Germany – World War II | Britannica.com

World War II is appropriately called Hitlers war. Germany was so extraordinarily successful in the first two years that Hitler came close to realizing his aim of establishing hegemony in Europe. But his triumphs were not part of a strategic conception that secured victory in the long run. Nonetheless, the early successes were spectacular. After the defeat of Poland within a month, Hitler turned his attention westward. He believed that it was necessary to defeat Britain and France before he could again turn eastward to the territories that were to become the living space for his new empire. The attack on the Western Front began in the spring of 1940. Hitler took Denmark and Norway during the course of a few days in April, and on May 10 he attacked France, along with Luxembourg, Belgium, and The Netherlands. Once again his armies achieved lightning victories; Luxembourg, Belgium, and The Netherlands were overrun in a few days, and France capitulated on June 21. Only the British, now alone, obstructed Hitlers path to total victory in the west.

Hitler determined that he could take Britain out of the war with air power. German bombers began their attack in August 1940, but the British proved intractable. The vaunted German air force (Luftwaffe) failed to bring Britain to its knees partly because of the strength of the British air force, partly because the German air force was ill-equipped for the task, and partly because the British were able to read German code (see Ultra). Yet Hitler had been so confident of a quick victory that, even before the attack began, he had ordered his military planners to draw up plans for an invasion of the Soviet Union. The date he had set for that invasion was May 15, 1941.

Although the defeat of the Soviet Union was central to Hitlers strategic objective, during the early months of 1941 he allowed himself to be sidetracked twice into conflicts that delayed his invasion. In both instances he felt obliged to rescue his ally Mussolini from military difficulties. Mussolini had invaded Greece in October 1940, despite the fact that he was already in difficulty in North Africa, where he was unable to cut off Britains Mediterranean lifeline in Egypt. In February 1941 Hitler decided to reinforce Mussolini in North Africa by sending an armoured division under the command of General Erwin Rommel. When Mussolinis invasion of Greece also bogged down, Hitler again decided to send reinforcements. To reach Greece, German troops had to be sent through the Balkan countries, all of them officially neutral. Hitler managed to bully these countries into accepting the passage of German troops, but on March 27 a coup in Yugoslavia overthrew the government, and the new rulers reneged on the agreement. In retaliation Hitler launched what he called Operation Punishment against the Yugoslavs. Yugoslav resistance collapsed quickly, but the effect was to delay for another month the planned invasion of the Soviet Union.

When the invasion of the Soviet Union finally came, on June 22, 1941, it did so with both campaigns against the British, across the English Channel and in the Mediterranean, still incomplete. Hitler was prepared to take the risk that fighting on multiple fronts entailed, because he was convinced that the war against the Soviet Union would be over by the onset of the Russian winter. The spectacular German advances during the first weeks of the invasion seemed proof of Hitlers calculation. On July 3 his army chief of staff wrote in his war diary that the war had been won. The German Army Group North was approaching Leningrad; Army Group Centre had broken through the Soviet defenses and was rushing toward Moscow; and Army Group South had already captured vast reaches of Ukraine. The prospect of capturing the summer harvest of Ukraine along with the oil fields of the Caucasus led Hitler to transfer troops driving toward Moscow to reinforce those operating in the south.

Hitlers generals later considered this decision a turning point in the war. The effect was to delay until October the drive toward Moscow. By then an early winter had set in, greatly impeding the German advance and finally bringing it to a halt at the outskirts of Moscow in early December. Then, on December 6, the Soviets, having had time to regroup, launched a massive counteroffensive to relieve their capital city. On the following day the Japanese, nominally Germanys ally, launched their attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. Although they had not bothered to inform Hitler of their intentions, he was jubilant when he heard the news. Now it is impossible for us to lose the war, he told his aides. On December 11 he declared war on the United States.

Though his plans for a quick defeat of the Soviet Union had not been realized, Hitlers troops at the end of 1941 controlled much of the European territory of the Soviet Union. They stood at the outskirts of Leningrad and Moscow and were in control of all of Ukraine. To prepare for what would now have to be the campaign of 1942, Hitler dismissed a number of generals and assumed himself the strategic and operational command of the armies on the Eastern Front.

At the high point of Hitlers military successes in the Soviet Union, members of the Nazi leadership were, with Hitlers understanding, feverishly planning for the new order they intended to impose on the conquered territories. Its realization called both for the removal of obstacles to German settlements and for a solution to the Jewish problem. Nazi planners were drafting an elaborate scheme, General Plan East, for the future reorganization of eastern Europe and the western Soviet Union, which called for the elimination of 30 million or more Slavs and the settlement of their territories by German overlords who would control and eventually repopulate the area with Germans. During the fall of 1941 Himmlers SS expanded and refurbished with gas chambers and crematoriums an old Austrian army barracks near the Polish rail junction at Auschwitz. Here was to continue, with greater efficiency, the Holocaustthe mass murder of Jews that had begun with the June invasion, when SS Einsatzgruppen (deployment groups) began rounding up Jews and shooting them by the thousands. The assurance of victory in the east, the heartland of European Jewry, convinced the Nazis that they could implement a final solution to the Jewish problem. Experts estimate that ultimately some six million Jews were murdered in the death factories of eastern Europe. At least an equal number of non-Jews died of murder and starvation in places like Auschwitz, including two and a half million Soviet prisoners of war and countless others from eastern European nationalities.

The success of Nazi armies until the end of 1941 had made it possible to spare German civilians on the home front from the misery and sacrifices demanded of them during World War I. Hitlers imagination, however, was haunted by the memory of the collapse of the home front in 1918, and, to avoid a repetition, the Nazis looted the occupied territories of food and raw materials as well as labour. Food shortages in Germany were not serious until late in the war. Women were allowed to stay at home, and the energies of the German workforce were not stretched to their limits, because eventually some seven million foreign slave labourers were used to keep the war effort going.

Through much of 1942 an ultimate German victory still seemed possible. The renewed offensive in the Soviet Union in the spring at first continued the successes of the previous year. Once again Hitler chose to concentrate on the capture of the Caucasus and its oil at the expense of the Moscow front. The decision entailed a major battle over the industrial centre at Stalingrad (now Volgograd). Elsewhere, by midsummer of 1942, Rommels Afrika Korps advanced to within 65 miles (105 km) of Alexandria in Egypt. In the naval battle for control of the Atlantic sea lanes, German submarines maintained their ability to intercept Allied shipping into mid-1943.

By early 1943, however, the tide had clearly begun to turn. The great winter battle at Stalingrad brought Hitler his first major defeat. His entire Sixth Army was killed or captured. In North Africa Rommels long success ended in late 1942 when the British broke through at El Alamein. At the same time, a joint British-American force landed in northwestern Africa, on the coast of Morocco and Algeria. By May 1943 the German and Italian forces in North Africa were ready to surrender. That same summer the Allies broke the back of the German submarine campaign in the Atlantic. On July 10 the Allies landed in Sicily. Two weeks later Mussolini was overthrown, and in early September the Italians withdrew from the war.

The addition of an Italian front made the rollback of German forces on all fronts that much more likely. In the Soviet Union, German forces were stretched across 2,500 miles (4,000 km). They had lost their air superiority when Allied bombing raids on German cities forced the withdrawal of large numbers of fighter planes. British and American bombings reached a high point in midsummer when a raid on Hamburg killed 40,000 of its inhabitants. Similar air raids killed hundreds of thousands of German civilians and leveled large areas of most German cities. Shortages of food, clothing, and housing began to afflict German cities as inevitably as did the Allied bombers.

The rollback of German forces continued inexorably during 1944. On June 6 the Allies in the west launched their invasion of France across the English Channel. In the east the Soviet army was advancing along the entire 2,500-mile front. By the end of the year, it stood poised on the eastern frontiers of prewar Germany. In the west, British and American troops stood ready to attack across the western borders.

On the German home front, 1944 became a year of acute suffering. On July 20, officers carried out a plot, part of a long-simmering opposition to Hitler from within German military and civilian circles, but Hitler managed to escape the dramatic attempt on his life practically unharmed. He attributed his survival of the July Plot to his selection by fate to succeed in his mission of restoring Germany to greatness.

Fate did not again intervene on Hitlers behalf. In mid-January of 1945 he withdrew underground into his bunker in Berlin where he remained until his suicide on April 30. By that time Soviet soldiers were streaming into Berlin. All that remained of the Reich was a narrow wedge of territory running southward from Berlin into Austria.

With the Soviet army in control of Berlin and the Western Allies within striking distance to the west and the south, there was no prospect of dividing them. Nonetheless, when Hitlers successor, Grand Admiral Karl Dnitz, sought to open negotiations for a surrender a few days after Hitlers death, he still hoped that a separate surrender to the British and Americans in the west might allow the Reich to rescue something from the Soviets in the east. The Western Allies, fearful of any move that might feed the suspicions of Stalin, refused to consider the German proposal, insisting that a German surrender be signed with all the Allies at the same time. Early in the morning of May 7, 1945, a German delegation came to U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhowers headquarters in Rheims, France, and at 2:41 am signed the surrender documents. Despite the fact that a Soviet major general signed for the Soviet Union, Stalin insisted that a second surrender ceremony take place in Soviet-occupied Berlin. This second surrender was signed in a Berlin suburb the following afternoon.

Link:

Germany – World War II | Britannica.com

Fair Usage Law

November 16, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: World War II  Comments Closed

On Marthas Vineyard, a Frosty Summer for Alan Dershowitz …

In a Washington restaurant on Monday, a woman with a toddler approached Scott Pruitt, the administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, and told him to resign over his policies and his repeated spending scandals. Kirstjen Nielsen, the homeland security secretary, was interrupted at a Mexican restaurant last month as protesters chanted during her meal. Employees at a Virginia restaurant urged the owner to ask Sarah Huckabee Sanders, the White House press secretary, to leave in response to Trump administration policies, including the deeply unpopular practice of separating migrant children from their parents at the border.

Now the debate has reached far beyond the capital, to a place that has long been both an escape for the wealthy and an open forum for intellectual debate, where figures like Valerie Jarrett, Vernon Jordan and Carly Simon can be spotted playing golf, chatting at a cocktail party, or picking up local vegetables at a farm stand. On the Vineyard, Mr. Dershowitz is one of the most outspoken defenders of Mr. Trump, in a place frequented for decades by Kennedys, Clintons, Obamas and other Democratic royalty.

Its rare that I meet a real Trump supporter among the summer crowd, said Tony Horwitz, a Pulitzer Prize-winning author and year-round resident of the Vineyard.

Mr. Dershowitz is not the first high-profile figure on this island whose views have been met with disapproval: In 1972, an artist was reported to have tried to throw Robert S. McNamara, the defense secretary who was an architect of the Vietnam War, overboard from the ferry to Marthas Vineyard.

In a phone interview from his Chilmark home, Mr. Dershowitz said that he has not supported Mr. Trumps political agenda, but has merely defended the presidents civil liberties, as he would for any person. Mr. Dershowitz said that a Vineyard friend who is a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology had led an email campaign against him; he declined to name the professor.

Theres a whole cabal of people who have decided that they will try to get people to stop interacting with me, Mr. Dershowitz said. The campaign has utterly failed. Its affected my life zero. Im not looking for sympathy.

But he said that something had shifted on the island over the years, that opposing viewpoints were less welcome. Anybody who wants to debate me, fine, Mr. Dershowitz said, suggesting that he might set up chairs for debate at the Chilmark Community Center and invite anyone to attend.

More:

On Marthas Vineyard, a Frosty Summer for Alan Dershowitz …

Fair Usage Law

November 16, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Alan Dershowitz  Comments Closed

Tommy Robinson supporter spat at girl, 4, because of her mum …

A Tommy Robinson supporter spat in the face of a four-year-old Muslim girl as she queued with her mother in a chain of Greggs.

The man also chanted the English Defence League founders name in the childs face and made an obscene gesture at the pair when they saw each other again on the street.

It is believed he targeted the little girl due to her ethnicity and because her mother was wearing a hijab.

A family member then reached out to charity Tell MAMA and agreed to have the incident, which occurred just after 1pm on October 29, reported to police.

She described how the man had approached the pair as they queued in Greggs and began chanting Tommy Robinson at the girl.

The mother said she heard the spitting noise but was unaware of what had happened until turning and seeing the sheer hatred of his expression.

After leaving the shop, she spotted the man again and he made an obscene hand gesture at the pair in public.

The family said they reported the incident to West Midlands Police but were concerned that the call handler did not know who Tommy Robinson, real name Stephen Yaxley-Lennon, was.

Tell MAMA has longdocumentedthe disproportionate abuseand violence directed at Muslim women who wear Islamic clothing, by perpetrators often identified as being white males, Tell MAMA said in a statement.

[This] attack, however, is even more shocking, given that an adult male felt emboldened enough to not only attack a child but also to intimidate the family by invoking the name of Mr Robinson in such a public setting without challenge.

Just three days ago, 50 MPs wrote a letter to the US Secretary of State Mike Pompeourging him to maintain their ban on Robinson entering the country.

They warned that the far-right campaigner would use any visit to promote his violent and extremist agenda and could raise around 1.4 million US dollars (1.1 million) through speaking appearances if the ban was waived.

We hope you agree that it would send a terrible signal if a convicted felon deemed inadmissible to the United States, such as Yaxley-Lennon, were allowed to travel to your country and speak before a prominent audience despite his conviction for previously entering the United States illegally, it stated.

Clearly the gravity of his criminal serious record, his brazen violation of US immigration law and the threat he poses to the American public will ensure that he isnt granted admission to the US.

Robinson is currently barred from the US after attempting to enter the country using a friends passport in 2012, having been blocked from travelling because of multiple criminal convictions, including several for violent conduct and assault as well as mortgage fraud.

Visit link:

Tommy Robinson supporter spat at girl, 4, because of her mum …

Fair Usage Law

November 16, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Tommy Robinson  Comments Closed

Tommy Robinson: White powder package sent to judge who jailed …

A suspect package containing a ‘white powder’ has been posted to the judge who jailed Tommy Robinson.

The package was posted to Judge Geoffrey Marson QC at Leeds Crown Court.

It is where he jailed Robinson, English Defence League (EDL) founder, for 13 months in May.

It is understood to have been delivered to the general office at the court before being identified as potentially dangerous.

Emergency services scrambled to the court at 11.44am following reports of a “suspect item of mail”.

Police, fire and ambulance incident response units attended the building on Oxford Row in Leeds city centre.

The building was not evacuated and many of the courts continued to function as usual.

A West Yorkshire Police spokesman confirmed the item has now been deemed safe.

The spokesman confirmed the incident is now being treated as a ‘malicious communications’.

Robinson – real name Stephen Yaxley-Lennon, was jailed on May 25 by Judge Marson for alleged contempt of court.

He was arrested, charged and sentenced for filming people at a grooming trial in Leeds and live-streaming the footage on social media.

The trial had was the subject of a court order banning reporting or broadcasting of the proceedings to prevent prejudicing linked trials.

Right-wing protesters had claimed that the non-reporting of the trial was part of an establishment cover-up of Asian paedophile rings.

The jailing of Robinson, 35, prompted large-scale protests and threats have been directed at the judge on social media.

Robinson was released from jail in August after the Court of Appeal quashed a contempt of court finding pending a fresh trial.

Details of the Leeds trial and two other linked prosecutions were later published when reporting restrictions were lifted.

See original here:

Tommy Robinson: White powder package sent to judge who jailed …

Fair Usage Law

November 16, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Tommy Robinson  Comments Closed

Tommy Robinson, Untouchable | Trending

Day by day, it seems, Britain is descending even further into the madness of dhimmitude.

On October 8, Tommy Robinson was at a service station along the M1 in Northamptonshire when he encountered four cars full of young British soldiers in uniform. They asked to take a picture with him. He happily complied. In the picture, they’re all smiling. It’s a lovely photo. Apparently all of the soldiers in those four cars (reportedly twenty-eight in all) knew very well who Robinson is, and apparently all of them were delighted to pose for a snap with him. They also let him take a brief video of the encounter, in which they can be seen chanting his name. Both the picture and the video were shared online. Posting the video on Facebook, Robinson wrote: A moment like this makes it all worth while. Today I met real British heroes.

And then, of course, all hell broke loose. Sara Khan, described by the Guardian as the British government’s counter-extremism tsar, condemned Robinson for posing with the soldiers. This is typical of the far right, she charged, accusing Robinson of divisive anti-Muslim hatred and of targeting the military and co-opting its symbols. Similar statements were issued by Imam Asim Hafiz, described in the Guardian as an Islamic religious adviser to the armed forces; by the Muslim Council of Britain; by Major General Rupert Timothy Herbert Jones, assistant chief of the British Army’s General Staff, and by an Army spokesperson, who said that the incident was being investigated and who warned that any soldier violating the Army’s values and standards would face administrative action. Persons with extremist views, this spokesperson explained, were neither tolerated nor permitted to serve in its ranks.

Indeed, as one newspaper reported, currently serving British soldiers are not allowed to be affiliated with any particular political group. They may hold views in private but are not allowed to express them to remain politically neutral. This rule surprised me so much that I checked it with a knowledgeable British acquaintance. She sent me a report by a group called Forces Watch which affirms that members of the British armed forces face considerable restrictions on political freedoms that are taken for granted by most of the population. Among other things, they can’t join unions or political parties, can’t speak to the media or in public without permission, and can be criminalised, and even imprisoned, for relatively minor acts of personal expression. These restrictions, notes Forces Watch, are more extreme than those that govern the armed forces in the US and in many EU member countries.

Sure enough, the news soon came that the British Army had seized the phones of all the soldiers seen in Robinson’s video and was expelling at least one of them. Sky News was told by an Army source that the soldier, who is apparently seventeen years old, had a long record of disciplinary problems and that ‘this was the straw that broke the camel’s back.’ The bit about the disciplinary problems may be true or it may not be. How long a record can a seventeen-year-old soldier have? In any event, given the systematic institutional dishonesty that has plagued Tommy Robinson in recent months, it’s reasonable to respond to any such claim with reflexive cynicism. Robinson himself says flat-out that, according to people he’s spoken with, the claims about the soldier’s record are lies.

Read more from the original source:

Tommy Robinson, Untouchable | Trending

Fair Usage Law

November 16, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Tommy Robinson  Comments Closed

Liberals vs. Mother Nature: Freddie Mercury, AIDS, and Minority-Worship

Who is the biggest hate-criminal in the world? There’s only one contender and you may be shocked to learn that it’s a female. Worse still, that female is as immortal as she is immoral. For millennia, she’s been hating on humanity, discriminating between different groups and imposing inequality, preventing women from matching the intellectual, cultural […]

Link:

Liberals vs. Mother Nature: Freddie Mercury, AIDS, and Minority-Worship

Fair Usage Law

November 14, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Occidental Observer  Comments Closed

Pittsburgh

In the wake of the Pittsburgh Synagogue shootings, the long-running hysteria about Donald Trump promoting anti-Semitism, racism, and “White supremacy” has been intensified. It’s at the point now that it is morphing into an obvious attempt to shut down or at least pathologize public discussion of critical issues. Particularly important are globalism and nationalism, and […]

See original here:

Pittsburgh

Fair Usage Law

November 14, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Occidental Observer  Comments Closed

World War I: Macron rebukes nationalism at commemoration

French President Emmanual Macron delivers remarks on the armistice that ended WWI, and decries the ‘nationalism’ that he claims is resurfacing. USA TODAY

President Donald Trump, first lady Melania Trump, left, and German Chancellor Angela Merkel at the World War I commemoration in Paris on Sunday, Nov. 11, 2018.(Photo: Francois Mori, AP)

PARIS Bells tolled across France and Europe on Sundayas President Donald Trump and other global leaders gathered to honor the dead of World War I and heed its harshlessons to prevent conflicts.

French President Emmanuel Macron, who has criticized Trump’s “America First” foreign policy,decriedexcessive “nationalism” at the root of World War I and successiveconflicts.

“Nationalism is a betrayal of patriotism,” Macron told a gathering of world leaders, including Russian President Vladimir Putin,German Chancellor Angela Merkel andTrump.Nationalism is a betrayal of patriotism by saying, Our interest first, who cares about the others? “

Hosting an event to mark the centennial of the armistice that ended World War I, Macron told fellow leaders theyhavea “huge responsibility” to defeat modern forces that threaten a “legacy of peace” from the two world wars of the past century.

“I know there are old demons coming back to the surface,” the French president said. “They are ready to wreak chaos and death.”

Macron did not refer specifically to Trump, who occasionally frowned during the speech.

Trump did not respond to Macron publicly. During a speech later Sunday at a World War I-era cemetery, Trump praised the French leader for hosting the event he called”very beautiful” and “well done.”

In defending “America First,” Trump has often said the United Statesneeds to address its own needs. During a meeting with Macron on Saturday, Trump said other countries need to share the burdens of mutual defense and free trade: “We want to help Europe, but it has to be fair.”

Before the ceremony at the Arc de Triomphe,the bells at Notre Dame and other cathedrals in Paris and across the continentrang at the exact time thearmisticetook effect: the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11thmonth, 100 years ago.

The event itself ran a little lateas Macron and other leaders marched up the Champs-Elysees towardthe event site.

Trump arrived separately, not withoutincident: A topless womanran toward the presidential motorcadebut was quickly caught by police. She hadthe words “fake peacemakers” written on her body.

Anti-Trump demonstrators were arrested throughout the day.

White House spokeswoman Sarah Sanders said Trump went to the event separately “dueto security protocols.”

Holding umbrellas, the president and first lady Melania Trump greeted Macron and other guests, including Putin.

The Russian president gave Trump a thumbs upand patted him on the upper arm.

During the ceremony, amilitary band played “La Marseillaise”; a choir of veterans later sang the French national anthem a capella. Yo-Yo Ma, seated near the eternal flame at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier beneath the arc, performed cello solos. The French air force staged a flyover.

Other countriesheld similar World War I commemorations,fromAustralia and New Zealand to England and India.

To safeguard Trump and more than 60 other world leaders in attendance, the Paris event took place amid heavy security.

Saturday night, siren-blaring police vehicles began lining the streets around the Arc de Triomphe, commissioned by Napoleon in 1806 to celebrate his military victories and finished more than a decade after his death in exile.

Domestic politics also occupied Trump’s mind.

In a tweet 20minutes before the program, Trumpattributedthe California wildfires to poor supervision of forest lands. “With proper Forest Management, we can stop the devastation constantly going on in California. Get Smart!” he said.

For the American president, the program at the Arc de Triomphebegan a day of commemorations before he boarded Air Force One to head back to Washington.

After aluncheon with other leaders, Trump traveled to a World War I cemetery.

Autoplay

Show Thumbnails

Show Captions

Trumpcanceleda trip Saturday to another cemetery.The White House cited rainy weather, saying it would have created problems for the helicopters that would have ferried the president.

Except for tweets aboutthe wildfires in California and electionrecounts in Florida, Trump has kept a relatively low profile during his weekend in Paris.

Duringa ceremonial dinner Saturday, the Turkish government released a photo of Trump seated next to its president, Recep TayyipErdogan, hours after Erdogan said he had provided the United Statesand other countries with audiotapes of last month’s murder of Washington Post journalist Jamal Khashoggi.

“I can confirm they sat next to one another and they discussed the ongoing tragic situation with Khashoggi,” Sanders said.

A century ago, many in the USAand Europe recoiled from the mass destruction of World War I, the horrors of trench warfare and gas attacks. The warwiped out monarchies and forged new countries in Europe and the Middle East, but it did not end international rivalries that led to the war.

Germany, angry over war reparations imposed by rivals and eager for revenge, turned to Adolf Hitler. World War II began in 1939.

During events over the weekend, Macron said the global community must work together to prevent conflicts.

“The message, if we want to live up to the sacrifice of those soldiers who said, Never again!, is to never yield to our weakest instincts, nor to efforts to divide us,” Macron told a group of youngsters during a visit Saturday to the Compiegne Forest.

Merkel attended the event atCompiegne, the site where Germany surrendered to France and allies after World War Iand where France surrendered to Hitler’s Germany at the start of World War II.

“A century on, as we see nationalist voices again on the rise across the globe,” tweeted Anders Fogh Rasmussen, former secretary-general of NATO. “we must keep in mind the price we paid to build the peace and enjoy the freedoms we do today.”

Beatrice Fihn, executive director of the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons, said Macron made a good point: “We’re seeing a very concerning trend toward nationalistic, anti-democratic leaders; they are abandoning multilateralism.”

Trump “certainly speaks like that,” she said. “America First.”

Read or Share this story: https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2018/11/11/macron-world-leaders-rebuke-nationalism-world-war-event-attended-trump/1966474002/

Excerpt from:

World War I: Macron rebukes nationalism at commemoration

Fair Usage Law

November 13, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: World War I  Comments Closed

World War I: 100 years on, the US remembers the end of the …

‘War to end all wars’: How World War I still resonates today

As the world marks the 100th anniversary of the armistice that ended World War I, the National World War I Museum and Memorial serves as a reminder of the sacrifices U.S. troops made in ‘The Great War.’ Eric Shawn reports from Kansas City, Missouri.

It was called the “Great War,” because no one could conceive that there would ever be another one.

But there was.

And now, at the 11th hour, on the 11th day, of the 11th month, Sunday, November 11th, the world marks the 100th anniversary of the armistice that ended World War One. The global conflict cost an estimated 9 million military lives, cemented the United States as a world power, reshaped history and altered the global order.

“The world came undone during those years. And if it was ever really put back together, it was put back together differently wearing the wounds of World War One that we continue to live with today,” said Matthew Naylor, the president and C.E.O of the National World War One Museum and Memorial in Kansas City, Missouri.

“It was a war which completely changed the trajectory of the United States and had such a profound bearing on the globe, the first war that people from all inhabited continents of the globe participated in, truly a global war” he notes.

WORLD WAR I POSTERS OFFER UNIQUE GLIMPSE INTO SOLDIERS’ STORIES 100 YEARS AFTER THE ARMISTICE

“The Europeans themselves, of course, experienced losses that are unheard of today, thank God, we would not tolerate. The type of carnage that there was, 7,200 deaths a week, 300 a day, 5 a minute for more than four years, every minute, every hour of every day, every week for more than four years.

“There never was enough coffins, never enough ways to bury the dead, such was the degree of carnage. It reoriented the world, helped us learn what we can do to one another, and caused the world to gasp and step back.”

Naylor oversees the nation’s preeminent institution that marks the conflict. The stunning and imposing limestone memorial is unique. It was funded in 1919 by local residents who raised $2.5 million dollars in just ten days, or $40 million in today’s dollars, to build it. The memorial was dedicated in 1926, and all five allied commanders from the war attended, as did President Calvin Coolidge.

The museum and Kansas City’s skyline is dominated by the imposing Liberty Memorial Tower that rises above the museum and surrounding 47-acre hilltop park. It commands a sweeping view of the city and serves as apowerful, poignant and solemn reminder of the sacrifices of so many.

Today the museum is visited by half a million people each year, and the horrors from a century ago continue to resonate. Visitors can see tanks, machine guns, gas masks and the other weapons of war that are on display, as well as read the touching personal letters from troops and study the patriotic art of the era, including the famous “Uncle Sam Wants You” recruiting poster. The museum was renovated and vastly enlarged in 2006.

THIS BULLET-SCARRED BIBLE SAVED THE LIFE OF A WORLD WAR I SOLDIER

The first global conflict was so barbaric that it introduced the role of modern mechanized warfare, such as the use of gas on the Western Front and untold new ways for mass killing.

The war started in 1914 and America entered on April 6th, 1917, joining allies Britain, France and Russia against Germany and its allies.

The trench warfare was especially brutal.

“35,000 miles of trenches were created, even though the front was only 436 miles,” says Naylor. “Your friends are going up over the top, and many of them are going to be killed. When is it going to be your turn to do that?”

Chemical weapons like mustard and chlorine gas and phosphates were first deployed on the modern battlefield that all added to the barbaric losses.

AMERICA’S DEADLIEST BATTLE: WORLD WAR I’S MEUSE-ARGONNE OFFENSIVE 100 YEARS LATER

“We soon learned the horrors of their use. The legacies of death and horror remain,” Naylor notes.

The United States’ involvement also marked the emergence of our nation’s role in international affairs.

“In many respects, you cannot think of the 20th century, you can’t think of the American Century without understanding the impact that World War One had in drawing the U.S onto the world stage. It retreated somewhat after the war, but soon found itself drawn back in, arguably a position from which it has never retreated,” Naylor says.

“World War One birthed what we know as modern America, a major player in international affairs, a tremendous industrial and financial powerhouse, a champion of ideals, that’s what drew the U.S. into the war, were those ideals and it has had a profound bearing on the last 100 years and the role of the United States in world affairs.”

The war also advanced social and cultural change here at home.

INCREDIBLE WORLD WAR I DIARY SURFACES

“There was a deconstruction of the previous age and an emergence of the new that World War One really helped birth. We see from the war the impact on civil rights, the experience of African Americans serving with the French, primarily,” Naylor says. “That really added momentum to the civil rights movement and the suffragette movement and the changing roles of women during World War One. “

But today, the war and our country’s contribution to victory, have largely receded from the national consciousness.

The last American veteran, Frank Buckles, died seven years ago at age 110.

“The Civil War and World War Two occupy the public imagination in the way World War One does not,” Naylor explains.

“It’s a very messy war. It is complicated, and so its difficult for people to get their head around. Secondly, the United States involvement was relatively short despite the fact that the largest military campaign in American military history occurred during World War One.”

100-YEAR OLD LETTER FROM WWI UNCOVERED

But the sacrifices of the more than 4 million Americans who served, and of the more than 116,000 U.S. troops who were killed, remain a focal point of the museum.

“The tragedy is once you get past the third or fourth generation, we tend to forget. Part of our work here is to remember those who served and to continue to tell the story and learn from the enduring impact of the war,” notes Naylor.

“Our work now is about interpreting, remembering and understanding the great war. It’s 100 years ago, so we need to continue to protect and preserve those memories, to honor those who served and then to alsoexamine its enduring impact. The reality is that we live in the war’s shadow here, one hundred years later. Every day we wake up dealing with the consequences of decisions made and actions taken during World War One and so our work is about examining that with the hope to create a more just and prosperous future.”

Despite the war’s historical significance, there is no national memorial in Washington, D.C., but one is planned. It will, like the museum, commemorate what was once called “the war to end all wars,” a noble goal that so sadly was not achieved.

“Its legacy cannot be underestimated,” says Naylor. “Our work is to be able to tell that story, and to help people understand and learn.”

Ben Evansky and Lloyd Gottschalk contributed to this report.

Follow Eric Shawn on Twitter: @EricShawnTV

See the rest here:

World War I: 100 years on, the US remembers the end of the …

Fair Usage Law

November 13, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: World War I  Comments Closed

Germany – World War II | Britannica.com

World War II is appropriately called Hitlers war. Germany was so extraordinarily successful in the first two years that Hitler came close to realizing his aim of establishing hegemony in Europe. But his triumphs were not part of a strategic conception that secured victory in the long run. Nonetheless, the early successes were spectacular. After the defeat of Poland within a month, Hitler turned his attention westward. He believed that it was necessary to defeat Britain and France before he could again turn eastward to the territories that were to become the living space for his new empire. The attack on the Western Front began in the spring of 1940. Hitler took Denmark and Norway during the course of a few days in April, and on May 10 he attacked France, along with Luxembourg, Belgium, and The Netherlands. Once again his armies achieved lightning victories; Luxembourg, Belgium, and The Netherlands were overrun in a few days, and France capitulated on June 21. Only the British, now alone, obstructed Hitlers path to total victory in the west. Hitler determined that he could take Britain out of the war with air power. German bombers began their attack in August 1940, but the British proved intractable. The vaunted German air force (Luftwaffe) failed to bring Britain to its knees partly because of the strength of the British air force, partly because the German air force was ill-equipped for the task, and partly because the British were able to read German code (see Ultra). Yet Hitler had been so confident of a quick victory that, even before the attack began, he had ordered his military planners to draw up plans for an invasion of the Soviet Union. The date he had set for that invasion was May 15, 1941. Although the defeat of the Soviet Union was central to Hitlers strategic objective, during the early months of 1941 he allowed himself to be sidetracked twice into conflicts that delayed his invasion. In both instances he felt obliged to rescue his ally Mussolini from military difficulties. Mussolini had invaded Greece in October 1940, despite the fact that he was already in difficulty in North Africa, where he was unable to cut off Britains Mediterranean lifeline in Egypt. In February 1941 Hitler decided to reinforce Mussolini in North Africa by sending an armoured division under the command of General Erwin Rommel. When Mussolinis invasion of Greece also bogged down, Hitler again decided to send reinforcements. To reach Greece, German troops had to be sent through the Balkan countries, all of them officially neutral. Hitler managed to bully these countries into accepting the passage of German troops, but on March 27 a coup in Yugoslavia overthrew the government, and the new rulers reneged on the agreement. In retaliation Hitler launched what he called Operation Punishment against the Yugoslavs. Yugoslav resistance collapsed quickly, but the effect was to delay for another month the planned invasion of the Soviet Union. When the invasion of the Soviet Union finally came, on June 22, 1941, it did so with both campaigns against the British, across the English Channel and in the Mediterranean, still incomplete. Hitler was prepared to take the risk that fighting on multiple fronts entailed, because he was convinced that the war against the Soviet Union would be over by the onset of the Russian winter. The spectacular German advances during the first weeks of the invasion seemed proof of Hitlers calculation. On July 3 his army chief of staff wrote in his war diary that the war had been won. The German Army Group North was approaching Leningrad; Army Group Centre had broken through the Soviet defenses and was rushing toward Moscow; and Army Group South had already captured vast reaches of Ukraine. The prospect of capturing the summer harvest of Ukraine along with the oil fields of the Caucasus led Hitler to transfer troops driving toward Moscow to reinforce those operating in the south. Hitlers generals later considered this decision a turning point in the war. The effect was to delay until October the drive toward Moscow. By then an early winter had set in, greatly impeding the German advance and finally bringing it to a halt at the outskirts of Moscow in early December. Then, on December 6, the Soviets, having had time to regroup, launched a massive counteroffensive to relieve their capital city. On the following day the Japanese, nominally Germanys ally, launched their attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. Although they had not bothered to inform Hitler of their intentions, he was jubilant when he heard the news. Now it is impossible for us to lose the war, he told his aides. On December 11 he declared war on the United States. Though his plans for a quick defeat of the Soviet Union had not been realized, Hitlers troops at the end of 1941 controlled much of the European territory of the Soviet Union. They stood at the outskirts of Leningrad and Moscow and were in control of all of Ukraine. To prepare for what would now have to be the campaign of 1942, Hitler dismissed a number of generals and assumed himself the strategic and operational command of the armies on the Eastern Front. At the high point of Hitlers military successes in the Soviet Union, members of the Nazi leadership were, with Hitlers understanding, feverishly planning for the new order they intended to impose on the conquered territories. Its realization called both for the removal of obstacles to German settlements and for a solution to the Jewish problem. Nazi planners were drafting an elaborate scheme, General Plan East, for the future reorganization of eastern Europe and the western Soviet Union, which called for the elimination of 30 million or more Slavs and the settlement of their territories by German overlords who would control and eventually repopulate the area with Germans. During the fall of 1941 Himmlers SS expanded and refurbished with gas chambers and crematoriums an old Austrian army barracks near the Polish rail junction at Auschwitz. Here was to continue, with greater efficiency, the Holocaustthe mass murder of Jews that had begun with the June invasion, when SS Einsatzgruppen (deployment groups) began rounding up Jews and shooting them by the thousands. The assurance of victory in the east, the heartland of European Jewry, convinced the Nazis that they could implement a final solution to the Jewish problem. Experts estimate that ultimately some six million Jews were murdered in the death factories of eastern Europe. At least an equal number of non-Jews died of murder and starvation in places like Auschwitz, including two and a half million Soviet prisoners of war and countless others from eastern European nationalities. The success of Nazi armies until the end of 1941 had made it possible to spare German civilians on the home front from the misery and sacrifices demanded of them during World War I. Hitlers imagination, however, was haunted by the memory of the collapse of the home front in 1918, and, to avoid a repetition, the Nazis looted the occupied territories of food and raw materials as well as labour. Food shortages in Germany were not serious until late in the war. Women were allowed to stay at home, and the energies of the German workforce were not stretched to their limits, because eventually some seven million foreign slave labourers were used to keep the war effort going. Through much of 1942 an ultimate German victory still seemed possible. The renewed offensive in the Soviet Union in the spring at first continued the successes of the previous year. Once again Hitler chose to concentrate on the capture of the Caucasus and its oil at the expense of the Moscow front. The decision entailed a major battle over the industrial centre at Stalingrad (now Volgograd). Elsewhere, by midsummer of 1942, Rommels Afrika Korps advanced to within 65 miles (105 km) of Alexandria in Egypt. In the naval battle for control of the Atlantic sea lanes, German submarines maintained their ability to intercept Allied shipping into mid-1943. By early 1943, however, the tide had clearly begun to turn. The great winter battle at Stalingrad brought Hitler his first major defeat. His entire Sixth Army was killed or captured. In North Africa Rommels long success ended in late 1942 when the British broke through at El Alamein. At the same time, a joint British-American force landed in northwestern Africa, on the coast of Morocco and Algeria. By May 1943 the German and Italian forces in North Africa were ready to surrender. That same summer the Allies broke the back of the German submarine campaign in the Atlantic. On July 10 the Allies landed in Sicily. Two weeks later Mussolini was overthrown, and in early September the Italians withdrew from the war. The addition of an Italian front made the rollback of German forces on all fronts that much more likely. In the Soviet Union, German forces were stretched across 2,500 miles (4,000 km). They had lost their air superiority when Allied bombing raids on German cities forced the withdrawal of large numbers of fighter planes. British and American bombings reached a high point in midsummer when a raid on Hamburg killed 40,000 of its inhabitants. Similar air raids killed hundreds of thousands of German civilians and leveled large areas of most German cities. Shortages of food, clothing, and housing began to afflict German cities as inevitably as did the Allied bombers. The rollback of German forces continued inexorably during 1944. On June 6 the Allies in the west launched their invasion of France across the English Channel. In the east the Soviet army was advancing along the entire 2,500-mile front. By the end of the year, it stood poised on the eastern frontiers of prewar Germany. In the west, British and American troops stood ready to attack across the western borders. On the German home front, 1944 became a year of acute suffering. On July 20, officers carried out a plot, part of a long-simmering opposition to Hitler from within German military and civilian circles, but Hitler managed to escape the dramatic attempt on his life practically unharmed. He attributed his survival of the July Plot to his selection by fate to succeed in his mission of restoring Germany to greatness. Fate did not again intervene on Hitlers behalf. In mid-January of 1945 he withdrew underground into his bunker in Berlin where he remained until his suicide on April 30. By that time Soviet soldiers were streaming into Berlin. All that remained of the Reich was a narrow wedge of territory running southward from Berlin into Austria. With the Soviet army in control of Berlin and the Western Allies within striking distance to the west and the south, there was no prospect of dividing them. Nonetheless, when Hitlers successor, Grand Admiral Karl Dnitz, sought to open negotiations for a surrender a few days after Hitlers death, he still hoped that a separate surrender to the British and Americans in the west might allow the Reich to rescue something from the Soviets in the east. The Western Allies, fearful of any move that might feed the suspicions of Stalin, refused to consider the German proposal, insisting that a German surrender be signed with all the Allies at the same time. Early in the morning of May 7, 1945, a German delegation came to U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhowers headquarters in Rheims, France, and at 2:41 am signed the surrender documents. Despite the fact that a Soviet major general signed for the Soviet Union, Stalin insisted that a second surrender ceremony take place in Soviet-occupied Berlin. This second surrender was signed in a Berlin suburb the following afternoon.

Fair Usage Law

November 16, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: World War II  Comments Closed

On Marthas Vineyard, a Frosty Summer for Alan Dershowitz …

In a Washington restaurant on Monday, a woman with a toddler approached Scott Pruitt, the administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, and told him to resign over his policies and his repeated spending scandals. Kirstjen Nielsen, the homeland security secretary, was interrupted at a Mexican restaurant last month as protesters chanted during her meal. Employees at a Virginia restaurant urged the owner to ask Sarah Huckabee Sanders, the White House press secretary, to leave in response to Trump administration policies, including the deeply unpopular practice of separating migrant children from their parents at the border. Now the debate has reached far beyond the capital, to a place that has long been both an escape for the wealthy and an open forum for intellectual debate, where figures like Valerie Jarrett, Vernon Jordan and Carly Simon can be spotted playing golf, chatting at a cocktail party, or picking up local vegetables at a farm stand. On the Vineyard, Mr. Dershowitz is one of the most outspoken defenders of Mr. Trump, in a place frequented for decades by Kennedys, Clintons, Obamas and other Democratic royalty. Its rare that I meet a real Trump supporter among the summer crowd, said Tony Horwitz, a Pulitzer Prize-winning author and year-round resident of the Vineyard. Mr. Dershowitz is not the first high-profile figure on this island whose views have been met with disapproval: In 1972, an artist was reported to have tried to throw Robert S. McNamara, the defense secretary who was an architect of the Vietnam War, overboard from the ferry to Marthas Vineyard. In a phone interview from his Chilmark home, Mr. Dershowitz said that he has not supported Mr. Trumps political agenda, but has merely defended the presidents civil liberties, as he would for any person. Mr. Dershowitz said that a Vineyard friend who is a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology had led an email campaign against him; he declined to name the professor. Theres a whole cabal of people who have decided that they will try to get people to stop interacting with me, Mr. Dershowitz said. The campaign has utterly failed. Its affected my life zero. Im not looking for sympathy. But he said that something had shifted on the island over the years, that opposing viewpoints were less welcome. Anybody who wants to debate me, fine, Mr. Dershowitz said, suggesting that he might set up chairs for debate at the Chilmark Community Center and invite anyone to attend.

Fair Usage Law

November 16, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Alan Dershowitz  Comments Closed

Tommy Robinson supporter spat at girl, 4, because of her mum …

A Tommy Robinson supporter spat in the face of a four-year-old Muslim girl as she queued with her mother in a chain of Greggs. The man also chanted the English Defence League founders name in the childs face and made an obscene gesture at the pair when they saw each other again on the street. It is believed he targeted the little girl due to her ethnicity and because her mother was wearing a hijab. A family member then reached out to charity Tell MAMA and agreed to have the incident, which occurred just after 1pm on October 29, reported to police. She described how the man had approached the pair as they queued in Greggs and began chanting Tommy Robinson at the girl. The mother said she heard the spitting noise but was unaware of what had happened until turning and seeing the sheer hatred of his expression. After leaving the shop, she spotted the man again and he made an obscene hand gesture at the pair in public. The family said they reported the incident to West Midlands Police but were concerned that the call handler did not know who Tommy Robinson, real name Stephen Yaxley-Lennon, was. Tell MAMA has longdocumentedthe disproportionate abuseand violence directed at Muslim women who wear Islamic clothing, by perpetrators often identified as being white males, Tell MAMA said in a statement. [This] attack, however, is even more shocking, given that an adult male felt emboldened enough to not only attack a child but also to intimidate the family by invoking the name of Mr Robinson in such a public setting without challenge. Just three days ago, 50 MPs wrote a letter to the US Secretary of State Mike Pompeourging him to maintain their ban on Robinson entering the country. They warned that the far-right campaigner would use any visit to promote his violent and extremist agenda and could raise around 1.4 million US dollars (1.1 million) through speaking appearances if the ban was waived. We hope you agree that it would send a terrible signal if a convicted felon deemed inadmissible to the United States, such as Yaxley-Lennon, were allowed to travel to your country and speak before a prominent audience despite his conviction for previously entering the United States illegally, it stated. Clearly the gravity of his criminal serious record, his brazen violation of US immigration law and the threat he poses to the American public will ensure that he isnt granted admission to the US. Robinson is currently barred from the US after attempting to enter the country using a friends passport in 2012, having been blocked from travelling because of multiple criminal convictions, including several for violent conduct and assault as well as mortgage fraud.

Fair Usage Law

November 16, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Tommy Robinson  Comments Closed

Tommy Robinson: White powder package sent to judge who jailed …

A suspect package containing a ‘white powder’ has been posted to the judge who jailed Tommy Robinson. The package was posted to Judge Geoffrey Marson QC at Leeds Crown Court. It is where he jailed Robinson, English Defence League (EDL) founder, for 13 months in May. It is understood to have been delivered to the general office at the court before being identified as potentially dangerous. Emergency services scrambled to the court at 11.44am following reports of a “suspect item of mail”. Police, fire and ambulance incident response units attended the building on Oxford Row in Leeds city centre. The building was not evacuated and many of the courts continued to function as usual. A West Yorkshire Police spokesman confirmed the item has now been deemed safe. The spokesman confirmed the incident is now being treated as a ‘malicious communications’. Robinson – real name Stephen Yaxley-Lennon, was jailed on May 25 by Judge Marson for alleged contempt of court. He was arrested, charged and sentenced for filming people at a grooming trial in Leeds and live-streaming the footage on social media. The trial had was the subject of a court order banning reporting or broadcasting of the proceedings to prevent prejudicing linked trials. Right-wing protesters had claimed that the non-reporting of the trial was part of an establishment cover-up of Asian paedophile rings. The jailing of Robinson, 35, prompted large-scale protests and threats have been directed at the judge on social media. Robinson was released from jail in August after the Court of Appeal quashed a contempt of court finding pending a fresh trial. Details of the Leeds trial and two other linked prosecutions were later published when reporting restrictions were lifted.

Fair Usage Law

November 16, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Tommy Robinson  Comments Closed

Tommy Robinson, Untouchable | Trending

Day by day, it seems, Britain is descending even further into the madness of dhimmitude. On October 8, Tommy Robinson was at a service station along the M1 in Northamptonshire when he encountered four cars full of young British soldiers in uniform. They asked to take a picture with him. He happily complied. In the picture, they’re all smiling. It’s a lovely photo. Apparently all of the soldiers in those four cars (reportedly twenty-eight in all) knew very well who Robinson is, and apparently all of them were delighted to pose for a snap with him. They also let him take a brief video of the encounter, in which they can be seen chanting his name. Both the picture and the video were shared online. Posting the video on Facebook, Robinson wrote: A moment like this makes it all worth while. Today I met real British heroes. And then, of course, all hell broke loose. Sara Khan, described by the Guardian as the British government’s counter-extremism tsar, condemned Robinson for posing with the soldiers. This is typical of the far right, she charged, accusing Robinson of divisive anti-Muslim hatred and of targeting the military and co-opting its symbols. Similar statements were issued by Imam Asim Hafiz, described in the Guardian as an Islamic religious adviser to the armed forces; by the Muslim Council of Britain; by Major General Rupert Timothy Herbert Jones, assistant chief of the British Army’s General Staff, and by an Army spokesperson, who said that the incident was being investigated and who warned that any soldier violating the Army’s values and standards would face administrative action. Persons with extremist views, this spokesperson explained, were neither tolerated nor permitted to serve in its ranks. Indeed, as one newspaper reported, currently serving British soldiers are not allowed to be affiliated with any particular political group. They may hold views in private but are not allowed to express them to remain politically neutral. This rule surprised me so much that I checked it with a knowledgeable British acquaintance. She sent me a report by a group called Forces Watch which affirms that members of the British armed forces face considerable restrictions on political freedoms that are taken for granted by most of the population. Among other things, they can’t join unions or political parties, can’t speak to the media or in public without permission, and can be criminalised, and even imprisoned, for relatively minor acts of personal expression. These restrictions, notes Forces Watch, are more extreme than those that govern the armed forces in the US and in many EU member countries. Sure enough, the news soon came that the British Army had seized the phones of all the soldiers seen in Robinson’s video and was expelling at least one of them. Sky News was told by an Army source that the soldier, who is apparently seventeen years old, had a long record of disciplinary problems and that ‘this was the straw that broke the camel’s back.’ The bit about the disciplinary problems may be true or it may not be. How long a record can a seventeen-year-old soldier have? In any event, given the systematic institutional dishonesty that has plagued Tommy Robinson in recent months, it’s reasonable to respond to any such claim with reflexive cynicism. Robinson himself says flat-out that, according to people he’s spoken with, the claims about the soldier’s record are lies.

Fair Usage Law

November 16, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Tommy Robinson  Comments Closed

Liberals vs. Mother Nature: Freddie Mercury, AIDS, and Minority-Worship

Who is the biggest hate-criminal in the world? There’s only one contender and you may be shocked to learn that it’s a female. Worse still, that female is as immortal as she is immoral. For millennia, she’s been hating on humanity, discriminating between different groups and imposing inequality, preventing women from matching the intellectual, cultural […]

Fair Usage Law

November 14, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Occidental Observer  Comments Closed

Pittsburgh

In the wake of the Pittsburgh Synagogue shootings, the long-running hysteria about Donald Trump promoting anti-Semitism, racism, and “White supremacy” has been intensified. It’s at the point now that it is morphing into an obvious attempt to shut down or at least pathologize public discussion of critical issues. Particularly important are globalism and nationalism, and […]

Fair Usage Law

November 14, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Occidental Observer  Comments Closed

World War I: Macron rebukes nationalism at commemoration

French President Emmanual Macron delivers remarks on the armistice that ended WWI, and decries the ‘nationalism’ that he claims is resurfacing. USA TODAY President Donald Trump, first lady Melania Trump, left, and German Chancellor Angela Merkel at the World War I commemoration in Paris on Sunday, Nov. 11, 2018.(Photo: Francois Mori, AP) PARIS Bells tolled across France and Europe on Sundayas President Donald Trump and other global leaders gathered to honor the dead of World War I and heed its harshlessons to prevent conflicts. French President Emmanuel Macron, who has criticized Trump’s “America First” foreign policy,decriedexcessive “nationalism” at the root of World War I and successiveconflicts. “Nationalism is a betrayal of patriotism,” Macron told a gathering of world leaders, including Russian President Vladimir Putin,German Chancellor Angela Merkel andTrump.Nationalism is a betrayal of patriotism by saying, Our interest first, who cares about the others? ” Hosting an event to mark the centennial of the armistice that ended World War I, Macron told fellow leaders theyhavea “huge responsibility” to defeat modern forces that threaten a “legacy of peace” from the two world wars of the past century. “I know there are old demons coming back to the surface,” the French president said. “They are ready to wreak chaos and death.” Macron did not refer specifically to Trump, who occasionally frowned during the speech. Trump did not respond to Macron publicly. During a speech later Sunday at a World War I-era cemetery, Trump praised the French leader for hosting the event he called”very beautiful” and “well done.” In defending “America First,” Trump has often said the United Statesneeds to address its own needs. During a meeting with Macron on Saturday, Trump said other countries need to share the burdens of mutual defense and free trade: “We want to help Europe, but it has to be fair.” Before the ceremony at the Arc de Triomphe,the bells at Notre Dame and other cathedrals in Paris and across the continentrang at the exact time thearmisticetook effect: the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11thmonth, 100 years ago. The event itself ran a little lateas Macron and other leaders marched up the Champs-Elysees towardthe event site. Trump arrived separately, not withoutincident: A topless womanran toward the presidential motorcadebut was quickly caught by police. She hadthe words “fake peacemakers” written on her body. Anti-Trump demonstrators were arrested throughout the day. White House spokeswoman Sarah Sanders said Trump went to the event separately “dueto security protocols.” Holding umbrellas, the president and first lady Melania Trump greeted Macron and other guests, including Putin. The Russian president gave Trump a thumbs upand patted him on the upper arm. During the ceremony, amilitary band played “La Marseillaise”; a choir of veterans later sang the French national anthem a capella. Yo-Yo Ma, seated near the eternal flame at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier beneath the arc, performed cello solos. The French air force staged a flyover. Other countriesheld similar World War I commemorations,fromAustralia and New Zealand to England and India. To safeguard Trump and more than 60 other world leaders in attendance, the Paris event took place amid heavy security. Saturday night, siren-blaring police vehicles began lining the streets around the Arc de Triomphe, commissioned by Napoleon in 1806 to celebrate his military victories and finished more than a decade after his death in exile. Domestic politics also occupied Trump’s mind. In a tweet 20minutes before the program, Trumpattributedthe California wildfires to poor supervision of forest lands. “With proper Forest Management, we can stop the devastation constantly going on in California. Get Smart!” he said. For the American president, the program at the Arc de Triomphebegan a day of commemorations before he boarded Air Force One to head back to Washington. After aluncheon with other leaders, Trump traveled to a World War I cemetery. Autoplay Show Thumbnails Show Captions Trumpcanceleda trip Saturday to another cemetery.The White House cited rainy weather, saying it would have created problems for the helicopters that would have ferried the president. Except for tweets aboutthe wildfires in California and electionrecounts in Florida, Trump has kept a relatively low profile during his weekend in Paris. Duringa ceremonial dinner Saturday, the Turkish government released a photo of Trump seated next to its president, Recep TayyipErdogan, hours after Erdogan said he had provided the United Statesand other countries with audiotapes of last month’s murder of Washington Post journalist Jamal Khashoggi. “I can confirm they sat next to one another and they discussed the ongoing tragic situation with Khashoggi,” Sanders said. A century ago, many in the USAand Europe recoiled from the mass destruction of World War I, the horrors of trench warfare and gas attacks. The warwiped out monarchies and forged new countries in Europe and the Middle East, but it did not end international rivalries that led to the war. Germany, angry over war reparations imposed by rivals and eager for revenge, turned to Adolf Hitler. World War II began in 1939. During events over the weekend, Macron said the global community must work together to prevent conflicts. “The message, if we want to live up to the sacrifice of those soldiers who said, Never again!, is to never yield to our weakest instincts, nor to efforts to divide us,” Macron told a group of youngsters during a visit Saturday to the Compiegne Forest. Merkel attended the event atCompiegne, the site where Germany surrendered to France and allies after World War Iand where France surrendered to Hitler’s Germany at the start of World War II. “A century on, as we see nationalist voices again on the rise across the globe,” tweeted Anders Fogh Rasmussen, former secretary-general of NATO. “we must keep in mind the price we paid to build the peace and enjoy the freedoms we do today.” Beatrice Fihn, executive director of the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons, said Macron made a good point: “We’re seeing a very concerning trend toward nationalistic, anti-democratic leaders; they are abandoning multilateralism.” Trump “certainly speaks like that,” she said. “America First.” Read or Share this story: https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2018/11/11/macron-world-leaders-rebuke-nationalism-world-war-event-attended-trump/1966474002/

Fair Usage Law

November 13, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: World War I  Comments Closed

World War I: 100 years on, the US remembers the end of the …

‘War to end all wars’: How World War I still resonates today As the world marks the 100th anniversary of the armistice that ended World War I, the National World War I Museum and Memorial serves as a reminder of the sacrifices U.S. troops made in ‘The Great War.’ Eric Shawn reports from Kansas City, Missouri. It was called the “Great War,” because no one could conceive that there would ever be another one. But there was. And now, at the 11th hour, on the 11th day, of the 11th month, Sunday, November 11th, the world marks the 100th anniversary of the armistice that ended World War One. The global conflict cost an estimated 9 million military lives, cemented the United States as a world power, reshaped history and altered the global order. “The world came undone during those years. And if it was ever really put back together, it was put back together differently wearing the wounds of World War One that we continue to live with today,” said Matthew Naylor, the president and C.E.O of the National World War One Museum and Memorial in Kansas City, Missouri. “It was a war which completely changed the trajectory of the United States and had such a profound bearing on the globe, the first war that people from all inhabited continents of the globe participated in, truly a global war” he notes. WORLD WAR I POSTERS OFFER UNIQUE GLIMPSE INTO SOLDIERS’ STORIES 100 YEARS AFTER THE ARMISTICE “The Europeans themselves, of course, experienced losses that are unheard of today, thank God, we would not tolerate. The type of carnage that there was, 7,200 deaths a week, 300 a day, 5 a minute for more than four years, every minute, every hour of every day, every week for more than four years. “There never was enough coffins, never enough ways to bury the dead, such was the degree of carnage. It reoriented the world, helped us learn what we can do to one another, and caused the world to gasp and step back.” Naylor oversees the nation’s preeminent institution that marks the conflict. The stunning and imposing limestone memorial is unique. It was funded in 1919 by local residents who raised $2.5 million dollars in just ten days, or $40 million in today’s dollars, to build it. The memorial was dedicated in 1926, and all five allied commanders from the war attended, as did President Calvin Coolidge. The museum and Kansas City’s skyline is dominated by the imposing Liberty Memorial Tower that rises above the museum and surrounding 47-acre hilltop park. It commands a sweeping view of the city and serves as apowerful, poignant and solemn reminder of the sacrifices of so many. Today the museum is visited by half a million people each year, and the horrors from a century ago continue to resonate. Visitors can see tanks, machine guns, gas masks and the other weapons of war that are on display, as well as read the touching personal letters from troops and study the patriotic art of the era, including the famous “Uncle Sam Wants You” recruiting poster. The museum was renovated and vastly enlarged in 2006. THIS BULLET-SCARRED BIBLE SAVED THE LIFE OF A WORLD WAR I SOLDIER The first global conflict was so barbaric that it introduced the role of modern mechanized warfare, such as the use of gas on the Western Front and untold new ways for mass killing. The war started in 1914 and America entered on April 6th, 1917, joining allies Britain, France and Russia against Germany and its allies. The trench warfare was especially brutal. “35,000 miles of trenches were created, even though the front was only 436 miles,” says Naylor. “Your friends are going up over the top, and many of them are going to be killed. When is it going to be your turn to do that?” Chemical weapons like mustard and chlorine gas and phosphates were first deployed on the modern battlefield that all added to the barbaric losses. AMERICA’S DEADLIEST BATTLE: WORLD WAR I’S MEUSE-ARGONNE OFFENSIVE 100 YEARS LATER “We soon learned the horrors of their use. The legacies of death and horror remain,” Naylor notes. The United States’ involvement also marked the emergence of our nation’s role in international affairs. “In many respects, you cannot think of the 20th century, you can’t think of the American Century without understanding the impact that World War One had in drawing the U.S onto the world stage. It retreated somewhat after the war, but soon found itself drawn back in, arguably a position from which it has never retreated,” Naylor says. “World War One birthed what we know as modern America, a major player in international affairs, a tremendous industrial and financial powerhouse, a champion of ideals, that’s what drew the U.S. into the war, were those ideals and it has had a profound bearing on the last 100 years and the role of the United States in world affairs.” The war also advanced social and cultural change here at home. INCREDIBLE WORLD WAR I DIARY SURFACES “There was a deconstruction of the previous age and an emergence of the new that World War One really helped birth. We see from the war the impact on civil rights, the experience of African Americans serving with the French, primarily,” Naylor says. “That really added momentum to the civil rights movement and the suffragette movement and the changing roles of women during World War One. ” But today, the war and our country’s contribution to victory, have largely receded from the national consciousness. The last American veteran, Frank Buckles, died seven years ago at age 110. “The Civil War and World War Two occupy the public imagination in the way World War One does not,” Naylor explains. “It’s a very messy war. It is complicated, and so its difficult for people to get their head around. Secondly, the United States involvement was relatively short despite the fact that the largest military campaign in American military history occurred during World War One.” 100-YEAR OLD LETTER FROM WWI UNCOVERED But the sacrifices of the more than 4 million Americans who served, and of the more than 116,000 U.S. troops who were killed, remain a focal point of the museum. “The tragedy is once you get past the third or fourth generation, we tend to forget. Part of our work here is to remember those who served and to continue to tell the story and learn from the enduring impact of the war,” notes Naylor. “Our work now is about interpreting, remembering and understanding the great war. It’s 100 years ago, so we need to continue to protect and preserve those memories, to honor those who served and then to alsoexamine its enduring impact. The reality is that we live in the war’s shadow here, one hundred years later. Every day we wake up dealing with the consequences of decisions made and actions taken during World War One and so our work is about examining that with the hope to create a more just and prosperous future.” Despite the war’s historical significance, there is no national memorial in Washington, D.C., but one is planned. It will, like the museum, commemorate what was once called “the war to end all wars,” a noble goal that so sadly was not achieved. “Its legacy cannot be underestimated,” says Naylor. “Our work is to be able to tell that story, and to help people understand and learn.” Ben Evansky and Lloyd Gottschalk contributed to this report. Follow Eric Shawn on Twitter: @EricShawnTV

Fair Usage Law

November 13, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: World War I  Comments Closed


Fair Use Disclaimer

"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances."

Under the 'fair use' rule of copyright law, an author may make limited use of another author's work without asking permission. Fair use is based on the belief that the public is entitled to freely use portions of copyrighted materials for purposes of commentary and criticism. The fair use privilege is perhaps the most significant limitation on a copyright owner's exclusive rights.

Fair use as described at 17 U.S.C. Section 107:

"Notwithstanding the provisions of section 106 and 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phono-records or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright.

In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include:

  • (1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for or nonprofit educational purposes,
  • (2) the nature of the copyrighted work,
  • (3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole, and
  • (4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work."