Judaism – HISTORY

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Judaism is the worlds oldest monotheistic religion, dating back nearly 4,000 years. Followers of Judaism believe in one God who revealed himself through ancient prophets. History is essential to understanding the Jewish faith, which is embedded in tradition, law and culture.

Jewish people believe theres only one God whos established a covenantor special agreementwith them. Their God communicates to believers through prophets and rewards good deeds while also punishing evil.

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Most Jews (with the exception of Messianic Jews and a few other groups) believe that their Messiah hasnt comebut will one day.

Today, there are about 14 million Jews worldwide. Most of them live in the United States and Israel. Traditionally, a person is considered Jewish if his or her mother is Jewish.

The Jewish sacred text is called the Tanakh or the Hebrew Bible. It includes the same books as the Old Testament in the Christian Bible, but theyre placed in a slightly different order.

The Torahthe first five books of the Tanakhoutlines laws for Jews to follow. Its sometimes also referred to as the Pentateuch.

Jewish people worship in holy places known as synagogues, and their spiritual leaders are called rabbis. The six-pointed Star of David is the symbol of Judaism.

The origins of Jewish faith are explained throughout the Torah. According to the text, God first revealed himself to a Hebrew man named Abraham, who became known as the founder of Judaism.

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Jews believe that God made a special covenant with Abraham and that he and his descendants were chosen people who would create a great nation.

Abrahams son Isaac, and his grandson Jacob, also became central figures in ancient Jewish history. Jacob took the name Israel, and his children and future generations became known as Israelites.

More than 1,000 years after Abraham, the prophet Moses led the Israelites out of Egypt after being enslaved for hundreds of years.

According to scriptures, God revealed his laws, known as the Ten Commandments, to Moses at Mt. Sinai.

Around 1000 B.C., King David ruled the Jewish people. His son Solomon built the first holy Temple in Jerusalem, which became the central place of worship for Jews.

The kingdom fell apart around 931 B.C., and the Jewish people split into two groups: Israel in the North and Judah in the South.

Sometime around 587 B.C., the Babylonians destroyed the first Temple and sent many Jews into exile.

A second Temple was built in about 516 B.C. but was eventually destroyed by the Romans in 70 A.D.

The destruction of the second Temple was significant because Jewish people no longer had a primary place to gather, so they shifted their focus to worshipping in local synagogues.

While the Tanakh (which includes the Torah) is considered the sacred text of Judaism, many other important manuscripts were composed in later years. These offered insights into how the Tanakh should be interpreted and documented oral laws that were previously not written down.

Around 200 A.D., scholars compiled the Mishnaa text that describes and explains the Jewish code of law that was previously orally communicated.

Later, the Talmud, a collection of teachings and commentaries on Jewish law, was created. The Talmud contains the Mishnah and another text known as the Gemara (which examines the Mishnah). It includes the interpretations of thousands of rabbis and outlines the importance of 613 commandments of Jewish law.

The first version of the Talmud was finalized around the 3rd century A.D. The second form was completed during the 5th century A.D.

Judaism embraces several other written texts and commentaries. One example is the 13 Articles of Faith, which was written by a Jewish philosopher named Maimonides.

Throughout history, Jewish people have been persecuted for their religious beliefs. Some well-known events include:

1066 Granada Massacre: On December 30, 1066, a Muslim mob stormed the royal palace in Granada and killed more than 1,000 Jewish families. The group also kidnapped and crucified Joseph ibn Naghrela, the Jewish vizier to the Berber king.

The First Crusade: In the first of the Crusadesa series of medieval holy wars involving Christians and Muslimsthousands of Jews were killed, and many were forced to convert to Christianity.

The Spanish Expulsion: In 1492, Spains rulers issued a royal edict that declared all Jews who refused to convert to Christianity would be expelled from the country. Experts estimate about 200,000 people were ousted and tens of thousands died while trying to reach safety.

The Holocaust: In the Holocaust, the most well-known act of modern-day atrocities, the Nazis murdered more than 6 million Jews.

During and after the Holocaust, many Jews returned to their homeland (in the Middle East region known as Palestine) and embraced Zionism, a movement for the creation of a Jewish nation that emerged in 19th-century Europe.

In 1948, Israel officially became an independent state. David Ben-Gurion, one of the leading promotors of a Jewish nation state, was given the title of prime minister.

This event was considered a success for the Jewish people who had tirelessly petitioned for an independent state in their homeland. However, tensions between Jews and Arabs living in Palestine escalated in the years since Israel became a state and are still ongoing today.

There are several sects in Judaism, which include:

Orthodox Judaism: Orthodox Jews are typically known for their strict observance of traditional Jewish law and rituals. For instance, most believe Shabbat shouldnt involve working, driving or handling money.

Orthodox Judaism is a diverse sect that includes several subgroups, including Hasidic Jews. This form started in the 18th century in Eastern Europe and holds different values than traditional or ultra-Orthodox Judaism. Hasidic Jews emphasize a mystical experience with God that involves direct communion through prayer and worship. Chabad is a well-known Orthodox Jewish, Hasidic movement.

Reform Judaism: Reform Judaism is considered a liberal category of the religion that values ethical traditions over strict observance of Jewish laws. Followers promote progressive ideas and adaptation. Most of the Jews living in the United States follow Reform Judaic traditions.

Conservative Judaism: Many people consider this form of Judaism somewhere in between Orthodox and Reform Judaism. Typically, conservative Jews honor the traditions of Judaism while allowing for some modernization.

Reconstructionist Judaism: Reconstructionism dates back to 1922 when Mordecai Kaplan founded the Society for the Advancement of Judaism. This sect believes that Judaism is a religious civilization thats constantly evolving.

Humanistic Judaism: Rabbi Sherwin Wine founded this denomination of Judaism in 1963. Humanistic Jews celebrate Jewish history and culture without an emphasis on God.

Messianic Judaism: This modern movement combines the beliefs of Judaism and Christianity. Messianic Jews believe that Jesus Christ was the Messiah but still follow Jewish traditions.

While there are various denominations of Judaism, many Jews dont identify with a particular classification and simply refer to themselves as Jewish.

The Shabbath, or Shabbat, is recognized as a day of rest and prayer for Jews. It typically begins at sunset on Friday and lasts until nightfall on Saturday.

Observing Shabbat can take many forms, depending on the type of Judaism that a Jewish family may follow. Orthodox and Conservative Jews, for example, may refrain from performing any physical labor, using any electrical device or other prohibited activities.

Most observant Jews celebrate Shabbat by reading or discussing the Torah, attending a synagogue or socializing with other Jews at Shabbat meals.

Jewish people observe several important days and events in history, such as:

Passover: This holiday lasts seven or eight days and celebrates Jewish freedom from slavery in Egypt. Specifically, Passover refers to the biblical story of when the Hebrew God passed over houses of Jewish families and saved their children during a plague that was said to have killed all other firstborn babies in Egypt.

Rosh Hashanah: Jews celebrate the birth of the universe and humanity during this holiday, which is also known as the Jewish New Year.

Yom Kippur: This Day of Atonement is considered the holiest day of the year for Jews who typically spend it fasting and praying.

The Days of Awe: The 10 days starting with Rosh Hashanah and ending with Yom Kippur are known as the Days of Awe, or Yamim Noraim. This is considered a time of repentance for Jewish people.

Hanukah: A Jewish celebration, also known as the Festival of Lights, lasts eight days. It commemorates the rededication of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem after the Maccabees defeated the Syrian-Greeks over 2,000 years ago.

Purim: This is a joyous and light holiday that celebrates a time when the Jewish people in Persia were saved from extermination.

Religion: Judaism. BBC.Ancient Jewish Texts. My Jewish Learning.The Jewish Denominations. My Jewish Learning.What is Judaism? Chabad.org.Jewish Sacred Texts. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs.Jewish Population. Judaism 101.

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Edward Snowden – IMDb

Filmography2017Die Story(TV Series documentary)Himself2016Digits(TV Mini-Series documentary)Himself2016Vice(TV Series documentary)Himself2016/IRisk(Documentary)Himself2016Freenet(Documentary)Edward Snowden2015Nova(TV Series documentary)Himself2015Panorama(TV Series documentary)Himself – Former Contractor for NSA and CIA Edit Personal Details Publicity Listings: 2 Biographical Movies | 2 Print Biographies | 6 Articles | See more

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Ashkenazi | Definition of Ashkenazi in English by Oxford …

noun

A Jew of central or eastern European descent. More than 80 per cent of Jews today are Ashkenazim; they preserve Palestinian rather than Babylonian Jewish traditions and some still use Yiddish.

Example sentences

From modern Hebrew, from Ashkenaz, grandson of Japheth, one of the sons of Noah (Gen. 10:3).

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Palestine – HISTORY

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Palestine is a small region of landroughly 2,400 square milesthat has played a prominent role in the ancient and modern history of the Middle East. Violent attempts to control land have defined much of the history of Palestine, making it the site of constant political conflict. Arab people who call this territory home are known as Palestinians, and the people of Palestine have a strong desire to create a free and independent state in a contested region of the world thats considered sacred by many groups.

Until 1948, Palestine typically referred to the geographic region located between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. Arab people who call this territory home are known as Palestinians. Much of this land is now considered present-day Israel.

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Today, Palestine theoretically includes the West Bank (a territory that divides modern-day Israel and Jordan) and the Gaza Strip (land bordering modern-day Israel and Egypt). However, control over this region is a complex and evolving situation. The borders arent formally set, and many areas claimed by Palestinians have been occupied by Israelis for years.

More than 135 United Nations member countries recognize Palestine as an independent state, but Israel and some other countries, including the United States, dont make this distinction.

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Scholars believe the name Palestine originally comes from the word Philistia, which refers to the Philistines who occupied part of the region in the 12th century B.C.

Throughout history, Palestine has been ruled by numerous groups, including the Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Fatimids, Seljuk Turks, Crusaders, Egyptians, Mamelukes and Islamists.

From about 1517 to 1917, the Ottoman Empire ruled much of the region.

When World War I ended in 1918, the British took control of Palestine. The League of Nations issued a British mandate for Palestinea document that gave Britain the responsibility of establishing a Jewish national homeland in Palestinewhich went into effect in 1923.

In 1947, the United Nations proposed a plan to partition Palestine into two sections: an independent Jewish state and an independent Arab state, with Jerusalem as internationalized territory.

Jewish leaders accepted the plan, but many Palestinian Arabs vehemently opposed it.

Arab groups argued that they represented the majority of the population in certain regions and should be granted more territory. They began to form volunteer armies throughout Palestine.

In May 1948, less than a year after the Partition of Palestine was introduced, Britain withdrew from Palestine and Israel became an independent state.

Estimates suggest between 700,000 and 900,000 Palestinians fled or were forced to leave their homes.

Almost immediately, war broke out between Jews and Arabs in the region. The 1948 Arab-Israeli War involved Israel and five Arab nationsJordan, Iraq, Syria, Egypt and Lebanon.

This conflict marked the beginning of years of violent conflict between Arabs and Israelis.

In 1964, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) was formed to create a platform for establishing a plan for a Palestinian state within Israel.

The PLO also emerged as a response to Zionism, an organized movement to reestablish a Jewish homeland in Israel. In the years after its inception, the PLO became associated with extremism and violence.

In 1969, the well-known Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat became the Chairman of the PLO and held that title until he died in 2004.

Israel attacked Egypt, Jordan and Syria between June 5 and June 10, 1967. This brief conflict, which became known as The Six-Day War, resulted in major land gains for Israel.

After the war, Israel took control of the Gaza Strip, West Bank, Sinai Peninsula (a desert region situated between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea) and Golan Heights (a rocky plateau located between Syria and modern-day Israel).The outcome of this war led to more fighting that continued for decades.

In 1987, the First Intifada broke out. This conflict was fueled by Israeli occupation of Gaza and the West Bank. Palestinian militia groups revolted, and hundreds of people were killed.

A subsequent peace process, known as the Oslo Peace Accords, was proposed to end the ongoing violence.

The first Oslo Accord (Oslo I) created a timetable for a Middle East peace process and a plan for an interim Palestinian government in parts of Gaza and the West Bank. The agreement was signed in 1993 and witnessed by Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat.

Arafat returned to Gaza in 1994 after being exiled for 27 years. He headed up the newly-formed Palestinian Authority.In 1995, Oslo II called for a complete withdrawal of Israeli troops from parts of the West Bank and other areas. It also set a schedule for Palestinian Legislative Council elections.

In September 2000, the Second Palestinian Intifada began. One of the triggers for the violence was when Ariel Sharon, who would later become Israels Prime Minister, visited al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem. Many Palestinians felt this was an offensive move, and they protested.

Riots, suicide bombings and other attacks subsequently broke out, putting an end to the promising peace process.This period of violence between Palestinians and Israelis lasted nearly five years. In 2005, the Israeli army withdrew from Gaza.

In 2006, Hamas, a Sunni Islamist militant group, won the Palestinian legislative elections.

That same year, fighting between Hamas and Fatah, the political group that controlled the PLO, ensued. In 2007, Hamas defeated Fatah in a battle for Gaza.

Many countries consider Hamas to be a terrorist organization. The group has carried out suicide bombings and repeatedly called for the destruction of Israel.

Hamas and Israel fought each other in several bloody wars, including Operation Cast Lead in December 2008, Operation Pillar of Defense in November 2012 and Operation Protective Edge in July 2014.

In April 2014, Hamas and Fatah agreed to a deal that would form a unified national Palestinian government.

Palestinians are still fighting for an official state thats formally recognized by all countries.

Although Palestinians occupy key areas of land, including the West Bank and the Gaza strip, large populations of Israelis continue to settle in these locations. Many international rights groups consider these settlements illegal, the borders arent clearly defined, and persistent conflict continues to be the norm.

In May 2017, leaders of Hamas presented a document that proposed the formation of a Palestinian state using the 1967 defined borders, with Jerusalem as its capital. However, the group refused to recognize Israel as a state, and the Israeli government promptly rejected the plan.

While so much of Palestines history has involved bloodshed, displacement, and instability, many world leaders are working toward a resolution that will result in peace throughout the region.

Palestine. Ancient History Encyclopedia.What is Palestine and Palestinians? Israel Science and Technology Directory.Everything you need to know about Israel-Palestine. Vox.com.Map: The countries that recognize Palestine as a state. Washington Post.UN Partition Plan. BBC News.The Palestinian Liberation Organisation. The History Learning Site.Timeline: History of a Revolution. Al Jazeera.Hamas accepts Palestinian state with 1967 borders. Al Jazeera.Palestine Liberation Organization. Oxford Islamic Studies Online.Oslo Accords Fast Facts. CNN.Profile: Hamas Palestinian movement. BBC News.

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Antifa | Daily Wire

What is Antifa?Antifa is a left-wing political movement that has used criminal violence, threats, and vandalism to shut down events organized or hosted by conservative, libertarian, and right-wing personalities and groups.

What doesAntifamean?Antifais an abbreviated term for “anti-fascist,” though the group itself usesviolent, fascistic practices to silence dissenting voices.Antifapits itself againstthose they declare”fascist,”using that label to justify disruption andviolence.

What are Antifa’s politics?Antifa markets itself as “anti-fascist,” “anti-racist,” and “anti-homophobia.” Thoughthe ideology of its members is not unified, it is generally grounded in Marxism and social justice. Antifaactivists are regularly seen with communist, socialist, anarchist, and neo-Marxist paraphernalia, symbols, and signage,including the Soviet hammer and sickle, the raised/clenched fist, and “anti-capitalist” messaging.

Is Antifaviolent?Antifa has been documented committing criminal violence and destroying property in shutting down conservative, libertarian or right-wing speakers and events, as has occurred in various cities and college campuses across the country.”In the name of fighting for those ideals [of the social justice left] and putting a stop to ‘hate speech’someantifaprotestors will employ militant tactics or violent means such as vandalism,”explainsTime.

Is Antifaanti-free speech?Antifa has used disruption and violent means to shut down events they deem “fascist,” which has included speakers and events espousing conservatism, libertarianism, andsupport for Donald Trump.Antifaborrows heavily from the social justice approach to speech, conflatingspeech with physical violence and promoting the idea that offensiverhetoric or “hate speech” mustbe silencedthroughextreme means, including physical assault and destruction of property.

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What does Antifa mean? – Definitions.net

Pamela Oliver:

In the 1930s, the Nazis used violence to intimidate people, antifa argues that if people resisted them then, the fascists wouldnt have gotten so big.

Tucker Carlson:

How long are you going to stay silent on Antifa? Because in their silence, its almost like theyre using Antifa to their benefitto attack free speech.

Brian Levin:

The socio-political landscape has changed, the same way white nationalists used Obama as a figure to rally about…now Antifa and anarchists see in Trump a broad-base [enemy] that has united them.

James Scott:

For Nation States, and the adversaries within America’s boarders (special interest groups, cyber caliphate, Muslim brotherhood, Antifa etc), metadata is THE silent weapon in this quiet information war.

Brian Levin:

[Antifas] list of what is fascist has grown far beyond the loathsome, Swastika-carrying white nationalists, to controversial conservatives, speakers, the police, journalists and random people who get in their way.

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Ashkenazi | definition of Ashkenazi by Medical dictionary

(redirected from Ashkenazi)Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia. In the 11th century, Ashkenazi Jews comprised 3% of the world’s Jewish population, peaking at 92% in 1931; following the holocaust in World War II, that number decreased. Ashkenazi Jews now comprise 80% of Jews worldwide.

Carrier rates, genetic diseases affecting Ashkenazi Jews Factor XI deficiency1:9 to 1:20 Gaucher disease, type 11:10 to 1:14 Non-syndrome hearing loss1:20 to 1:25 Tay-Sachs disease1:25 to 1:27 Cystic fibrosis1:29 Familial dysautonomia1:30 Glycogen storage disease type III1:35 (north African Jews) Canavan disease1:40 BRCA1, BRCA21:40 Fanconi anaemia, type C1:89 Niemann-Pick disease, type A1:90 Mucolipidosis IV1:99 Bloom syndrome1:110 Maple syrup urine disease1:113 Glycogen storage disease type 1a1:130 Abetalipoproteinemia1:131 Primary torsion dystonia1:1000 to 1:3000

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Neo-Nazis explain why they like Donald Trump

Four days before the US presidential election, white supremacists gathered for a rally in Pennsylvania.

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On November 4, 2016, the National Socialist Movement gathered for a rally in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The event was four days before the US presidential election and featured speeches given by NSM commander Jeff Schoep and National commander of the America First Committee, Arthur J. Jones Jr. At the rally, leaders discussed how Donald Trump’s presidential campaign has brought white supremacism into the mainstream and legitimized their beliefs. Mark Potok from the Southern Poverty Law Center contextualizes the event with his discussion of how Trump has created political space for extremists by courting the support and validating the beliefs of groups on the alt-right. The rally closed with discussion of how the neo-Nazi groups plan to organize a show of force on Election Day.

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Reverend Al Sharpton – Home | Facebook

“Al Sharpton is about to receive a big promotion at MSNBC, with the network planning to double the reverends on-air time with viewers and move him to a more desirable time slot.

Sharpton will move from his Sunday hour from 8 a.m. to 9 a.m., to 5 p.m. to 6 p.m. on Saturdays and Sundays, a person familiar with the matter told TheWrap. The first day of Sharptons new schedule will be Saturday Oct. 13. The show itself is expected to remain broadly the same.” Read more: https://www.thewrap.com/al-sharpton-promoted-at-msnbc-with/

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