were the civil wars in Iraq and Syria, which eventually joined to form a single conflict.

The rise of globalism in the late 20th century led to a rise in nationalism and populism in Europe and North America. This trend was further fueled by increased terrorism in the West (the September 11 attacks in the U.S. being a prime example), increasing unrest and civil wars in the Middle East, and waves of Muslim refugees flooding into Europe (as of 2016[update] the refugee crisis appears to have peaked).[74][75] Nationalist groups like Germany’s Pegida, France’s National Front, and the UK Independence Party gained prominence in their respective nations advocating restrictions on immigration to protect the local populations.[76][77]

In Russia, exploitation of nationalist sentiments allowed Vladimir Putin to consolidate power.[78] This nationalist sentiment was used in Russia’s annexation of Crimea in 2014 and other actions in Ukraine.[77] Nationalist movements gradually began to rise in other parts of Eastern Europe as well, Poland in particular.[79]

In a 2016 referendum, the British populace voted to withdraw the United Kingdom from the European Union (the so-called Brexit). The result had been largely unexpected and was seen as a victory of populism. The 2016 U.S. presidential campaign saw the unprecedented rise of Donald Trump, a businessman with no political experience who ran on a populist/nationalist platform and struggled to gain endorsements from mainstream political figures, even within his own party. Trump’s slogans “Make America Great Again” and “America First” exemplified his campaign’s repudiation of globalism and its staunchly nationalistic outlook. His unexpected victory in the election was seen as part of the same trend that had brought about the Brexit vote.[80]

In Japan, nationalist influences in the government developed over the course of the early 21 century, thanks in large part to the Nippon Kaigi organization. The new movement has advocated re-establishing Japan as a military power and revising historical narratives to support the notion of a moral and strong Japan.[81][82]

In 2016, Rodrigo Duterte became president of the Philippines running a distinctly nationalist campaign. Contrary to the policies of his recent predecessors, he distanced the country from the Philippines’ former ruler, the United States, and sought closer ties with China (as well as Russia).[83] During 2017, Turkish nationalism propelled President Recep Tayyip Erdoan to gain unprecedented power in a national referendum.[84] Reactions from world leaders were mixed, with Western European leaders generally expressing concern while the leaders of many of the more authoritarian regimes, as well as President Donald Trump, offered their congratulations.

Many political scientists have theorized about the foundations of the modern nation-state and the concept of sovereignty. The concept of nationalism in political science draws from these theoretical foundations. Philosophers like Machiavelli, Locke, Hobbes, and Rousseau conceptualized the state as the result of a “social contract” between rulers and individuals.[85] Weber provides the most commonly used definition of the state, “that human community which successfully lays claim to the monopoly of legitimate physical violence within a certain territory”.[86] According to Benedict Anderson, nations are “Imagined Communities”, or socially constructed institutions.[87]

Many scholars have noted the relationship between state-building, war, and nationalism. Many scholars believe that the development of nationalism in Europe (and subsequently the modern nation-state) was due to the threat of war. “External threats have such a powerful effect on nationalism because people realize in a profound manner that they are under threat because of who they are as a nation; they are forced to recognize that it is only as a nation that they can successfully defeat the threat”.[62] With increased external threats, the state’s extractive capacities increase. Jeffrey Herbst argues that the lack of external threats to countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, post-independence, is linked to weak state nationalism and state capacity .[62] Barry Posen argues that nationalism increases the intensity of war, and that states deliberately promote nationalism with the aim of improving their military capabilities.[88]

The sociological or modernist interpretation of nationalism and nation-building argues that nationalism arises and flourishes in modern societies that have an industrial economy capable of self-sustainability, a central supreme authority capable of maintaining authority and unity, and a centralized language understood by a community of people. Modernist theorists note that this is only possible in modern societies, while traditional societies typically lack the prerequisites for nationalism. They lack a modern self-sustainable economy, have divided authorities, and use multiple languages resulting in many groups being unable to communicate with each other.

Prominent theorists who developed the modernist interpretation of nations and nationalism include: Carlton J. H. Hayes, Henry Maine, Ferdinand Tnnies, Rabindranath Tagore, mile Durkheim, Max Weber, Arnold Joseph Toynbee and Talcott Parsons.

Henry Maine in his analysis of the historical changes and development of human societies noted the key distinction between traditional societies defined as “status” societies based on family association and functionally diffuse roles for individuals; and modern societies defined as “contract” societies where social relations are determined by rational contracts pursued by individuals to advance their interests. Maine saw the development of societies as moving away from traditional status societies to modern contract societies.

Ferdinand Tnnies in his book Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft (1887) defined a gemeinschaft (community) as being based on emotional attachments as attributed with traditional societies, while defining a Gesellschaft (society) as an impersonal society that is modern. While he recognized the advantages of modern societies he also criticized them for their cold and impersonal nature that caused alienation while praising the intimacy of traditional communities.

mile Durkheim expanded upon Tnnies’ recognition of alienation, and defined the differences between traditional and modern societies as being between societies based upon “mechanical solidarity” versus societies based on “organic solidarity”. Durkheim identified mechanical solidarity as involving custom, habit, and repression that was necessary to maintain shared views. Durkheim identified organic solidarity-based societies as modern societies where there exists a division of labour based on social differentiation that causes alienation. Durkheim claimed that social integration in traditional society required authoritarian culture involving acceptance of a social order. Durkheim claimed that modern society bases integration on the mutual benefits of the division of labour, but noted that the impersonal character of modern urban life caused alienation and feelings of anomie.

Max Weber claimed the change that developed modern society and nations is the result of the rise of a charismatic leader to power in a society who creates a new tradition or a rational-legal system that establishes the supreme authority of the state. Weber’s conception of charismatic authority has been noted as the basis of many nationalist governments.

Another approach emerging from biology and psychology looks at long-term evolutionary forces that might lead to nationalism. The primordialist perspective is based upon evolutionary theory.[92]

This approach has been popular with the general public but is typically rejected by experts. Laland and Brown report that “the vast majority of professional academics in the social sciences not only … ignore evolutionary methods but in many cases [are] extremely hostile to the arguments” that draw vast generalizations from rather limited evidence.[93]

The evolutionary theory of nationalism perceives nationalism to be the result of the evolution of human beings into identifying with groups, such as ethnic groups, or other groups that form the foundation of a nation. Roger Masters in The Nature of Politics describes the primordial explanation of the origin of ethnic and national groups as recognizing group attachments that are thought to be unique, emotional, intense, and durable because they are based upon kinship and promoted along lines of common ancestry.

The primordialist evolutionary views of nationalism often reference the evolutionary theories of Charles Darwin as well as Social Darwinist views of the late nineteenth century. Thinkers like Herbert Spencer and Walter Bagehot reinterpreted Darwin’s theory of natural selection “often in ways inconsistent with Charles Darwins theory of evolution” by making unsupported claims of biological difference among groups, ethnicities, races, and nations. Modern evolutionary sciences have distanced themselves from such views, but notions of long-term evolutionary change remain foundational to the work of evolutionary psychologists like John Tooby and Leda Cosmides.

Approached through the primordialist perspective, the example of seeing the mobilization of a foreign military force on the nation’s borders may provoke members of a national group to unify and mobilize themselves in response. There are proximate environments where individuals identify nonimmediate real or imagined situations in combination with immediate situations that make individuals confront a common situation of both subjective and objective components that affect their decisions. As such proximate environments cause people to make decisions based on existing situations and anticipated situations.

Critics argue that primordial models relying on evolutionary psychology are based not on historical evidence but on assumptions of unobserved changes over thousands of years and assume stable genetic composition of the population living in a specific area, and are incapable of handling the contingencies that characterize every known historical process. Robert Hislope argues:

English Historian G. P. Gooch in 1920 argued that “While patriotism is as old as human association and has gradually widened its sphere from the clan and the tribe to the city and the state, nationalism as an operative principle and an articulate creed only made its appearance among the more complicated intellectual processes of the modern world.[100]

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels declared in the Communist Manifesto that “the working men have no country”.[101]

Vladimir Lenin supported the concept of self-determination.[102]

Joseph Stalin’s Marxism and the National Question (1913) declares that “a nation is not a racial or tribal, but a historically constituted community of people;” “a nation is not a casual or ephemeral conglomeration, but a stable community of people”; “a nation is formed only as a result of lengthy and systematic intercourse, as a result of people living together generation after generation”; and, in its entirety: “a nation is a historically constituted, stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, economic life, and psychological make-up manifested in a common culture.”[103]

Historians, sociologists, and anthropologists have debated different types of nationalism since at least the 1930s.[104] Generally, the most common way of classifying nationalism has been to describe movements as having either “civic” or “ethnic” nationalist characteristics. This distinction was popularized in the 1950s by Hans Kohn who described “civic” nationalism as “Western” and more democratic while depicting “ethnic” nationalism as “Eastern” and undemocratic.[105] Since the 1980s, however, scholars of nationalism have pointed out numerous flaws in this rigid division and proposed more specific classifications and numerous varieties.[106][107]

Civic nationalism (also known as liberal nationalism) defines the nation as an association of people who identify themselves as belonging to the nation, who have equal and shared political rights, and allegiance to similar political procedures.[108] According to the principles of civic nationalism, the nation is not based on common ethnic ancestry, but is a political entity whose core identity is not ethnicity. This civic concept of nationalism is exemplified by Ernest Renan in his lecture in 1882 “What is a Nation?”, where he defined the nation as a “daily referendum” (frequently translated “daily plebiscite”) dependent on the will of its people to continue living together.[108]

Civic nationalism is a kind of non-xenophobic nationalism that is claimed to be compatible with liberal values of freedom, tolerance, equality, and individual rights.[109][111] Ernest Renan[112] and John Stuart Mill[113] are often thought to be early liberal nationalists. Liberal nationalists often defend the value of national identity by saying that individuals need a national identity to lead meaningful, autonomous lives,[115] and that liberal democratic polities need national identity to function properly.[116][117]

Civic nationalism lies within the traditions of rationalism and liberalism, but as a form of nationalism it is contrasted with ethnic nationalism. Membership of the civic nation must be voluntary, as in Ernest Renan’s classic definition of the nation in What is a Nation? (1882). Renan argued that factors such as ethnicity, language, religion, economics, geography, ruling dynasty and historic military deeds were important but not sufficient. Needed was a spiritual soul that allowed as a “daily referendum” among the people.[118] Civic-national ideals influenced the development of representative democracy in countries such as the United States and France.[36]

German philosopher Monika Kirloskar-Steinbach does not think liberalism and nationalism are compatible, but she points out there are many liberals who think they are. She states:

Ethnic nationalism, also known as ethno-nationalism, is a form of nationalism wherein the “nation” is defined in terms of ethnicity.[121] The central theme of ethnic nationalists is that “nations are defined by a shared heritage, which usually includes a common language, a common faith, and a common ethnic ancestry”.[122] It also includes ideas of a culture shared between members of the group, and with their ancestors. However, it is different from a purely cultural definition of “the nation,” which allows people to become members of a nation by cultural assimilation; and from a purely linguistic definition, according to which “the nation” consists of all speakers of a specific language.

Whereas nationalism in and of itself does imply a belief in the superiority of one ethnicity or country over others, some nationalists support ethnocentric supremacy or protectionism.

The humiliation of being a second-class citizen led minorities in multicultural states, such as The empires of Germany, Russia and the Ottomans, To define nationalism in terms of loyalty to their minority culture, especially language and religion. Forced assimilation was anathema.[123]

For the politically dominate cultural group, assimilation was necessary to minimize disloyalty and treason and therefore became a major component of nationalism. A second factor for the politically dominant group was competition with neighboring statesnationalism involved a rivalry, especially in terms of military prowess and economic strength.[124]

Economic nationalism, or economic patriotism, refers to an ideology that favors state interventionism in the economy, with policies that emphasize domestic control of the economy, labor, and capital formation, even if this requires the imposition of tariffs and other restrictions on the movement of labor, goods and capital.

Religious nationalism is the relationship of nationalism to a particular religious belief, dogma, or affiliation where a shared religion can be seen to contribute to a sense of national unity, a common bond among the citizens of the nation. Saudi Arabia, Iran, Egypt, Iraq, Hindutva, Pakistani nationalism (Two-Nation Theory), are some examples.

Left-wing nationalism (occasionally known as socialist nationalism, not to be confused with national socialism)[125] refers to any political movement that combines left-wing politics with nationalism.

Many nationalist movements are dedicated to national liberation, in the view that their nations are being persecuted by other nations and thus need to exercise self-determination by liberating themselves from the accused persecutors. Anti-revisionist MarxistLeninism is closely tied with this ideology, and practical examples include Stalin’s early work Marxism and the National Question and his socialism in one country edict, which declares that nationalism can be used in an internationalist context, fighting for national liberation without racial or religious divisions.

Other examples of left-wing nationalism include Fidel Castro’s 26th of July Movement that launched the Cuban Revolution in 1959, Cornwall’s Mebyon Kernow, Ireland’s Sinn Fin, Wales’s Plaid Cymru, the Awami League in Bangladesh, the African National Congress in South Africa and numerous movements in Eastern Europe.[126][127]

Some nationalists exclude certain groups. Some nationalists, defining the national community in ethnic, linguistic, cultural, historic, or religious terms (or a combination of these), may then seek to deem certain minorities as not truly being a part of the ‘national community’ as they define it. Sometimes a mythic homeland is more important for the national identity than the actual territory occupied by the nation.[128]

Territorial nationalists assume that all inhabitants of a particular nation owe allegiance to their country of birth or adoption .[129] A sacred quality is sought in the nation and in the popular memories it evokes. Citizenship is idealized by territorial nationalists. A criterion of a territorial nationalism is the establishment of a mass, public culture based on common values, codes and traditions of the population.

There are different types of nationalism including Risorgimento nationalism and Integral nationalism.[131][132] Whereas risorgimento nationalism applies to a nation seeking to establish a liberal state (for example the Risorgimento in Italy and similar movements in Greece, Germany, Poland during the 19th century or the civic American nationalism), integral nationalism results after a nation has achieved independence and has established a state. Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany, according to Alter and Brown, were examples of integral nationalism.

Some of the qualities that characterize integral nationalism are anti-individualism, statism, radical extremism, and aggressive-expansionist militarism. The term Integral Nationalism often overlaps with fascism, although many natural points of disagreement exist. Integral nationalism arises in countries where a strong military ethos has become entrenched through the independence struggle, when, once independence is achieved, it is believed that a strong military is required to ensure the security and viability of the new state. Also, the success of such a liberation struggle results in feelings of national superiority that may lead to extreme nationalism

Pan-nationalism is unique in that it covers a large area span. Pan-nationalism focuses more on “clusters” of ethnic groups. Pan-Slavism is one example of Pan-nationalism. The goal is to unite all Slavic people into one country. They did succeed by uniting several south Slavic people into Yugoslavia in 1918.[133]

This form of nationalism came about during the decolonization of the post war periods. It was a reaction mainly in Africa and Asia against being subdued by foreign powers. It also appeared in the non-Russian territories of the Tsarist empire and later, the USSR, where Ukrainianists and Islamic Marxists condemned Russian Bolshevik rule in their territories as a renewed Russian imperialism. This form of nationalism took many guises, including the peaceful passive resistance movement led by Mahatma Gandhi in the Indian subcontinent.[134]

Benedict Anderson argued that anti-colonial nationalism is grounded in the experience of literate and bilingual indigenous intellectuals fluent in the language of the imperial power, schooled in its “national” history, and staffing the colonial administrative cadres up to but not including its highest levels. Post-colonial national governments have been essentially indigenous forms of the previous imperial administration.[135][136]

Racial nationalism is an ideology that advocates a racial definition of national identity. Racial nationalism seeks to preserve a given race through policies such as banning race mixing and the immigration of other races. Specific examples are black nationalism and white nationalism.

Sport spectacles like football’s World Cup command worldwide audiences as nations battle for supremacy and the fans invest intense support for their national team. Increasingly people have tied their loyalties and even their cultural identity to national teams.[137] The globalization of audiences through television and other media has generated revenues from advertisers and subscribers in the billions of dollars, as the FIFA Scandals of 2015 revealed.[138] Jeff Kingston looks at football, the Commonwealth Games, baseball, cricket, and the Olympics and finds that, “The capacity of sports to ignite and amplify nationalist passions and prejudices is as extraordinary as is their power to console, unify, uplift and generate goodwill.”[139] The phenomenon is evident across most of the world.[140][141][142] The British Empire strongly emphasized sports among its soldiers and agents across the world, and often the locals joined in enthusiastically.[143] It established a high prestige competition in 1930, named the British Empire Games from 193050, the British Empire and Commonwealth Games from 195466, British Commonwealth Games from 197074 and since then the Commonwealth Games.[144]

The French Empire was not far behind the British in the use of sports to strengthen colonial solidarity with France. Colonial officials promoted and subsidized gymnastics, table games, and dance and helped football spread to French colonies.[145]

Feminist critique interprets nationalism as a mechanism through which sexual control and repression are justified and legitimised, often by a dominant masculine power. The gendering of nationalism through socially constructed notions of masculinity and femininity not only shapes what masculine and feminine participation in the building of that nation will look like, but also how the nation will be imagined by nationalists.[146] A nation having its own identity is viewed as necessary, and often inevitable, and these identities are gendered.[147] The physical land itself is often gendered as female (i.e. “Motherland”), with a body in constant danger of violation by foreign males, while national pride and protectiveness of “her” borders is gendered as masculine.[148]

History, political ideologies, and religions place most nations along a continuum of muscular nationalism.[147] Muscular nationalism conceptualises a nations identity as being derived from muscular or masculine attributes that are unique to a particular country.[147] If definitions of nationalism and gender are understood as socially and culturally constructed, the two may be constructed in conjunction by invoking an “us” versus “them” dichotomy for the purpose of the exclusion of the so-called “other,” who is used to reinforce the unifying ties of the nation.[146] The empowerment of one gender, nation or sexuality tends to occur at the expense and disempowerment of another; in this way, nationalism can be used as an instrument to perpetuate heteronormative structures of power.[149] The gendered manner in which dominant nationalism has been imagined in most states in the world has had important implications on not only individuals lived experience, but on international relations.[150] Colonialism is heavily connected to muscular nationalism, from research linking British hegemonic masculinity and empire-building,[146] to intersectional oppression being justified by colonialist images of others, a practice integral in the formation of Western identity.[151] This othering may come in the form of orientalism, whereby the East is feminized and sexualized by the West. The imagined feminine East, or other, exists in contrast to the masculine West.

The status of conquered nations can become a causality dilemma: the nation was conquered because they were effeminate and seen as effeminate because they were conquered.[146] In defeat they are considered militaristically unskilled, not aggressive, and thus not muscular. In order for a nation to be considered proper, it must possess the male-gendered characteristics of virility, as opposed to the stereotypically female characteristics of subservience and dependency.[147] Muscular nationalism is often inseparable from the concept of a warrior, which shares ideological commonalities across many nations; they are defined by the masculine notions of aggression, willingness to engage in war, decisiveness, and muscular strength, as opposed to the feminine notions of peacefulness, weakness, non-violence, and compassion.[146] This masculinized image of a warrior has been theorised to be the culmination of a series of gendered historical and social processes” played out in a national and international context.[146] Ideas of cultural dualismof a martial man and chaste womanwhich are implicit in muscular nationalism, underline the raced, classed, gendered, and heteronormative nature of dominant national identity.[147]

Nations and gender systems are mutually supportive constructions: the nation fulfils the masculine ideals of comradeship and brotherhood.[152] Masculinity has been cited as a notable factor in producing political militancy.[152] A common feature of national crisis is a drastic shift in the socially acceptable ways of being a man,[153] which then helps to shape the gendered perception of the nation as a whole.

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Nationalism – Wikipedia

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Maher: ‘The Deep State Should Be the Man of the Year’

On Friday’s broadcast of HBO’s “Real Time,” host Bill Maher argued that the “deep state” should be TIME Magazine’s man of the year. Maher said, “[W]hen he [President Trump] attacks the deep state, I always think, the deep state, first of all, you know, TIME Magazine has man of the year, even though it’s sometimes a computer or a group of people…the deep state should be the man of the year.” Maher added that the “deep state” is the government and people like former Director of the NSA and the CIA Gen. Michael Hayden (Ret.), former DNI James Clapper, former CIA Director John Brennan, former FBI Director James Comey, and former Deputy FBI Director Andrew McCabe. Follow Ian Hanchett on Twitter @IanHanchett

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Maher: ‘The Deep State Should Be the Man of the Year’

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