SPLC makes huge settlement with anti-extremist group it …

The Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) announced Monday that it would pay $3.375 million to settle a lawsuit brought by a British anti-extremism group that was put on a list of “anti-Muslim extremists.”

In a statement, the Alabama-based SPLC apologized to the Quilliam Foundation and its founder, Maajid Nawaz.

“Although we may have our differences with some of the positions that Mr. Nawaz and Quilliam have taken, they are most certainly not anti-Muslim extremists,” the statement read in part. “We would like to extend our sincerest apologies to Mr. Nawaz, Quilliam, and our readers for the error, and we wish Mr. Nawaz and Quilliam all the best.”

SPLC APOLOGIZES AFTER PAINTING JOURNALISTS AS FASCISTS IN RETRACTED ARTICLE

In 2016, the SPLC included Nawaz and Quilliam in an online publication called “A Field Guide to Anti-Muslim Extremists.” The list, which included conservative blogger Pamela Geller and human rights activist Ayaan Hirsi Ali, drew ire from across the political spectrum.

That October, left-wing British writer Nick Cohen accused the SPLC of “[doing] the dirty work of the misogynists, the racists, the homophobes, the censors, and the murderers it was founded to oppose” in calling Nawaz an extremist. In June 2017, Nawaz told Fox News’ “The Story with Martha MacCallum” that the SPLC was “ideologically driven to silence any voice that introspects from within the Muslim community.”

REPORT: SPLC IGNORES ANTI-SEMITIC HATE CRIMES ON CAMPUS

The list has since been removed from the SPLC’s website and replaced with the statement apologizing to Nawaz and Quilliam.

In a statement, Quilliam said it would use the settlement money to fight both “anti-Muslim bigotry and Islamist extremism.”

“With the help of everyone who contributed to our litigation fund, we were able to fight back against the Regressive Left and show them that moderate Muslims will not be silenced,” Nawaz said. “We will continue to combat extremists by defying Muslim stereotypes, calling out fundamentalism in our own communities, and speaking out against anti-Muslim hate.”

The settlement marked another black eye for the SPLC, which has repeatedly been accused of branding some conservative organizations as “hate groups.” In March, the SPLC was forced to retract an article accusing reporters of enabling white supremacists and anti-Semites.

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Suspected Islamic extremist ricin attack plot foiled in …

An Islamic terrorism plot to launch a deadly attack with the toxin ricin was reportedly thwarted in Germany, prosecutors revealed Thursday.

Authorities said a 29-year-old Tunisian, identified only as Sief Allah H., was taken into custody Wednesday after an investigation uncovered he had procured the materials needed to create ricin in mid-May and even succeeded in creating the toxin earlier this month.

Investigators found the toxin after a search of his apartment in Cologne, federal prosecutors in Karlsruhe said in a written statement.

Prosecutors said the suspect began procuring materials to create ricin in mid-May.(AP)

“He procured 1,000 castor bean seeds online as well as an electronic coffee grinder,” they said. The shell of the castor bean plant seed is highly poisonous and can be used to create ricin.

Prosecutors said they are still investigating exactly how the suspect planned to use the toxin, and said he was working on a biological weapon attack in Germany.

There is currently no evidence of a connection with any extremist organization, authorities said.

Prosecutors said there is not evidence yet that there is any connection with a terrorist organization.(AP)

Prosecutors have not commented on a report by Bild newspaper that American intelligence tipped of Germany investigators. The newspaper also reported the suspect bought bomb-making material and chemicals used in the production of ricin.

If inhaled, ricin causes difficulty breathing and other symptoms. If ingested, symptoms include vomiting, diarrhea, hallucinations and seizures. Initial symptoms of ricin poisoning are most likely to occur within four to 10 hours of exposure.

Bild wrote that the suspect lived in the Chorweiler neighborhood of Cologne with his wife and four children. He supposedly used instructions for the making of a ricin bomb that had been posted online by the extremist Islamic State group.

The Associated Press contributed to this report

Lucia I. Suarez Sang is a Reporter for FoxNews.com.Follow her on Twitter @luciasuarezsang

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Quilliam receives multi-million-dollar compensation for …

The Southern Poverty Law Center issued an apology on Monday to a UK-based think tank that it previously described as anti-Muslim extremists. The Quilliam Foundation will also receive a $3.375-million settlement from the center.

Offering its sincerest apology, the SPLC said in a statement that it was sorry to the Quilliam Foundation and its founder Maajid Nawaz for including them in its publication A Journalists Manual: Field Guide to Anti-Muslim Extremists.

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The center said that it was their opinion at the time that the Field Guide was published that their inclusion was warranted.

But after getting a deeper understanding of their views and after hearing from others for whom we have great respect, we realize that we were simply wrong to have included Mr Nawaz and Quilliam in the Field Guide in the first place, the statement added.

Set up by former Islamist Maajid Nawaz in 2008, Quilliam looks to counter extremist ideology, particularly Islamism. It also ostensibly aims to advise government policy on the matter, advocating nuanced policies on Muslims living in Britain and empowering moderate Muslims, while countering far-right narratives.

Set up in 1971, the Southern Poverty Law Center is a non-profit legal advocacy group based in the United States. In the late 1970s, it backed cases seeking compensation for those who suffered violence at the hands of the Ku Klux Klan. It also keeps lists on hate groups and extremist groups believed to attack and malign minorities.

In April, Nawaz threatened to sue the SPLC after finding himself and his group on the list, which also included Hoover Institution fellow Ayaan Hirsi Ali, a Somalia-born critic of radical Islam and genital-mutilation victim.

Speaking in a video apology, SPLC President Richard Cohen praised the work that Nawaz and Quilliam have done to fight against radicalization and Islamophobia. Since we published the Field Guide, we have taken the time to do more research and have consulted with human rights advocates we respect.

READ MORE:Foreign Offices ridiculous hijab-wearing idea attacked by anti-extremist think tank

We’ve found that Mr Nawaz and Quilliam have made valuable and important contributions to public discourse, including by promoting pluralism and condemning both anti-Muslim bigotry and Islamist extremism, Cohen said.

The SPLC have also agreed to pay $3.375 million in compensation to Quilliam, which the anti-extremism group said it would use to help fight both anti-Muslim bigotry and Islamist extremism.

Commenting on the result, Nawaz said: With the help of everyone who contributed to our litigation fund, we were able to fight back against the regressive Left and show them that moderate Muslims will not be silenced.

We will continue to combat extremists by defying Muslim stereotypes, calling out fundamentalism in our own communities, and speaking out against anti-Muslim hate.

Prior to the SPLC case, Nawaz had previously been given a terrorism designation in a confidential Thomson Reuters databank, citing his past with radical Islamist group Hizb ut-Tahrir.

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Understanding Islamist Extremism | Clarion Project Clarion …

Islamic extremism is driven by a totalitarian interpretation of Islam that believes in a global Islamic state.Get the basics from Clarion Project analyst Ryan Mauro.

Islamic extremism is driven by an interpretation of Islam that believes that Islamic law, or sharia, is an all-encompassing religious-political system. Since it is believed to be proscribed by Allah (Arabic for God) sharia must be enforced in the public sphere by a global Islamic state. As such, Islamic extremists consider it to be the only truly legitimate form of governance and reject democracy and human rights values.

Thus, the ultimate objective of Islamic extremists is the merger of mosque and state under sharia law. Those who favor such an approach are called Islamists. Their ideology is called Islamism, or political Islam.

Related terms for Islamic extremism include radical Islam and Islamic supremacy.

Islamic extremists believe they are obligated to install this form of governance in Muslim-majority territories, countries and, eventually, the entire world. In the minds of Islamic extremists, they are promoting justice and freedom by institutingsharia.

In some cases, Islamic extremists even describe sharia as a superior form of democracy.

Islamic extremists have intermediate political goals which they believe will pave the way for the global implementation of sharia.One of these goals is the removal of non-Muslim military forces from Muslim lands and the overthrow of enemy regimes.

Acts of Islamic extremism includes terrorism, human rights abuses, the advancement of sharia-based governance, bigotry towards non-Muslims and rival Muslims and overall hostility to the West and, in particular, Western democracy.

Islamic extremism is the primary national security and human rights concern of the world today.

It is firstly the primary motivator of acts of terrorism worldwide. Secondly, as Islamic extremists gain power and rule, human rights abuses including oppression of women, homosexuals and religious minorities as well as governmental tyranny, sectarian warfare and bigotry inherent in sharia law come to the fore.

Not all Islamic extremists carry out violent acts. Islamic extremists

can advance their goals using non-violent tactics such as activism, developing interfaith coalitions with unsuspecting non-Muslims, fundraising, building political influence and the overall spreading of the ideology. These extremists follow a doctrine called gradualism. The largest Islamic extremist group to use this method is the Muslim Brotherhood.

Islamic terrorists, on the other hand, use violence and terrorism to instill fear and to gain political power in order to establish their goals.

Often times, groups that ascribe to the doctrine of gradualism as their own modus operandi support other Islamic extremist groups involved in terrorism financially, such was the case when a group of Muslim Brotherhood entities in the U.S. were listed as unindicted co-conspirators in the Holy Land Foundation case for financing the Hamas terror organization.

Islamic extremism derives from a radical interpretation of Islam. Even among Islamic extremists, there are interpretative differences stemming from different sects and/or doctrines. Its important to note that not all Muslims subscribe to a radical interpretation of Islam. Clarion Project regularly interviews moderate Muslims to highlight their viewpoints and their fight against the ideology of Islamic extremists.

Learn more about anti-extremist schools of thought within Islam:

Modern Islamic extremism grew out the Islamic revivalist movement, which began in the late 19th century. Islamic revivalism was a response to the perceived weakness of the Muslim world compared to the British empire specifically but also western colonialism more generally, as well as the rise of secularism due to the increased influence of the Western values in Muslim countries.

Thinkers associated with Islamic revivalism preached a fresh interpretation of Islamic texts based on goals of pan-Islamic unity and the establishment of Islamic states based on sharia law.

One school of thought contends that Islamic extremism is bred by political and societal grievances. Thus, this school believes that extremists are provoked by injustices committed by the West and their governments and armies in Muslim countries.

According to this school, Islamic extremism should be countered by addressing these grievances of angry Muslim populations through foreign policy changes, political concessions where there are areas of disagreements, improved governance of Muslim countries, income redistribution and dialogue.

The other school of thought holds that these grievances, bred by Islamic extremists, are just excuses to justify antagonism towards the West. This side argues that the Islamic extremist worldview leads to the adoption of these grievances. Advocates of this school of thought note that the grievances cannot account for all elements of Islamic extremism, such as the abuse of women and other human rights violations in sharia-based societies.

According to this school, Islamic extremism can only be countered by undermining the ideology itself. Reformist Muslims that support an interpretation of Islam that is favorable to modernity and Western democracy are viewed as critical to fighting Islamic extremists.

The most popular Islamic extremist group is the Muslim Brotherhood, an international organization that believes in wagingjihad through various means in order to establish worldwide shariarule. One of those means is through a process of cultural or civilization jihad, which follows the Brotherhoods strategy ofgradualism.

There are many political parties (i.e. the Freedom and Justice Party in Egypt) and terrorist groups (i.e. Hamas) that belong to the Brotherhood. In fact, according to Steve Emerson, the executive director of the highly respected Investigative Project on Terrorism, The vast majority of Sunni terrorist groups including al Qaeda, Egyptian Islamic Jihad, Hamas and the Palestinian Islamic Jihad are derived from the Muslim Brotherhood.

Other examples of Islamic extremist groups include Hezbollah, the Taliban, Jamaat-e-Islami, Jamaat ul-Fuqra, Lashkar-e-Taiba, the Nation of Islam and various Salafist groups.

Learn more about the Muslim Brotherhood.

Islamic extremism can spread organically, but there is an identifiable infrastructure that spreads it. This infrastructure includes foreign governments, mosques, schools, media including internet and social media social services and non-governmental organizations.

The U.S. State Department designated four governments as State Sponsors of Terrorism: Iran, Syria, Sudan and Cuba. The Iranian government is considered the worlds largest sponsor of terrorism in the world.

The U.S. government has also documented the fact that Iran supports terrorist groups such as Hezbollah, Al-Qaeda, the Taliban, Hamas, Palestinian Islamic Jihad and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command. Iran also supports radical militias in Iraq and Yemen and directly participates in acts of terrorism globally.

The Syrian government supports Hezbollah and is a chief ally of Iran. It has historically supported other terrorist groups as well, but that support ended when these other groups endorsed the Syrian rebels trying to overthrow the Syrian government.

The Sudanese government works closely with Iran and is a well-known supporter of Hamas. There are also allegations that Sudan supports Hezbollah and elements of Al Qaeda.

The Cuban government supports non-Muslim terrorist groups in Latin America and harbors at least one Muslim terrorist wanted by the U.S. government. The non-Muslim groups supported by Cuba, specifically the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), are known to have ties to Hezbollah.

There are other governments that have not been designated as State Sponsors of Terrorism but are accused of supporting Islamic terrorist groups or Islamic extremism. They include:

In the West, Islamic extremist groups and their supporters spread their ideology (and, in some cases, directly sponsor terrorism) using a network of front groups. An example would be the Iranian governments use of the Alavi Foundation in New York or the Muslim Brotherhoods establishment of various political organizations under different names, like CAIR, the Council on American Islamic Relations, one of the U.S. Islamist organizations that was named as an unindicted co-conspirator in the Holy Land terror funding trial.

The enemies of Islamic extremists are anyone who does not favorsharia-based governance or opposes Islamic extremist ideology and its agenda.

Muslims who support a reformation in Islamic teaching that is favorable to critical examination, Western democracy, modernity, human rights, and separation of mosque and state are opponents of Islamic extremism.

Support for Islamic extremist ideology is high in the Muslim world, with Islamic terrorist groups garneringdouble-digit support. These terror groups have even won elections; of note is Hamass 2006 victory in the Gaza Strip and the Muslim Brotherhoods 2012 victory in Egypt. The Islamist Ennhada party won the 2011 elections in Tunisia, the country that began the Arab Spring.

However, the Islamic extremists takeovers have led to decisive backlashes. After a year of governance marred by Islamist power grabs, popular disapproval drove the Egyptian army to depose the Muslim Brotherhood from power in 2013. Tunisias Ennhada party, not wanting to suffer the same fate as their Egyptian brothers, agreed to step down from power after massive protests against it. In an unprecedented move, the Ennhada government resigned in January 2014.

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Gay Marriage – Facts & Summary – HISTORY.com

The early 2010s continued the state-level battles over gay marriage that defined the preceding decade, with at least one notable event. For the first time in the countrys history, voters (rather than judges or legislators) in Maine, Maryland, and Washington approved Constitutional amendments permitting same-sex marriage in 2012.

Same-sex marriage also became a federal issue again.

In 2010, Massachusetts, the first state to legalize gay marriage, found Section 3 of DOMAthe part of the 1996 law that defined marriage as a union between one man and one womanto be unconstitutional. Foundations of the act had finally begun to crumble, but the real hammer fell with United States v. Windsor.

In 2007, New York lesbian couple Edith Windsor and Thea Spyer wed in Ontario, Canada. The State of New York recognized the residents marriage, but the federal government, thanks to DOMA, did not. When Spyer died in 2009, she left her estate to Windsor; since the couples marriage was not federally recognized, Windsor didnt quality for tax exemption as a surviving spouse and the government imposed $363,000 in estate taxes.

Windsor sued the government in late 2010. A few months later, U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder announced that the Barack Obama administration would no longer defend DOMA, leaving a representative of the Bipartisan Legal Advisory Groupof the House of Representativesto take on the case.

In 2012, the 2nd U.S. Circuit Court of Appealsruled that DOMA violates the Constitutions equal protection clause, and the U.S. Supreme Court agreed to hear arguments for the case.

The following year, the court ruled in favor of Windsor, ultimately striking down Section 3 of DOMA.

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The Coming of Conan the Cimmerian by Robert E. Howard …

Cimmeria

Written in Mission, Texas, February, 1932; suggested by the memory of the hill-country above Fredericksburg seen in a mist of winter rain.

Robert E. Howard

Cimmeria

I remember

The dark woods, masking slopes of sombre hills;

The grey clouds’ leaden everlasting arch;

The dusky streams that flowed without a sound,

And the lone winds that whispered down the passes.

Vista on vista marching, hills on hills,

Slope beyond slope, each dark with sullen trees,

Our gaunt land lay. So when a man climbed up

A rugged peak and gazed, his shaded eye

Saw but the endless vista – hill on hill,

Slope beyond slope, each hooded like its brothers.

It was a gloomy land that seemed to hold

All winds and clouds and dreams that shun the sun,

With bare boughs rattling in the lonesome winds,

And the dark woodlands brooding over all,

Not even lightened by the rare dim sun

Which made squat shadows out of men; they called it

Cimmeria, land of Darkness and deep Night.

It was so long ago and far away

I have forgot the very name men called me.

The axe and flint-tipped spear are like a dream,

And hunts and wars are shadows. I recall

Only the stillness of that sombre land;

The clouds that piled forever on the hills,

The dimness of the everlasting woods.

Cimmeria, land of Darkness and the Night.

Oh, soul of mine, born out of shadowed hills,

To clouds and winds and ghosts that shun the sun,

How many deaths shall serve to break at last

This heritage which wraps me in the grey

Apparel of ghosts? I search my heart and find

Cimmeria, land of Darkness and the Night.

The Phoenix on the Sword

The Phoenix on the Sword

“Know, oh prince, that between the years when the oceans drank Atlantis and the gleaming cities, and the years of the rise of the Sons of Aryas, there was an Age undreamed of, when shining kingdoms lay spread across the world like blue mantles beneath the stars – Nemedia, Ophir, Brythunia, Hyperborea, Zamora with its dark-haired women and towers of spider-haunted mystery, Zingara with its chivalry, Koth that bordered on the pastoral lands of Shem, Stygia with its shadow-guarded tombs, Hyrkania whose riders wore steel and silk and gold. But the proudest kingdom of the world was Aquilonia, reigning supreme in the dreaming west. Hither came Conan, the Cimmerian, black-haired, sullen-eyed, sword in hand, a thief, a reaver, a slayer, with gigantic melancholies and gigantic mirth, to tread the jeweled thrones of the Earth under his sandalled feet.”

– The Nemedian Chronicles.

Over shadowy spires and gleaming towers lay the ghostly darkness and silence that runs before dawn. Into a dim alley, one of a veritable labyrinth of mysterious winding ways, four masked figures came hurriedly from a door which a dusky hand furtively opened. They spoke not but went swiftly into the gloom, cloaks wrapped closely about them; as silently as the ghosts of murdered men they disappeared in the darkness. Behind them a sardonic countenance was framed in the partly opened door; a pair of evil eyes glittered malevolently in the gloom.

“Go into the night, creatures of the night,” a voice mocked. “Oh, fools, your doom hounds your heels like a blind dog, and you know it not.”

The speaker closed the door and bolted it, then turned and went up the corridor, candle in hand. He was a somber giant, whose dusky skin revealed his Stygian blood. He came into an inner chamber, where a tall, lean man in worn velvet lounged like a great lazy cat on a silken couch, sipping wine from a huge golden goblet.

“Well, Ascalante,” said the Stygian, setting down the candle, “your dupes have slunk into the streets like rats from their burrows. You work with strange tools.”

“Tools?” replied Ascalante. “Why, they consider me that. For months now, ever since the Rebel Four summoned me from the southern desert, I have been living in the very heart of my enemies, hiding by day in this obscure house, skulking through dark alleys and darker corridors at night. And I have accomplished what those rebellious nobles could not. Working through them, and through other agents, many of whom have never seen my face, I have honeycombed the empire with sedition and unrest. In short I, working in the shadows, have paved the downfall of the king who sits throned in the sun. By Mitra, I was a statesman before I was an outlaw.”

“And these dupes who deem themselves your masters?”

“They will continue to think that I serve them, until our present task is completed. Who are they to match wits with Ascalante? Volmana, the dwarfish count of Karaban; Gromel, the giant commander of the Black Legion; Dion, the fat baron of Attalus; Rinaldo, the hare-brained minstrel. I am the force which has welded together the steel in each, and by the clay in each, I will crush them when the time comes. But that lies in the future; tonight the king dies.”

“Days ago I saw the imperial squadrons ride from the city,” said the Stygian.

“They rode to the frontier which the heathen Picts assail – thanks to the strong liquor which I’ve smuggled over the borders to madden them. Dion’s great wealth made that possible. And Volmana made it possible to dispose of the rest of the imperial troops which remained in the city. Through his princely kin in Nemedia, it was easy to persuade King Numa to request the presence of Count Trocero of Poitain, seneschal of Aquilonia; and of course, to do him honor, he’ll be accompanied by an imperial escort, as well as his own troops, and Prospero, King Conan’s right-hand man. That leaves only the king’s personal bodyguard in the citybesides the Black Legion. Through Gromel I’ve corrupted a spendthrift officer of that guard, and bribed him to lead his men away from the king’s door at midnight.

“Then, with sixteen desperate rogues of mine, we enter the palace by a secret tunnel. After the deed is done, even if the people do not rise to welcome us, Gromel’s Black Legion will be sufficient to hold the city and the crown.”

“And Dion thinks that crown will be given to him?”

“Yes. The fat fool claims it by reason of a trace of royal blood. Conan makes a bad mistake in letting men live who still boast descent from the old dynasty, from which he tore the crown of Aquilonia.

“Volmana wishes to be reinstated in royal favor as he was under the old regime, so that he may lift his poverty-ridden estates to their former grandeur. Gromel hates Pallantides, commander of the Black Dragons, and desires the command of the whole army, with all the stubbornness of the Bossonian. Alone of us all, Rinaldo has no personal ambition. He sees in Conan a red-handed, rough-footed barbarian who came out of the north to plunder a civilized land. He idealizes the king whom Conan killed to get the crown, remembering only that he occasionally patronized the arts, and forgetting the evils of his reign, and he is making the people forget. Already they openly sing The Lament for the King in which Rinaldo lauds the sainted villain and denounces Conan as ‘that black-hearted savage from the abyss.’ Conan laughs, but the people snarl.”

“Why does he hate Conan?”

“Poets always hate those in power. To them perfection is always just behind the last corner, or beyond the next. They escape the present in dreams of the past and future. Rinaldo is a flaming torch of idealism, rising, as he thinks, to overthrow a tyrant and liberate the people. As for me – well, a few months ago I had lost all ambition but to raid the caravans for the rest of my life; now old dreams stir. Conan will die; Dion will mount the throne. Then he, too, will die. One by one, all who oppose me will die – by fire, or steel, or those deadly wines you know so well how to brew. Ascalante, king of Aquilonia! How like you the sound of it?”

The Stygian shrugged his broad shoulders.

“There was a time,” he said with unconcealed bitterness, “when I, too, had my ambitions, beside which yours seem tawdry and childish. To what a state I have fallen! My old-time peers and rivals would stare indeed could they see Thoth-amon of the Ring serving as the slave of an outlander, and an outlaw at that; and aiding in the petty ambitions of barons and kings!”

“You laid your trust in magic and mummery,” answered Ascalante carelessly. “I trust my wits and my sword.”

“Wits and swords are as straws against the wisdom of the Darkness,” growled the Stygian, his dark eyes flickering with menacing lights and shadows. “Had I not lost the Ring, our positions might be reversed.”

“Nevertheless,” answered the outlaw impatiently, “you wear the stripes of my whip on your back, and are likely to continue to wear them.”

“Be not so sure!” the fiendish hatred of the Stygian glittered for an instant redly in his eyes. “Some day, somehow, I will find the Ring again, and when I do, by the serpent-fangs of Set, you shall pay -“

The hot-tempered Aquilonian started up and struck him heavily across the mouth. Thoth reeled back, blood starting from his lips.

“You grow over-bold, dog,” growled the outlaw. “Have a care; I am still your master who knows your dark secret. Go upon the housetops and shout that Ascalante is in the city plotting against the king – if you dare.”

“I dare not,” muttered the Stygian, wiping the blood from his lips.

“No, you do not dare,” Ascalante grinned bleakly. “For if I die by your stealth or treachery, a hermit priest in the southern desert will know of it, and will break the seal of a manuscript I left in his hands. And having read, a word will be whispered in Stygia, and a wind will creep up from the south by midnight. And where will you hide your head, Thoth-amon?”

The slave shuddered and his dusky face went ashen.

“Enough!” Ascalante changed his tone peremptorily. “I have work for you. I do not trust Dion. I bade him ride to his country estate and remain there until the work tonight is done. The fat fool could never conceal his nervousness before the king today. Ride after him, and if you do not overtake him on the road, proceed to his estate and remain with him until we send for him. Don’t let him out of your sight. He is mazed with fear, and might bolt – might even rush to Conan in a panic, and reveal the whole plot, hoping thus to save his own hide. Go!”

The slave bowed, hiding the hate in his eyes, and did as he was bidden. Ascalante turned again to his wine. Over the jeweled spires was rising a dawn crimson as blood.

II

When I was a fighting-man, the kettle-drums they beat,

The people scattered gold-dust before my horse’s feet;

But now I am a great king, the people hound my track

With poison in my wine-cup, and daggers at my back.

– The Road of Kings.

The room was large and ornate, with rich tapestries on the polished-panelled walls, deep rugs on the ivory floor, and with the lofty ceiling adorned with intricate carvings and silver scrollwork. Behind an ivory, gold-inlaid writing-table sat a man whose broad shoulders and sun-browned skin seemed out of place among those luxuriant surroundings. He seemed more a part of the sun and winds and high places of the outlands. His slightest movement spoke of steel-spring muscles knit to a keen brain with the co-ordination of a born fighting-man. There was nothing deliberate or measured about his actions. Either he was perfectly at rest – still as a bronze statue – or else he was in motion, not with the jerky quickness of over-tense

nerves, but with a cat-like speed that blurred the sight which tried to follow him.

His garments were of rich fabric, but simply made. He wore no ring or ornaments, and his square-cut black mane was confined merely by a cloth-of-silver band about his head.

Now he laid down the golden stylus with which he had been laboriously scrawling on waxed papyrus, rested his chin on his fist, and fixed his smoldering blue eyes enviously on the man who stood before him. This person was occupied in his own affairs at the moment, for he was taking up the laces of his gold-chased armor, and abstractedly whistling – a rather unconventional performance, considering that he was in the presence of a king.

“Prospero,” said the man at the table, “these matters of statecraft weary me as all the fighting I have done never did.”

“All part of the game, Conan,” answered the dark-eyed Poitainian. “You are king – you must play the part.”

“I wish I might ride with you to Nemedia,” said Conan enviously. “It seems ages since I had a horse between my knees – but Publius says that affairs in the city require my presence. Curse him!

“When I overthrew the old dynasty,” he continued, speaking with the easy familiarity which existed only between the Poitainian and himself, “it was easy enough, though it seemed bitter hard at the time. Looking back now over the wild path I followed, all those days of toil, intrigue, slaughter and tribulation seem like a dream.

“I did not dream far enough, Prospero. When King Numedides lay dead at my feet and I tore the crown from his gory head and set it on my own, I had reached the ultimate border of my dreams. I had prepared myself to take the crown, not to hold it. In the old free days all I wanted was a sharp sword and a straight path to my enemies. Now no paths are straight and my sword is useless.

“When I overthrew Numedides, then I was the Liberator – now they spit at my shadow. They have put a statue of that swine in the temple of Mitra, and people go and wail before it, hailing it as the holy effigy of a saintly monarch who was done to death by a red-handed barbarian. When I led her armies to victory as a mercenary, Aquilonia overlooked the fact that I was a foreigner, but now she can not forgive me.

“Now in Mitra’s temple there come to burn incense to Numedides’ memory, men whom his hangmen maimed and blinded, men whose sons died in his dungeons, whose wives and daughters were dragged into his seraglio. The fickle fools!”

“Rinaldo is largely responsible,” answered Prospero, drawing up his sword-belt another notch. “He sings songs that make men mad. Hang him in his jester’s garb to the highest tower in the city. Let him make rimes for the vultures.”

Conan shook his lion head. “No, Prospero, he’s beyond my reach. A great poet is greater than any king. His songs are mightier than my scepter; for he has near ripped the heart from my breast when he chose to sing for me. I shall die and be forgotten, but Rinaldo’s songs will live for ever.

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Israeli Jews – Wikipedia

Israeli Jews Total populationCore Jewish population:6,556,00074.6% of the Israeli population[1][2][3][4]Enlarged Jewish population (includes non-Jewish relatives of Jews):6,705,00079.3% of the Israeli populationRegions with significant populationsIsrael 6,300,000[a] (September 2015)[9]United States500,000[10][11][12]Russia100,000 (80,000 in Moscow)[13][14]Canada10,755[15]30,000[16]United Kingdom30,000[17]Australia15,000[18]Germany10,000[19][20][21]Languages

Historical Hebrew, Jewish languagesYiddish, Ladino, Judeo-Arabic and other Jewish languages (most endangered, and some now extinct)Liturgical languagesHebrew and Aramaic

Israeli Jews (Hebrew: , Yehudim Yisraelim), also known as Jewish Israelis, refers to Israeli citizens of the Jewish ethnicity or faith, and also the descendants of Israeli-Jewish emigrants outside of Israel.

Israeli Jews are found mostly in Israel and the Western world, as well as other countries worldwide, not necessarily only in Jewish communities. Israeli Jews mostly speak Hebrew and most follow at least some religious Jewish practices. Israel, the Jewish state, currently has almost half the world’s Jews.

The Jewish population in Israel comprises all Jewish diaspora communities, including Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, Beta Israel, Cochin Jews, Bene Israel, Karaite Jews, and many other groups. The Israeli Jewish community manifests a wide range of Jewish cultural traditions, as well as encompassing the full spectrum of religious observance, from the haredi communities to the hilonim Jewish communities who live a secular lifestyle. Among the Jewish population, over 25% of the schoolchildren and over 35% of all newborns are of mixed ancestry of both Ashkenazi and Sephardi/Mizrahi descent and increases by 0.5% each year. Over 50% of the Jewish population is of at least a partial Sephardi/Mizrahi descent.[22]

Despite the ongoing debate over the question of who is a Jew among Israeli Jews, the Jewish status of a person, which is considered a matter of ‘nationality’ by the Israeli authorities, is registered and controlled by the Israeli Ministry of the Interior, which requires a person to meet the halakhic definition to be registered as a ‘Jew’. Israel’s Central Bureau of Statistics estimated the Israeli Jewish population was 6,556,000 as of December 2017 (74.6% of the total population if East Jerusalem and Golan Arab population are counted in).[23][24]

An IDI Guttman Study of 2008 shows that a plurality of Israeli Jews (47%) identify themselves first as Jews and Israeli second, and that only 39% consider themselves first and foremost Israeli.[25]

Jews living in the region prior to the establishment of the State of Israel were commonly referred to in English as “Palestinian Jews” and in Hebrew as HaYishuv HaYehudi Be’Eretz Yisra’el (The Jewish Community in the Land of Israel).

Jews have long considered The Land of Israel to be their homeland, even while living in the diaspora. According to the Hebrew Bible the connection to the Land of Israel began in the covenant of the pieces when the region, which it called the land of Canaan, was promised to Abraham by God. Abraham settled in the region, where his son Isaac and grandson Jacob grew up with and their families. Later on, Jacob and his sons went to Egypt. Decades later their descendants were led out of Egypt by Moses and Aaron, given the Tablets of Stone, returned to the land of Canaan and conquered it under the leadership of Joshua. After the period of the judges, in which the Israelites did not have an organized leadership, the Kingdom of Israel was established, which constructed the first temple. This kingdom was soon split into twothe Kingdom of Judah and the Kingdom of Israel. After the destruction of these kingdoms and the destruction of the first Temple, the Israelites were exiled to Babylon. After about 70 years parts of the Israelites were permitted to return to the region and soon thereafter they built the Second Temple. Later on they established the Hasmonean Kingdom. The region was conquered by the Roman Empire in 63 BC. During the 2nd century CE a series of rebellions against the Roman Empire ended up with the destruction of the second temple and a general expulsion of Jews from their homeland.

The area was later conquered by migrant Arabs from the Byzantine Empire who established a Muslim Caliphate in the 7th century during the rise of Islam. Throughout the centuries the size of Jewish population in the land fluctuated. Before the birth of modern Zionism in the 1880s, by the early 19th century, more than 10,000 Jews were still living in the area that is today modern Israel.

Following centuries of Jewish diaspora, the 19th century saw the rise of Zionism, a Jewish Nationalist Movement that had a desire to see the self-determination of the Jewish people through a creation of a homeland for the Jews in Palestine. Significant numbers of Jews immigrated to Palestine since the 1880s. Zionism remained a minority movement until the rise of Nazism in 1933 and the subsequent attempted extermination of the Jewish people in Nazi occupied areas of Europe in the Holocaust.[26] In the late 19th century large numbers of Jews began moving to the Ottoman and later British-controlled region. In 1917, the British endorsed a National Home for Jews in Mandate Palestine by passing the Balfour Declaration. The Jewish population in the region increased from 11% of the population in 1922 to 30% by 1940[27]

In 1937, following the Great Arab Revolt, the partition plan proposed by the Peel Commission was rejected by the Palestinian Arab leadership, but accepted tentatively by Zionist leader David Ben-Gurion. As a result, in 1939, the British caved to Arab pressure because of support needed for World War II, abandoned the idea of a Jewish national homeland, and abandoned partition and negotiations in favour of the unilaterally-imposed White Paper of 1939, which capped Jewish immigration, and put subject to review under further agreement with the Arabs. Its other stated policy was to establish a system under which both Jews and Arabs were to share one government. The policy was viewed as a significant defeat for the Jewish side as it placed severe restrictions on Jewish immigration, while placing no restriction on Arab immigration.

In 1947, following increasing levels of violence, the British government decided to withdraw from Mandatory Palestine. The 1947 UN Partition Plan split the mandate into two states, Jewish and Arab, giving about 56% of Mandatory Palestine to the Jewish state. Immediately following the adoption of the Partition Plan by the United Nations General Assembly, the Palestinian Arab leadership rejected the plan to create the as-yet-unnamed Jewish State and launched a guerrilla war.

On 14 May 1948, one day before the end of the British Mandate of Palestine, the leaders of the Jewish community in Palestine led by prime minister David Ben-Gurion, made a declaration of independence, of the State of Israel though without any reference to defined borders.[28]

The armies of Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Iraq invaded the territory partitioned for the Arab state, thus starting the 1948 ArabIsraeli War. The nascent Israeli Defense Force repulsed the Arab nations from part of the occupied territories, thus extending its borders beyond the original UNSCOP partition.[29] By December 1948, Israel controlled most of the portion of Mandate Palestine west of the Jordan River. The remainder of the Mandate consisted of Jordan, the area that came to be called the West Bank (controlled by Jordan), and the Gaza Strip (controlled by Egypt). Prior to and during this conflict, 711,000[30] Palestinians Arabs fled their original lands to become Palestinian refugees. The reasons for this are disputed, and range from claims that the major cause of Palestinian flight was military actions by the Israel Defense Forces and fear of events such as Deir Yassin to an encouragement to leave by Arab leaders so that they could return when the war was won.

Most Israeli Jews refer to the 1948 ArabIsraeli War as the War of Independence, while most of the Arab citizens of Israel refer to it as the Nakba (catastrophe), a reflection of differences in perception of the purpose and outcomes of the war.[31]

Immigration of Holocaust survivors and Jewish refugees from Arab lands doubled Israel’s population within one year of its independence. Over the following years approximately 850,000 Sephardi and Mizrahi Jews fled or were expelled from surrounding mostly due persecution in Arab countries, and in smaller numbers from Turkey, India, Afghanistan, and Iran. Of these, about 680,000 settled in Israel (see also Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries).

Israel’s Jewish population continued to grow at a very high rate for years, fed by waves of Jewish immigration from round the world, most notably the massive immigration wave of Soviet Jews, which arrived to Israel in the early 1990s following the dissolution of the USSR, who, according to the Law of Return, were entitled to become Israeli citizens upon arrival. About 380,000 arrived in 19901991 alone. At the same time some 80,000100,000 Ethiopian Jews have immigrated to Israel since the early 1980s.

Since 1948, Israel has been involved in a series of major military conflicts, including the 1956 Suez War, 1967 Six-Day War, 1973 Yom Kippur War, 1982 Lebanon War, and 2006 Lebanon War, as well as a nearly constant series of ongoing minor conflicts. Israel has been also embroiled in an ongoing conflict with the Palestinians in the Israeli-occupied territories, which have been under Israeli control since the Six-Day War, despite the signing of the Oslo Accords on 13 September 1993, and the ongoing efforts of Israeli, Palestinian and global peacemakers.

According to Israel’s Central Bureau of Statistics, as of February 2013, of Israel’s 8 million people, 75.4% were Jews of any background.[32] Among them, 68% were Sabras (Israeli-born), mostly second- or third-generation Israelis, and the rest are olim (Jewish immigrants to Israel)22% from Europe and the Americas, and 10% from Asia and Africa, including the Arab countries.[33] Nearly half of all Israeli Jews are descended from Jews who made aliyah from Europe, while around the same number are descended from Jews who made aliyah from Arab countries, Iran, Turkey and Central Asia. Over two hundred thousand are, or are descended from, Ethiopian and Indian Jews.[34]

Israel is the only country in the world with a consistently growing Jewish population due to natural population increase unlike the Jewish communities in the Diaspora in which the Jewish population in general is either declining or steady, with the exception of the Orthodox and Haredi Jewish communities around the world, whose members often shun birth control for religious reasons, have experienced rapid population growth.[35] Haredi women have 7.7 children on average while the average Israeli Jewish woman has over 3 children.[36]

When Israel was first established in 1948, it had the third-largest Jewish population in the world, after the United States and Soviet Union. In the 1970s, Israel surpassed the Soviet Union as having the second-largest Jewish population.[37] In 2003, The Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics reported that Israel had surpassed the United States as the nation with the world’s largest Jewish population. The report was contested by Professor Sergio DellaPergola of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Considered the greatest demographic expert on Jews, Della Pergola said it would take another three years to close the gap.[38] In January 2006, Della Pergola stated that Israel now had more Jews than the United States, and Tel Aviv had replaced New York as the metropolitan area with the largest Jewish population in the world,[39] while a major demographic study found that Israel’s Jewish population surpassed that of the United States in 2008.[40] Due to the decline of Diaspora Jewry as a result of intermarriage and assimilation, along with the steady growth of the Israeli Jewish population, it has been speculated that within about 20 years, most of the world’s Jews will live in Israel.[41] In March 2012, the Israeli Census Bureau of Statistics reported on behalf of Ynet has forecast that in 2019, Israel will be home to 6,940,000 Jews, 5.84 million which are non-haredi Jews living in Israel, compared with 5.27 million in 2009. The number is expected to grow to anywhere between 6.09 million and 9.95 million by 2059, marking a 16%89% increase with the 2011 population. The Bureau also forecasts that the ultra-Orthodox population will number 1.1 million people by 2019, compared with 750,000 in 2009. By 2059, the projected Haredi Jewish population is estimated to between 2.73 million and 5.84 million, marking a 264%686% increase. Thus the total projected Israeli Jewish population by 2059 is estimated to between 8.82 million and 15.790 million.[42] In January 2014, it was reported by demographer Joseph Chamie that the projected population of Israeli Jews is expected to reach between 9.84 million by the year 2025 and 11.40 million by 2035.[43]

For statistical purposes, there are three main metropolitan areas in Israel. The majority of the Jewish population in Israel is located in the central area of Israel within the Metropolitan area of Tel Aviv. The Metropolitan area of Tel Aviv is currently the largest Jewish population center in the world.

It has been argued that Jerusalem, Israel’s proclaimed capital and largest city with a population of 732,100, and an urban area with a population of over 1,000,000 (including 280,000 Palestinian East Jerusalemites who are not Israeli citizens), with over 700,000 Israeli Jews[55] and Nazareth with a population of 65,500, and an urban area of nearly 200,000 people of which over 110,000 are Israeli Jews[56] should also be classified as metropolitan areas.

By the time the State of Israel was proclaimed, the majority of Jews in the state and the region were Ashkenazi. Following the declaration of the state, a flood of Jewish migrants and refugees entered Israelboth from Europe and America and also from Arab and Muslim countries. Most of the Jewish immigrants in the 1950s and 1960s were Jewish Holocaust survivors, as well as Sephardic Jews and Mizrahi Jews (mostly Moroccan Jews, Algerian Jews, Tunisian Jews, Yemenite Jews, Bukharan Jews, Iranian Jews, Iraqi Jews, Kurdish Jews, and smaller communities, principally from Lebanon, Syria, Libya, Egypt, India, Turkey and Afghanistan). In recent decades other Jewish communities have also immigrated to Israel including Ethiopian Jews, Russian Jews and Bnei Menashe.

Among Israeli Jews, 75% are Sabras (Israeli-born), mostly second- or third-generation Israelis, and the rest are olim (Jewish immigrants to Israel)19% from Europe, Americas and Oceania, and 9% from Asia and Africa, mostly the Muslim world.

The Israeli government does not trace the diaspora origin of Israeli Jews.

The CBS traces the paternal country of diaspora origin of Israeli Jews (including nonHalachically Jewish immigrants who arrived on the Law of Return) as of 2010 is as follows.[57]

In Israel there are approximately 300,000 citizens with Jewish ancestry who are not Jewish according to Orthodox interpretations of Jewish law. Of this number approximately 10% are Christian and 89% are either Jewish or non-religious. The total number of conversions under the Nativ program of IDF was 640 in 2005 and 450 in 2006. From 2002 to 1 October 2007, a total of 2,213 soldiers have converted under Nativ.[58] In 2003, 437 Christians converted to Judaism; in 2004, 884; and in 2005, 733.[59] Recently several thousand conversions conducted by the Chief Rabbinate under the leadership of Rabbi Chaim Drukman have been annulled, and the official Jewish status over several thousand people who converted through the conversion court of the Chief Rabbinate since 1999 hangs in limbo as the proceedings continue regarding these individuals Jewish status. The vast majority of these individuals are former Soviet Union immigrants.[60]

In his book from 2001 “The Invention and Decline of Israeliness: State, Culture and Military in Israel”, the Israeli sociologist Baruch Kimmerling identified and divided the modern Israeli society into seven population groups (seven subcultures): The secular upper-middle class group, the national religious group, the traditionalist Mizrahim group, the Orthodox religious group, the Arab citizens of Israel, the Russian immigrants group and the Ethiopian immigrants group. According to Kimmerling, each of these population groups have distinctive characteristics, such as place of resident, consumption patterns, education systems, communications media and more.[61]

Today, Jews whose family immigrated from European countries and the Americas, on their paternal line, constitute the largest single group among Israeli Jews and consist of about 3,000,000[62] people living in Israel. About 1,200,000 of them are descended from or are immigrants from the former Soviet Union who returned from the diaspora after the fall of the Former Soviet Union 1991 (about 300,000 of them are not considered to be Jewish under halakha). Most of the other 1,800,000 are descended from the first Zionist settlers in the Land of Israel, as well as Holocaust survivors and their descendants, with an additional 200,000 having immigrated or descended from immigrants from English-speaking countries and South America. They have played a prominent role in various fields including the arts, entertainment, literature, sports, science and technology, business and economy, media, and politics of Israel since its founding, and tend to be the most affluent of Israeli Jews.

Not all Jews immigrating to Israel from European countries are of Ashkenazi origin (the majority of French Jews are of Sephardic, and some Jews from the Asian Republics of the USSR are Mizrahi), and the Israeli government does not distinguish between Jewish communities in its census.

During the first decades of Israel as a state, strong cultural conflict was going on between Mizrahi, Sephardic and Ashkenazi Jews (mainly east European Ashkenazim). The roots of this conflict, which still exists to a much smaller extent in present-day Israeli society, stems from the many cultural differences between the various Jewish communities; this happened despite of the government’s encouragement of the “melting pot”. That is to say, all Jewish immigrants in Israel were strongly encouraged to “melt down” their own particular exile identities within the general social “pot” in order to become Israeli.

The current most prominent European countries of origin of the Israeli Jews are as follows:[citation needed]

The majority of Israeli Jews are Mizrahi.[63] The exact proportion of Mizrahi and Sephardic Jewish populations in Israel is unknown (since it is not included in the census); some estimates place Jews of Mizrahi origin at up to 61% of the Israeli Jewish population,[64] with hundreds of thousands more having mixed Ashkenazi heritage due to cross-cultural intermarriage.

Jews from North Africa and Asia have come to be called “Mizrahi Jews”.

Most African and Asian Jewish communities use the Sephardic prayer ritual and abide by the rulings of Sephardic rabbinic authorities, and therefore consider themselves to be “Sephardim” in the broader sense of “Jews of the Spanish rite”, though not in the narrower sense of “Spanish Jews”. Of late, the term Mizrahi has come to be associated with all Jews in Israel with backgrounds in Islamic lands.

Cultural and/or “racial” biases against the newcomers were compounded by the fledgling state’s lack of financial resources and inadequate housing to handle the massive population influx. Thus, hundreds of thousands of new Sephardic immigrants were sent to live in tent cities in outlying areas. Sephardim (in its wider meaning) were often victims of discrimination, and were sometimes called schwartze (meaning “black” in Yiddish).

Some believe that even worse than the housing discrimination was the differential treatment accorded the children of these immigrants, many of whom were tracked by the largely European education establishment into dead-end “vocational” high schools, without any real assessment of their intellectual capacities. Mizrahi Jews protested their unfair treatment, and even established the Israeli Black Panthers movement with the mission of working for social justice.

The effects of this early discrimination still linger a half-century later, as documented by the studies of the Adva Center, a think tank on social equality, and by other Israeli academic research (cf., for example, Tel Aviv University Professor Yehuda Shenhav’s article in Hebrew documenting the gross under-representation of Sephardic Jewry in Israeli high school history textbooks.) All Israeli Prime Ministers have been Ashkenazi, although Sephardim and Mizrahim have attained high positions including ministerial positions, chief of staffs and presidency. The student bodies of Israel’s universities remain overwhelmingly Ashkenazi in origin, despite the fact that roughly half the country’s population is non-Ashkenazi. And the tent cities of the 1950s morphed into so-called “development towns”. Scattered over border areas of the Negev Desert and the Galilee, far from the bright lights of Israel’s major cities, most of these towns never had the critical mass or ingredients to succeed as places to live, and they continue to suffer from high unemployment, inferior schools, and chronic brain drain.

While the Israeli Black Panthers no longer exist, the Mizrahi Democratic Rainbow Coalition and many other NGOs carry on the struggle for equal access and opportunity in housing, education, and employment for the country’s underprivileged populacestill largely composed of Sephardim and Mizrahim, joined now by newer immigrants from Ethiopia and the Caucasus Mountains.

Today over 2,500,000 Mizrahi Jews,[65] and Sephardic Jews live in Israel with the majority of them being descendants of the 680,000 Jews who fled Arab countries (

The current most prominent countries of diaspora origin of these Jewish communities are as follows:[67]

Israel also has small populations of Italian (rite) Jews from Italy and Romaniote Jews from Greece, Cyprus and Turkey. Both groups are considered distinct from the Sephardim and the Ashkenazim. Jews from both communities made aliyah in relatively large numbers during the 20th century, especially after the Holocaust. Both came in relatively small numbers as compared to other Jewish groups. Despite their small numbers, the Italian have been prominent in the economy and academia. Most Italian and Romaniote Israelis and their descendants live in the Tel Aviv area.[71]

Argentines in Israel are the largest immigrant group from Latin America and one of the fastest growing groups. The vast majority of Argentines in Israel are Jewish Argentines who make Aliyah but there is also an important group of non-Jewish Argentines, having, or being married to somebody who has, at least one Jewish grandparent, who choose Israel as their new home. There are about 50,000 Argentines residing in Israel although some estimates put the figure at 70,000.[72][73]

Most Jewish Argentines are Ashkenazi Jews.[citation needed]

Nearly all of the Ethiopian Beta Israel community today lives in Israel, comprising more than 121,000 people.[74] Most of this population are the descendants and the immigrants who immigrated to Israel during two massive waves of immigration mounted by the Israeli government”Operation Moses” (1984) and during “Operation Solomon” (1991). Civil war and famine in Ethiopia prompted the Israeli government to mount these dramatic rescue operations. The rescues were within the context of Israel’s national mission to gather Diaspora Jews and bring them to the Jewish homeland. Some immigration has continued up until the present day. Today 81,000 Ethiopian Israelis were born in Ethiopia, while 38,500 or 32% of the community are native born Israelis.[75]

Over time, the Ethiopian Jews in Israel moved out of the government-owned mobile home camps that they initially lived in and settled mainly in the various cities and towns throughout Israel, mainly with the encouragement of the Israeli authorities who granted the new immigrants generous government loans or low-interest mortgages.

Similarly to other groups of immigrant Jews who made aliyah to Israel, the Ethiopian Jews have faced obstacles in their integration to Israeli society. Initially the main challenges of the Ethiopian Jewish community in Israel were due in part to communication difficulties (most of the population could not read or write in Hebrew, and much of the veteran population could not hold a simple conversation in the Hebrew language), and discrimination in certain areas of the Israeli society. Unlike Russian immigrants, many of whom arrive with job skills, Ethiopians came from a subsistence economy and were ill-prepared to work in an industrialized society.

Over the years there has been significant progress in the integration of this population group in the Israeli society, primarily due to the fact that most of the young Ethiopian population enlists to the mandatory Israel military service, where most Ethiopian Jews have been able to increase their chances for better opportunities.[76]

The 2013 Miss Israel title was given to Yityish Titi Aynaw, the first Ethiopian-born contestant to win the pagent. Aynaw, moved to Israel from Ethiopia with her family when she was 12.[77]

Intermarriage between Ashkenazi Jews and Sephardi/Mizrahi Jews in Israel was initially uncommon, due in part to distances of each group’s settlement in Israel, economic gaps, and cultural and/or racial biases. In recent generations, however, the barriers were lowered by state-sponsored assimilation of all the Jewish communities into a common Sabra (native-born Israeli) identity, which facilitated extensive “mixed marriages”. The percentage of Jewish children born to mixed marriages between Ashkenazi Jews and Sephardi/Mizrahi Jews rose steadily. A 1995 survey found that 5.3% of Jews aged 4043, 16.5% of Jews aged 2021, and 25% of Jews aged 1011 were of mixed ancestry. That same year, 25% of Jewish children born in Israel were mixed.[78]

Even though the assimilation rate among the Israeli Jewish community has always been low, the propriety and degree of assimilation of Israeli Jews and Jews worldwide has always been a significant and controversial issue within the modern Israeli Jewish community, with both political and religious skeptics.

While not all Jews disapprove of intermarriage, many members of the Israeli Jewish community have expressed their concern that a high rate of interfaith marriages will result in the eventual disappearance of the Israeli Jewish community.

In contrast to the current moderate birth rates of Israeli Jews and the relative low trends of assimilation, some communities within Israeli Jewry, such as Orthodox Jews, have significantly higher birth rates and lower intermarriage rates, and are growing rapidly.

Since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948 the term “Yerida” has been used to mark the emigration of Jews from Israel, whether in groups (small or large) or individually.

Through the years, the majority of Israeli Jews who emigrated from Israel went to the United States and Canada.

For many years definitive data on Israeli emigration was unavailable.[82] In The Israeli Diaspora sociologist Stephen J. Gold maintains that calculation of Jewish emigration has been a contentious issue, explaining, “Since Zionism, the philosophy that underlies the existence of the Jewish state, calls for return home of the world’s Jews, the opposite movementIsraelis leaving the Jewish state to reside elsewhereclearly presents an ideological and demographic problem.”[83]

Among the most common reasons for emigration of Israeli Jews from Israel are economic constraints, economic characteristics (U.S. and Canada have always been richer nations than Israel), disappointment of the Israeli government, Israel’s ongoing security issues, as well as the excessive role of religion in the lives of Israelis.

In recent decades, considerable numbers of Israeli Jews have moved abroad.[84] Reasons for emigration vary, but generally relate to a combination of economic and political concerns. According to data published in 2006, from 1990 to 2005, 230,000 Israelis left the country; a large proportion of these departures included people who initially immigrated to Israel and then reversed their course (48% of all post-1990 departures and even 60% of 2003 and 2004 departures were former immigrants to Israel). 8% of Jewish immigrants in the post-1990 period left Israel. In 2005 alone, 21,500 Israelis left the country and had not yet returned at the end of 2006; among them 73% were Jews. At the same time, 10,500 Israelis came back to Israel after over one year abroad; 84% of them were Jews.

In addition, the Israeli Jewish diaspora group also has many Jews worldwide, especially the ones who originate from Western countries, who moved to Israel and gained Israeli citizenship under the Law of Return, who lived in Israel for a time, then returned to their country of origin and kept their dual citizenship.

Many Israeli Jews emigrated to the United States throughout the period of the declaration of the state of Israel and until today. Today, the descendants of these people are known as Israeli-Americans. The 2000 Census counted 106,839 Israeli Americans.[85] It is estimated that 400,000800,000 Israeli Jews have immigrated to the United States since the 1950s, though this number remains a contested figure, since many Israelis are originally from other countries and may list their origin countries when arriving in the United States.[10]

Moscow has the largest single Israeli expatriate community in the world, with 80,000 Israeli citizens living in the city as of 2014, almost all of them native Russian-speakers.[14][86] Many Israeli cultural events are hosted for the community, and many live part of the year in Israel. (To cater to the Israeli community, Israeli cultural centres are located in Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk and Yekaterinburg.)[87]

Many Israeli Jews emigrated to Canada throughout the period of the declaration of the state of Israel and until today. Today, the descendants of these people are known as Israeli Canadians. It is estimated that as many as 30,000 Jewish Israelis live in Canada.[16]

Many Israeli Jews emigrated to the United Kingdom throughout the period of the declaration of the state of Israel and until today. Today, the descendants of these people are known as Israeli-British. It is estimated that as many as 30,000 Jewish Israelis live in the United Kingdom.[17]

The majority of the Israeli Jews in the UK live in London and in particular in the heavily populated Jewish area of Golders Green.[citation needed]

In the northern part of Israel the percentage of Jewish population is declining.[88] The increasing population of Arabs within Israel, and the majority status they hold in two major geographic regionsthe Galilee and the Trianglehas become a growing point of open political contention in recent years.

The phrase demographic threat (or demographic bomb) is used within the Israeli political sphere to describe the growth of Israel’s Arab citizenry as constituting a threat to its maintenance of its status as a Jewish state with a Jewish demographic majority.

Israeli historian Benny Morris states:

The Israeli Arabs are a time bomb. Their slide into complete Palestinization has made them an emissary of the enemy that is among us. They are a potential fifth column. In both demographic and security terms they are liable to undermine the state. So that if Israel again finds itself in a situation of existential threat, as in 1948, it may be forced to act as it did then. If we are attacked by Egypt (after an Islamist revolution in Cairo) and by Syria, and chemical and biological missiles slam into our cities, and at the same time Israeli Palestinians attack us from behind, I can see an expulsion situation. It could happen. If the threat to Israel is existential, expulsion will be justified[…][89]

The term “demographic bomb” was famously used by Benjamin Netanyahu in 2003[90] when he asserted that if the percentage of Arab citizens rises above its current level of about 20 percent, Israel will not be able to maintain a Jewish demographic majority. Netanyahu’s comments were criticized as racist by Arab Knesset members and a range of civil rights and human rights organizations, such as the Association for Civil Rights in Israel.[91] Even earlier allusions to the “demographic threat” can be found in an internal Israeli government document drafted in 1976 known as the Koenig Memorandum, which laid out a plan for reducing the number and influence of Arab citizens of Israel in the Galilee region.

In 2003, the Israeli daily Ma’ariv published an article entitled, “Special Report: Polygamy is a Security Threat,” detailing a report put forth by the Director of the Israeli Population Administration at the time, Herzl Gedj; the report described polygamy in the Bedouin sector a “security threat” and advocated means of reducing the birth rate in the Arab sector.[92] The Population Administration is a department of the Demographic Council, whose purpose, according to the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics is: “…to increase the Jewish birthrate by encouraging women to have more children using government grants, housing benefits, and other incentives.”[93] In 2008 the Minister of the Interior appointed Yaakov Ganot as new head of the Population Administration, which according to Haaretz is “probably the most important appointment an interior minister can make.”[94]

The rapid population growth with the Haredi sector may affect, according to some Israeli researchers, the preservation of a Jewish majority in the state of Israel.[95] Preserving a Jewish majority population within the state of Israel have been a defining principle among Israeli Jews, where Jewish couples are encouraged to have large families. Many financial incentives were given on behalf of the Israeli government. For instance, Israel’s first Prime Minister David Ben Gurion set up a monetary fund for Jewish women who gave birth to at least 10 children.[96] In addition to increasing to Jewish population and commitment towards preserving a Jewish majority, Israel continues to place a high value on increasing fertility among Jewish mothers.[97] To further increase the Israeli Jewish fertility rate and population, many fertility clinics have been opened and are operated throughout the country. As part of Israel’s universal health-care coverage, Israel spends $60 million annually on publicly funded fertility treatments and operates more fertility clinics per capita than any other country in the world.[98]

A study showed that in 2010, Jewish birthrates rose by 31% and 19,000 diaspora Jews immigrated to Israel, while the Arab birthrate fell by 1.7%.[99] By June 2013, a number of Israeli demographers called the so-called Arab demographic time bomb a myth, citing a declining Arab and Muslim birth rate, an incremental increase in the Israeli Jewish birth rate, unnecessary demographic scare campaigns, as well as inflated statistics released by the Palestinian Authority[100][101][102][103]

Israeli former Ambassador Yoram Ettinger has rejected the assertion of a demographic time bomb, saying that anyone who believes such claims are either misled or mistaken.[104][105]

Ian Lustick, has accused Ettinger and his associates for multiple methodological errors and having a political agenda.[106]

Jewishness is widely considered by Israeli Jews as a national, ethnic and religious identity (See Ethnoreligious group).

In 2011, roughly 9% of Israeli Jews defined as haredim (ultra-orthodox religious); an additional 10% are “religious”; 15% consider themselves “religious traditionalists”, not strictly adhering to religion; further 23% are self-defined “‘not very religious’ traditionalists” and 43% are “secular” (“hiloni”).[108] However, 78% of all Israelis (virtually all Israeli Jews) participate in a Passover seder,[109] and 63% fast on Yom Kippur.

Jewish religious practice in Israel is quite varied. Among the 4.3million American Jews described as “strongly connected” to Judaism, over 80% report some sort of active engagement with Judaism, ranging from attendance at daily prayer services on one end of the spectrum to as little as attendance Passover Seders or lighting Hanukkah candles on the other.

Unlike North American Jews, Israeli Jews tend not to align themselves with any movement of Judaism (such as Reform Judaism or Conservative Judaism) but instead tend to define their religious affiliation by degree of their religious practice.

Another characteristic of the Jewish community in Israel is the relatively high dynamism in which the Israeli Jews tend to define their religious status. Among the secular and traditionalist groups some individuals choose to embrace Orthodox Judaism. In 2009 around 200,000 Israeli Jews aged 20 and above defined themselves as “Baalei teshuva” ( ), Nevertheless, in practice about a quarter of them have a traditionalist lifestyle. Various Orthodox organizations operate in Israel with the aim of getting non-Orthodox Jews embrace Orthodox Judaism. Notable examples are the Chasidic movements Chabad and Breslov whom has gained much popularity among the Baalei teshuva, the organizations Arachim and Yad LeAchim who initiate seminars in Judaism, and the organization Aish HaTorah.

On the other hand, Among the religious and Orthodox groups in Israel, many individuals chose to part from the religious lifestyle and embrace a secular lifestyle (they are referred to as Yotz’im bish’ela). A research conducted in 2011 estimated that about 30 percent of the national religious youth from the religious lifestyle and embrace a secular lifestyle, but 75 percent of them go back to religion after a formation process of their self-identity, which usually lasts until age 28. The percentage from those who grew up in Chassidic homes, is even higher then that. Contrary to Baalei teshuva, the Orthodox Jews whom wish to embrace a secular lifestyle only have very few organizations whom assist them in parting from the Haredi world, and often they end up finding themselves destitute or struggling to complete the educational and social gaps. The most prominent organizations whom assist Yotz’im bish’ela are the NGO organizations Hillel and Dror.

Education is a core value in Jewish culture and in Israeli society at large with many Israeli parents sacrificing their own personal comforts and financial resources to provide their children with the highest standards of education possible.[110] Much of the Israeli Jewish population seek education as a passport to a decent job and a middle class paycheck in the country’s competitive high-tech economy. Jewish parents especially mothers take great responsibility to inculcate the value of education in their children at a young age. Striving for high academic achievement and educational success is stressed in many modern Jewish Israeli households as parents make sure that their children are well educated adequately in order to gain the necessary technological skills needed for employment success to compete in Israel’s modern high-tech job market. Israelis see competency with in demand job skills such as literacy in math and science as especially necessary for employment success in Israel’s competitive 21st-century high-tech economy.[110] Israel’s Jewish population maintains a relatively high level of educational attainment where just under half of all Israeli Jews (46%) hold post-secondary degrees. This figure has remained stable in their already high levels of educational attainment over recent generations.[111][112] Israeli Jews (among those ages 25 and older) have average of 11.6 years of schooling making them one of the most highly educated of all major religious groups in the world.[113][114] The Israeli government regulates and finances most of the schools operating in the country, including the majority of those run by private organizations. The national school system has two major branchesa Hebrew-speaking branch and an Arabic-speaking branch. The core curricula for the two systems are almost identical in mathematics, sciences, and English. It is different in humanities (history, literature, etc.). While Hebrew is taught as a second language in Arab schools since the third grade and obligatory for Arabic-speaking schools’ matriculation exams, only basic knowledge of Arabic is taught in Hebrew-speaking schools, usually from the 7th to the 9th grade. Arabic is not obligatory for Hebrew-speaking schools’ matriculation exams.

The movement for the revival of Hebrew as a spoken language was particularly popular among new Jewish Zionist immigrants who came to Palestine since the 1880s. Eliezer Ben-Yehuda (born in the Russian Empire) and his followers created the first Hebrew-speaking schools, newspapers, and other Hebrew-language institutions. After his immigration to Israel, and due to the impetus of the Second Aliyah (19051914), Hebrew prevailed as the single official and spoken language of the Jewish community of mandatory Palestine. When the State of Israel was formed in 1948, the government viewed Hebrew as the de facto official language and initiated a melting pot policy, where every immigrant was required to study Hebrew and often to adopt a Hebrew surname. Use of Yiddish, which was the main competitor prior to World War II, was discouraged,[115] and the number of Yiddish speakers declined as the older generations died out, though Yiddish is still commonly used in Ashkenazi haredi communities.

Modern Hebrew is also the primary official language of the modern State of Israel and almost all Israeli Jews are native Hebrew-speakers and speak Hebrew as their primary language. A variety of other languages are still spoken within some Israeli Jewish communities, communities that are representative of the various Jewish ethnic divisions from around the world that have come together to make up Israel’s Jewish population.

Even though the majority of Israeli Jews are native Hebrew speakers, many Jewish immigrants still continue to speak their former languagesmany immigrants from the Soviet Union continue to speak primarily Russian at home and many immigrants from Ethiopia continue to speak primarily Amharic at home.

Many of Israel’s Hasidic Jews (being exclusively of Ashkenazi descent) are raised speaking Yiddish.

Classical Hebrew is the language of most Jewish religious literature, such as the Tanakh (Bible) and Siddur (prayerbook).

Currently, 90% of the Israeli-Jewish public is proficient in Hebrew, and 70% is highly proficient.[116]

Some prominent Israeli politicians such as David Ben-Gurion had tried to learn Arabic, the Mizrahi Jews spoke Judeo-Arabic although most of their descendants in Israel today only speak Hebrew.[citation needed]

Israel was established as a homeland for the Jewish people and is often referred to as the Jewish state. Israel’s Declaration of Independence specifically called for the establishment of a Jewish state with equality of social and political rights, irrespective of religion, race, or sex.[117] The notion that Israel should be constituted in the name of and maintain a special relationship with a particular group of people, the Jewish people, has drawn much controversy vis–vis minority groups living in Israelthe large number of Muslim and Christian Palestinians residing in Israel. Nevertheless, through the years many Israeli Jewish nationalists have based the legitimacy of Israel being a Jewish state on the Balfour Declaration and ancient historical ties to the land, asserting that both play particular roles as evidence under international law, as well as a fear that a hostile Arab world might be disrespectful of a Jewish minorityalleging a variety of possible harms up to and including genocidewere Israel to become a post-national “state for all its citizens”.

Through the years, as Israel’s continued existence as a “Jewish State” has relied upon the maintenance of a Jewish demographic majority, Israeli demographers, politicians and bureaucrats have treated Jewish population growth promotion as a central question in their research and policymaking.

The Law of Return is an Israeli legislation that grants all Jews and those of Jewish lineage the right to gain an Israeli citizenship and to settle in Israel. It was enacted by the Knesset, Israel’s Parliament, on 5 July 1950, and the related Law of Citizenship in 1952. These two pieces of legislation contain expressions pertaining to religion, history and nationalism, as well as to democracy, in a combination unique to Israel. Together, they grant preferential treatment to Jews returning to their ancestral homeland.

The Law of Return declares that Israel constitutes a home not only for the inhabitants of the State, but also for all members of the Jewish people everywhere, be they living in poverty and fear of persecution or be they living in affluence and safety. The law declares to the Jewish people and to the world that the State of Israel welcomes the Jews of the world to return to their ancient homeland.

Currently, all the marriages and divorces in Israel (as well as within the Jewish community) are recognized by the Israeli Interior Ministry only if performed under an official recognized religious authority and only between a man and a woman of the same religion.[118] The Jewish marriage and divorce in Israel are under the jurisdiction of the Chief Rabbinate of Israel, which defines a person’s Jewish status strictly according to halakha.

Civilian marriages are only officially sanctioned if performed abroad. As a result, it is not uncommon for couples who may for some reason not be able (or chose not) to get married in Israel to travel overseas to get married.[119]

During its time of existence the legal settlement that gives the rabbinical courts the monopoly on conducting the marriages and divorces of the entire Israeli Jewish population has been a source of great criticism from the secular public in Israel, but also to the ardent support from the religious public. The main argument of the supporters of the law is that its cancellation will divide the Jewish people in Israel between the Jews who would marry and divorce each other within the Jewish religious authorities and the Jews who would marry and divorce each other within the civil marriageswhich would not be registered or inspected by the religious authorities, and thus their children would be considered illegitimate to marry the children of the couples married within the religious court, from fear of them being considered Mamzer. Opponents of the law see it as a severe offense to the human civil rights made by the state of Israel.

However, common-law marriage is recognized by Israeli law, without restriction of ethnicity, religion or sex (that is, both for inter-sex and same-sex couples, and between a Jew and a non-Jew). Once, the status of common law marriage is proven and obtained, it gives a legal status almost equal to marriage.[120]

National military service is mandatory for any Israeli over the age of 18, with the exception of the Arab Muslim and Christian population (currently estimated at around 20% of the Israeli population) and many ultra-Orthodox Jews (currently estimated at around 8% of the Israeli Jewish population[109] and rising steeply). Druze and Circassian men are liable, by agreement with their community leaders. Members of the exempted groups can still volunteer, but very few do, except for the Bedouin where a relatively large number of men have tended to volunteer. The Israeli Jewish population and especially the secular Israeli Jewish population, is currently the only population group in Israel that has a mandatory military conscription for both men and womena fact that has caused much resentment from within the Jewish community towards the non-serving population, some of which are demanding that all the Israeli citizens share an equal amount of responsibilities, whether in the Israeli army or as part of Sherut Leumi.

In addition, in the recent decade a growing minority from within the Israeli Jewish conscripts have denounced the mandatory enrollment, and refused to serve (see also Refusal to serve in the Israeli military), many claiming that due to financial insecurities they feel that they need to be spending their time more productively pursuing their chosen studies or career paths. Some individual resentment may also be compounded by the typically low wages paid to conscriptsthe current Israeli policies see National Service as a duty rendered to the country and its citizens, and therefore the Israeli army does not pay any wages to conscripts, but instead grants a low monthly allowance to the full-time national service personnel, depending on the type of their duty.

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Jimmy Carter: Israel’s Apartheid – YouTube

Former President Jimmy Carter, author of a new book, Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid,http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASI…is interviewed from his home in Plains, Georgia. He responds to a caller who asks questions concerning pressure put on the US political system and the resulting support of Israel. The caller refers to author James Bamford’s book “A Pretext For War”http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASI…and he asks President Carter about AIPAC and other pressure groups within the US.

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Jimmy Carter: Israel’s Apartheid – YouTube

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Hitler’s Time-Travel Exemption Act – TV Tropes

“If you time-travel into the past and then try to kill Hitler, it won’t work as intended. It may even backfire.”

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Johnny: If you could travel back in time, say, to Germany, before Hitler came to power, what would you do? Would you kill him? Weizak: Johnny, you must know that… I love people. And as a doctor, I am expected to save lives. So naturally, I would have no choice… but to kill the son of a bitch. (raises his drink) Do svidaniya.

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Chapulin: And then history will say that he commited suicide, that the Allies bombarded the place… anyway.

Rory: I’m getting this sort of banging in my head. Amy: Yeah, I think that’s Hitler in the cupboard.

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Theodore Roosevelt: I do declare you boys picked the wrong Roosevelt!

Young Jamie: A.k.a.: How much more can we mess up history?

Samantha: His success is your fault? But he’s the most overrated artist of the 20th century! What could have possibly been worse?

Beret Guy: Anyway, I’m here to kill Hitler. Ponytail: But he died long ago! Beret Guy: Oh, good! That was easy.

(Outskirts of Berlin, 1910note(1920 in the original Hebrew)

Hitler: (Having just killed him) This is the TENTH time a random Jew has tried to kill me. THERE MUST BE SOME SOLUTION TO THIS JEWISH PROBLEM.

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SPLC makes huge settlement with anti-extremist group it …

The Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) announced Monday that it would pay $3.375 million to settle a lawsuit brought by a British anti-extremism group that was put on a list of “anti-Muslim extremists.” In a statement, the Alabama-based SPLC apologized to the Quilliam Foundation and its founder, Maajid Nawaz. “Although we may have our differences with some of the positions that Mr. Nawaz and Quilliam have taken, they are most certainly not anti-Muslim extremists,” the statement read in part. “We would like to extend our sincerest apologies to Mr. Nawaz, Quilliam, and our readers for the error, and we wish Mr. Nawaz and Quilliam all the best.” SPLC APOLOGIZES AFTER PAINTING JOURNALISTS AS FASCISTS IN RETRACTED ARTICLE In 2016, the SPLC included Nawaz and Quilliam in an online publication called “A Field Guide to Anti-Muslim Extremists.” The list, which included conservative blogger Pamela Geller and human rights activist Ayaan Hirsi Ali, drew ire from across the political spectrum. That October, left-wing British writer Nick Cohen accused the SPLC of “[doing] the dirty work of the misogynists, the racists, the homophobes, the censors, and the murderers it was founded to oppose” in calling Nawaz an extremist. In June 2017, Nawaz told Fox News’ “The Story with Martha MacCallum” that the SPLC was “ideologically driven to silence any voice that introspects from within the Muslim community.” REPORT: SPLC IGNORES ANTI-SEMITIC HATE CRIMES ON CAMPUS The list has since been removed from the SPLC’s website and replaced with the statement apologizing to Nawaz and Quilliam. In a statement, Quilliam said it would use the settlement money to fight both “anti-Muslim bigotry and Islamist extremism.” “With the help of everyone who contributed to our litigation fund, we were able to fight back against the Regressive Left and show them that moderate Muslims will not be silenced,” Nawaz said. “We will continue to combat extremists by defying Muslim stereotypes, calling out fundamentalism in our own communities, and speaking out against anti-Muslim hate.” The settlement marked another black eye for the SPLC, which has repeatedly been accused of branding some conservative organizations as “hate groups.” In March, the SPLC was forced to retract an article accusing reporters of enabling white supremacists and anti-Semites.

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Suspected Islamic extremist ricin attack plot foiled in …

An Islamic terrorism plot to launch a deadly attack with the toxin ricin was reportedly thwarted in Germany, prosecutors revealed Thursday. Authorities said a 29-year-old Tunisian, identified only as Sief Allah H., was taken into custody Wednesday after an investigation uncovered he had procured the materials needed to create ricin in mid-May and even succeeded in creating the toxin earlier this month. Investigators found the toxin after a search of his apartment in Cologne, federal prosecutors in Karlsruhe said in a written statement. Prosecutors said the suspect began procuring materials to create ricin in mid-May.(AP) “He procured 1,000 castor bean seeds online as well as an electronic coffee grinder,” they said. The shell of the castor bean plant seed is highly poisonous and can be used to create ricin. Prosecutors said they are still investigating exactly how the suspect planned to use the toxin, and said he was working on a biological weapon attack in Germany. There is currently no evidence of a connection with any extremist organization, authorities said. Prosecutors said there is not evidence yet that there is any connection with a terrorist organization.(AP) Prosecutors have not commented on a report by Bild newspaper that American intelligence tipped of Germany investigators. The newspaper also reported the suspect bought bomb-making material and chemicals used in the production of ricin. If inhaled, ricin causes difficulty breathing and other symptoms. If ingested, symptoms include vomiting, diarrhea, hallucinations and seizures. Initial symptoms of ricin poisoning are most likely to occur within four to 10 hours of exposure. Bild wrote that the suspect lived in the Chorweiler neighborhood of Cologne with his wife and four children. He supposedly used instructions for the making of a ricin bomb that had been posted online by the extremist Islamic State group. The Associated Press contributed to this report Lucia I. Suarez Sang is a Reporter for FoxNews.com.Follow her on Twitter @luciasuarezsang

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Quilliam receives multi-million-dollar compensation for …

The Southern Poverty Law Center issued an apology on Monday to a UK-based think tank that it previously described as anti-Muslim extremists. The Quilliam Foundation will also receive a $3.375-million settlement from the center. Offering its sincerest apology, the SPLC said in a statement that it was sorry to the Quilliam Foundation and its founder Maajid Nawaz for including them in its publication A Journalists Manual: Field Guide to Anti-Muslim Extremists. Read more The center said that it was their opinion at the time that the Field Guide was published that their inclusion was warranted. But after getting a deeper understanding of their views and after hearing from others for whom we have great respect, we realize that we were simply wrong to have included Mr Nawaz and Quilliam in the Field Guide in the first place, the statement added. Set up by former Islamist Maajid Nawaz in 2008, Quilliam looks to counter extremist ideology, particularly Islamism. It also ostensibly aims to advise government policy on the matter, advocating nuanced policies on Muslims living in Britain and empowering moderate Muslims, while countering far-right narratives. Set up in 1971, the Southern Poverty Law Center is a non-profit legal advocacy group based in the United States. In the late 1970s, it backed cases seeking compensation for those who suffered violence at the hands of the Ku Klux Klan. It also keeps lists on hate groups and extremist groups believed to attack and malign minorities. In April, Nawaz threatened to sue the SPLC after finding himself and his group on the list, which also included Hoover Institution fellow Ayaan Hirsi Ali, a Somalia-born critic of radical Islam and genital-mutilation victim. Speaking in a video apology, SPLC President Richard Cohen praised the work that Nawaz and Quilliam have done to fight against radicalization and Islamophobia. Since we published the Field Guide, we have taken the time to do more research and have consulted with human rights advocates we respect. READ MORE:Foreign Offices ridiculous hijab-wearing idea attacked by anti-extremist think tank We’ve found that Mr Nawaz and Quilliam have made valuable and important contributions to public discourse, including by promoting pluralism and condemning both anti-Muslim bigotry and Islamist extremism, Cohen said. The SPLC have also agreed to pay $3.375 million in compensation to Quilliam, which the anti-extremism group said it would use to help fight both anti-Muslim bigotry and Islamist extremism. Commenting on the result, Nawaz said: With the help of everyone who contributed to our litigation fund, we were able to fight back against the regressive Left and show them that moderate Muslims will not be silenced. We will continue to combat extremists by defying Muslim stereotypes, calling out fundamentalism in our own communities, and speaking out against anti-Muslim hate. Prior to the SPLC case, Nawaz had previously been given a terrorism designation in a confidential Thomson Reuters databank, citing his past with radical Islamist group Hizb ut-Tahrir. Think your friends would be interested? Share this story!

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Understanding Islamist Extremism | Clarion Project Clarion …

Islamic extremism is driven by a totalitarian interpretation of Islam that believes in a global Islamic state.Get the basics from Clarion Project analyst Ryan Mauro. Islamic extremism is driven by an interpretation of Islam that believes that Islamic law, or sharia, is an all-encompassing religious-political system. Since it is believed to be proscribed by Allah (Arabic for God) sharia must be enforced in the public sphere by a global Islamic state. As such, Islamic extremists consider it to be the only truly legitimate form of governance and reject democracy and human rights values. Thus, the ultimate objective of Islamic extremists is the merger of mosque and state under sharia law. Those who favor such an approach are called Islamists. Their ideology is called Islamism, or political Islam. Related terms for Islamic extremism include radical Islam and Islamic supremacy. Islamic extremists believe they are obligated to install this form of governance in Muslim-majority territories, countries and, eventually, the entire world. In the minds of Islamic extremists, they are promoting justice and freedom by institutingsharia. In some cases, Islamic extremists even describe sharia as a superior form of democracy. Islamic extremists have intermediate political goals which they believe will pave the way for the global implementation of sharia.One of these goals is the removal of non-Muslim military forces from Muslim lands and the overthrow of enemy regimes. Acts of Islamic extremism includes terrorism, human rights abuses, the advancement of sharia-based governance, bigotry towards non-Muslims and rival Muslims and overall hostility to the West and, in particular, Western democracy. Islamic extremism is the primary national security and human rights concern of the world today. It is firstly the primary motivator of acts of terrorism worldwide. Secondly, as Islamic extremists gain power and rule, human rights abuses including oppression of women, homosexuals and religious minorities as well as governmental tyranny, sectarian warfare and bigotry inherent in sharia law come to the fore. Not all Islamic extremists carry out violent acts. Islamic extremists can advance their goals using non-violent tactics such as activism, developing interfaith coalitions with unsuspecting non-Muslims, fundraising, building political influence and the overall spreading of the ideology. These extremists follow a doctrine called gradualism. The largest Islamic extremist group to use this method is the Muslim Brotherhood. Islamic terrorists, on the other hand, use violence and terrorism to instill fear and to gain political power in order to establish their goals. Often times, groups that ascribe to the doctrine of gradualism as their own modus operandi support other Islamic extremist groups involved in terrorism financially, such was the case when a group of Muslim Brotherhood entities in the U.S. were listed as unindicted co-conspirators in the Holy Land Foundation case for financing the Hamas terror organization. Islamic extremism derives from a radical interpretation of Islam. Even among Islamic extremists, there are interpretative differences stemming from different sects and/or doctrines. Its important to note that not all Muslims subscribe to a radical interpretation of Islam. Clarion Project regularly interviews moderate Muslims to highlight their viewpoints and their fight against the ideology of Islamic extremists. Learn more about anti-extremist schools of thought within Islam: Modern Islamic extremism grew out the Islamic revivalist movement, which began in the late 19th century. Islamic revivalism was a response to the perceived weakness of the Muslim world compared to the British empire specifically but also western colonialism more generally, as well as the rise of secularism due to the increased influence of the Western values in Muslim countries. Thinkers associated with Islamic revivalism preached a fresh interpretation of Islamic texts based on goals of pan-Islamic unity and the establishment of Islamic states based on sharia law. One school of thought contends that Islamic extremism is bred by political and societal grievances. Thus, this school believes that extremists are provoked by injustices committed by the West and their governments and armies in Muslim countries. According to this school, Islamic extremism should be countered by addressing these grievances of angry Muslim populations through foreign policy changes, political concessions where there are areas of disagreements, improved governance of Muslim countries, income redistribution and dialogue. The other school of thought holds that these grievances, bred by Islamic extremists, are just excuses to justify antagonism towards the West. This side argues that the Islamic extremist worldview leads to the adoption of these grievances. Advocates of this school of thought note that the grievances cannot account for all elements of Islamic extremism, such as the abuse of women and other human rights violations in sharia-based societies. According to this school, Islamic extremism can only be countered by undermining the ideology itself. Reformist Muslims that support an interpretation of Islam that is favorable to modernity and Western democracy are viewed as critical to fighting Islamic extremists. The most popular Islamic extremist group is the Muslim Brotherhood, an international organization that believes in wagingjihad through various means in order to establish worldwide shariarule. One of those means is through a process of cultural or civilization jihad, which follows the Brotherhoods strategy ofgradualism. There are many political parties (i.e. the Freedom and Justice Party in Egypt) and terrorist groups (i.e. Hamas) that belong to the Brotherhood. In fact, according to Steve Emerson, the executive director of the highly respected Investigative Project on Terrorism, The vast majority of Sunni terrorist groups including al Qaeda, Egyptian Islamic Jihad, Hamas and the Palestinian Islamic Jihad are derived from the Muslim Brotherhood. Other examples of Islamic extremist groups include Hezbollah, the Taliban, Jamaat-e-Islami, Jamaat ul-Fuqra, Lashkar-e-Taiba, the Nation of Islam and various Salafist groups. Learn more about the Muslim Brotherhood. Islamic extremism can spread organically, but there is an identifiable infrastructure that spreads it. This infrastructure includes foreign governments, mosques, schools, media including internet and social media social services and non-governmental organizations. The U.S. State Department designated four governments as State Sponsors of Terrorism: Iran, Syria, Sudan and Cuba. The Iranian government is considered the worlds largest sponsor of terrorism in the world. The U.S. government has also documented the fact that Iran supports terrorist groups such as Hezbollah, Al-Qaeda, the Taliban, Hamas, Palestinian Islamic Jihad and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command. Iran also supports radical militias in Iraq and Yemen and directly participates in acts of terrorism globally. The Syrian government supports Hezbollah and is a chief ally of Iran. It has historically supported other terrorist groups as well, but that support ended when these other groups endorsed the Syrian rebels trying to overthrow the Syrian government. The Sudanese government works closely with Iran and is a well-known supporter of Hamas. There are also allegations that Sudan supports Hezbollah and elements of Al Qaeda. The Cuban government supports non-Muslim terrorist groups in Latin America and harbors at least one Muslim terrorist wanted by the U.S. government. The non-Muslim groups supported by Cuba, specifically the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), are known to have ties to Hezbollah. There are other governments that have not been designated as State Sponsors of Terrorism but are accused of supporting Islamic terrorist groups or Islamic extremism. They include: In the West, Islamic extremist groups and their supporters spread their ideology (and, in some cases, directly sponsor terrorism) using a network of front groups. An example would be the Iranian governments use of the Alavi Foundation in New York or the Muslim Brotherhoods establishment of various political organizations under different names, like CAIR, the Council on American Islamic Relations, one of the U.S. Islamist organizations that was named as an unindicted co-conspirator in the Holy Land terror funding trial. The enemies of Islamic extremists are anyone who does not favorsharia-based governance or opposes Islamic extremist ideology and its agenda. Muslims who support a reformation in Islamic teaching that is favorable to critical examination, Western democracy, modernity, human rights, and separation of mosque and state are opponents of Islamic extremism. Support for Islamic extremist ideology is high in the Muslim world, with Islamic terrorist groups garneringdouble-digit support. These terror groups have even won elections; of note is Hamass 2006 victory in the Gaza Strip and the Muslim Brotherhoods 2012 victory in Egypt. The Islamist Ennhada party won the 2011 elections in Tunisia, the country that began the Arab Spring. However, the Islamic extremists takeovers have led to decisive backlashes. After a year of governance marred by Islamist power grabs, popular disapproval drove the Egyptian army to depose the Muslim Brotherhood from power in 2013. Tunisias Ennhada party, not wanting to suffer the same fate as their Egyptian brothers, agreed to step down from power after massive protests against it. In an unprecedented move, the Ennhada government resigned in January 2014.

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Gay Marriage – Facts & Summary – HISTORY.com

The early 2010s continued the state-level battles over gay marriage that defined the preceding decade, with at least one notable event. For the first time in the countrys history, voters (rather than judges or legislators) in Maine, Maryland, and Washington approved Constitutional amendments permitting same-sex marriage in 2012. Same-sex marriage also became a federal issue again. In 2010, Massachusetts, the first state to legalize gay marriage, found Section 3 of DOMAthe part of the 1996 law that defined marriage as a union between one man and one womanto be unconstitutional. Foundations of the act had finally begun to crumble, but the real hammer fell with United States v. Windsor. In 2007, New York lesbian couple Edith Windsor and Thea Spyer wed in Ontario, Canada. The State of New York recognized the residents marriage, but the federal government, thanks to DOMA, did not. When Spyer died in 2009, she left her estate to Windsor; since the couples marriage was not federally recognized, Windsor didnt quality for tax exemption as a surviving spouse and the government imposed $363,000 in estate taxes. Windsor sued the government in late 2010. A few months later, U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder announced that the Barack Obama administration would no longer defend DOMA, leaving a representative of the Bipartisan Legal Advisory Groupof the House of Representativesto take on the case. In 2012, the 2nd U.S. Circuit Court of Appealsruled that DOMA violates the Constitutions equal protection clause, and the U.S. Supreme Court agreed to hear arguments for the case. The following year, the court ruled in favor of Windsor, ultimately striking down Section 3 of DOMA.

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The Coming of Conan the Cimmerian by Robert E. Howard …

Cimmeria Written in Mission, Texas, February, 1932; suggested by the memory of the hill-country above Fredericksburg seen in a mist of winter rain. Robert E. Howard Cimmeria I remember The dark woods, masking slopes of sombre hills; The grey clouds’ leaden everlasting arch; The dusky streams that flowed without a sound, And the lone winds that whispered down the passes. Vista on vista marching, hills on hills, Slope beyond slope, each dark with sullen trees, Our gaunt land lay. So when a man climbed up A rugged peak and gazed, his shaded eye Saw but the endless vista – hill on hill, Slope beyond slope, each hooded like its brothers. It was a gloomy land that seemed to hold All winds and clouds and dreams that shun the sun, With bare boughs rattling in the lonesome winds, And the dark woodlands brooding over all, Not even lightened by the rare dim sun Which made squat shadows out of men; they called it Cimmeria, land of Darkness and deep Night. It was so long ago and far away I have forgot the very name men called me. The axe and flint-tipped spear are like a dream, And hunts and wars are shadows. I recall Only the stillness of that sombre land; The clouds that piled forever on the hills, The dimness of the everlasting woods. Cimmeria, land of Darkness and the Night. Oh, soul of mine, born out of shadowed hills, To clouds and winds and ghosts that shun the sun, How many deaths shall serve to break at last This heritage which wraps me in the grey Apparel of ghosts? I search my heart and find Cimmeria, land of Darkness and the Night. The Phoenix on the Sword The Phoenix on the Sword “Know, oh prince, that between the years when the oceans drank Atlantis and the gleaming cities, and the years of the rise of the Sons of Aryas, there was an Age undreamed of, when shining kingdoms lay spread across the world like blue mantles beneath the stars – Nemedia, Ophir, Brythunia, Hyperborea, Zamora with its dark-haired women and towers of spider-haunted mystery, Zingara with its chivalry, Koth that bordered on the pastoral lands of Shem, Stygia with its shadow-guarded tombs, Hyrkania whose riders wore steel and silk and gold. But the proudest kingdom of the world was Aquilonia, reigning supreme in the dreaming west. Hither came Conan, the Cimmerian, black-haired, sullen-eyed, sword in hand, a thief, a reaver, a slayer, with gigantic melancholies and gigantic mirth, to tread the jeweled thrones of the Earth under his sandalled feet.” – The Nemedian Chronicles. Over shadowy spires and gleaming towers lay the ghostly darkness and silence that runs before dawn. Into a dim alley, one of a veritable labyrinth of mysterious winding ways, four masked figures came hurriedly from a door which a dusky hand furtively opened. They spoke not but went swiftly into the gloom, cloaks wrapped closely about them; as silently as the ghosts of murdered men they disappeared in the darkness. Behind them a sardonic countenance was framed in the partly opened door; a pair of evil eyes glittered malevolently in the gloom. “Go into the night, creatures of the night,” a voice mocked. “Oh, fools, your doom hounds your heels like a blind dog, and you know it not.” The speaker closed the door and bolted it, then turned and went up the corridor, candle in hand. He was a somber giant, whose dusky skin revealed his Stygian blood. He came into an inner chamber, where a tall, lean man in worn velvet lounged like a great lazy cat on a silken couch, sipping wine from a huge golden goblet. “Well, Ascalante,” said the Stygian, setting down the candle, “your dupes have slunk into the streets like rats from their burrows. You work with strange tools.” “Tools?” replied Ascalante. “Why, they consider me that. For months now, ever since the Rebel Four summoned me from the southern desert, I have been living in the very heart of my enemies, hiding by day in this obscure house, skulking through dark alleys and darker corridors at night. And I have accomplished what those rebellious nobles could not. Working through them, and through other agents, many of whom have never seen my face, I have honeycombed the empire with sedition and unrest. In short I, working in the shadows, have paved the downfall of the king who sits throned in the sun. By Mitra, I was a statesman before I was an outlaw.” “And these dupes who deem themselves your masters?” “They will continue to think that I serve them, until our present task is completed. Who are they to match wits with Ascalante? Volmana, the dwarfish count of Karaban; Gromel, the giant commander of the Black Legion; Dion, the fat baron of Attalus; Rinaldo, the hare-brained minstrel. I am the force which has welded together the steel in each, and by the clay in each, I will crush them when the time comes. But that lies in the future; tonight the king dies.” “Days ago I saw the imperial squadrons ride from the city,” said the Stygian. “They rode to the frontier which the heathen Picts assail – thanks to the strong liquor which I’ve smuggled over the borders to madden them. Dion’s great wealth made that possible. And Volmana made it possible to dispose of the rest of the imperial troops which remained in the city. Through his princely kin in Nemedia, it was easy to persuade King Numa to request the presence of Count Trocero of Poitain, seneschal of Aquilonia; and of course, to do him honor, he’ll be accompanied by an imperial escort, as well as his own troops, and Prospero, King Conan’s right-hand man. That leaves only the king’s personal bodyguard in the citybesides the Black Legion. Through Gromel I’ve corrupted a spendthrift officer of that guard, and bribed him to lead his men away from the king’s door at midnight. “Then, with sixteen desperate rogues of mine, we enter the palace by a secret tunnel. After the deed is done, even if the people do not rise to welcome us, Gromel’s Black Legion will be sufficient to hold the city and the crown.” “And Dion thinks that crown will be given to him?” “Yes. The fat fool claims it by reason of a trace of royal blood. Conan makes a bad mistake in letting men live who still boast descent from the old dynasty, from which he tore the crown of Aquilonia. “Volmana wishes to be reinstated in royal favor as he was under the old regime, so that he may lift his poverty-ridden estates to their former grandeur. Gromel hates Pallantides, commander of the Black Dragons, and desires the command of the whole army, with all the stubbornness of the Bossonian. Alone of us all, Rinaldo has no personal ambition. He sees in Conan a red-handed, rough-footed barbarian who came out of the north to plunder a civilized land. He idealizes the king whom Conan killed to get the crown, remembering only that he occasionally patronized the arts, and forgetting the evils of his reign, and he is making the people forget. Already they openly sing The Lament for the King in which Rinaldo lauds the sainted villain and denounces Conan as ‘that black-hearted savage from the abyss.’ Conan laughs, but the people snarl.” “Why does he hate Conan?” “Poets always hate those in power. To them perfection is always just behind the last corner, or beyond the next. They escape the present in dreams of the past and future. Rinaldo is a flaming torch of idealism, rising, as he thinks, to overthrow a tyrant and liberate the people. As for me – well, a few months ago I had lost all ambition but to raid the caravans for the rest of my life; now old dreams stir. Conan will die; Dion will mount the throne. Then he, too, will die. One by one, all who oppose me will die – by fire, or steel, or those deadly wines you know so well how to brew. Ascalante, king of Aquilonia! How like you the sound of it?” The Stygian shrugged his broad shoulders. “There was a time,” he said with unconcealed bitterness, “when I, too, had my ambitions, beside which yours seem tawdry and childish. To what a state I have fallen! My old-time peers and rivals would stare indeed could they see Thoth-amon of the Ring serving as the slave of an outlander, and an outlaw at that; and aiding in the petty ambitions of barons and kings!” “You laid your trust in magic and mummery,” answered Ascalante carelessly. “I trust my wits and my sword.” “Wits and swords are as straws against the wisdom of the Darkness,” growled the Stygian, his dark eyes flickering with menacing lights and shadows. “Had I not lost the Ring, our positions might be reversed.” “Nevertheless,” answered the outlaw impatiently, “you wear the stripes of my whip on your back, and are likely to continue to wear them.” “Be not so sure!” the fiendish hatred of the Stygian glittered for an instant redly in his eyes. “Some day, somehow, I will find the Ring again, and when I do, by the serpent-fangs of Set, you shall pay -” The hot-tempered Aquilonian started up and struck him heavily across the mouth. Thoth reeled back, blood starting from his lips. “You grow over-bold, dog,” growled the outlaw. “Have a care; I am still your master who knows your dark secret. Go upon the housetops and shout that Ascalante is in the city plotting against the king – if you dare.” “I dare not,” muttered the Stygian, wiping the blood from his lips. “No, you do not dare,” Ascalante grinned bleakly. “For if I die by your stealth or treachery, a hermit priest in the southern desert will know of it, and will break the seal of a manuscript I left in his hands. And having read, a word will be whispered in Stygia, and a wind will creep up from the south by midnight. And where will you hide your head, Thoth-amon?” The slave shuddered and his dusky face went ashen. “Enough!” Ascalante changed his tone peremptorily. “I have work for you. I do not trust Dion. I bade him ride to his country estate and remain there until the work tonight is done. The fat fool could never conceal his nervousness before the king today. Ride after him, and if you do not overtake him on the road, proceed to his estate and remain with him until we send for him. Don’t let him out of your sight. He is mazed with fear, and might bolt – might even rush to Conan in a panic, and reveal the whole plot, hoping thus to save his own hide. Go!” The slave bowed, hiding the hate in his eyes, and did as he was bidden. Ascalante turned again to his wine. Over the jeweled spires was rising a dawn crimson as blood. II When I was a fighting-man, the kettle-drums they beat, The people scattered gold-dust before my horse’s feet; But now I am a great king, the people hound my track With poison in my wine-cup, and daggers at my back. – The Road of Kings. The room was large and ornate, with rich tapestries on the polished-panelled walls, deep rugs on the ivory floor, and with the lofty ceiling adorned with intricate carvings and silver scrollwork. Behind an ivory, gold-inlaid writing-table sat a man whose broad shoulders and sun-browned skin seemed out of place among those luxuriant surroundings. He seemed more a part of the sun and winds and high places of the outlands. His slightest movement spoke of steel-spring muscles knit to a keen brain with the co-ordination of a born fighting-man. There was nothing deliberate or measured about his actions. Either he was perfectly at rest – still as a bronze statue – or else he was in motion, not with the jerky quickness of over-tense nerves, but with a cat-like speed that blurred the sight which tried to follow him. His garments were of rich fabric, but simply made. He wore no ring or ornaments, and his square-cut black mane was confined merely by a cloth-of-silver band about his head. Now he laid down the golden stylus with which he had been laboriously scrawling on waxed papyrus, rested his chin on his fist, and fixed his smoldering blue eyes enviously on the man who stood before him. This person was occupied in his own affairs at the moment, for he was taking up the laces of his gold-chased armor, and abstractedly whistling – a rather unconventional performance, considering that he was in the presence of a king. “Prospero,” said the man at the table, “these matters of statecraft weary me as all the fighting I have done never did.” “All part of the game, Conan,” answered the dark-eyed Poitainian. “You are king – you must play the part.” “I wish I might ride with you to Nemedia,” said Conan enviously. “It seems ages since I had a horse between my knees – but Publius says that affairs in the city require my presence. Curse him! “When I overthrew the old dynasty,” he continued, speaking with the easy familiarity which existed only between the Poitainian and himself, “it was easy enough, though it seemed bitter hard at the time. Looking back now over the wild path I followed, all those days of toil, intrigue, slaughter and tribulation seem like a dream. “I did not dream far enough, Prospero. When King Numedides lay dead at my feet and I tore the crown from his gory head and set it on my own, I had reached the ultimate border of my dreams. I had prepared myself to take the crown, not to hold it. In the old free days all I wanted was a sharp sword and a straight path to my enemies. Now no paths are straight and my sword is useless. “When I overthrew Numedides, then I was the Liberator – now they spit at my shadow. They have put a statue of that swine in the temple of Mitra, and people go and wail before it, hailing it as the holy effigy of a saintly monarch who was done to death by a red-handed barbarian. When I led her armies to victory as a mercenary, Aquilonia overlooked the fact that I was a foreigner, but now she can not forgive me. “Now in Mitra’s temple there come to burn incense to Numedides’ memory, men whom his hangmen maimed and blinded, men whose sons died in his dungeons, whose wives and daughters were dragged into his seraglio. The fickle fools!” “Rinaldo is largely responsible,” answered Prospero, drawing up his sword-belt another notch. “He sings songs that make men mad. Hang him in his jester’s garb to the highest tower in the city. Let him make rimes for the vultures.” Conan shook his lion head. “No, Prospero, he’s beyond my reach. A great poet is greater than any king. His songs are mightier than my scepter; for he has near ripped the heart from my breast when he chose to sing for me. I shall die and be forgotten, but Rinaldo’s songs will live for ever.

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June 20, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Mark Potok  Comments Closed

Israeli Jews – Wikipedia

Israeli Jews Total populationCore Jewish population:6,556,00074.6% of the Israeli population[1][2][3][4]Enlarged Jewish population (includes non-Jewish relatives of Jews):6,705,00079.3% of the Israeli populationRegions with significant populationsIsrael 6,300,000[a] (September 2015)[9]United States500,000[10][11][12]Russia100,000 (80,000 in Moscow)[13][14]Canada10,755[15]30,000[16]United Kingdom30,000[17]Australia15,000[18]Germany10,000[19][20][21]Languages Historical Hebrew, Jewish languagesYiddish, Ladino, Judeo-Arabic and other Jewish languages (most endangered, and some now extinct)Liturgical languagesHebrew and Aramaic Israeli Jews (Hebrew: , Yehudim Yisraelim), also known as Jewish Israelis, refers to Israeli citizens of the Jewish ethnicity or faith, and also the descendants of Israeli-Jewish emigrants outside of Israel. Israeli Jews are found mostly in Israel and the Western world, as well as other countries worldwide, not necessarily only in Jewish communities. Israeli Jews mostly speak Hebrew and most follow at least some religious Jewish practices. Israel, the Jewish state, currently has almost half the world’s Jews. The Jewish population in Israel comprises all Jewish diaspora communities, including Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, Beta Israel, Cochin Jews, Bene Israel, Karaite Jews, and many other groups. The Israeli Jewish community manifests a wide range of Jewish cultural traditions, as well as encompassing the full spectrum of religious observance, from the haredi communities to the hilonim Jewish communities who live a secular lifestyle. Among the Jewish population, over 25% of the schoolchildren and over 35% of all newborns are of mixed ancestry of both Ashkenazi and Sephardi/Mizrahi descent and increases by 0.5% each year. Over 50% of the Jewish population is of at least a partial Sephardi/Mizrahi descent.[22] Despite the ongoing debate over the question of who is a Jew among Israeli Jews, the Jewish status of a person, which is considered a matter of ‘nationality’ by the Israeli authorities, is registered and controlled by the Israeli Ministry of the Interior, which requires a person to meet the halakhic definition to be registered as a ‘Jew’. Israel’s Central Bureau of Statistics estimated the Israeli Jewish population was 6,556,000 as of December 2017 (74.6% of the total population if East Jerusalem and Golan Arab population are counted in).[23][24] An IDI Guttman Study of 2008 shows that a plurality of Israeli Jews (47%) identify themselves first as Jews and Israeli second, and that only 39% consider themselves first and foremost Israeli.[25] Jews living in the region prior to the establishment of the State of Israel were commonly referred to in English as “Palestinian Jews” and in Hebrew as HaYishuv HaYehudi Be’Eretz Yisra’el (The Jewish Community in the Land of Israel). Jews have long considered The Land of Israel to be their homeland, even while living in the diaspora. According to the Hebrew Bible the connection to the Land of Israel began in the covenant of the pieces when the region, which it called the land of Canaan, was promised to Abraham by God. Abraham settled in the region, where his son Isaac and grandson Jacob grew up with and their families. Later on, Jacob and his sons went to Egypt. Decades later their descendants were led out of Egypt by Moses and Aaron, given the Tablets of Stone, returned to the land of Canaan and conquered it under the leadership of Joshua. After the period of the judges, in which the Israelites did not have an organized leadership, the Kingdom of Israel was established, which constructed the first temple. This kingdom was soon split into twothe Kingdom of Judah and the Kingdom of Israel. After the destruction of these kingdoms and the destruction of the first Temple, the Israelites were exiled to Babylon. After about 70 years parts of the Israelites were permitted to return to the region and soon thereafter they built the Second Temple. Later on they established the Hasmonean Kingdom. The region was conquered by the Roman Empire in 63 BC. During the 2nd century CE a series of rebellions against the Roman Empire ended up with the destruction of the second temple and a general expulsion of Jews from their homeland. The area was later conquered by migrant Arabs from the Byzantine Empire who established a Muslim Caliphate in the 7th century during the rise of Islam. Throughout the centuries the size of Jewish population in the land fluctuated. Before the birth of modern Zionism in the 1880s, by the early 19th century, more than 10,000 Jews were still living in the area that is today modern Israel. Following centuries of Jewish diaspora, the 19th century saw the rise of Zionism, a Jewish Nationalist Movement that had a desire to see the self-determination of the Jewish people through a creation of a homeland for the Jews in Palestine. Significant numbers of Jews immigrated to Palestine since the 1880s. Zionism remained a minority movement until the rise of Nazism in 1933 and the subsequent attempted extermination of the Jewish people in Nazi occupied areas of Europe in the Holocaust.[26] In the late 19th century large numbers of Jews began moving to the Ottoman and later British-controlled region. In 1917, the British endorsed a National Home for Jews in Mandate Palestine by passing the Balfour Declaration. The Jewish population in the region increased from 11% of the population in 1922 to 30% by 1940[27] In 1937, following the Great Arab Revolt, the partition plan proposed by the Peel Commission was rejected by the Palestinian Arab leadership, but accepted tentatively by Zionist leader David Ben-Gurion. As a result, in 1939, the British caved to Arab pressure because of support needed for World War II, abandoned the idea of a Jewish national homeland, and abandoned partition and negotiations in favour of the unilaterally-imposed White Paper of 1939, which capped Jewish immigration, and put subject to review under further agreement with the Arabs. Its other stated policy was to establish a system under which both Jews and Arabs were to share one government. The policy was viewed as a significant defeat for the Jewish side as it placed severe restrictions on Jewish immigration, while placing no restriction on Arab immigration. In 1947, following increasing levels of violence, the British government decided to withdraw from Mandatory Palestine. The 1947 UN Partition Plan split the mandate into two states, Jewish and Arab, giving about 56% of Mandatory Palestine to the Jewish state. Immediately following the adoption of the Partition Plan by the United Nations General Assembly, the Palestinian Arab leadership rejected the plan to create the as-yet-unnamed Jewish State and launched a guerrilla war. On 14 May 1948, one day before the end of the British Mandate of Palestine, the leaders of the Jewish community in Palestine led by prime minister David Ben-Gurion, made a declaration of independence, of the State of Israel though without any reference to defined borders.[28] The armies of Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Iraq invaded the territory partitioned for the Arab state, thus starting the 1948 ArabIsraeli War. The nascent Israeli Defense Force repulsed the Arab nations from part of the occupied territories, thus extending its borders beyond the original UNSCOP partition.[29] By December 1948, Israel controlled most of the portion of Mandate Palestine west of the Jordan River. The remainder of the Mandate consisted of Jordan, the area that came to be called the West Bank (controlled by Jordan), and the Gaza Strip (controlled by Egypt). Prior to and during this conflict, 711,000[30] Palestinians Arabs fled their original lands to become Palestinian refugees. The reasons for this are disputed, and range from claims that the major cause of Palestinian flight was military actions by the Israel Defense Forces and fear of events such as Deir Yassin to an encouragement to leave by Arab leaders so that they could return when the war was won. Most Israeli Jews refer to the 1948 ArabIsraeli War as the War of Independence, while most of the Arab citizens of Israel refer to it as the Nakba (catastrophe), a reflection of differences in perception of the purpose and outcomes of the war.[31] Immigration of Holocaust survivors and Jewish refugees from Arab lands doubled Israel’s population within one year of its independence. Over the following years approximately 850,000 Sephardi and Mizrahi Jews fled or were expelled from surrounding mostly due persecution in Arab countries, and in smaller numbers from Turkey, India, Afghanistan, and Iran. Of these, about 680,000 settled in Israel (see also Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries). Israel’s Jewish population continued to grow at a very high rate for years, fed by waves of Jewish immigration from round the world, most notably the massive immigration wave of Soviet Jews, which arrived to Israel in the early 1990s following the dissolution of the USSR, who, according to the Law of Return, were entitled to become Israeli citizens upon arrival. About 380,000 arrived in 19901991 alone. At the same time some 80,000100,000 Ethiopian Jews have immigrated to Israel since the early 1980s. Since 1948, Israel has been involved in a series of major military conflicts, including the 1956 Suez War, 1967 Six-Day War, 1973 Yom Kippur War, 1982 Lebanon War, and 2006 Lebanon War, as well as a nearly constant series of ongoing minor conflicts. Israel has been also embroiled in an ongoing conflict with the Palestinians in the Israeli-occupied territories, which have been under Israeli control since the Six-Day War, despite the signing of the Oslo Accords on 13 September 1993, and the ongoing efforts of Israeli, Palestinian and global peacemakers. According to Israel’s Central Bureau of Statistics, as of February 2013, of Israel’s 8 million people, 75.4% were Jews of any background.[32] Among them, 68% were Sabras (Israeli-born), mostly second- or third-generation Israelis, and the rest are olim (Jewish immigrants to Israel)22% from Europe and the Americas, and 10% from Asia and Africa, including the Arab countries.[33] Nearly half of all Israeli Jews are descended from Jews who made aliyah from Europe, while around the same number are descended from Jews who made aliyah from Arab countries, Iran, Turkey and Central Asia. Over two hundred thousand are, or are descended from, Ethiopian and Indian Jews.[34] Israel is the only country in the world with a consistently growing Jewish population due to natural population increase unlike the Jewish communities in the Diaspora in which the Jewish population in general is either declining or steady, with the exception of the Orthodox and Haredi Jewish communities around the world, whose members often shun birth control for religious reasons, have experienced rapid population growth.[35] Haredi women have 7.7 children on average while the average Israeli Jewish woman has over 3 children.[36] When Israel was first established in 1948, it had the third-largest Jewish population in the world, after the United States and Soviet Union. In the 1970s, Israel surpassed the Soviet Union as having the second-largest Jewish population.[37] In 2003, The Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics reported that Israel had surpassed the United States as the nation with the world’s largest Jewish population. The report was contested by Professor Sergio DellaPergola of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Considered the greatest demographic expert on Jews, Della Pergola said it would take another three years to close the gap.[38] In January 2006, Della Pergola stated that Israel now had more Jews than the United States, and Tel Aviv had replaced New York as the metropolitan area with the largest Jewish population in the world,[39] while a major demographic study found that Israel’s Jewish population surpassed that of the United States in 2008.[40] Due to the decline of Diaspora Jewry as a result of intermarriage and assimilation, along with the steady growth of the Israeli Jewish population, it has been speculated that within about 20 years, most of the world’s Jews will live in Israel.[41] In March 2012, the Israeli Census Bureau of Statistics reported on behalf of Ynet has forecast that in 2019, Israel will be home to 6,940,000 Jews, 5.84 million which are non-haredi Jews living in Israel, compared with 5.27 million in 2009. The number is expected to grow to anywhere between 6.09 million and 9.95 million by 2059, marking a 16%89% increase with the 2011 population. The Bureau also forecasts that the ultra-Orthodox population will number 1.1 million people by 2019, compared with 750,000 in 2009. By 2059, the projected Haredi Jewish population is estimated to between 2.73 million and 5.84 million, marking a 264%686% increase. Thus the total projected Israeli Jewish population by 2059 is estimated to between 8.82 million and 15.790 million.[42] In January 2014, it was reported by demographer Joseph Chamie that the projected population of Israeli Jews is expected to reach between 9.84 million by the year 2025 and 11.40 million by 2035.[43] For statistical purposes, there are three main metropolitan areas in Israel. The majority of the Jewish population in Israel is located in the central area of Israel within the Metropolitan area of Tel Aviv. The Metropolitan area of Tel Aviv is currently the largest Jewish population center in the world. It has been argued that Jerusalem, Israel’s proclaimed capital and largest city with a population of 732,100, and an urban area with a population of over 1,000,000 (including 280,000 Palestinian East Jerusalemites who are not Israeli citizens), with over 700,000 Israeli Jews[55] and Nazareth with a population of 65,500, and an urban area of nearly 200,000 people of which over 110,000 are Israeli Jews[56] should also be classified as metropolitan areas. By the time the State of Israel was proclaimed, the majority of Jews in the state and the region were Ashkenazi. Following the declaration of the state, a flood of Jewish migrants and refugees entered Israelboth from Europe and America and also from Arab and Muslim countries. Most of the Jewish immigrants in the 1950s and 1960s were Jewish Holocaust survivors, as well as Sephardic Jews and Mizrahi Jews (mostly Moroccan Jews, Algerian Jews, Tunisian Jews, Yemenite Jews, Bukharan Jews, Iranian Jews, Iraqi Jews, Kurdish Jews, and smaller communities, principally from Lebanon, Syria, Libya, Egypt, India, Turkey and Afghanistan). In recent decades other Jewish communities have also immigrated to Israel including Ethiopian Jews, Russian Jews and Bnei Menashe. Among Israeli Jews, 75% are Sabras (Israeli-born), mostly second- or third-generation Israelis, and the rest are olim (Jewish immigrants to Israel)19% from Europe, Americas and Oceania, and 9% from Asia and Africa, mostly the Muslim world. The Israeli government does not trace the diaspora origin of Israeli Jews. The CBS traces the paternal country of diaspora origin of Israeli Jews (including nonHalachically Jewish immigrants who arrived on the Law of Return) as of 2010 is as follows.[57] In Israel there are approximately 300,000 citizens with Jewish ancestry who are not Jewish according to Orthodox interpretations of Jewish law. Of this number approximately 10% are Christian and 89% are either Jewish or non-religious. The total number of conversions under the Nativ program of IDF was 640 in 2005 and 450 in 2006. From 2002 to 1 October 2007, a total of 2,213 soldiers have converted under Nativ.[58] In 2003, 437 Christians converted to Judaism; in 2004, 884; and in 2005, 733.[59] Recently several thousand conversions conducted by the Chief Rabbinate under the leadership of Rabbi Chaim Drukman have been annulled, and the official Jewish status over several thousand people who converted through the conversion court of the Chief Rabbinate since 1999 hangs in limbo as the proceedings continue regarding these individuals Jewish status. The vast majority of these individuals are former Soviet Union immigrants.[60] In his book from 2001 “The Invention and Decline of Israeliness: State, Culture and Military in Israel”, the Israeli sociologist Baruch Kimmerling identified and divided the modern Israeli society into seven population groups (seven subcultures): The secular upper-middle class group, the national religious group, the traditionalist Mizrahim group, the Orthodox religious group, the Arab citizens of Israel, the Russian immigrants group and the Ethiopian immigrants group. According to Kimmerling, each of these population groups have distinctive characteristics, such as place of resident, consumption patterns, education systems, communications media and more.[61] Today, Jews whose family immigrated from European countries and the Americas, on their paternal line, constitute the largest single group among Israeli Jews and consist of about 3,000,000[62] people living in Israel. About 1,200,000 of them are descended from or are immigrants from the former Soviet Union who returned from the diaspora after the fall of the Former Soviet Union 1991 (about 300,000 of them are not considered to be Jewish under halakha). Most of the other 1,800,000 are descended from the first Zionist settlers in the Land of Israel, as well as Holocaust survivors and their descendants, with an additional 200,000 having immigrated or descended from immigrants from English-speaking countries and South America. They have played a prominent role in various fields including the arts, entertainment, literature, sports, science and technology, business and economy, media, and politics of Israel since its founding, and tend to be the most affluent of Israeli Jews. Not all Jews immigrating to Israel from European countries are of Ashkenazi origin (the majority of French Jews are of Sephardic, and some Jews from the Asian Republics of the USSR are Mizrahi), and the Israeli government does not distinguish between Jewish communities in its census. During the first decades of Israel as a state, strong cultural conflict was going on between Mizrahi, Sephardic and Ashkenazi Jews (mainly east European Ashkenazim). The roots of this conflict, which still exists to a much smaller extent in present-day Israeli society, stems from the many cultural differences between the various Jewish communities; this happened despite of the government’s encouragement of the “melting pot”. That is to say, all Jewish immigrants in Israel were strongly encouraged to “melt down” their own particular exile identities within the general social “pot” in order to become Israeli. The current most prominent European countries of origin of the Israeli Jews are as follows:[citation needed] The majority of Israeli Jews are Mizrahi.[63] The exact proportion of Mizrahi and Sephardic Jewish populations in Israel is unknown (since it is not included in the census); some estimates place Jews of Mizrahi origin at up to 61% of the Israeli Jewish population,[64] with hundreds of thousands more having mixed Ashkenazi heritage due to cross-cultural intermarriage. Jews from North Africa and Asia have come to be called “Mizrahi Jews”. Most African and Asian Jewish communities use the Sephardic prayer ritual and abide by the rulings of Sephardic rabbinic authorities, and therefore consider themselves to be “Sephardim” in the broader sense of “Jews of the Spanish rite”, though not in the narrower sense of “Spanish Jews”. Of late, the term Mizrahi has come to be associated with all Jews in Israel with backgrounds in Islamic lands. Cultural and/or “racial” biases against the newcomers were compounded by the fledgling state’s lack of financial resources and inadequate housing to handle the massive population influx. Thus, hundreds of thousands of new Sephardic immigrants were sent to live in tent cities in outlying areas. Sephardim (in its wider meaning) were often victims of discrimination, and were sometimes called schwartze (meaning “black” in Yiddish). Some believe that even worse than the housing discrimination was the differential treatment accorded the children of these immigrants, many of whom were tracked by the largely European education establishment into dead-end “vocational” high schools, without any real assessment of their intellectual capacities. Mizrahi Jews protested their unfair treatment, and even established the Israeli Black Panthers movement with the mission of working for social justice. The effects of this early discrimination still linger a half-century later, as documented by the studies of the Adva Center, a think tank on social equality, and by other Israeli academic research (cf., for example, Tel Aviv University Professor Yehuda Shenhav’s article in Hebrew documenting the gross under-representation of Sephardic Jewry in Israeli high school history textbooks.) All Israeli Prime Ministers have been Ashkenazi, although Sephardim and Mizrahim have attained high positions including ministerial positions, chief of staffs and presidency. The student bodies of Israel’s universities remain overwhelmingly Ashkenazi in origin, despite the fact that roughly half the country’s population is non-Ashkenazi. And the tent cities of the 1950s morphed into so-called “development towns”. Scattered over border areas of the Negev Desert and the Galilee, far from the bright lights of Israel’s major cities, most of these towns never had the critical mass or ingredients to succeed as places to live, and they continue to suffer from high unemployment, inferior schools, and chronic brain drain. While the Israeli Black Panthers no longer exist, the Mizrahi Democratic Rainbow Coalition and many other NGOs carry on the struggle for equal access and opportunity in housing, education, and employment for the country’s underprivileged populacestill largely composed of Sephardim and Mizrahim, joined now by newer immigrants from Ethiopia and the Caucasus Mountains. Today over 2,500,000 Mizrahi Jews,[65] and Sephardic Jews live in Israel with the majority of them being descendants of the 680,000 Jews who fled Arab countries (

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June 19, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Ethiopian Jews  Comments Closed

Jimmy Carter: Israel’s Apartheid – YouTube

Former President Jimmy Carter, author of a new book, Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid,http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASI…is interviewed from his home in Plains, Georgia. He responds to a caller who asks questions concerning pressure put on the US political system and the resulting support of Israel. The caller refers to author James Bamford’s book “A Pretext For War”http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASI…and he asks President Carter about AIPAC and other pressure groups within the US.

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June 19, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Israel Apartheid  Comments Closed

Hitler’s Time-Travel Exemption Act – TV Tropes

“If you time-travel into the past and then try to kill Hitler, it won’t work as intended. It may even backfire.” Rules of Time Travel open/close all folders Anime and Manga Comic Books Film Johnny: If you could travel back in time, say, to Germany, before Hitler came to power, what would you do? Would you kill him? Weizak: Johnny, you must know that… I love people. And as a doctor, I am expected to save lives. So naturally, I would have no choice… but to kill the son of a bitch. (raises his drink) Do svidaniya. Literature Live Action TV Chapulin: And then history will say that he commited suicide, that the Allies bombarded the place… anyway. Rory: I’m getting this sort of banging in my head. Amy: Yeah, I think that’s Hitler in the cupboard. Music Other Sites Tabletop Games Video Games Visual Novels Web Comics Theodore Roosevelt: I do declare you boys picked the wrong Roosevelt! Young Jamie: A.k.a.: How much more can we mess up history? Samantha: His success is your fault? But he’s the most overrated artist of the 20th century! What could have possibly been worse? Beret Guy: Anyway, I’m here to kill Hitler. Ponytail: But he died long ago! Beret Guy: Oh, good! That was easy. (Outskirts of Berlin, 1910note(1920 in the original Hebrew) Hitler: (Having just killed him) This is the TENTH time a random Jew has tried to kill me. THERE MUST BE SOME SOLUTION TO THIS JEWISH PROBLEM. Web Original Western Animation Other

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June 19, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Hitler  Comments Closed


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