Reply to Danya Ruttenberg on Jews and Usury

I must object to Danya Ruttenberg’s recent Twitter thread on Jewish usury. The thread appears to have been prompted by a mailer sent out by Connecticut GOP State Senate candidate Ed Charamut, which shows Jewish opponent Matt Lesser clutching a fistful of cash. Criticism from Jews was almost immediate, with familiar claims that the piece […]

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ICYMI: Louis Farrakhan Chanted Death to America…in Iran

In case you missed it among all of the election chaos last week, infamous hate preacher Louis Farrakhan traveled to Iran and led a “death to America” chant while he was there.

Farrakahn deniesleading the chant, despite being caught on video doing so.

Meanwhile, he’s back in America and scheduled for a talk in Washington D.C. this weekend.

The Women’s March, which has been endorsed by Democrats across the country, has close ties to Farrakahn. Its leaders have referred to him as a mentor and essential leader in today’s politics. In recent days they’ve attempted to distance themselves from his hateful positions, which includes calling Jews “parasites.”

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The History of Palestine

History of Palestine

Zionism arrived in Palestine in the late 19th as a colonialist movement motivated by national impulses.

The colonisation of Palestine fitted well the interests and policies of the British Empire on the eve of the First World War.

With the backing of Britain, the colonisation project expanded, and became a solid presence on the land after the war and with the establishment of the British mandate in Palestine (which lasted between 1918 and 1948).

While this consolidation took place, the indigenous society underwent, like other societies in the rest of the Arab world, a steady process of establishing a national identity.

But with one difference. While the rest of the Arab world was shaping its political identity through the struggle against European colonialism, in Palestine nationalism meant asserting your collective identity against both an exploitative British colonialism and expansionist Zionism.

Thus, the conflict with Zionism was an additional burden. The pro-Zionist policy of the British mandate there naturally strained the relationship between Britain and the local Palestinian society.

This climaxed in a revolt in 1936 against both London and the expanding Zionist colonisation project.

The revolt, which lasted for three years, failed to sway the British mandate from a policy it had already decided upon in 1917. The British foreign secretary, Lord Balfour, had promised the Zionist leaders that Britain would help the movement to build a homeland for the Jewish people in Palestine.

The number of Jews coming into the country increased by the day – although even at that point, during the 1930s, the Jews were just a quarter of the population, possessing 4 percent of the land.

As resistance to colonialism strengthened, the Zionist leadership became convinced that only through a total expulsion of the Palestinians would they be able to create a state of their own.

From its early inception and up to the 1930s, Zionist thinkers propagated the need to ethnically cleanse the indigenous population of Palestine if the dream of a Jewish state were to come true.

The preparation for implementing these two goals of statehood and ethnic supremacy accelerated after the Second World War.

The Zionist leadership defined 80 percent of Palestine (Israel today without the West Bank) as the space for the future state.

This was an area in which one million Palestinians lived next to 600,000 Jews.

The idea was to uproot as many Palestinians as possible. From March 1948 until the end of that year the plan was implemented despite the attempt by some Arab states to oppose it, which failed. Some 750,000 Palestinians were expelled, 531 villages were destroyed and 11 urban neighbourhoods demolished.

Half of Palestines population was uprooted and half of its villages destroyed. The state of Israel was established in over 80 percent of Palestine, turning Palestinian villages into Jewish settlements and recreation parks, but allowing a small number of Palestinian to remain citizens in it.

The June 1967 war allowed Israel to take the remaining 20 percent of Palestine.

This seizure defeated in a way the ethnic ideology of the Zionist movement. Israel encompassed 100 percent of Palestine, but the state incorporated a large number of Palestinians, the people who Zionists made such an effort to expel in 1948.

The fact that Israel was let off easily in 1948, and not condemned for the ethnic cleansing it committed, encouraged it to ethnically cleanse a further 300,000 Palestinians from the West Bank and the Gaza strip.

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In first, U.S. votes against UN resolution condemning Israeli …

WASHINGTON The Trump administration on Friday voted for the first time against a United Nations resolution that condemned Israels occupation of the Golan Heights.

While the resolution passed easily through the UN General Assembly, with 151 yes votes and only 2 no votes, the American position represented a policy shift that could also have implications for the future. The U.S. has previously abstained from voting on the move.

The only other country other than the U.S. who voted against the resolution was Israel itself. Israel has been lobbying the Trump administration and Congress to recognize its sovereignty over the Golan Heights, which were captured from Syria in the 1967 Six Day War. So far the administration has stated it is not considering such a move, but the UN vote on Friday could hint at a change on that front.

The administration stated that it is voting against the resolution because it is extremely biased against Israel and did not provide a position on the sovereignty issue in its statement.

The Israeli government thanked the Trump administration and specifically the U.S. ambassador to the UN, Nikki Haley, for the vote.

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In apress release announcing that the U.S. would vote no, Haley said that the U.S. “will no longer abstain when the United Nations engages in its useless annual vote on the Golan Heights.”

The resolution is “biased against Israel” and in light of tensions on the Syrian border, there is no justification for supporting the move, the statement said.

The Syrian regime’s “atrocities prove its lack of fitness to govern anyone,” the statement read, adding that the Iranian presence inside Syria presents “major threats to international security” and that “ISIS and other terrorist groups remain in Syria.”

“This resolution does nothing to bring any parties closer to a peace agreement. The United States will vote no,” the statement said.

Following the announcement, Israel’s ambassador to the UN Danny Danon thanked Haley for her decision to vote “no on a despicable resolution.”

“It is time the world distinguishes those who stabilize the region from those who sow terror,” he wrote on Twitter.

Strategic Affairs Minister Gilad Erdan also responded. “The Golan is part of Israel and it will always be. There is no sane person who thinks that the Golan will return to the murderer Assad and the Iranian regime, which is trying to establish a ‘Syrian Hezbollah’ in the region,” he tweeted.

Chairman of the Yesh Atid party, Yair Lapid, thanked Haley and reiterated that the Golan Heights is part of Israel. “It’s time for the rest of the world to recognize that reality too,” he tweeted.

In a separate tweet in Hebrew, Lapid praised the decision as “another step in the right direction.”

In October, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said that the Golan Heights remains under Israeli sovereignty otherwise “Iran and Hezbollah will sit on the shores of the Sea of Galilee.”

“Israel in the Golan Heights is a guarantee for stability in the surrounding area,” Netanyahu said in a speech in the Golan Heights. The event took place against the backdrop of the arrival of Russia’s S-300 missiles to Syria.

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US to oppose UN motion condemning Israeli control of Golan …

The US will oppose for the first time a UN resolution that calls for Israel to end its occupation of the Golan Heights, in a symbolic move on an issue that Israel has been lobbying hard for since Donald Trump entered office.

Israel captured around 1,200 sq km (460 sq miles) of the strategic plateau from Syria in the 1967 Middle East war, and later effectively annexed it to international condemnation.

Washington had previously abstained from the occupied Syrian Golan resolution, which says Israels jurisdiction of the area is null and void and constitutes a flagrant violation of international law.

But the US envoy to the United Nations, Nikki Haley, announced on Thursday that the country would vote against the general assembly resolution, which is a non-binding motion voted on every year that is still likely to pass.

The United States will no longer abstain when the United Nations engages in its useless annual vote on the Golan Heights, she said in a statement. If this resolution ever made sense, it surely does not today. The resolution is plainly biased against Israel.

She argued against giving back Syrian control of the territory, saying the atrocities the Syrian regime continues to commit prove its lack of fitness to govern anyone.

During close to two years in power, Trumps administration has imposed key longstanding demands from Israels rightwing lobby that have been ignored by previous US governments.

These have most being seen as blocking Palestinian aspirations for statehood, including declaring the contested city of Jerusalem as Israels capital, shuttering Palestinian diplomatic offices in Washington, and closing its own consulate that serves the occupied West Bank and Gaza.

However, Israel has also been pressing US diplomats on other issues. In February, the prime minister, Benjamin Netanyahu, said he had asked Trump to recognise Israeli sovereignty over the Golan Heights. The country has long coveted the territory and argues the instability caused by Syrias civil war has bolstered its legitimacy there as a security buffer.

Thousands of Israelis have settled in the area, many promoting the region as a wine and tourism hotspot. Roughly 20,000 Arabic-speaking Druze, many of whom have relatives on the other side, also live there.

Trumps national security adviser, John Bolton, said in August that a formal US endorsement of Israels control over the Golan Heights was not under discussion. However, David Friedman, Trumps former personal lawyer and ambassador to Israel, said the next month that he expected Israel to keep the Golan Heights forever.

Following Haleys statement, Israels public security minister, Gilad Erdan, called it extremely important.

Israels representative to the UN, Danny Danon, thanked Haley, saying the resolution was despicable.

It is time the world distinguishes those who stabilise the region from those who sow terror, he said, in a message that Haley retweeted.

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Golan Heights | Wikipedia audio article

This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:Golan Heights

Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Writtenlanguage only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago.

Learning by listening is a great way to:- increases imagination and understanding- improves your listening skills- improves your own spoken accent- learn while on the move- reduce eye strain

Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia throughaudio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audiowhile you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try usinga bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone.

You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at:https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKf…

In case you don’t find one that you were looking for, put a comment.This video uses Google TTS en-US-Standard-D voice.

SUMMARY=======The Golan Heights (Arabic: Habatu ‘l-Jawln or Murtafatu l-Jawln, Hebrew: , Ramat HaGolan (audio) ), or simply the Golan, is a region in the Levant, spanning about 1,800 square kilometres (690 sq mi). The region defined as the Golan Heights differs between disciplines: as a geological and biogeographical region, the Golan Heights is a basaltic plateau bordered by the Yarmouk River in the south, the Sea of Galilee and Hula Valley in the west, the Anti-Lebanon with Mount Hermon in the north and Wadi Raqqad in the east; and as a geopolitical region, the Golan Heights is the area captured from Syria and occupied by Israel during the Six-Day War, territory which Israel effectively annexed in 1981. This region includes the western two-thirds of the geological Golan Heights, as well as the Israeli-occupied part of Mount Hermon.The earliest evidence of human habitation dates to the Upper Paleolithic period. According to the Bible, an Amorite Kingdom in Bashan was conquered by Israelites during the reign of King Og. Throughout the Old Testament period, the Golan was “the focus of a power struggle between the Kings of Israel and the Aramaeans who were based near modern-day Damascus.” The Itureans, an Arab or Aramaic people, settled there in the 2nd century BCE and remained until the end of the Byzantine period. Organized Jewish settlement in the region came to an end in 636 CE when it was conquered by Arabs under Umar ibn al-Khattb. In the 16th century, the Golan was conquered by the Ottoman Empire and was part of the Vilayet of Damascus until it was transferred to French control in 1918. When the mandate terminated in 1946, it became part of the newly independent Syrian Republic.Since the 1967 Six-day War, the western two-thirds of the Golan Heights has been occupied and administered by Israel, whereas the eastern third had remained under control of the Syrian Arab Republic, or later following the onset of the Syrian Civil War split between the government and opposition forces, with the UNDOF maintaining a 266 km2 buffer zone in between, to implement the ceasefire of the Purple Line. Construction of Israeli settlements began in the remainder of the territory held by Israel, which was under military administration until Israel passed the Golan Heights Law extending Israeli law and administration throughout the territory in 1981. This move was condemned by the United Nations Security Council in UN Resolution 497, which stated that “the Israeli decision to impose its laws, jurisdiction and administration in the occupied Syrian Golan Heights is null and void and without international legal effect.” Israel maintains it has a right to retain the Golan, citing the text of UN Resolution 242, which calls for “safe and recognised boundaries free from threats or acts of force”. However, the international community rejects Israeli claims to title to the territory and regards it as sovereign Syrian territory.Since the onset of the Syrian Civil War, the eastern Golan Heights have become a scene of continuous battles between the Syrian Arab Army and rebel factions of the Syrian opposition, Islamist factions and Jihadist al-Nusra Front and ISIL-affiliated militants.

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US to Vote No on UN Resolution Against Israels Presence in …

Photo Credit: courtesy, UN Watch

The United States has announced it will oppose a United Nations General Assembly committee resolution condemning Israels presence in the Golan Heights and calling on the Netanyahu government to return the region which was annexed decades ago by Israel to Syria.

In past years, the United States has abstained on the vote on the annual UN resolution entitled The Occupied Syrian Golan, scheduled for later today (Friday, November 16).

However, given the resolutions anti-Israel bias, as well as the militarization of the Syrian Golan border and a worsening humanitarian crisis, this year the United States has decided to vote No on the resolution, the announcement said.

The United States will no longer abstain when the United Nations engages in its useless annual vote on the Golan Heights. If this resolution ever made sense, it surely does not today, Ambassador Nikki Haley said in a statement.

The resolution is plainly biased against Israel. Further, the atrocities the Syrian regime continues to commit prove its lack of fitness to govern anyone. The destructive influence of the Iranian regime inside Syria presents major threats to international security.

ISIS and other terrorist groups remain in Syria. And this resolution does nothing to bring any parties closer to a peace agreement. The United States will vote no, said Ambassador Haley.

Israels Ambassador to the UN, Danny Danon, welcomed the American vote against the UN resolution condemning Israels presence in the Golan Heights.

The change in the American voting pattern is another testament to the strong cooperation between the two countries, Danon said.

I thank Ambassador Haley for her continued steadfastness with Israel and the truth. It is time for the world to distinguish between those who stabilize the region and those who sow terror.

In fact, the UN General Assembly Special Political and Decolonization Committee known as the Fourth Committee is set to adopt nine resolutions on Friday against Israel, zero against any other nation. All 193 UN member states belong to the committee.

After the Syrian regime has killed half a million of its own people, how can the UN call for more people to be handed over to Assads rule? The text is morally galling, and logically absurd.

UN Watch applauded U.S. Ambassador to the UN Nikki Haley for announcing Thursday that the United States will vote No on the Assad-backed Golan resolution, instead of abstaining as has been done in the past. More than 3,000 Palestinian Arabs in Syria have been slaughtered, maimed and expelled by the forces of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad since 2011.

The texts condemn Israel for repressive measures against Syrian citizens in the Golan Heights, reinforce the mandate of the UN Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA), and renew the mandate of the UNs special committee to investigate Israeli practices affecting the human rights of the Palestinian people and other Arabs of the Occupied Territories.

Days after the Hamas terrorist group assaulted Israeli civilians with a barrage of 460 rockets while the UNs General Assembly and Human Rights Council stayed silent the world body now adds insult to injury by adopting nine lopsided condemnations, whose only purpose is to demonize the Jewish state, pointed out UN Watch executive director Hillel Neuer.

France, Germany, Sweden and other European Union states each year support 15 out of a total of 20 resolutions adopted against Israel, Neuer noted. But those same European nations failed to introduce a single UNGA resolution this year on the human rights situation in China, Venezuela, Saudi Arabia, Belarus, Cuba, Turkey, Pakistan, Vietnam, Algeria, or on 175 other countries.

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Germany – World War II | Britannica.com

World War II is appropriately called Hitlers war. Germany was so extraordinarily successful in the first two years that Hitler came close to realizing his aim of establishing hegemony in Europe. But his triumphs were not part of a strategic conception that secured victory in the long run. Nonetheless, the early successes were spectacular. After the defeat of Poland within a month, Hitler turned his attention westward. He believed that it was necessary to defeat Britain and France before he could again turn eastward to the territories that were to become the living space for his new empire. The attack on the Western Front began in the spring of 1940. Hitler took Denmark and Norway during the course of a few days in April, and on May 10 he attacked France, along with Luxembourg, Belgium, and The Netherlands. Once again his armies achieved lightning victories; Luxembourg, Belgium, and The Netherlands were overrun in a few days, and France capitulated on June 21. Only the British, now alone, obstructed Hitlers path to total victory in the west.

Hitler determined that he could take Britain out of the war with air power. German bombers began their attack in August 1940, but the British proved intractable. The vaunted German air force (Luftwaffe) failed to bring Britain to its knees partly because of the strength of the British air force, partly because the German air force was ill-equipped for the task, and partly because the British were able to read German code (see Ultra). Yet Hitler had been so confident of a quick victory that, even before the attack began, he had ordered his military planners to draw up plans for an invasion of the Soviet Union. The date he had set for that invasion was May 15, 1941.

Although the defeat of the Soviet Union was central to Hitlers strategic objective, during the early months of 1941 he allowed himself to be sidetracked twice into conflicts that delayed his invasion. In both instances he felt obliged to rescue his ally Mussolini from military difficulties. Mussolini had invaded Greece in October 1940, despite the fact that he was already in difficulty in North Africa, where he was unable to cut off Britains Mediterranean lifeline in Egypt. In February 1941 Hitler decided to reinforce Mussolini in North Africa by sending an armoured division under the command of General Erwin Rommel. When Mussolinis invasion of Greece also bogged down, Hitler again decided to send reinforcements. To reach Greece, German troops had to be sent through the Balkan countries, all of them officially neutral. Hitler managed to bully these countries into accepting the passage of German troops, but on March 27 a coup in Yugoslavia overthrew the government, and the new rulers reneged on the agreement. In retaliation Hitler launched what he called Operation Punishment against the Yugoslavs. Yugoslav resistance collapsed quickly, but the effect was to delay for another month the planned invasion of the Soviet Union.

When the invasion of the Soviet Union finally came, on June 22, 1941, it did so with both campaigns against the British, across the English Channel and in the Mediterranean, still incomplete. Hitler was prepared to take the risk that fighting on multiple fronts entailed, because he was convinced that the war against the Soviet Union would be over by the onset of the Russian winter. The spectacular German advances during the first weeks of the invasion seemed proof of Hitlers calculation. On July 3 his army chief of staff wrote in his war diary that the war had been won. The German Army Group North was approaching Leningrad; Army Group Centre had broken through the Soviet defenses and was rushing toward Moscow; and Army Group South had already captured vast reaches of Ukraine. The prospect of capturing the summer harvest of Ukraine along with the oil fields of the Caucasus led Hitler to transfer troops driving toward Moscow to reinforce those operating in the south.

Hitlers generals later considered this decision a turning point in the war. The effect was to delay until October the drive toward Moscow. By then an early winter had set in, greatly impeding the German advance and finally bringing it to a halt at the outskirts of Moscow in early December. Then, on December 6, the Soviets, having had time to regroup, launched a massive counteroffensive to relieve their capital city. On the following day the Japanese, nominally Germanys ally, launched their attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. Although they had not bothered to inform Hitler of their intentions, he was jubilant when he heard the news. Now it is impossible for us to lose the war, he told his aides. On December 11 he declared war on the United States.

Though his plans for a quick defeat of the Soviet Union had not been realized, Hitlers troops at the end of 1941 controlled much of the European territory of the Soviet Union. They stood at the outskirts of Leningrad and Moscow and were in control of all of Ukraine. To prepare for what would now have to be the campaign of 1942, Hitler dismissed a number of generals and assumed himself the strategic and operational command of the armies on the Eastern Front.

At the high point of Hitlers military successes in the Soviet Union, members of the Nazi leadership were, with Hitlers understanding, feverishly planning for the new order they intended to impose on the conquered territories. Its realization called both for the removal of obstacles to German settlements and for a solution to the Jewish problem. Nazi planners were drafting an elaborate scheme, General Plan East, for the future reorganization of eastern Europe and the western Soviet Union, which called for the elimination of 30 million or more Slavs and the settlement of their territories by German overlords who would control and eventually repopulate the area with Germans. During the fall of 1941 Himmlers SS expanded and refurbished with gas chambers and crematoriums an old Austrian army barracks near the Polish rail junction at Auschwitz. Here was to continue, with greater efficiency, the Holocaustthe mass murder of Jews that had begun with the June invasion, when SS Einsatzgruppen (deployment groups) began rounding up Jews and shooting them by the thousands. The assurance of victory in the east, the heartland of European Jewry, convinced the Nazis that they could implement a final solution to the Jewish problem. Experts estimate that ultimately some six million Jews were murdered in the death factories of eastern Europe. At least an equal number of non-Jews died of murder and starvation in places like Auschwitz, including two and a half million Soviet prisoners of war and countless others from eastern European nationalities.

The success of Nazi armies until the end of 1941 had made it possible to spare German civilians on the home front from the misery and sacrifices demanded of them during World War I. Hitlers imagination, however, was haunted by the memory of the collapse of the home front in 1918, and, to avoid a repetition, the Nazis looted the occupied territories of food and raw materials as well as labour. Food shortages in Germany were not serious until late in the war. Women were allowed to stay at home, and the energies of the German workforce were not stretched to their limits, because eventually some seven million foreign slave labourers were used to keep the war effort going.

Through much of 1942 an ultimate German victory still seemed possible. The renewed offensive in the Soviet Union in the spring at first continued the successes of the previous year. Once again Hitler chose to concentrate on the capture of the Caucasus and its oil at the expense of the Moscow front. The decision entailed a major battle over the industrial centre at Stalingrad (now Volgograd). Elsewhere, by midsummer of 1942, Rommels Afrika Korps advanced to within 65 miles (105 km) of Alexandria in Egypt. In the naval battle for control of the Atlantic sea lanes, German submarines maintained their ability to intercept Allied shipping into mid-1943.

By early 1943, however, the tide had clearly begun to turn. The great winter battle at Stalingrad brought Hitler his first major defeat. His entire Sixth Army was killed or captured. In North Africa Rommels long success ended in late 1942 when the British broke through at El Alamein. At the same time, a joint British-American force landed in northwestern Africa, on the coast of Morocco and Algeria. By May 1943 the German and Italian forces in North Africa were ready to surrender. That same summer the Allies broke the back of the German submarine campaign in the Atlantic. On July 10 the Allies landed in Sicily. Two weeks later Mussolini was overthrown, and in early September the Italians withdrew from the war.

The addition of an Italian front made the rollback of German forces on all fronts that much more likely. In the Soviet Union, German forces were stretched across 2,500 miles (4,000 km). They had lost their air superiority when Allied bombing raids on German cities forced the withdrawal of large numbers of fighter planes. British and American bombings reached a high point in midsummer when a raid on Hamburg killed 40,000 of its inhabitants. Similar air raids killed hundreds of thousands of German civilians and leveled large areas of most German cities. Shortages of food, clothing, and housing began to afflict German cities as inevitably as did the Allied bombers.

The rollback of German forces continued inexorably during 1944. On June 6 the Allies in the west launched their invasion of France across the English Channel. In the east the Soviet army was advancing along the entire 2,500-mile front. By the end of the year, it stood poised on the eastern frontiers of prewar Germany. In the west, British and American troops stood ready to attack across the western borders.

On the German home front, 1944 became a year of acute suffering. On July 20, officers carried out a plot, part of a long-simmering opposition to Hitler from within German military and civilian circles, but Hitler managed to escape the dramatic attempt on his life practically unharmed. He attributed his survival of the July Plot to his selection by fate to succeed in his mission of restoring Germany to greatness.

Fate did not again intervene on Hitlers behalf. In mid-January of 1945 he withdrew underground into his bunker in Berlin where he remained until his suicide on April 30. By that time Soviet soldiers were streaming into Berlin. All that remained of the Reich was a narrow wedge of territory running southward from Berlin into Austria.

With the Soviet army in control of Berlin and the Western Allies within striking distance to the west and the south, there was no prospect of dividing them. Nonetheless, when Hitlers successor, Grand Admiral Karl Dnitz, sought to open negotiations for a surrender a few days after Hitlers death, he still hoped that a separate surrender to the British and Americans in the west might allow the Reich to rescue something from the Soviets in the east. The Western Allies, fearful of any move that might feed the suspicions of Stalin, refused to consider the German proposal, insisting that a German surrender be signed with all the Allies at the same time. Early in the morning of May 7, 1945, a German delegation came to U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhowers headquarters in Rheims, France, and at 2:41 am signed the surrender documents. Despite the fact that a Soviet major general signed for the Soviet Union, Stalin insisted that a second surrender ceremony take place in Soviet-occupied Berlin. This second surrender was signed in a Berlin suburb the following afternoon.

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Germany – World War II | Britannica.com

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On Marthas Vineyard, a Frosty Summer for Alan Dershowitz …

In a Washington restaurant on Monday, a woman with a toddler approached Scott Pruitt, the administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, and told him to resign over his policies and his repeated spending scandals. Kirstjen Nielsen, the homeland security secretary, was interrupted at a Mexican restaurant last month as protesters chanted during her meal. Employees at a Virginia restaurant urged the owner to ask Sarah Huckabee Sanders, the White House press secretary, to leave in response to Trump administration policies, including the deeply unpopular practice of separating migrant children from their parents at the border.

Now the debate has reached far beyond the capital, to a place that has long been both an escape for the wealthy and an open forum for intellectual debate, where figures like Valerie Jarrett, Vernon Jordan and Carly Simon can be spotted playing golf, chatting at a cocktail party, or picking up local vegetables at a farm stand. On the Vineyard, Mr. Dershowitz is one of the most outspoken defenders of Mr. Trump, in a place frequented for decades by Kennedys, Clintons, Obamas and other Democratic royalty.

Its rare that I meet a real Trump supporter among the summer crowd, said Tony Horwitz, a Pulitzer Prize-winning author and year-round resident of the Vineyard.

Mr. Dershowitz is not the first high-profile figure on this island whose views have been met with disapproval: In 1972, an artist was reported to have tried to throw Robert S. McNamara, the defense secretary who was an architect of the Vietnam War, overboard from the ferry to Marthas Vineyard.

In a phone interview from his Chilmark home, Mr. Dershowitz said that he has not supported Mr. Trumps political agenda, but has merely defended the presidents civil liberties, as he would for any person. Mr. Dershowitz said that a Vineyard friend who is a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology had led an email campaign against him; he declined to name the professor.

Theres a whole cabal of people who have decided that they will try to get people to stop interacting with me, Mr. Dershowitz said. The campaign has utterly failed. Its affected my life zero. Im not looking for sympathy.

But he said that something had shifted on the island over the years, that opposing viewpoints were less welcome. Anybody who wants to debate me, fine, Mr. Dershowitz said, suggesting that he might set up chairs for debate at the Chilmark Community Center and invite anyone to attend.

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Reply to Danya Ruttenberg on Jews and Usury

I must object to Danya Ruttenberg’s recent Twitter thread on Jewish usury. The thread appears to have been prompted by a mailer sent out by Connecticut GOP State Senate candidate Ed Charamut, which shows Jewish opponent Matt Lesser clutching a fistful of cash. Criticism from Jews was almost immediate, with familiar claims that the piece […]

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ICYMI: Louis Farrakhan Chanted Death to America…in Iran

In case you missed it among all of the election chaos last week, infamous hate preacher Louis Farrakhan traveled to Iran and led a “death to America” chant while he was there. Farrakahn deniesleading the chant, despite being caught on video doing so. Meanwhile, he’s back in America and scheduled for a talk in Washington D.C. this weekend. The Women’s March, which has been endorsed by Democrats across the country, has close ties to Farrakahn. Its leaders have referred to him as a mentor and essential leader in today’s politics. In recent days they’ve attempted to distance themselves from his hateful positions, which includes calling Jews “parasites.”

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The History of Palestine

History of Palestine Zionism arrived in Palestine in the late 19th as a colonialist movement motivated by national impulses. The colonisation of Palestine fitted well the interests and policies of the British Empire on the eve of the First World War. With the backing of Britain, the colonisation project expanded, and became a solid presence on the land after the war and with the establishment of the British mandate in Palestine (which lasted between 1918 and 1948). While this consolidation took place, the indigenous society underwent, like other societies in the rest of the Arab world, a steady process of establishing a national identity. But with one difference. While the rest of the Arab world was shaping its political identity through the struggle against European colonialism, in Palestine nationalism meant asserting your collective identity against both an exploitative British colonialism and expansionist Zionism. Thus, the conflict with Zionism was an additional burden. The pro-Zionist policy of the British mandate there naturally strained the relationship between Britain and the local Palestinian society. This climaxed in a revolt in 1936 against both London and the expanding Zionist colonisation project. The revolt, which lasted for three years, failed to sway the British mandate from a policy it had already decided upon in 1917. The British foreign secretary, Lord Balfour, had promised the Zionist leaders that Britain would help the movement to build a homeland for the Jewish people in Palestine. The number of Jews coming into the country increased by the day – although even at that point, during the 1930s, the Jews were just a quarter of the population, possessing 4 percent of the land. As resistance to colonialism strengthened, the Zionist leadership became convinced that only through a total expulsion of the Palestinians would they be able to create a state of their own. From its early inception and up to the 1930s, Zionist thinkers propagated the need to ethnically cleanse the indigenous population of Palestine if the dream of a Jewish state were to come true. The preparation for implementing these two goals of statehood and ethnic supremacy accelerated after the Second World War. The Zionist leadership defined 80 percent of Palestine (Israel today without the West Bank) as the space for the future state. This was an area in which one million Palestinians lived next to 600,000 Jews. The idea was to uproot as many Palestinians as possible. From March 1948 until the end of that year the plan was implemented despite the attempt by some Arab states to oppose it, which failed. Some 750,000 Palestinians were expelled, 531 villages were destroyed and 11 urban neighbourhoods demolished. Half of Palestines population was uprooted and half of its villages destroyed. The state of Israel was established in over 80 percent of Palestine, turning Palestinian villages into Jewish settlements and recreation parks, but allowing a small number of Palestinian to remain citizens in it. The June 1967 war allowed Israel to take the remaining 20 percent of Palestine. This seizure defeated in a way the ethnic ideology of the Zionist movement. Israel encompassed 100 percent of Palestine, but the state incorporated a large number of Palestinians, the people who Zionists made such an effort to expel in 1948. The fact that Israel was let off easily in 1948, and not condemned for the ethnic cleansing it committed, encouraged it to ethnically cleanse a further 300,000 Palestinians from the West Bank and the Gaza strip.

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In first, U.S. votes against UN resolution condemning Israeli …

WASHINGTON The Trump administration on Friday voted for the first time against a United Nations resolution that condemned Israels occupation of the Golan Heights. While the resolution passed easily through the UN General Assembly, with 151 yes votes and only 2 no votes, the American position represented a policy shift that could also have implications for the future. The U.S. has previously abstained from voting on the move. The only other country other than the U.S. who voted against the resolution was Israel itself. Israel has been lobbying the Trump administration and Congress to recognize its sovereignty over the Golan Heights, which were captured from Syria in the 1967 Six Day War. So far the administration has stated it is not considering such a move, but the UN vote on Friday could hint at a change on that front. The administration stated that it is voting against the resolution because it is extremely biased against Israel and did not provide a position on the sovereignty issue in its statement. The Israeli government thanked the Trump administration and specifically the U.S. ambassador to the UN, Nikki Haley, for the vote. We’ve got more newsletters we think you’ll find interesting. Please try again later. The email address you have provided is already registered. In apress release announcing that the U.S. would vote no, Haley said that the U.S. “will no longer abstain when the United Nations engages in its useless annual vote on the Golan Heights.” The resolution is “biased against Israel” and in light of tensions on the Syrian border, there is no justification for supporting the move, the statement said. The Syrian regime’s “atrocities prove its lack of fitness to govern anyone,” the statement read, adding that the Iranian presence inside Syria presents “major threats to international security” and that “ISIS and other terrorist groups remain in Syria.” “This resolution does nothing to bring any parties closer to a peace agreement. The United States will vote no,” the statement said. Following the announcement, Israel’s ambassador to the UN Danny Danon thanked Haley for her decision to vote “no on a despicable resolution.” “It is time the world distinguishes those who stabilize the region from those who sow terror,” he wrote on Twitter. Strategic Affairs Minister Gilad Erdan also responded. “The Golan is part of Israel and it will always be. There is no sane person who thinks that the Golan will return to the murderer Assad and the Iranian regime, which is trying to establish a ‘Syrian Hezbollah’ in the region,” he tweeted. Chairman of the Yesh Atid party, Yair Lapid, thanked Haley and reiterated that the Golan Heights is part of Israel. “It’s time for the rest of the world to recognize that reality too,” he tweeted. In a separate tweet in Hebrew, Lapid praised the decision as “another step in the right direction.” In October, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said that the Golan Heights remains under Israeli sovereignty otherwise “Iran and Hezbollah will sit on the shores of the Sea of Galilee.” “Israel in the Golan Heights is a guarantee for stability in the surrounding area,” Netanyahu said in a speech in the Golan Heights. The event took place against the backdrop of the arrival of Russia’s S-300 missiles to Syria.

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US to oppose UN motion condemning Israeli control of Golan …

The US will oppose for the first time a UN resolution that calls for Israel to end its occupation of the Golan Heights, in a symbolic move on an issue that Israel has been lobbying hard for since Donald Trump entered office. Israel captured around 1,200 sq km (460 sq miles) of the strategic plateau from Syria in the 1967 Middle East war, and later effectively annexed it to international condemnation. Washington had previously abstained from the occupied Syrian Golan resolution, which says Israels jurisdiction of the area is null and void and constitutes a flagrant violation of international law. But the US envoy to the United Nations, Nikki Haley, announced on Thursday that the country would vote against the general assembly resolution, which is a non-binding motion voted on every year that is still likely to pass. The United States will no longer abstain when the United Nations engages in its useless annual vote on the Golan Heights, she said in a statement. If this resolution ever made sense, it surely does not today. The resolution is plainly biased against Israel. She argued against giving back Syrian control of the territory, saying the atrocities the Syrian regime continues to commit prove its lack of fitness to govern anyone. During close to two years in power, Trumps administration has imposed key longstanding demands from Israels rightwing lobby that have been ignored by previous US governments. These have most being seen as blocking Palestinian aspirations for statehood, including declaring the contested city of Jerusalem as Israels capital, shuttering Palestinian diplomatic offices in Washington, and closing its own consulate that serves the occupied West Bank and Gaza. However, Israel has also been pressing US diplomats on other issues. In February, the prime minister, Benjamin Netanyahu, said he had asked Trump to recognise Israeli sovereignty over the Golan Heights. The country has long coveted the territory and argues the instability caused by Syrias civil war has bolstered its legitimacy there as a security buffer. Thousands of Israelis have settled in the area, many promoting the region as a wine and tourism hotspot. Roughly 20,000 Arabic-speaking Druze, many of whom have relatives on the other side, also live there. Trumps national security adviser, John Bolton, said in August that a formal US endorsement of Israels control over the Golan Heights was not under discussion. However, David Friedman, Trumps former personal lawyer and ambassador to Israel, said the next month that he expected Israel to keep the Golan Heights forever. Following Haleys statement, Israels public security minister, Gilad Erdan, called it extremely important. Israels representative to the UN, Danny Danon, thanked Haley, saying the resolution was despicable. It is time the world distinguishes those who stabilise the region from those who sow terror, he said, in a message that Haley retweeted.

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Golan Heights | Wikipedia audio article

This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:Golan Heights Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Writtenlanguage only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to:- increases imagination and understanding- improves your listening skills- improves your own spoken accent- learn while on the move- reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia throughaudio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audiowhile you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try usinga bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at:https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKf… In case you don’t find one that you were looking for, put a comment.This video uses Google TTS en-US-Standard-D voice. SUMMARY=======The Golan Heights (Arabic: Habatu ‘l-Jawln or Murtafatu l-Jawln, Hebrew: , Ramat HaGolan (audio) ), or simply the Golan, is a region in the Levant, spanning about 1,800 square kilometres (690 sq mi). The region defined as the Golan Heights differs between disciplines: as a geological and biogeographical region, the Golan Heights is a basaltic plateau bordered by the Yarmouk River in the south, the Sea of Galilee and Hula Valley in the west, the Anti-Lebanon with Mount Hermon in the north and Wadi Raqqad in the east; and as a geopolitical region, the Golan Heights is the area captured from Syria and occupied by Israel during the Six-Day War, territory which Israel effectively annexed in 1981. This region includes the western two-thirds of the geological Golan Heights, as well as the Israeli-occupied part of Mount Hermon.The earliest evidence of human habitation dates to the Upper Paleolithic period. According to the Bible, an Amorite Kingdom in Bashan was conquered by Israelites during the reign of King Og. Throughout the Old Testament period, the Golan was “the focus of a power struggle between the Kings of Israel and the Aramaeans who were based near modern-day Damascus.” The Itureans, an Arab or Aramaic people, settled there in the 2nd century BCE and remained until the end of the Byzantine period. Organized Jewish settlement in the region came to an end in 636 CE when it was conquered by Arabs under Umar ibn al-Khattb. In the 16th century, the Golan was conquered by the Ottoman Empire and was part of the Vilayet of Damascus until it was transferred to French control in 1918. When the mandate terminated in 1946, it became part of the newly independent Syrian Republic.Since the 1967 Six-day War, the western two-thirds of the Golan Heights has been occupied and administered by Israel, whereas the eastern third had remained under control of the Syrian Arab Republic, or later following the onset of the Syrian Civil War split between the government and opposition forces, with the UNDOF maintaining a 266 km2 buffer zone in between, to implement the ceasefire of the Purple Line. Construction of Israeli settlements began in the remainder of the territory held by Israel, which was under military administration until Israel passed the Golan Heights Law extending Israeli law and administration throughout the territory in 1981. This move was condemned by the United Nations Security Council in UN Resolution 497, which stated that “the Israeli decision to impose its laws, jurisdiction and administration in the occupied Syrian Golan Heights is null and void and without international legal effect.” Israel maintains it has a right to retain the Golan, citing the text of UN Resolution 242, which calls for “safe and recognised boundaries free from threats or acts of force”. However, the international community rejects Israeli claims to title to the territory and regards it as sovereign Syrian territory.Since the onset of the Syrian Civil War, the eastern Golan Heights have become a scene of continuous battles between the Syrian Arab Army and rebel factions of the Syrian opposition, Islamist factions and Jihadist al-Nusra Front and ISIL-affiliated militants.

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US to Vote No on UN Resolution Against Israels Presence in …

Photo Credit: courtesy, UN Watch The United States has announced it will oppose a United Nations General Assembly committee resolution condemning Israels presence in the Golan Heights and calling on the Netanyahu government to return the region which was annexed decades ago by Israel to Syria. In past years, the United States has abstained on the vote on the annual UN resolution entitled The Occupied Syrian Golan, scheduled for later today (Friday, November 16). However, given the resolutions anti-Israel bias, as well as the militarization of the Syrian Golan border and a worsening humanitarian crisis, this year the United States has decided to vote No on the resolution, the announcement said. The United States will no longer abstain when the United Nations engages in its useless annual vote on the Golan Heights. If this resolution ever made sense, it surely does not today, Ambassador Nikki Haley said in a statement. The resolution is plainly biased against Israel. Further, the atrocities the Syrian regime continues to commit prove its lack of fitness to govern anyone. The destructive influence of the Iranian regime inside Syria presents major threats to international security. ISIS and other terrorist groups remain in Syria. And this resolution does nothing to bring any parties closer to a peace agreement. The United States will vote no, said Ambassador Haley. Israels Ambassador to the UN, Danny Danon, welcomed the American vote against the UN resolution condemning Israels presence in the Golan Heights. The change in the American voting pattern is another testament to the strong cooperation between the two countries, Danon said. I thank Ambassador Haley for her continued steadfastness with Israel and the truth. It is time for the world to distinguish between those who stabilize the region and those who sow terror. In fact, the UN General Assembly Special Political and Decolonization Committee known as the Fourth Committee is set to adopt nine resolutions on Friday against Israel, zero against any other nation. All 193 UN member states belong to the committee. After the Syrian regime has killed half a million of its own people, how can the UN call for more people to be handed over to Assads rule? The text is morally galling, and logically absurd. UN Watch applauded U.S. Ambassador to the UN Nikki Haley for announcing Thursday that the United States will vote No on the Assad-backed Golan resolution, instead of abstaining as has been done in the past. More than 3,000 Palestinian Arabs in Syria have been slaughtered, maimed and expelled by the forces of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad since 2011. The texts condemn Israel for repressive measures against Syrian citizens in the Golan Heights, reinforce the mandate of the UN Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA), and renew the mandate of the UNs special committee to investigate Israeli practices affecting the human rights of the Palestinian people and other Arabs of the Occupied Territories. Days after the Hamas terrorist group assaulted Israeli civilians with a barrage of 460 rockets while the UNs General Assembly and Human Rights Council stayed silent the world body now adds insult to injury by adopting nine lopsided condemnations, whose only purpose is to demonize the Jewish state, pointed out UN Watch executive director Hillel Neuer. France, Germany, Sweden and other European Union states each year support 15 out of a total of 20 resolutions adopted against Israel, Neuer noted. But those same European nations failed to introduce a single UNGA resolution this year on the human rights situation in China, Venezuela, Saudi Arabia, Belarus, Cuba, Turkey, Pakistan, Vietnam, Algeria, or on 175 other countries.

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Germany – World War II | Britannica.com

World War II is appropriately called Hitlers war. Germany was so extraordinarily successful in the first two years that Hitler came close to realizing his aim of establishing hegemony in Europe. But his triumphs were not part of a strategic conception that secured victory in the long run. Nonetheless, the early successes were spectacular. After the defeat of Poland within a month, Hitler turned his attention westward. He believed that it was necessary to defeat Britain and France before he could again turn eastward to the territories that were to become the living space for his new empire. The attack on the Western Front began in the spring of 1940. Hitler took Denmark and Norway during the course of a few days in April, and on May 10 he attacked France, along with Luxembourg, Belgium, and The Netherlands. Once again his armies achieved lightning victories; Luxembourg, Belgium, and The Netherlands were overrun in a few days, and France capitulated on June 21. Only the British, now alone, obstructed Hitlers path to total victory in the west. Hitler determined that he could take Britain out of the war with air power. German bombers began their attack in August 1940, but the British proved intractable. The vaunted German air force (Luftwaffe) failed to bring Britain to its knees partly because of the strength of the British air force, partly because the German air force was ill-equipped for the task, and partly because the British were able to read German code (see Ultra). Yet Hitler had been so confident of a quick victory that, even before the attack began, he had ordered his military planners to draw up plans for an invasion of the Soviet Union. The date he had set for that invasion was May 15, 1941. Although the defeat of the Soviet Union was central to Hitlers strategic objective, during the early months of 1941 he allowed himself to be sidetracked twice into conflicts that delayed his invasion. In both instances he felt obliged to rescue his ally Mussolini from military difficulties. Mussolini had invaded Greece in October 1940, despite the fact that he was already in difficulty in North Africa, where he was unable to cut off Britains Mediterranean lifeline in Egypt. In February 1941 Hitler decided to reinforce Mussolini in North Africa by sending an armoured division under the command of General Erwin Rommel. When Mussolinis invasion of Greece also bogged down, Hitler again decided to send reinforcements. To reach Greece, German troops had to be sent through the Balkan countries, all of them officially neutral. Hitler managed to bully these countries into accepting the passage of German troops, but on March 27 a coup in Yugoslavia overthrew the government, and the new rulers reneged on the agreement. In retaliation Hitler launched what he called Operation Punishment against the Yugoslavs. Yugoslav resistance collapsed quickly, but the effect was to delay for another month the planned invasion of the Soviet Union. When the invasion of the Soviet Union finally came, on June 22, 1941, it did so with both campaigns against the British, across the English Channel and in the Mediterranean, still incomplete. Hitler was prepared to take the risk that fighting on multiple fronts entailed, because he was convinced that the war against the Soviet Union would be over by the onset of the Russian winter. The spectacular German advances during the first weeks of the invasion seemed proof of Hitlers calculation. On July 3 his army chief of staff wrote in his war diary that the war had been won. The German Army Group North was approaching Leningrad; Army Group Centre had broken through the Soviet defenses and was rushing toward Moscow; and Army Group South had already captured vast reaches of Ukraine. The prospect of capturing the summer harvest of Ukraine along with the oil fields of the Caucasus led Hitler to transfer troops driving toward Moscow to reinforce those operating in the south. Hitlers generals later considered this decision a turning point in the war. The effect was to delay until October the drive toward Moscow. By then an early winter had set in, greatly impeding the German advance and finally bringing it to a halt at the outskirts of Moscow in early December. Then, on December 6, the Soviets, having had time to regroup, launched a massive counteroffensive to relieve their capital city. On the following day the Japanese, nominally Germanys ally, launched their attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. Although they had not bothered to inform Hitler of their intentions, he was jubilant when he heard the news. Now it is impossible for us to lose the war, he told his aides. On December 11 he declared war on the United States. Though his plans for a quick defeat of the Soviet Union had not been realized, Hitlers troops at the end of 1941 controlled much of the European territory of the Soviet Union. They stood at the outskirts of Leningrad and Moscow and were in control of all of Ukraine. To prepare for what would now have to be the campaign of 1942, Hitler dismissed a number of generals and assumed himself the strategic and operational command of the armies on the Eastern Front. At the high point of Hitlers military successes in the Soviet Union, members of the Nazi leadership were, with Hitlers understanding, feverishly planning for the new order they intended to impose on the conquered territories. Its realization called both for the removal of obstacles to German settlements and for a solution to the Jewish problem. Nazi planners were drafting an elaborate scheme, General Plan East, for the future reorganization of eastern Europe and the western Soviet Union, which called for the elimination of 30 million or more Slavs and the settlement of their territories by German overlords who would control and eventually repopulate the area with Germans. During the fall of 1941 Himmlers SS expanded and refurbished with gas chambers and crematoriums an old Austrian army barracks near the Polish rail junction at Auschwitz. Here was to continue, with greater efficiency, the Holocaustthe mass murder of Jews that had begun with the June invasion, when SS Einsatzgruppen (deployment groups) began rounding up Jews and shooting them by the thousands. The assurance of victory in the east, the heartland of European Jewry, convinced the Nazis that they could implement a final solution to the Jewish problem. Experts estimate that ultimately some six million Jews were murdered in the death factories of eastern Europe. At least an equal number of non-Jews died of murder and starvation in places like Auschwitz, including two and a half million Soviet prisoners of war and countless others from eastern European nationalities. The success of Nazi armies until the end of 1941 had made it possible to spare German civilians on the home front from the misery and sacrifices demanded of them during World War I. Hitlers imagination, however, was haunted by the memory of the collapse of the home front in 1918, and, to avoid a repetition, the Nazis looted the occupied territories of food and raw materials as well as labour. Food shortages in Germany were not serious until late in the war. Women were allowed to stay at home, and the energies of the German workforce were not stretched to their limits, because eventually some seven million foreign slave labourers were used to keep the war effort going. Through much of 1942 an ultimate German victory still seemed possible. The renewed offensive in the Soviet Union in the spring at first continued the successes of the previous year. Once again Hitler chose to concentrate on the capture of the Caucasus and its oil at the expense of the Moscow front. The decision entailed a major battle over the industrial centre at Stalingrad (now Volgograd). Elsewhere, by midsummer of 1942, Rommels Afrika Korps advanced to within 65 miles (105 km) of Alexandria in Egypt. In the naval battle for control of the Atlantic sea lanes, German submarines maintained their ability to intercept Allied shipping into mid-1943. By early 1943, however, the tide had clearly begun to turn. The great winter battle at Stalingrad brought Hitler his first major defeat. His entire Sixth Army was killed or captured. In North Africa Rommels long success ended in late 1942 when the British broke through at El Alamein. At the same time, a joint British-American force landed in northwestern Africa, on the coast of Morocco and Algeria. By May 1943 the German and Italian forces in North Africa were ready to surrender. That same summer the Allies broke the back of the German submarine campaign in the Atlantic. On July 10 the Allies landed in Sicily. Two weeks later Mussolini was overthrown, and in early September the Italians withdrew from the war. The addition of an Italian front made the rollback of German forces on all fronts that much more likely. In the Soviet Union, German forces were stretched across 2,500 miles (4,000 km). They had lost their air superiority when Allied bombing raids on German cities forced the withdrawal of large numbers of fighter planes. British and American bombings reached a high point in midsummer when a raid on Hamburg killed 40,000 of its inhabitants. Similar air raids killed hundreds of thousands of German civilians and leveled large areas of most German cities. Shortages of food, clothing, and housing began to afflict German cities as inevitably as did the Allied bombers. The rollback of German forces continued inexorably during 1944. On June 6 the Allies in the west launched their invasion of France across the English Channel. In the east the Soviet army was advancing along the entire 2,500-mile front. By the end of the year, it stood poised on the eastern frontiers of prewar Germany. In the west, British and American troops stood ready to attack across the western borders. On the German home front, 1944 became a year of acute suffering. On July 20, officers carried out a plot, part of a long-simmering opposition to Hitler from within German military and civilian circles, but Hitler managed to escape the dramatic attempt on his life practically unharmed. He attributed his survival of the July Plot to his selection by fate to succeed in his mission of restoring Germany to greatness. Fate did not again intervene on Hitlers behalf. In mid-January of 1945 he withdrew underground into his bunker in Berlin where he remained until his suicide on April 30. By that time Soviet soldiers were streaming into Berlin. All that remained of the Reich was a narrow wedge of territory running southward from Berlin into Austria. With the Soviet army in control of Berlin and the Western Allies within striking distance to the west and the south, there was no prospect of dividing them. Nonetheless, when Hitlers successor, Grand Admiral Karl Dnitz, sought to open negotiations for a surrender a few days after Hitlers death, he still hoped that a separate surrender to the British and Americans in the west might allow the Reich to rescue something from the Soviets in the east. The Western Allies, fearful of any move that might feed the suspicions of Stalin, refused to consider the German proposal, insisting that a German surrender be signed with all the Allies at the same time. Early in the morning of May 7, 1945, a German delegation came to U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhowers headquarters in Rheims, France, and at 2:41 am signed the surrender documents. Despite the fact that a Soviet major general signed for the Soviet Union, Stalin insisted that a second surrender ceremony take place in Soviet-occupied Berlin. This second surrender was signed in a Berlin suburb the following afternoon.

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On Marthas Vineyard, a Frosty Summer for Alan Dershowitz …

In a Washington restaurant on Monday, a woman with a toddler approached Scott Pruitt, the administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, and told him to resign over his policies and his repeated spending scandals. Kirstjen Nielsen, the homeland security secretary, was interrupted at a Mexican restaurant last month as protesters chanted during her meal. Employees at a Virginia restaurant urged the owner to ask Sarah Huckabee Sanders, the White House press secretary, to leave in response to Trump administration policies, including the deeply unpopular practice of separating migrant children from their parents at the border. Now the debate has reached far beyond the capital, to a place that has long been both an escape for the wealthy and an open forum for intellectual debate, where figures like Valerie Jarrett, Vernon Jordan and Carly Simon can be spotted playing golf, chatting at a cocktail party, or picking up local vegetables at a farm stand. On the Vineyard, Mr. Dershowitz is one of the most outspoken defenders of Mr. Trump, in a place frequented for decades by Kennedys, Clintons, Obamas and other Democratic royalty. Its rare that I meet a real Trump supporter among the summer crowd, said Tony Horwitz, a Pulitzer Prize-winning author and year-round resident of the Vineyard. Mr. Dershowitz is not the first high-profile figure on this island whose views have been met with disapproval: In 1972, an artist was reported to have tried to throw Robert S. McNamara, the defense secretary who was an architect of the Vietnam War, overboard from the ferry to Marthas Vineyard. In a phone interview from his Chilmark home, Mr. Dershowitz said that he has not supported Mr. Trumps political agenda, but has merely defended the presidents civil liberties, as he would for any person. Mr. Dershowitz said that a Vineyard friend who is a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology had led an email campaign against him; he declined to name the professor. Theres a whole cabal of people who have decided that they will try to get people to stop interacting with me, Mr. Dershowitz said. The campaign has utterly failed. Its affected my life zero. Im not looking for sympathy. But he said that something had shifted on the island over the years, that opposing viewpoints were less welcome. Anybody who wants to debate me, fine, Mr. Dershowitz said, suggesting that he might set up chairs for debate at the Chilmark Community Center and invite anyone to attend.

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