(Afrikaans: apartness or separateness) Policy of racial segregation and political and economic discrimination against non-European groups in South Africa. The term was first used as the name of the official policy of the National Party in 1948, though racial segregation, sanctioned by law, was already widely practiced. The Group Areas Act of 1950 established residential and business sectors in urban areas for each race and strengthened the existing pass laws, which required nonwhites to carry identification papers. Other laws forbade most social contacts between those of European descent and others, authorized segregated public facilities, established separate educational standards, restricted each group to certain types of jobs, curtailed nonwhite labour unions, denied nonwhite participation in the national government, and established various black African homelands, partly self-governing units that were nevertheless politically and economically dependent on South Africa. These so-called homelands were not recognized by international governments. Apartheid was always subject to internal criticism and led to many violent protests, strikes, and acts of sabotage; it also received international censure. In 199091 most apartheid legislation was repealed, but segregation continued on a de facto basis. In 1993 a new constitution enfranchised blacks and other racial groups, and all-race national elections in 1994 produced a coalition government with a black majority. These developments marked the end of legislated apartheid, though not of its entrenched social and economic effects. See also African National Congress; racism.
January 26, 2014 Tags: 1994-produced, and-established, black-majority-, denied-nonwhite, european, existing, generated, group-areas, its-entrenched, marked-the-end, national, official, restricted-each, south-africa, which-required Posted in: Apartheid Comments Closed
Alfa Romeo 1910 – 2010 – A celebration! 1910 — 2010: Alfa Romeo celebrates a century of wins and world records. Alfa Romeo was officially established in Milan on 24 June 1910. That year, a group of entrepreneurs and businessmen acquired Societ Italiana Automobili Darracq, the Italian branch of the French car maker, and its Portello workshops on the city outskirts, and established ALFA (Anonima Lombarda Fabbrica Automobili — “Lombard Automobile Factory, Public Company”)
November 30, 2012 Tags: and-businessmen, and-established, automobili, autos-vehicles, generated, italian, nicola-romeo-, romeo, societ-italiana, stood-out-from, united-states-, vehicles--, visconti, with-the-united Posted in: World War I Comments Closed
JERUSALEM Israel cut working relations with the United Nations Human Rights Council on Monday and will bar a U.N. team from entering Israel or the West Bank for a planned investigation of Jewish settlements, the Foreign Ministry said. Israel accuses the council of having a pronounced anti-Israel bias because of what it says is its disproportionate focus on Israeli policy toward the Palestinians.
March 26, 2012 Tags: a-and-land, and-established, council, foreign, human-rights, international, israeli, palestinians, related, since-capturing, though-it-still, united, united-nations, with-the-united, yigal-palmor Posted in: Israel Comments Closed
26th March 2012 Baroness Deech urges the Polish government to enact the Terezin Declaration and provide restitution for private property stolen during the Holocaust. “The Holocaust was not only genocide, but it was also the greatest theft in history.”(Sharansky) The Nazis (and subsequently in some countries, the Communists) took people’s lives and also their cultural and religious heritage, their real and personal property, their professions and their insurance benefits. Until the end of the Cold War and the collapse of Communism, Germany was almost alone in recognising its obligations and paying reparations.
March 26, 2012 Tags: and-established, baroness-deech, before-the-war, europe, european-shoah, Holocaust, preservation, professions, terezin, wiener, wiener-library Posted in: Holocaust Comments Closed
The Ottoman Empire was deteriorating, and established the Turkish War of Independence, the foundation of the Republic of Turkey by Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk), a commander at Gallipoli. It was also the first major battle by the Australian and …
October 21, 2011 Tags: also-the-first, and-established, commander-at-gallipoli, first, foundation, gallipoli, independence-, major-battle, mustafa-kemal, ottoman, ottoman-empire, stablished-the-turkish, the-first, turkish Posted in: Republic of Turkey Comments Closed
In response, gay and lesbian activists gathered at the home of gay writer Darryl Yates Rist and established the Gay and Lesbian Anti-Defamation League , patterned on the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith. …
July 12, 2011 Tags: and-established, darryl, gathered-at-the, gay-and, gay-writer, home, league, lesbian, lesbian-activists, patterned-on-the, stablished-the-gay, the-home Posted in: Anti-Defamation League Comments Closed
The Aladdin Project, based in Paris and established in 2009 to combat Holocaust denial , was introduced to London immediately after the end of the Jews from Arab Countries conference at SOAS on 24 November.
Presently, Christianity and established churches have been TOTALLY captured and traduced, boughty and paid-for by Jew criminal master-minds, churches now preaching anti- Christian mysticism and sympathy to Jews and their lies, …
October 29, 2010 Tags: and-established, and-their, boughty-and, captured-and, christianity, churches-have, churches-now, criminal-master-minds, lies, mysticism-and, preaching-anti- Posted in: Christian Comments Closed
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