Iraq – definition of Iraq by The Free Dictionary

Iraq – a republic in the Middle East in western Asia; the ancient civilization of Mesopotamia was in the area now known as IraqAnsar al Islam, Ansar al-Islam, Supporters of Islam – a radical Islamic group of terrorists in the Iraqi part of Kurdistan who oppose an independent secular nation as advocated by the United States; some members fought with the Taliban and al-Qaeda forces in Afghanistan; said to receive financial support from Saddam HusseinArab League – an international organization of independent Arab states formed in 1945 to promote cultural and economic and military and political and social cooperationRepublican Guard – formerly Iraq’s elite military unit whose primary role was to protect the government in BaghdadAkhbari – a religious movement by Arab Shiite Muslims in 17th century Iraq that is opposed to the Usuli; “Akhbari Shiism has never promoted political control”Middle East, Mideast, Near East – the area around the eastern Mediterranean; from Turkey to northern Africa and eastward to Iran; the site of such ancient civilizations as Phoenicia and Babylon and Egypt and the birthplace of Judaism and Christianity and Islam; had continuous economic and political turmoil in the 20th century; “the Middle East is the cradle of Western civilization”Gulf States – the countries in southwestern Asia that border the Persian GulfBagdad, Baghdad, capital of Iraq – capital and largest city of Iraq; located on the Tigris River; “Baghdad is one of the great cities of the Muslim world”Basia, Basra – the second largest city in Iraq; an oil port in southern IraqKarbala, Kerbala, Kerbela – a city of central Iraq to the south of Baghdad; a holy city for Shiite Muslims because it is the site of the tomb of Mohammed’s grandson who was killed there in 680Kirkuk – a city in northeastern Iraq; the center of a rich oilfield with pipelines to the MediterraneanMosul – a city in northern Iraq on the Tigris across from the ruins of NinevehMesopotamia – the land between the Tigris and Euphrates; site of several ancient civilizations; part of what is now known as IraqBabylonia, Chaldaea, Chaldea – an ancient kingdom in southern Mesopotamia; Babylonia conquered Israel in the 6th century BC and exiled the Jews to Babylon (where Daniel became a counselor to the king)Chaldaea, Chaldea – an ancient region of Mesopotamia lying between the Euphrates delta and the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Desert; settled in 1000 BC and destroyed by the Persians in 539 BC; reached the height of its power under Nebuchadnezzar IISumer – an area in the southern region of Babylonia in present-day Iraq; site of the Sumerian civilization of city-states that flowered during the third millennium BCAssyria – an ancient kingdom in northern Mesopotamia which is in present-day IraqAssur, Asur, Ashur – an ancient Assyrian city on the Tigris and traditional capital of Assyria; just to the south of the modern city of Mosul in IraqNineveh – an ancient Assyrian city on the Tigris across from the modern city of Mosul in the northern part of what is now known as IraqKurdistan – an extensive geographical region in the Middle East to the south of the CaucasusSyrian Desert – a desert of northern Arabia occupying western Iraq, southern Syria, eastern Jordan, and northern Saudi ArabiaAsia – the largest continent with 60% of the earth’s population; it is joined to Europe on the west to form Eurasia; it is the site of some of the world’s earliest civilizationsEuphrates, Euphrates River – a river in southwestern Asia; flows into the Persian Gulf; was important in the development of several great civilizations in ancient MesopotamiaIraki, Iraqi – a native or inhabitant of Iraq; “the majority of Iraqi are Arab Shiite Muslims although Sunni Muslims control the government”

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World War II Photos | National Archives

The Second World War was documented on a huge scale by thousands of photographers and artists who created millions of pictures. American military photographers representing all of the armed services covered the battlefronts around the world. Every activity of the war was depicted–training, combat, support services, and much more. On the home front, the many federal war agencies produced and collected pictures, posters, and cartoons on such subjects as war production, rationing, and civilian relocation.

The pictures described in this list are from the holdings of the Still Picture Branch (NNSP) of the National Archives and Records Administration. Most are from the records of the Army Signal Corps in Record Group (RG) 111, the Department of the Navy in RG 80, the Coast Guard in RG 26, the Marine Corps in RG 127, and the Office of War Information in RG 208. Others were selected from the records of 12 additional agencies.

Pictures are listed by subject and campaign. Original captions are in quotation marks. Photographers, artists, locations, and dates, when known, are also included. This information is followed by identification numbers in italics.

At the end of this leaflet there are instructions for ordering complete sets of slides from this and other Select Audiovisual Records lists. To order individual prints, negatives, or slides from this list, write to the Still Picture Branch (NNSP) for a current price list and ordering information. With the exception of 11 pictures that are also in color (indicated by an asterisk following the identification number), all pictures in this list are available only in black and white. Inquiries about other World War II pictures that may be part of the National Archives’ holdings should be made separately. Please list, as specifically as possible, names, dates, places, subjects, events, and other details. Please limit each request to three items.

Jonathan Heller researched, selected, and arranged the items for this list and wrote these introductory remarks.

How to Order

1. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signing the Declaration of War against Japan, December 8, 1941. 79-AR-82. National Archives Identifier: 520053

2. ” General Dwight D. Eisenhower, Supreme Allied Commander, at his headquarters in the European theater of operations. He wears the five-star cluster of the newly-created rank of General of the Army.” T4c. Messerlin, February 1, 1945. 80-G-331330. National Archives Identifier: 520686

3. Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini in Munich, Germany, ca. June 1940. 242-EB-7-38. National Archives Identifier: 540151

4. ” General MacArthur surveys the beachhead on Leyte Island, soon after American forces swept ashore from a gigantic liberation armada into the central Philippines, at the historic moment when the General made good his promise `I shall return.'” 1944. 26-G- 3584. National Archives Identifier: 513210

5. ” Conference of the Big Three at Yalta makes final plans for the defeat of Germany. Prime Minister Winston S. Churchill, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Premier Josef Stalin.” February 1945. 111-SC-260486. National Archives Identifier: 531340

6. American generals: seated left to right are William H. Simpson, George S. Patton, Jr., Carl Spaatz, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Omar Bradley, Courtney H. Hodges, and Leonard T. Gerow; standing are Ralph F. Stearley, Hoyt S. Vandenberg, Walter Bedell Smith, Otto P. Weyland, and Richard E. Nugent. Ca. 1945. 208-YE-182. National Archives Identifier: 535983

7. ” . . . we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain . . . Remember Dec. 7th!” Color poster by Allen Saalberg, 1942. 44-PA-191.* National Archives Identifier: 513637

8. ” We French workers warn you . . . defeat means slavery, starvation, death.” Color poster by Ben Shahn, 1942. 44-PA-246.* National Archives Identifier: 513688

9. ” I Want You for the U.S. Army. Enlist Now.” Color poster by James Montgomery Flagg. 44-PA-71.* National Archives Identifier: 513533

10. ” Man the Guns. Join the Navy.” Color poster by McClelland Barclay, 1942. 44-PA-24.* National Archives Identifier: 513519

11. ” For your country’s sake today–For your own sake tomorrow. Go to the nearest recruiting station of the armed service of your choice.” Color poster by Steele Savage, 1944. 44-PA-820.* National Archives Identifier: 514315

12. ” Buy War Bonds.” Color poster, 1942. 44-PA-531.* National Archives Identifier: 514010

13. ” SCRAP.” Color poster by Roy Schatt, 1942. 44-PA-1688.* National Archives Identifier: 515359

14. ” Harvesting bumper crop for Uncle Sam . Movie star Rita Hayworth sacrificed her bumpers for the duration. Besides setting an example by turning in unessential metal car parts, Miss Hayworth has been active in selling war bonds.” 1942. 208-PU-91B-5. National Archives Identifier: 535932

15. ” I’m conserving wool, this bathing suit’s painted on.” Cartoon drawing by Charles Shows. 208-COM-1084. National Archives Identifier: 535701

16. Sugar rationing. 208-AA-322I-2. National Archives Identifier: 535570

17. ” An eager school boy gets his first experience in using War Ration Book Two. With many parents engaged in war work, children are being taught the facts of point rationing for helping out in family marketing.” Alfred Palmer, February 1943. 208-AA-322H-1. National Archives Identifier: 535567

18. ” We Can Do It.” Color poster by J. Howard Miller. 179-WP-1563.* National Archives Identifier: 535413

19. ” Secretaries, housewives, waitresses, women from all over central Florida are getting into vocational schools to learn war work. Typical are these in the Daytona Beach branch of the Volusia county vocational school.” Howard R. Hollem, April 1942. 208-AA-352V-4. National Archives Identifier: 535579

20. ” Stars over Berlin and Tokyo will soon replace these factory lights reflected in the noses of planes at Douglas Aircraft’s Long Beach, Calif., plant. Women workers groom lines of transparent noses for deadly A-20 attack bombers.” Alfred Palmer, October 1942. 208-AA-352QQ-5. National Archives Identifier: 535577

21. Riveter at Lockheed Aircraft Corp., Burbank, CA. 86-WWT-3-67. National Archives Identifier: 522880

22. ” Line up of some of women welders including the women’s welding champion of Ingalls [Shipbuilding Corp., Pascagoula, MS].” Spencer Beebe, 1943. 86-WWT-85-35. National Archives Identifier: 535579

23. ” Chippers.” Women war workers of Marinship Corp., 1942. 86-WWT-85-16. National Archives Identifier: 522889

24. ” Man working on hull of U.S. submarine at Electric Boat Co., Groton, Conn.” Lt. Comdr. Charles Fenno Jacobs, August 1943. 80-G-468517. National Archives Identifier: 1633443

25. ” Launching of USS ROBALO 9 May 1943, at Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co., Manitowoc, Wis.” 80-G-68535. National Archives Identifier: 520628

26. ” Someone talked!” Color poster by Siebel, 1942. 44-PA-230.* National Archives Identifier: 513672

27. ” Loose lips might sink ships.” Color poster by Ess-ar-gee. 44-PA-82.* National Archives Identifier: 513543

28. ” A young evacuee of Japanese ancestry waits with the family baggage before leaving by bus for an assembly center in the spring of 1942.” Clem Albers, California, April 1942. 210-G-2A-6. National Archives Identifier: 539959

29. ” Persons of Japanese ancestry arrive at the Santa Anita Assembly Center from San Pedro. Evacuees lived at this center at the former Santa Anita race track before being moved inland to relocation centers.” Clem Albers, Arcadia, CA, April 5, 1942. 210-G-3B-414. National Archives Identifier: 537040

30. ” Dust storm at this War Relocation Authority center where evacuees of Japanese ancestry are spending the duration.” Dorothea Lange, Manzanar, CA, July 3, 1942. 210-G-10C-839. National Archives Identifier: 539961

31. ” Mechanics check engine of SNJ at Kingsville Field, NATC, Corpus Christi, Texas.” Lt. Comdr. Charles Fenno Jacobs, November 1942. 80-G-475186. National Archives Identifier: 520974

32. ” Ordnancemen loading belted cartridges into SBD-3 at NAS Norfolk, Va.” September 1942. 80-G-472528. National Archives Identifier: 520918

33. ” Victory cargo ships are lined up at a U.S. west coast shipyard for final outfitting before they are loaded with supplies for Navy depots and advance bases in the Pacific.” Ca. 1944. 208-YE-2B-7. National Archives Identifier: 520918

34. ” Corporal Charles H. Johnson of the 783rd Military Police Battalion, waves on a `Red Ball Express’ motor convoy rushing priority materiel to the forward areas, near Alenon, France.” Bowen, September 5, 1944. 111-SC-195512. National Archives Identifier: 535970

35. ” Invasion of Cape Gloucester, New Britain, 24 Dec. 1943. Crammed with men and material for the invasion, this Coast Guard- manned LST nears the Japanese held shore. Troops shown in the picture are Marines.” PhoM1c. Don C. Hansen. 26-G-3056. National Archives Identifier: 513188

36. ” U.S. Convoy which operates between Chen-Yi and Kweiyang, China, is ascending the famous twenty-one curves at Annan, China.” Pfc. John F. Albert, March 26, 1945. 111-SC-208807. National Archives Identifier: 531304

37. ” U.S. Marine `Raiders’ and their dogs, which are used for scouting and running messages, starting off for the jungle front lines on Bougainville.” T.Sgt. J. Sarno, ca. November/December 1943. 127-GR-84-68407. National Archives Identifier: 532371

38. ” Sgt. Carl Weinke and Pfc. Ernest Marjoram, Signal Corps cameramen, wading through stream while following infantry troops in forward area during invasion at a beach in New Guinea.” T4c. Ernani D’Emidio, April 22, 1944. 111-SC-189623. National Archives Identifier: 531186

39. ” Pfc Angelo B. Reina, 391st Inf. Regt., guards a lonely Oahu beach position. Kahuku, Oahu.” Rosenberg, Hawaii, March 1945. 111-SC-221867. National Archives Identifier: 531323

40. ” Marine Pfc. Douglas Lightheart (right) cradles his 30-cal. machine gun in his lap, while he and his buddy Pfc. Gerald Churchby take time out for a cigarette, while mopping up the enemy on Peleliu Is.” Cpl. H. H. Clements, September 14, 1944. 127-N-97628. [The Marine on the left has been tentatively identified through information received by the National Archives as being Gerald P. Thursby, Sr. of Akron, Ohio, not Gerald Churchby] National Archives Identifier: 532538

41. ” Sailor reading in his bunk aboard USS CAPELIN at submarine base New London, Conn.” Lt. Comdr. Charles Fenno Jacobs, August 1943. 80-G-468523. National Archives Identifier: 520852

42. ” Activities aboard USS MONTEREY. Navy pilots in the forward elevator well playing basketball.” Jumper at left identified as Gerald R. Ford. Attributed to Lt. Victor Jorgensen, ca. June/July 1944. 80-G-417628. National Archives Identifier: 520764

43. ” Liberty party. Liberty section personnel aboard LCM returning to USS CASABLANCA from Rara Island, off Pitylieu Island, Manus.” PhoM1c. R. W. Mowday, Admiralty Islands, April 19, 1945. 80-CASA-618. National Archives Identifier: 520580

44. ” Bing Crosby, stage, screen and radio star, sings to Allied troops at the opening of the London stage door canteen in Piccadilly, London, England.” Pearson, August 31, 1944. 111-SC-193249. National Archives Identifier: 531210

45. ” Danny Kaye, well known stage and screen star, entertains 4,000 5th Marine Div. occupation troops at Sasebo, Japan. The crude sign across the front of the stage says: `Officers keep out! Enlisted men’s country.'” Pfc. H. J. Grimm, October 25, 1945. 127-N-138204. National Archives Identifier: 532566

46. ” Pfc. Mickey Rooney imitates some Hollywood actors for an audience of Infantrymen of the 44th Division. Rooney is a member of a three-man unit making a jeep tour to entertain the troops.” T5c. Louis Weintraub, Kist, Germany, April 13, 1945. 111-SC-203412. National Archives Identifier: 531257

47. ” Marlene Dietrich, motion picture actress, autographs the cast on the leg of Tec 4 Earl E. McFarland at a United States hospital in Belgium, where she has been entertaining the GIs.” Tuttle, November 24, 1944. 111-SC-232989. National Archives Identifier: 531330

48. ” A youngster, clutching his soldier father, gazes upward while the latter lifts his wife from the ground to wish her a ‘Merry Christmas.’ The serviceman is one of those fortunate enough to be able to get home for the holidays.” December 1944. 208-AA-2F-20. National Archives Identifier: 535527

49. ” Crewmen lifting Kenneth Bratton out of turret of TBF on the USS SARATOGA after raid on Rabaul.” Lt. Wayne Miller, November 1943. 80-G-415477. National Archives Identifier: 520757

50. Medics helping injured soldier, France, 1944. 208-YE-22. National Archives Identifier: 535973

51. ” Private Roy Humphrey is being given blood plasma by Pfc. Harvey White, after he was wounded by shrapnel, on 9 August 1943 in Sicily.” Wever. 111-SC-178198. National Archives Identifier: 531161

52. ” Transfer of wounded from USS BUNKER HILL to USS WILKES BARRE, who were injured during fire aboard carrier following Jap suicide dive bombing attack off Okinawa.” PhoM3c. Kenneth E. Roberts, May 11, 1945. 80-G-328610. National Archives Identifier: 520682

53. ” In an underground surgery room, behind the front lines on Bougainville, an American Army doctor operates on a U.S. soldier wounded by a Japanese sniper.” December 13, 1943. 111-SC-187247. National Archives Identifier: 531177

54. ” Nurses of a field hospital who arrived in France via England and Egypt after three years service.” Parker, August 12, 1944. 112-SGA-44-10842. National Archives Identifier: 531498

55. ” With a canvas tarpaulin for a church and packing cases for an altar, a Navy chaplain holds mass for Marines at Saipan. The service was held in memory of brave buddies who lost their lives in the initial landings.” Sgt. Steele, June 1944. 127-N-82262. National Archives Identifier: 532525

56. ” The crew of the USS SOUTH DAKOTA stands with bowed heads, while Chaplain N. D. Lindner reads the benediction held in honor of fellow shipmates killed in the air action off Guam on June 19, 1944.” July 1, 1944. 80-G-238322. National Archives Identifier: 520649

57. ” A PT marksman provides a striking camera study as he draws a bead with his 50 caliber machine gun on his boat off New Guinea.” July 1943. 80-G-53871. National Archives Identifier: 520621

58. ” Officer at periscope in control room of submarine.” Ca. 1942. 80-G-11258. National Archives Identifier: 520588

59. ” PT’s patrolling off coast of New Guinea.” 1943. 80-G-53855. National Archives Identifier: 520620

60. ” USS PENNSYLVANIA and battleship of COLORADO class followed by three cruisers move in line into Lingayen Gulf preceding the landing on Luzon.” Philippines, January 1945. 80-G-59525. National Archives Identifier: 520627

61. ” Coast Guardsmen on the deck of the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Spencer watch the explosion of a depth charge which blasted a Nazi U-boat’s hope of breaking into the center of a large convoy.” Sinking of U-175. WO Jack January, April 17, 1943. 26-G-1517. National Archives Identifier: 513166

62. Torpedoed Japanese destroyer photographed through periscope of U.S.S. Wahoo or U.S.S. Nautilus, June 1942. 80-G-418331. National Archives Identifier: 520769

63. Sixteen-inch guns of the U.S.S Iowa firing during battle drill in the Pacific, ca. 1944. 80-G-59493. National Archives Identifier: 520626

64. ” Jap torpedo bomber explodes in air after direct hit by 5 inch shell from U.S. aircraft carrier as it attempted an unsuccessful attack on carrier, off Kwajalein.” U.S.S. Yorktown. CPhoM. Alfred N. Cooperman, December 4, 1943. 80-G-415001. National Archives Identifier: 520751

65. ” Japanese plane shot down as it attempted to attack USS KITKUN BAY.” Near Mariana Islands, June 1944. 80-G-238363. National Archives Identifier: 520650

66. ” USS BUNKER HILL burning after Jap suicide attack.” Near Okinawa, May 11, 1945. 80-G-274266. National Archives Identifier: 520657

67. ” USS BUNKER HILL hit by two Kamikazes in 30 seconds on 11 May 1945 off Kyushu. Dead-372. Wounded-264.” 80-G-323712. National Archives Identifier: 520678

68. ” A Chinese soldier guards a line of American P-40 fighter planes, painted with the shark-face emblem of the ‘Flying Tigers,’ at a flying field somewhere in China.” Ca. 1942. 208-AA-12X-21. National Archives Identifier: 535531

69. ” Pilots aboard a U.S. Navy aircraft carrier receive last minute instructions before taking off to attack industrial, and military installations in Tokyo.” February 17, 1945. 208-N-38374. National Archives Identifier: 535789

70. ” Dynamic static. The motion of its props causes an `aura’ to form around this F6F on USS YORKTOWN. Rotating with blades, halo moves aft, giving depth and perspective.” November 1943. 80-G-204747A. National Archives Identifier: 520641

71. ” Take off from the deck of the USS HORNET of an Army B-25 on its way to take part in first U.S. air raid on Japan.” Doolittle Raid, April 1942. 80-G-41196. National Archives Identifier: 520603

72. ” TBF (Avengers) flying in formation over Norfolk, Va.” Attributed to Lt. Comdr. Horace Bristol, September 1942. 80-G-427475. National Archives Identifier: 520789

73. ” The first big raid by the 8th Air Force was on a Focke Wulf plant at Marienburg. Coming back, the Germans were up in full force and we lost at least 80 ships-800 men, many of them pals.” 1943. 208-YE-7. National Archives Identifier: 535972

74. ” Photograph made from B-17 Flying Fortress of the 8th AAF Bomber Command on 31 Dec. when they attacked the vital CAM ball- bearing plant and the nearby Hispano Suiza aircraft engine repair depot in Paris.” France, 1943. 208-EX-249A-27. National Archives Identifier: 535712

75. ” Pilots pleased over their victory during the Marshall Islands attack, grin across the tail of an F6F Hellcat on board the USS LEXINGTON, after shooting down 17 out of 20 Japanese planes heading for Tarawa.” Comdr. Edward Steichen, November 1943. 80-G-470985. National Archives Identifier: 520896

76. ” Hitler accepts the ovation of the Reichstag after announcing the `peaceful’ acquisition of Austria. It set the stage to annex the Czechoslovakian Sudetenland, largely inhabited by a German- speaking population.” Berlin, March 1938. 208-N-39843. National Archives Identifier: 535792

77. German troops parade through Warsaw, Poland. PK Hugo J.ger, September 1939. 200-SFF-52. National Archives Identifier: 559369

78. ” The tragedy of this Sudeten woman, unable to conceal her misery as she dutifully salutes the triumphant Hitler, is the tragedy of the silent millions who have been `won over’ to Hitlerism by the ‘everlasting use’ of ruthless force.” Ca. 1938. 208-PP-10A-2. National Archives Identifier: 535891

79. Soviet Foreign Commissar Vyacheslav Molotov signs the German-Soviet nonaggression pact; Joachim von Ribbentrop and Josef Stalin stand behind him. Moscow, August 23. 1939. 242-JRPE-44. National Archives Identifier: 540196

80. British prisoners at Dunkerque, France, June 1940. 242-EB-7-35. National Archives Identifier: 540150

81. ” A Frenchman weeps as German soldiers march into the French capital, Paris, on June 14, 1940, after the Allied armies had been driven back across France.” 208-PP-10A-3. National Archives Identifier: 535892

82. Adolf Hitler in Paris, June 23, 1940. 242-HLB-5073-20. National Archives Identifier: 540179

83. German troops in Russia, 1941. 242-GAP-286B-4. National Archives Identifier: 540155

84. Aircraft spotter on the roof of a building in London. St. Paul’s Cathedral is in the background. 306-NT-901B-3. National Archives Identifier: 541899

85. ” Standing up gloriously out of the flames and smoke of surrounding buildings, St. Paul’s Cathedral is pictured during the great fire raid of Sunday December 29th.” 1940. 306-NT-3173V. National Archives Identifier: 541922

86. ” Over 500 firemen and members of the London Auxiliary Fire Fighting Services, including many women, combined in a war exercise over the ground covered by Greenwich (London) Fire Station.” Ca. July 1939. 306-NT-901-19. National Archives Identifier: 541892

87. ” Children of an eastern suburb of London, who have been made homeless by the random bombs of the Nazi night raiders, waiting outside the wreckage of what was their home.” September 1940. 306-NT-3163V. National Archives Identifier: 541920

88. ” Two bewildered old ladies stand amid the leveled ruins of the almshouse which was Home; until Jerry dropped his bombs. Total war knows no bounds. Almshouse bombed Feb. 10, Newbury, Berks., England.” Naccarata, February 11, 1943. 111-SC-178801. National Archives Identifier: 531162

89. Life in London during the war. View of a V-1 rocket in flight, ca. 1944. 306-NT-3157V. National Archives Identifier: 541919

90. Gen. Erwin Rommel with the 15th Panzer Division between Tobruk and Sidi Omar. Sdf. Zwilling, Libya, January or November 24, 1941. 242-EAPC-6-M713a. National Archives Identifier: 540147

91. ” General Bernard L. Montgomery watches his tanks move up.” North Africa, November 1942. 208-PU-138LL-3. National Archives Identifier: 535938

92. ” Lt. Col. Lyle Bernard, CO, 30th Infantry Regiment, a prominent figure in the second daring amphibious landing behind enemy lines on Sicily’s north coast, discusses military strategy with Lt. Gen. George S. Patton. Near Brolo.” 1943. 111-SC-246532. National Archives Identifier: 531335

93. ” Front view of 240mm howitzer of Battery `B’, 697th Field Artillery Battalion, just before firing into German held territory. Mignano area, Italy.” Boyle, January 30, 1944. 111-SC-187126. National Archives Identifier: 531176

94. ” Moving up through Prato, Italy, men of the 370th Infantry Regiment, have yet to climb the mountain which lies ahead.” Bull, April 9, 1945. 111-SC-205289. National Archives Identifier: 531277

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Israel to purge young Ethiopian Jews criminal records …

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Seeking to mend rift with Ethiopian Jewry, Israel’s president and justice minister say they will expunge disturbance of public order crime charges in honor of communitys Sigd holiday

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Mass prayer in Jerusalem marks national day for Ethiopian …

Israeli President Reuven Rivlin greets the Ethiopian elders at the Sigd celebration in Jerusalem on Nov. 7, 2018. (Kobi Gideon/GPO)

JERUSALEM (JTA) On a national holiday for Ethiopian Jews, before a crowd of tens of thousands, the president of Israel vowed that the citizens of his country will not discriminate on the basis of skin color.

We are brothers and sisters, and anyone who tries to undermine that has no place amongst the tribes of Israel, Reuven Rivlin said in his address Wednesday to mark Sigd, a state holiday since 2008 that marks the Ethiopians yearning to return to Jerusalem and Zion.

Ethiopian Jews living in Israel and their supporters gathered for a mass prayer at Sherover Promenade in the Armon Hanatziv neighborhood of Jerusalem to mark the holiday. The promenade offers a wide view of the Temple Mount, and was designated by the Ethiopian community as the central meeting place for the holiday when the first immigrants began to arrive in Israel.

Jeena, Jeena, Ierusalem, Longing, Longing for Jerusalem this is what we sing to Jerusalem in the prayers of the festival, Rivlin said. And those prayers: those ancient, wonderful prayers that you kept hold of and held dear to you and learned by heart and taught your children and passed down the generations. They are prayers of wonder and expectation all the way to Jerusalem.

You brought a spirit of heroism and nobility that was sorely tested on the difficult journey you undertook, and over the long years of expectation and yearning. And you brought with you an ancient and passionate love for Zion, a love without bounds, he said.

The holiday had been first observed in Ethiopia, where the Jews led by their elders went to the mountains 50 days after Yom Kippur for prayer and fasting. A festive meal and singing and dancing to celebrate Jerusalem followed the fast.

Rivlin, the first Israeli president to visit Ethiopia, assured the crowd that Israel was working to secure the release of Avera Mengistu, the Ethiopian Israeli being held by Hamas in Gaza.

On Monday, Rivlin and Justice Minister Ayelet Shaked issued a special appeal to the Ethiopian-Israeli community to submit requests for pardons for public order offensesin honor of Sigd.They noted that a government report adopted two years ago described discrimination against the Ethiopian-Israeli community in various fields including law enforcement, health, education and employment. The report found that criminal investigations were opened and charges were brought against Ethiopian Israelis at a significantly higher rate than their representation in the population.

The call for pardon requests was made Out of a desire to complete a process of healing and closing gaps, as well as to strengthen the trust between the Ethiopian-Israeli community and law enforcement and justice authorities, in honor of the Sigd holiday, the statement said. The requests will be considered positively, out of a belief in the significant contribution made by these young people to Israeli society as a whole.

There are some 135,000 Ethiopian Jews living in Israel.

Some 8,000 Falash Mura, who claim Jewish descent, remain in Ethiopia awaiting permission to immigrate to Israel, most of whom have some family members in Israel. In October, Israels Cabinet approved a plan to bring some 1,000 of the Falash Mura who have children living in Israel to the country.

The 2019 state budget, which was approved by the Knesset in March, does not include funds for Ethiopian immigration, including thelong-term costs of acclimating the immigrants.

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CIAs "Queen Of Torture" Married To Former CIA Official …

Alfreda is a 50-year-old, top-level CIA official who allegedly played a key role in failing to give the FBI critical information that could have led to the capture of the 9/11 hijackers before they attacked; pushed successfully to keep an innocent man in a secret CIA prison in Afghanistan; and went to watch torture sessions, according to published reports and sources. She was dubbed the the Unidentified Queen of Torture by The New Yorker Magazine and was reportedly an inspiration for the female CIA agent in the Hollywood movie Zero Dark Thirty. (Her last name has been published by various news outlets, but BuzzFeed News is not using it because of the CIAs concerns for her safety, especially in light of the rise of ISIS.)

Michael Scheuer is a 63-year-old former CIA official who back in the 1990s was Alfredas boss. He once headed the agencys anti-Osama Bin Laden Unit and now stays in the public eye, pushing controversial theories. On his website, he calls for a regional Sunni-Shia war in which our enemies will merrily kill each other until well after the cows come home. In an interview with BuzzFeed News he confirmed that he advocates inciting war between the Shiites and Sunnis in the Middle East. He called Senator Dianne Feinstein, who headed the Senate Intelligence Committee during its torture investigation, an old hag from California.

He lost his job as an adjunct professor at Georgetown University after publishing comments on his website that were interpreted as a call for a violent overthrow of President Obama. A school official says Scheuer wasn’t fired but that his course simply wasn’t needed anymore, while Scheuer said he believes he was fired for his criticism of Israel.

What was unknown outside intelligence circles is that the two have been married for more then a year, as Scheuer told BuzzFeed News, and others have confirmed.

Some intelligence sources argue that the marriage, which Scheuer says took place in December 2014, is a purely private matter, but others say it is noteworthy because the pair are so steeped in controversy and because of Scheuers outspoken views.

In a phone call with BuzzFeed News last week, Scheuer initially denied being married to Alfreda. But later he called back. Yes, Im married to Alfreda, he said. His earlier denial, he said, was because hed been surprised by the call. He declined to say if they had been involved romantically in the 1990s when he was her supervisor at the agency.

The CIA declined to make Alfreda available for comment, and attempts to reach her through Scheuer were unsuccessful. The agency also declined to comment about specifics, but spokesman Ryan Trapani sent an email to BuzzFeed News, with the subject line Buzzfeed/Roston/Journalistic Perdition. Gossip is not news, he wrote, and it is not the job of the Office of Public Affairs to engage in it.

Alfreda emerged as a divisive figure most notably last year after the publication of the Senate Intelligence Committee report on the CIAs torture program. In the report, she is referred to as the deputy chief of Alec Station. NBC Newss Matthew Cole wrote a lengthy story about her, though he did not name her. So did Jane Mayer in The New Yorker.

In 2000, while she was at the CIAs Counterterrorism Center, the agency blocked the FBI from learning that suspected terrorist Khalid Al-Midhar had a U.S. visa, according to the 9/11 commission report, and it has been reported that she played a role in the incident. Al-Midhar came to the U.S. and stayed under his own name with another terrorist, and the two men joined the hijacking team aboard American flight 77, which was crashed into the Pentagon. A former senior intelligence officer told BuzzFeed News that Alfreda and her colleagues conspired to not tell the FBI about the intelligence, and some investigators have said that the 9/11 plot could have been thwarted if the FBI had been told.

Alfreda was also a key player in the CIAs imprisonment of a man whom agency officials knew to be innocent, an incident that has been widely reported. In early 2004, she had pushed to keep German citizen Khaled el Masri in CIA custody and sent to the CIAs grim Salt Pit prison, even though he had been detained in a case of mistaken identity. Adam Goldman and Matt Apuzzo pointed out in 2011 in an Associated Press story, that shed been promoted at the CIA, even after that disaster, though the story did not name her. McClatchy and the Washington Post did name her in connection with the incident in stories in 2014.

In another incident according to the Senate torture report and former intelligence officers, she reportedly went to visit an enhanced interrogation at a secret CIA prison to watch a waterboarding session.

Scheuer defended his wife. Asked about the label Queen of Torture, he criticized the Senate Intelligence Committees report on the CIA program, and launched an attack on Senator Diane Feinstein, who chaired the committee when the report was written. Feinstein, shes just an old hag from California, he said, who gets her jollies criticizing American capabilities.

As for El Masri, who was held even after the CIA knew they had the wrong man, Scheuer told BuzzFeed News I dont give a damn if its the wrong guy. You make mistakes, in war.

Sheuer himself was the first head of the agencys Bin Laden unit, Alec Station, in 1996, and he coordinated the intelligence on Bin Laden until 1999. Alfreda worked for him at the unit. In 2004, he left the agency, where he was considered brilliant but arrogant, after anonymously authoring a book called Imperial Hubris, where he called for the U.S. to either disengage from the Middle East completely, or be prepared for a full-scale war against radical Islam.

He later worked as a CBS analyst and a professor at Georgetown University.

In late 2014, the same month he said he married Alfreda, he published a blog post on his site that The Daily Beast, Gawker, and The Hoya, a Georgetown University student newspaper, all interpreted as endorsing the assassination of President Obama and British Prime Minister David Cameron. Later, in an interview with The Hoya, he was quoted saying, At some point, when push comes to shove, you kill people and get them out of the way.

In his interview with BuzzFeed News he said he was not endorsing the assassination of the president, but was arguing that people have to take action when a government becomes too repressive.

Among many CIA veterans he is viewed with dislike. Hes a complete fucking nut, said one.

In his interview with BuzzFeed News, Scheuer said he believes the U.S. government should encourage a wider Sunni-Shiite war. They love to kill each other more than they love to kill us. I would stoke it. It would distract them from attacking us.

I think thats a crackpot idea, said former Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Near East Affairs David Mack, asked about Scheuers theory. I dont see it as something that would serve US interests.

Scheuer would not discuss Alfredas philosophy on Islam. My views are only my views, sir. He also said he does not discuss his wifes work with her.

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CIAs "Queen Of Torture" Married To Former CIA Official …

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Michael Scheuer – Covert History Wiki

For the German canoer, see Michael Scheuer (kayaker).

Michael F. Scheuer (born 1952[1]) is a former CIA intelligence officer, American blogger, historian, foreign policy critic, and political analyst. He is currently an adjunct professor at Georgetown University’s Center for Peace and Security Studies and an Expert at Wikistrat.[2] In his 22-year career, he served as the Chief of the Bin Laden Issue Station (aka “Alec Station”), from 1996 to 1999, the Osama bin Laden tracking unit at the Counterterrorist Center. He then worked again as Special Advisor to the Chief of the bin Laden unit from September 2001 to November 2004.

Scheuer became a public figure after being outed as the anonymous author of the 2004 book Imperial Hubris, in which he criticized many of the United States’ assumptions about Islamist insurgencies and particularly Osama bin Laden. He depicts bin Laden as a rational actor who is fighting to weaken the United States by weakening its economy, rather than merely combating and killing Americans. He challenges the common assumption that terrorism is the threat that the United States is facing in the modern era, arguing rather that Islamist insurgency (and not “terrorism”)[3] is the core of the conflict between the U.S. and Islamist forces, who in places such as Kashmir, Xinjiang, and Chechnya are “struggling not just for independence but against institutionalized barbarism.”[3][4] Osama bin Laden acknowledged the book in a 2007 statement, suggesting that it revealed “the reasons for your losing the war against us”.[5][6]

In February 2009, Scheuer was terminated from his position as a senior fellow of The Jamestown Foundation. Scheuer has written that he was fired by the organization for stating that “the current state of the U.S.-Israel relationship undermined U.S. national security.”[7]

Scheuer was born in Buffalo and graduated from Canisius College in 1974, and went on to earn an M.A. from Niagara University in 1976 and another M.A. from Carleton University in 1982.[8][9] He also received a Ph.D. in British Empire-U.S.-Canada-U.K. relations from the University of Manitoba in 1986.[10][11]

Scheuer served in the CIA for 22 years before resigning in 2004. He was chief of the Osama bin Laden unit at the Counterterrorist Center from 1996 to 1999.[12] He worked as Special Adviser to the Chief of the bin Laden Unit from September 2001 to November 2004.[13] He is now known to have been the anonymous author of both the 2004 book Imperial Hubris: Why the West is Losing the War on Terror and the earlier anonymous work, Through Our Enemies’ Eyes: Osama bin Laden, Radical Islam, and the Future of America.[14] After his anonymously-published books had been publicly associated with his name, he was mentioned in an Osama bin Laden statement of September 7, 2007. According to bin Laden, “If you want to understand what’s going on and if you would like to get to know some of the reasons for your losing the war against us, then read the book of Michael Scheuer in this regard.”[5]

After leaving the CIA in 2004, Scheuer worked as a news analyst for CBS News and a terrorism analyst for The Jamestown Foundation’s online publication Global Terrorism Analysis.[15] He also makes radio and television appearances and teaches a graduate-level course on Al-Qaeda at Georgetown University. He also participates in conferences on terrorism and national security issues, such as the New America Foundation’s December 2004 conference, “Al Qaeda 2.0: Transnational Terrorism After 9/11.”[16]

In 2009, Scheuer reported that he had lost his position as a Senior Fellow with the Jamestown Foundation, after “several major financial donors to Jamestown threatened to withdraw funding” if he continued in that role.[17] The funding threats were pursuant to his criticism of Barack Obama’s “dancing the Tel Aviv two-step” in allegedly kowtowing to the Israeli lobby, as well as Scheuer’s disdaining of Obama’s selection as Chief of Staff of Rahm Emanuel, “a U.S. citizen who during the 1991 Gulf War left America to serve in Israel’s military.”[17]

Scheuer’s book, Marching Toward Hell: America and Islam After Iraq was released on February 12, 2008.[18]

His first book, published anonymously, is an analysis of the public discourse available on al Qaeda’s ideology and strategy. In it, Scheuer explores the bin Laden phenomenon and its implications for U.S. security. He began the book in 1999 as an unclassified manual for counterterrorism officers. Due to the secrecy agreement he signed as an employee of the CIA, the book is based solely on unclassified intelligence or material available from open sources such as media reports. His main thesis in the work is that the view of bin Laden as a lunatic is a form of “myopia” that limits Western military thinkers’ ability to respond to the bin Laden phenomenon. He writes that “the West’s road to hell lies in approaching the bin Laden problem with the presumption that only the lunatic fringe could oppose what the United States is trying to accomplish through its foreign policy toward the Muslim world. Bin Laden’s philosophy is slowly harnessing the two most powerful motivating forces in contemporary international affairs: religion and nationalism.”[19]

In his second book, Imperial Hubris, a New York Times bestseller, Scheuer writes that the Islamist threat to the United States is rooted in “how easy it is for Muslims to see, hear, experience, and hate the six U.S. policies bin Laden repeatedly refers to as anti-Muslim:

Scheuer contends that Al Qaeda is following a martial strategy that is more rational than it is given credit for among Western politicians and media. He cites Clausewitz’s dictum that one must strike one’s enemy’s “center of gravity”, and pairs it with an al Qaeda writer’s assertion that “the American economy is the American center of gravity”.[22]

In a videotape released around September 7, 2007, Osama bin Laden stated, “If you want to understand what’s going on and if you would like to get to know some of the reasons for your losing the war against us, then read the book of Michael Scheuer.”[5]

Released in 2008, Marching Toward Hell: America and Islam After Iraq how the 2003 Iraq War has affected Al-Qaeda and the United States. He argues that the instability in the Iraq War has benefited Al-Qaeda without serving any U.S. interests.

Scheuer’s views have emphasized the danger of Osama bin Laden and al Qaeda, as well as the ineffectiveness of U.S. policy against these imminent threats. The threat to the United States, Scheuer has consistently maintained, continues to grow, and the U.S. continually fails to grasp the nature of the struggle in which it is engaged:[23] Islamist and anti-American sentiment continue to grow around the world, and the bin Laden movement is aimed, not at killing or conquering Americans or reforming their internal political systems, but rather bankrupting them in order to reduce their worldwide influence and thereby liberate Muslims from the yoke of American political, military, and financial influence. The failure of the U.S. to apprehend this threat is, in part, rooted in a misunderstanding and underestimation of Osama bin Laden himself. To Scheuer, Osama bin Laden’s “beliefs, goals, and intentions” are

Scheuer’s criticism of U.S. foreign policy includes a sweeping condemnation of the invasion of Iraq, which he has characterized as a “Christmas present” to Osama bin Laden’s Islamist recruitment efforts, and a validation of bin Laden’s claims that the U.S. is at war with Islam. From his personal involvement in background research in the run up to the war, Scheuer states that “there was no connection between [Al Qaeda] and Saddam.”[25]

U.S. rhetoric about bin Laden’s allegedly “hating freedom” has also irked Scheuer, who suggests that those “willing to give their lives to destroy the dictatorship in Saudi Arabia… must want freedom in some kind of way.”[26] This erroneous rhetoric, according to Scheuer, is not only to be found in the media and among politicians, but even in the 9/11 Commission report, in which bin Laden and his followers are identified “as takfiris, who kill Muslims if they dont agree with them. Theyre not takfiris. Theyre just very devout, severe Salafists and Wahhabis.”

The insistence on referring to al Qaeda and the Islamist movement around it as a terrorist group or terrorist movement has also been a mistake, according to Scheuer. The U.S. is faced with an insurgency, rather than mere terrorism.

Scheuer has been critical of the Bush and Clinton administrations for not killing bin Laden, for costly and disastrous policy missteps, and for not taking decisive measures to defend the country. He states that Clinton had eight to ten opportunities to kill bin Laden prior to September 11, and Bush had one opportunity thereafter. Richard A. Clarke and the Clinton administration, according to Scheuer, thwarted the CIA’s ambitions to kidnap or kill bin Laden when they had the chance.[27] According to Scheuer,

Of the Bush administration, Scheuer warns against assigning it full responsibility for the nation’s troubles since September 11, 2001. Although the “unprovoked attack of Iraq” will forever be remembered as “infamous”, as will Dick Cheney’s “reptilian contention that Americans who criticize U.S. foreign policy are ‘validating the strategy of the terrorists’,” according to Scheuer, a “bipartisan governing elite”, both Democratic and Republican, is to blame for the nation’s woes.[29] (Notwithstanding the bipartisan responsibility, Scheuer comments, “the thought of what history will say about Donald Rumsfeld’s tenure at the Department of Defense ought to make his relatives shudder down to their latest generation.”)[29]

“The Iranians are no threat to the United States unless we provoke them. They may be a threat to the Israelis. Theyre not a threat to the United States. The threat to the United States, inside the United States, comes from al Qaeda….These people are going to detonate a nuclear device inside the United States, and we’re going to have absolutely nothing to respond against.” (Countdown with Keith Olbermann, February 19, 2006)

Scheuer has stated that the Mearsheimer and Walt paper The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy is essentially correct. Israel, according to Scheuer, has engaged in one of the most successful campaigns to influence public opinion in the United States ever conducted by a foreign government. Scheuer said to NPR that “They [Mearsheimer and Walt] should be credited for the courage they have had to actually present a paper on the subject. I hope they move on and do the Saudi lobby, which is probably more dangerous to the United States than the Israeli lobby.”[30]

In Marching Toward Hell, Scheuer laments “the war in Iraq that was instigated by U.S. citizen Israel-firsters and their evangelical Christian allies”.[31] He continues,

In April 2009, Scheuer participated in the Doha Debates at Georgetown University, where he debated for the motion “This house believes that it is time for the USA to get tough on Israel” with fellow speaker Avraham Burg. Speakers against the motion were Dore Gold and Alan Dershowitz. Burg and Scheuer won the debate, with 63% of the audience voting for the motion. During the debate, Scheuer suggested that “the war in Iraq is the responsibility of the American fifth column that supports Israel” and accused Dershowitz of being part of this “fifth column”. Dershowitz responded that he opposed the war in Iraq, that “more Jews than any other ethnic group in America opposed the war in Iraq” and that Scheuer was engaging in “bigotry.”[33]

Thomas Joscelyn of Weekly Standard wrote a critical piece on Scheuer and an interview Scheuer did on Chris Matthews Hardball.[34] According to Joscelyn, Scheuer’s claims that “there was no evidence of a relationship between Saddam Hussein’s Iraq and al Qaeda”, in various interviews, “directly contradicted” Scheuer’s earlier assertions, in his first book, in which Scheuer “cited numerous pieces of evidence showing that there was, in fact, a working relationship between Saddam and al Qaeda.”

Scheuer wrote about a relationship between Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda in his 2002 book. Yet when interviewed in 2004 he stated that he had found no evidence of a Saddam/al-Qaeda connection. Tim Russert asked Scheuer to explain the seeming contradiction on Meet the Press (30 November 2004):

Scheuer explains more fully in the revised edition of his 2002 book the exhaustive study of the evidence of Iraq-al-Qaeda cooperation that eventually led him to the conclusion that there was no relationship between the two forces:

Scheuer has stated his objection to any involvement by the US in the Libyan insurgency, being particularly critical of the work of United States’ UN representative Susan E. Rice, calling the whole affair “none of our business” and essentially a “recruiting tool for terrorists.”[37]His overall view being that the interests of US foreign policy are far better served by the current status quo, whereby the existing autocratic regimes are better able to suppress the threat he perceives from Al Qaida incursion than western style democratic systems.Scheuer believes that, irrespective of NATO ostensibly leading the bombing operations, “in the Muslim world, this is Americans killing Muslims again, and it looks like it’s for oil.”[37]

Scheuer penned an editorial in late December 2011 endorsing US Presidential candidate Ron Paul. He said, “Dr. Pauls precise use of history and common sense exposes the exorbitantly costly effort to build democracies in the Islamic world for what it is; namely, Washington throwing money down the drain for a cause that is impossibly lost from the start and one that will involve us in wars where we have no interests.” [38]

Template:War on TerrorTemplate:Fox News personalities

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NAACP | Become a Member

Thank you for your interest in renewing your NAACP membership! Check out our options for NAACP lifetime and annual membership renewal, and select the one that works best for you. Nearly all of our membership options are available as one-time payments, or as subscribing payments over time.

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NAACP | Become a Member

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Who is Tommy Robinson and why is he in jail? – BBC News

Tommy Robinson has been jailed for 13 months after breaking contempt of court laws for streaming a Facebook Live outside Leeds court.

Since his imprisonment there’s been mass protests to #freetommy, claiming he’s a victim of censorship.

We explain who he is, why he has been sent to jail and why his imprisonment is more about the right to a fair trial than freedom of speech.

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Who is Tommy Robinson and why is he in jail? – BBC News

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EDL founder Tommy Robinson could make 1m US trip after bail …

English Defence League founder Tommy Robinson could make more than 1m from a possible trip to the US after being formally released from bail.

Judge Nicholas Hilliard QC announced that the far-right figure, real name Stephen Yaxley-Lennon, was no longer subject to any bail conditions after referring his contempt of court case to the attorney general.

The judge said at a brief hearing at the Old Bailey on Monday: “This is simply to indicate in open court that now the matter has been referred to the attorney general, Mr Yaxley-Lennon is no longer on bail to this court.

“As there is no bail, there are no bail conditions.”

Robinson nor his lawyer were required to attend the hearing.

Robinson was released from prison in August after the Court of Appeal quashed a contempt of court finding made at Leeds Crown Court.

However, he faces a retrial and could be sent back to jail if he is again found in contempt for filming people at a grooming trial in Leeds and broadcasting the footage on social media.

Leeds Crown Court heard that he denied breaching the Contempt of Court Act and making a broadcast likely to seriously prejudice the trial.

The bail announcement comes after reports that Robinson could earn more than 1m by making speeches in the US later this month.

It has been reported that he is waiting to see if US authorities will grant him a visa.

“The inevitable media coverage that will surround the visit will no doubt lead to an increase in his already significant monthly donations from America,” Hope Not Hate researcher Joe Mulhall told the Guardian.

“We believe that, should he be allowed to enter the US for this event, he stands to make in the range of 1m in donations with the potential for much more.

“America offers the opportunity for further large-scale investment in Lennon.”

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Iraq – definition of Iraq by The Free Dictionary

Iraq – a republic in the Middle East in western Asia; the ancient civilization of Mesopotamia was in the area now known as IraqAnsar al Islam, Ansar al-Islam, Supporters of Islam – a radical Islamic group of terrorists in the Iraqi part of Kurdistan who oppose an independent secular nation as advocated by the United States; some members fought with the Taliban and al-Qaeda forces in Afghanistan; said to receive financial support from Saddam HusseinArab League – an international organization of independent Arab states formed in 1945 to promote cultural and economic and military and political and social cooperationRepublican Guard – formerly Iraq’s elite military unit whose primary role was to protect the government in BaghdadAkhbari – a religious movement by Arab Shiite Muslims in 17th century Iraq that is opposed to the Usuli; “Akhbari Shiism has never promoted political control”Middle East, Mideast, Near East – the area around the eastern Mediterranean; from Turkey to northern Africa and eastward to Iran; the site of such ancient civilizations as Phoenicia and Babylon and Egypt and the birthplace of Judaism and Christianity and Islam; had continuous economic and political turmoil in the 20th century; “the Middle East is the cradle of Western civilization”Gulf States – the countries in southwestern Asia that border the Persian GulfBagdad, Baghdad, capital of Iraq – capital and largest city of Iraq; located on the Tigris River; “Baghdad is one of the great cities of the Muslim world”Basia, Basra – the second largest city in Iraq; an oil port in southern IraqKarbala, Kerbala, Kerbela – a city of central Iraq to the south of Baghdad; a holy city for Shiite Muslims because it is the site of the tomb of Mohammed’s grandson who was killed there in 680Kirkuk – a city in northeastern Iraq; the center of a rich oilfield with pipelines to the MediterraneanMosul – a city in northern Iraq on the Tigris across from the ruins of NinevehMesopotamia – the land between the Tigris and Euphrates; site of several ancient civilizations; part of what is now known as IraqBabylonia, Chaldaea, Chaldea – an ancient kingdom in southern Mesopotamia; Babylonia conquered Israel in the 6th century BC and exiled the Jews to Babylon (where Daniel became a counselor to the king)Chaldaea, Chaldea – an ancient region of Mesopotamia lying between the Euphrates delta and the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Desert; settled in 1000 BC and destroyed by the Persians in 539 BC; reached the height of its power under Nebuchadnezzar IISumer – an area in the southern region of Babylonia in present-day Iraq; site of the Sumerian civilization of city-states that flowered during the third millennium BCAssyria – an ancient kingdom in northern Mesopotamia which is in present-day IraqAssur, Asur, Ashur – an ancient Assyrian city on the Tigris and traditional capital of Assyria; just to the south of the modern city of Mosul in IraqNineveh – an ancient Assyrian city on the Tigris across from the modern city of Mosul in the northern part of what is now known as IraqKurdistan – an extensive geographical region in the Middle East to the south of the CaucasusSyrian Desert – a desert of northern Arabia occupying western Iraq, southern Syria, eastern Jordan, and northern Saudi ArabiaAsia – the largest continent with 60% of the earth’s population; it is joined to Europe on the west to form Eurasia; it is the site of some of the world’s earliest civilizationsEuphrates, Euphrates River – a river in southwestern Asia; flows into the Persian Gulf; was important in the development of several great civilizations in ancient MesopotamiaIraki, Iraqi – a native or inhabitant of Iraq; “the majority of Iraqi are Arab Shiite Muslims although Sunni Muslims control the government”

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World War II Photos | National Archives

The Second World War was documented on a huge scale by thousands of photographers and artists who created millions of pictures. American military photographers representing all of the armed services covered the battlefronts around the world. Every activity of the war was depicted–training, combat, support services, and much more. On the home front, the many federal war agencies produced and collected pictures, posters, and cartoons on such subjects as war production, rationing, and civilian relocation. The pictures described in this list are from the holdings of the Still Picture Branch (NNSP) of the National Archives and Records Administration. Most are from the records of the Army Signal Corps in Record Group (RG) 111, the Department of the Navy in RG 80, the Coast Guard in RG 26, the Marine Corps in RG 127, and the Office of War Information in RG 208. Others were selected from the records of 12 additional agencies. Pictures are listed by subject and campaign. Original captions are in quotation marks. Photographers, artists, locations, and dates, when known, are also included. This information is followed by identification numbers in italics. At the end of this leaflet there are instructions for ordering complete sets of slides from this and other Select Audiovisual Records lists. To order individual prints, negatives, or slides from this list, write to the Still Picture Branch (NNSP) for a current price list and ordering information. With the exception of 11 pictures that are also in color (indicated by an asterisk following the identification number), all pictures in this list are available only in black and white. Inquiries about other World War II pictures that may be part of the National Archives’ holdings should be made separately. Please list, as specifically as possible, names, dates, places, subjects, events, and other details. Please limit each request to three items. Jonathan Heller researched, selected, and arranged the items for this list and wrote these introductory remarks. How to Order 1. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signing the Declaration of War against Japan, December 8, 1941. 79-AR-82. National Archives Identifier: 520053 2. ” General Dwight D. Eisenhower, Supreme Allied Commander, at his headquarters in the European theater of operations. He wears the five-star cluster of the newly-created rank of General of the Army.” T4c. Messerlin, February 1, 1945. 80-G-331330. National Archives Identifier: 520686 3. Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini in Munich, Germany, ca. June 1940. 242-EB-7-38. National Archives Identifier: 540151 4. ” General MacArthur surveys the beachhead on Leyte Island, soon after American forces swept ashore from a gigantic liberation armada into the central Philippines, at the historic moment when the General made good his promise `I shall return.'” 1944. 26-G- 3584. National Archives Identifier: 513210 5. ” Conference of the Big Three at Yalta makes final plans for the defeat of Germany. Prime Minister Winston S. Churchill, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Premier Josef Stalin.” February 1945. 111-SC-260486. National Archives Identifier: 531340 6. American generals: seated left to right are William H. Simpson, George S. Patton, Jr., Carl Spaatz, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Omar Bradley, Courtney H. Hodges, and Leonard T. Gerow; standing are Ralph F. Stearley, Hoyt S. Vandenberg, Walter Bedell Smith, Otto P. Weyland, and Richard E. Nugent. Ca. 1945. 208-YE-182. National Archives Identifier: 535983 7. ” . . . we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain . . . Remember Dec. 7th!” Color poster by Allen Saalberg, 1942. 44-PA-191.* National Archives Identifier: 513637 8. ” We French workers warn you . . . defeat means slavery, starvation, death.” Color poster by Ben Shahn, 1942. 44-PA-246.* National Archives Identifier: 513688 9. ” I Want You for the U.S. Army. Enlist Now.” Color poster by James Montgomery Flagg. 44-PA-71.* National Archives Identifier: 513533 10. ” Man the Guns. Join the Navy.” Color poster by McClelland Barclay, 1942. 44-PA-24.* National Archives Identifier: 513519 11. ” For your country’s sake today–For your own sake tomorrow. Go to the nearest recruiting station of the armed service of your choice.” Color poster by Steele Savage, 1944. 44-PA-820.* National Archives Identifier: 514315 12. ” Buy War Bonds.” Color poster, 1942. 44-PA-531.* National Archives Identifier: 514010 13. ” SCRAP.” Color poster by Roy Schatt, 1942. 44-PA-1688.* National Archives Identifier: 515359 14. ” Harvesting bumper crop for Uncle Sam . Movie star Rita Hayworth sacrificed her bumpers for the duration. Besides setting an example by turning in unessential metal car parts, Miss Hayworth has been active in selling war bonds.” 1942. 208-PU-91B-5. National Archives Identifier: 535932 15. ” I’m conserving wool, this bathing suit’s painted on.” Cartoon drawing by Charles Shows. 208-COM-1084. National Archives Identifier: 535701 16. Sugar rationing. 208-AA-322I-2. National Archives Identifier: 535570 17. ” An eager school boy gets his first experience in using War Ration Book Two. With many parents engaged in war work, children are being taught the facts of point rationing for helping out in family marketing.” Alfred Palmer, February 1943. 208-AA-322H-1. National Archives Identifier: 535567 18. ” We Can Do It.” Color poster by J. Howard Miller. 179-WP-1563.* National Archives Identifier: 535413 19. ” Secretaries, housewives, waitresses, women from all over central Florida are getting into vocational schools to learn war work. Typical are these in the Daytona Beach branch of the Volusia county vocational school.” Howard R. Hollem, April 1942. 208-AA-352V-4. National Archives Identifier: 535579 20. ” Stars over Berlin and Tokyo will soon replace these factory lights reflected in the noses of planes at Douglas Aircraft’s Long Beach, Calif., plant. Women workers groom lines of transparent noses for deadly A-20 attack bombers.” Alfred Palmer, October 1942. 208-AA-352QQ-5. National Archives Identifier: 535577 21. Riveter at Lockheed Aircraft Corp., Burbank, CA. 86-WWT-3-67. National Archives Identifier: 522880 22. ” Line up of some of women welders including the women’s welding champion of Ingalls [Shipbuilding Corp., Pascagoula, MS].” Spencer Beebe, 1943. 86-WWT-85-35. National Archives Identifier: 535579 23. ” Chippers.” Women war workers of Marinship Corp., 1942. 86-WWT-85-16. National Archives Identifier: 522889 24. ” Man working on hull of U.S. submarine at Electric Boat Co., Groton, Conn.” Lt. Comdr. Charles Fenno Jacobs, August 1943. 80-G-468517. National Archives Identifier: 1633443 25. ” Launching of USS ROBALO 9 May 1943, at Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co., Manitowoc, Wis.” 80-G-68535. National Archives Identifier: 520628 26. ” Someone talked!” Color poster by Siebel, 1942. 44-PA-230.* National Archives Identifier: 513672 27. ” Loose lips might sink ships.” Color poster by Ess-ar-gee. 44-PA-82.* National Archives Identifier: 513543 28. ” A young evacuee of Japanese ancestry waits with the family baggage before leaving by bus for an assembly center in the spring of 1942.” Clem Albers, California, April 1942. 210-G-2A-6. National Archives Identifier: 539959 29. ” Persons of Japanese ancestry arrive at the Santa Anita Assembly Center from San Pedro. Evacuees lived at this center at the former Santa Anita race track before being moved inland to relocation centers.” Clem Albers, Arcadia, CA, April 5, 1942. 210-G-3B-414. National Archives Identifier: 537040 30. ” Dust storm at this War Relocation Authority center where evacuees of Japanese ancestry are spending the duration.” Dorothea Lange, Manzanar, CA, July 3, 1942. 210-G-10C-839. National Archives Identifier: 539961 31. ” Mechanics check engine of SNJ at Kingsville Field, NATC, Corpus Christi, Texas.” Lt. Comdr. Charles Fenno Jacobs, November 1942. 80-G-475186. National Archives Identifier: 520974 32. ” Ordnancemen loading belted cartridges into SBD-3 at NAS Norfolk, Va.” September 1942. 80-G-472528. National Archives Identifier: 520918 33. ” Victory cargo ships are lined up at a U.S. west coast shipyard for final outfitting before they are loaded with supplies for Navy depots and advance bases in the Pacific.” Ca. 1944. 208-YE-2B-7. National Archives Identifier: 520918 34. ” Corporal Charles H. Johnson of the 783rd Military Police Battalion, waves on a `Red Ball Express’ motor convoy rushing priority materiel to the forward areas, near Alenon, France.” Bowen, September 5, 1944. 111-SC-195512. National Archives Identifier: 535970 35. ” Invasion of Cape Gloucester, New Britain, 24 Dec. 1943. Crammed with men and material for the invasion, this Coast Guard- manned LST nears the Japanese held shore. Troops shown in the picture are Marines.” PhoM1c. Don C. Hansen. 26-G-3056. National Archives Identifier: 513188 36. ” U.S. Convoy which operates between Chen-Yi and Kweiyang, China, is ascending the famous twenty-one curves at Annan, China.” Pfc. John F. Albert, March 26, 1945. 111-SC-208807. National Archives Identifier: 531304 37. ” U.S. Marine `Raiders’ and their dogs, which are used for scouting and running messages, starting off for the jungle front lines on Bougainville.” T.Sgt. J. Sarno, ca. November/December 1943. 127-GR-84-68407. National Archives Identifier: 532371 38. ” Sgt. Carl Weinke and Pfc. Ernest Marjoram, Signal Corps cameramen, wading through stream while following infantry troops in forward area during invasion at a beach in New Guinea.” T4c. Ernani D’Emidio, April 22, 1944. 111-SC-189623. National Archives Identifier: 531186 39. ” Pfc Angelo B. Reina, 391st Inf. Regt., guards a lonely Oahu beach position. Kahuku, Oahu.” Rosenberg, Hawaii, March 1945. 111-SC-221867. National Archives Identifier: 531323 40. ” Marine Pfc. Douglas Lightheart (right) cradles his 30-cal. machine gun in his lap, while he and his buddy Pfc. Gerald Churchby take time out for a cigarette, while mopping up the enemy on Peleliu Is.” Cpl. H. H. Clements, September 14, 1944. 127-N-97628. [The Marine on the left has been tentatively identified through information received by the National Archives as being Gerald P. Thursby, Sr. of Akron, Ohio, not Gerald Churchby] National Archives Identifier: 532538 41. ” Sailor reading in his bunk aboard USS CAPELIN at submarine base New London, Conn.” Lt. Comdr. Charles Fenno Jacobs, August 1943. 80-G-468523. National Archives Identifier: 520852 42. ” Activities aboard USS MONTEREY. Navy pilots in the forward elevator well playing basketball.” Jumper at left identified as Gerald R. Ford. Attributed to Lt. Victor Jorgensen, ca. June/July 1944. 80-G-417628. National Archives Identifier: 520764 43. ” Liberty party. Liberty section personnel aboard LCM returning to USS CASABLANCA from Rara Island, off Pitylieu Island, Manus.” PhoM1c. R. W. Mowday, Admiralty Islands, April 19, 1945. 80-CASA-618. National Archives Identifier: 520580 44. ” Bing Crosby, stage, screen and radio star, sings to Allied troops at the opening of the London stage door canteen in Piccadilly, London, England.” Pearson, August 31, 1944. 111-SC-193249. National Archives Identifier: 531210 45. ” Danny Kaye, well known stage and screen star, entertains 4,000 5th Marine Div. occupation troops at Sasebo, Japan. The crude sign across the front of the stage says: `Officers keep out! Enlisted men’s country.'” Pfc. H. J. Grimm, October 25, 1945. 127-N-138204. National Archives Identifier: 532566 46. ” Pfc. Mickey Rooney imitates some Hollywood actors for an audience of Infantrymen of the 44th Division. Rooney is a member of a three-man unit making a jeep tour to entertain the troops.” T5c. Louis Weintraub, Kist, Germany, April 13, 1945. 111-SC-203412. National Archives Identifier: 531257 47. ” Marlene Dietrich, motion picture actress, autographs the cast on the leg of Tec 4 Earl E. McFarland at a United States hospital in Belgium, where she has been entertaining the GIs.” Tuttle, November 24, 1944. 111-SC-232989. National Archives Identifier: 531330 48. ” A youngster, clutching his soldier father, gazes upward while the latter lifts his wife from the ground to wish her a ‘Merry Christmas.’ The serviceman is one of those fortunate enough to be able to get home for the holidays.” December 1944. 208-AA-2F-20. National Archives Identifier: 535527 49. ” Crewmen lifting Kenneth Bratton out of turret of TBF on the USS SARATOGA after raid on Rabaul.” Lt. Wayne Miller, November 1943. 80-G-415477. National Archives Identifier: 520757 50. Medics helping injured soldier, France, 1944. 208-YE-22. National Archives Identifier: 535973 51. ” Private Roy Humphrey is being given blood plasma by Pfc. Harvey White, after he was wounded by shrapnel, on 9 August 1943 in Sicily.” Wever. 111-SC-178198. National Archives Identifier: 531161 52. ” Transfer of wounded from USS BUNKER HILL to USS WILKES BARRE, who were injured during fire aboard carrier following Jap suicide dive bombing attack off Okinawa.” PhoM3c. Kenneth E. Roberts, May 11, 1945. 80-G-328610. National Archives Identifier: 520682 53. ” In an underground surgery room, behind the front lines on Bougainville, an American Army doctor operates on a U.S. soldier wounded by a Japanese sniper.” December 13, 1943. 111-SC-187247. National Archives Identifier: 531177 54. ” Nurses of a field hospital who arrived in France via England and Egypt after three years service.” Parker, August 12, 1944. 112-SGA-44-10842. National Archives Identifier: 531498 55. ” With a canvas tarpaulin for a church and packing cases for an altar, a Navy chaplain holds mass for Marines at Saipan. The service was held in memory of brave buddies who lost their lives in the initial landings.” Sgt. Steele, June 1944. 127-N-82262. National Archives Identifier: 532525 56. ” The crew of the USS SOUTH DAKOTA stands with bowed heads, while Chaplain N. D. Lindner reads the benediction held in honor of fellow shipmates killed in the air action off Guam on June 19, 1944.” July 1, 1944. 80-G-238322. National Archives Identifier: 520649 57. ” A PT marksman provides a striking camera study as he draws a bead with his 50 caliber machine gun on his boat off New Guinea.” July 1943. 80-G-53871. National Archives Identifier: 520621 58. ” Officer at periscope in control room of submarine.” Ca. 1942. 80-G-11258. National Archives Identifier: 520588 59. ” PT’s patrolling off coast of New Guinea.” 1943. 80-G-53855. National Archives Identifier: 520620 60. ” USS PENNSYLVANIA and battleship of COLORADO class followed by three cruisers move in line into Lingayen Gulf preceding the landing on Luzon.” Philippines, January 1945. 80-G-59525. National Archives Identifier: 520627 61. ” Coast Guardsmen on the deck of the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Spencer watch the explosion of a depth charge which blasted a Nazi U-boat’s hope of breaking into the center of a large convoy.” Sinking of U-175. WO Jack January, April 17, 1943. 26-G-1517. National Archives Identifier: 513166 62. Torpedoed Japanese destroyer photographed through periscope of U.S.S. Wahoo or U.S.S. Nautilus, June 1942. 80-G-418331. National Archives Identifier: 520769 63. Sixteen-inch guns of the U.S.S Iowa firing during battle drill in the Pacific, ca. 1944. 80-G-59493. National Archives Identifier: 520626 64. ” Jap torpedo bomber explodes in air after direct hit by 5 inch shell from U.S. aircraft carrier as it attempted an unsuccessful attack on carrier, off Kwajalein.” U.S.S. Yorktown. CPhoM. Alfred N. Cooperman, December 4, 1943. 80-G-415001. National Archives Identifier: 520751 65. ” Japanese plane shot down as it attempted to attack USS KITKUN BAY.” Near Mariana Islands, June 1944. 80-G-238363. National Archives Identifier: 520650 66. ” USS BUNKER HILL burning after Jap suicide attack.” Near Okinawa, May 11, 1945. 80-G-274266. National Archives Identifier: 520657 67. ” USS BUNKER HILL hit by two Kamikazes in 30 seconds on 11 May 1945 off Kyushu. Dead-372. Wounded-264.” 80-G-323712. National Archives Identifier: 520678 68. ” A Chinese soldier guards a line of American P-40 fighter planes, painted with the shark-face emblem of the ‘Flying Tigers,’ at a flying field somewhere in China.” Ca. 1942. 208-AA-12X-21. National Archives Identifier: 535531 69. ” Pilots aboard a U.S. Navy aircraft carrier receive last minute instructions before taking off to attack industrial, and military installations in Tokyo.” February 17, 1945. 208-N-38374. National Archives Identifier: 535789 70. ” Dynamic static. The motion of its props causes an `aura’ to form around this F6F on USS YORKTOWN. Rotating with blades, halo moves aft, giving depth and perspective.” November 1943. 80-G-204747A. National Archives Identifier: 520641 71. ” Take off from the deck of the USS HORNET of an Army B-25 on its way to take part in first U.S. air raid on Japan.” Doolittle Raid, April 1942. 80-G-41196. National Archives Identifier: 520603 72. ” TBF (Avengers) flying in formation over Norfolk, Va.” Attributed to Lt. Comdr. Horace Bristol, September 1942. 80-G-427475. National Archives Identifier: 520789 73. ” The first big raid by the 8th Air Force was on a Focke Wulf plant at Marienburg. Coming back, the Germans were up in full force and we lost at least 80 ships-800 men, many of them pals.” 1943. 208-YE-7. National Archives Identifier: 535972 74. ” Photograph made from B-17 Flying Fortress of the 8th AAF Bomber Command on 31 Dec. when they attacked the vital CAM ball- bearing plant and the nearby Hispano Suiza aircraft engine repair depot in Paris.” France, 1943. 208-EX-249A-27. National Archives Identifier: 535712 75. ” Pilots pleased over their victory during the Marshall Islands attack, grin across the tail of an F6F Hellcat on board the USS LEXINGTON, after shooting down 17 out of 20 Japanese planes heading for Tarawa.” Comdr. Edward Steichen, November 1943. 80-G-470985. National Archives Identifier: 520896 76. ” Hitler accepts the ovation of the Reichstag after announcing the `peaceful’ acquisition of Austria. It set the stage to annex the Czechoslovakian Sudetenland, largely inhabited by a German- speaking population.” Berlin, March 1938. 208-N-39843. National Archives Identifier: 535792 77. German troops parade through Warsaw, Poland. PK Hugo J.ger, September 1939. 200-SFF-52. National Archives Identifier: 559369 78. ” The tragedy of this Sudeten woman, unable to conceal her misery as she dutifully salutes the triumphant Hitler, is the tragedy of the silent millions who have been `won over’ to Hitlerism by the ‘everlasting use’ of ruthless force.” Ca. 1938. 208-PP-10A-2. National Archives Identifier: 535891 79. Soviet Foreign Commissar Vyacheslav Molotov signs the German-Soviet nonaggression pact; Joachim von Ribbentrop and Josef Stalin stand behind him. Moscow, August 23. 1939. 242-JRPE-44. National Archives Identifier: 540196 80. British prisoners at Dunkerque, France, June 1940. 242-EB-7-35. National Archives Identifier: 540150 81. ” A Frenchman weeps as German soldiers march into the French capital, Paris, on June 14, 1940, after the Allied armies had been driven back across France.” 208-PP-10A-3. National Archives Identifier: 535892 82. Adolf Hitler in Paris, June 23, 1940. 242-HLB-5073-20. National Archives Identifier: 540179 83. German troops in Russia, 1941. 242-GAP-286B-4. National Archives Identifier: 540155 84. Aircraft spotter on the roof of a building in London. St. Paul’s Cathedral is in the background. 306-NT-901B-3. National Archives Identifier: 541899 85. ” Standing up gloriously out of the flames and smoke of surrounding buildings, St. Paul’s Cathedral is pictured during the great fire raid of Sunday December 29th.” 1940. 306-NT-3173V. National Archives Identifier: 541922 86. ” Over 500 firemen and members of the London Auxiliary Fire Fighting Services, including many women, combined in a war exercise over the ground covered by Greenwich (London) Fire Station.” Ca. July 1939. 306-NT-901-19. National Archives Identifier: 541892 87. ” Children of an eastern suburb of London, who have been made homeless by the random bombs of the Nazi night raiders, waiting outside the wreckage of what was their home.” September 1940. 306-NT-3163V. National Archives Identifier: 541920 88. ” Two bewildered old ladies stand amid the leveled ruins of the almshouse which was Home; until Jerry dropped his bombs. Total war knows no bounds. Almshouse bombed Feb. 10, Newbury, Berks., England.” Naccarata, February 11, 1943. 111-SC-178801. National Archives Identifier: 531162 89. Life in London during the war. View of a V-1 rocket in flight, ca. 1944. 306-NT-3157V. National Archives Identifier: 541919 90. Gen. Erwin Rommel with the 15th Panzer Division between Tobruk and Sidi Omar. Sdf. Zwilling, Libya, January or November 24, 1941. 242-EAPC-6-M713a. National Archives Identifier: 540147 91. ” General Bernard L. Montgomery watches his tanks move up.” North Africa, November 1942. 208-PU-138LL-3. National Archives Identifier: 535938 92. ” Lt. Col. Lyle Bernard, CO, 30th Infantry Regiment, a prominent figure in the second daring amphibious landing behind enemy lines on Sicily’s north coast, discusses military strategy with Lt. Gen. George S. Patton. Near Brolo.” 1943. 111-SC-246532. National Archives Identifier: 531335 93. ” Front view of 240mm howitzer of Battery `B’, 697th Field Artillery Battalion, just before firing into German held territory. Mignano area, Italy.” Boyle, January 30, 1944. 111-SC-187126. National Archives Identifier: 531176 94. ” Moving up through Prato, Italy, men of the 370th Infantry Regiment, have yet to climb the mountain which lies ahead.” Bull, April 9, 1945. 111-SC-205289. National Archives Identifier: 531277

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Israel to purge young Ethiopian Jews criminal records …

Home > Israel News Seeking to mend rift with Ethiopian Jewry, Israel’s president and justice minister say they will expunge disturbance of public order crime charges in honor of communitys Sigd holiday ‘ + ‘ Thank you for subscribing’ + ‘ ‘ + ‘ Error on Subscription, try later’ + ‘

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November 9, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Ethiopian Jews  Comments Closed

Mass prayer in Jerusalem marks national day for Ethiopian …

Israeli President Reuven Rivlin greets the Ethiopian elders at the Sigd celebration in Jerusalem on Nov. 7, 2018. (Kobi Gideon/GPO) JERUSALEM (JTA) On a national holiday for Ethiopian Jews, before a crowd of tens of thousands, the president of Israel vowed that the citizens of his country will not discriminate on the basis of skin color. We are brothers and sisters, and anyone who tries to undermine that has no place amongst the tribes of Israel, Reuven Rivlin said in his address Wednesday to mark Sigd, a state holiday since 2008 that marks the Ethiopians yearning to return to Jerusalem and Zion. Ethiopian Jews living in Israel and their supporters gathered for a mass prayer at Sherover Promenade in the Armon Hanatziv neighborhood of Jerusalem to mark the holiday. The promenade offers a wide view of the Temple Mount, and was designated by the Ethiopian community as the central meeting place for the holiday when the first immigrants began to arrive in Israel. Jeena, Jeena, Ierusalem, Longing, Longing for Jerusalem this is what we sing to Jerusalem in the prayers of the festival, Rivlin said. And those prayers: those ancient, wonderful prayers that you kept hold of and held dear to you and learned by heart and taught your children and passed down the generations. They are prayers of wonder and expectation all the way to Jerusalem. You brought a spirit of heroism and nobility that was sorely tested on the difficult journey you undertook, and over the long years of expectation and yearning. And you brought with you an ancient and passionate love for Zion, a love without bounds, he said. The holiday had been first observed in Ethiopia, where the Jews led by their elders went to the mountains 50 days after Yom Kippur for prayer and fasting. A festive meal and singing and dancing to celebrate Jerusalem followed the fast. Rivlin, the first Israeli president to visit Ethiopia, assured the crowd that Israel was working to secure the release of Avera Mengistu, the Ethiopian Israeli being held by Hamas in Gaza. On Monday, Rivlin and Justice Minister Ayelet Shaked issued a special appeal to the Ethiopian-Israeli community to submit requests for pardons for public order offensesin honor of Sigd.They noted that a government report adopted two years ago described discrimination against the Ethiopian-Israeli community in various fields including law enforcement, health, education and employment. The report found that criminal investigations were opened and charges were brought against Ethiopian Israelis at a significantly higher rate than their representation in the population. The call for pardon requests was made Out of a desire to complete a process of healing and closing gaps, as well as to strengthen the trust between the Ethiopian-Israeli community and law enforcement and justice authorities, in honor of the Sigd holiday, the statement said. The requests will be considered positively, out of a belief in the significant contribution made by these young people to Israeli society as a whole. There are some 135,000 Ethiopian Jews living in Israel. Some 8,000 Falash Mura, who claim Jewish descent, remain in Ethiopia awaiting permission to immigrate to Israel, most of whom have some family members in Israel. In October, Israels Cabinet approved a plan to bring some 1,000 of the Falash Mura who have children living in Israel to the country. The 2019 state budget, which was approved by the Knesset in March, does not include funds for Ethiopian immigration, including thelong-term costs of acclimating the immigrants.

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CIAs "Queen Of Torture" Married To Former CIA Official …

Alfreda is a 50-year-old, top-level CIA official who allegedly played a key role in failing to give the FBI critical information that could have led to the capture of the 9/11 hijackers before they attacked; pushed successfully to keep an innocent man in a secret CIA prison in Afghanistan; and went to watch torture sessions, according to published reports and sources. She was dubbed the the Unidentified Queen of Torture by The New Yorker Magazine and was reportedly an inspiration for the female CIA agent in the Hollywood movie Zero Dark Thirty. (Her last name has been published by various news outlets, but BuzzFeed News is not using it because of the CIAs concerns for her safety, especially in light of the rise of ISIS.) Michael Scheuer is a 63-year-old former CIA official who back in the 1990s was Alfredas boss. He once headed the agencys anti-Osama Bin Laden Unit and now stays in the public eye, pushing controversial theories. On his website, he calls for a regional Sunni-Shia war in which our enemies will merrily kill each other until well after the cows come home. In an interview with BuzzFeed News he confirmed that he advocates inciting war between the Shiites and Sunnis in the Middle East. He called Senator Dianne Feinstein, who headed the Senate Intelligence Committee during its torture investigation, an old hag from California. He lost his job as an adjunct professor at Georgetown University after publishing comments on his website that were interpreted as a call for a violent overthrow of President Obama. A school official says Scheuer wasn’t fired but that his course simply wasn’t needed anymore, while Scheuer said he believes he was fired for his criticism of Israel. What was unknown outside intelligence circles is that the two have been married for more then a year, as Scheuer told BuzzFeed News, and others have confirmed. Some intelligence sources argue that the marriage, which Scheuer says took place in December 2014, is a purely private matter, but others say it is noteworthy because the pair are so steeped in controversy and because of Scheuers outspoken views. In a phone call with BuzzFeed News last week, Scheuer initially denied being married to Alfreda. But later he called back. Yes, Im married to Alfreda, he said. His earlier denial, he said, was because hed been surprised by the call. He declined to say if they had been involved romantically in the 1990s when he was her supervisor at the agency. The CIA declined to make Alfreda available for comment, and attempts to reach her through Scheuer were unsuccessful. The agency also declined to comment about specifics, but spokesman Ryan Trapani sent an email to BuzzFeed News, with the subject line Buzzfeed/Roston/Journalistic Perdition. Gossip is not news, he wrote, and it is not the job of the Office of Public Affairs to engage in it. Alfreda emerged as a divisive figure most notably last year after the publication of the Senate Intelligence Committee report on the CIAs torture program. In the report, she is referred to as the deputy chief of Alec Station. NBC Newss Matthew Cole wrote a lengthy story about her, though he did not name her. So did Jane Mayer in The New Yorker. In 2000, while she was at the CIAs Counterterrorism Center, the agency blocked the FBI from learning that suspected terrorist Khalid Al-Midhar had a U.S. visa, according to the 9/11 commission report, and it has been reported that she played a role in the incident. Al-Midhar came to the U.S. and stayed under his own name with another terrorist, and the two men joined the hijacking team aboard American flight 77, which was crashed into the Pentagon. A former senior intelligence officer told BuzzFeed News that Alfreda and her colleagues conspired to not tell the FBI about the intelligence, and some investigators have said that the 9/11 plot could have been thwarted if the FBI had been told. Alfreda was also a key player in the CIAs imprisonment of a man whom agency officials knew to be innocent, an incident that has been widely reported. In early 2004, she had pushed to keep German citizen Khaled el Masri in CIA custody and sent to the CIAs grim Salt Pit prison, even though he had been detained in a case of mistaken identity. Adam Goldman and Matt Apuzzo pointed out in 2011 in an Associated Press story, that shed been promoted at the CIA, even after that disaster, though the story did not name her. McClatchy and the Washington Post did name her in connection with the incident in stories in 2014. In another incident according to the Senate torture report and former intelligence officers, she reportedly went to visit an enhanced interrogation at a secret CIA prison to watch a waterboarding session. Scheuer defended his wife. Asked about the label Queen of Torture, he criticized the Senate Intelligence Committees report on the CIA program, and launched an attack on Senator Diane Feinstein, who chaired the committee when the report was written. Feinstein, shes just an old hag from California, he said, who gets her jollies criticizing American capabilities. As for El Masri, who was held even after the CIA knew they had the wrong man, Scheuer told BuzzFeed News I dont give a damn if its the wrong guy. You make mistakes, in war. Sheuer himself was the first head of the agencys Bin Laden unit, Alec Station, in 1996, and he coordinated the intelligence on Bin Laden until 1999. Alfreda worked for him at the unit. In 2004, he left the agency, where he was considered brilliant but arrogant, after anonymously authoring a book called Imperial Hubris, where he called for the U.S. to either disengage from the Middle East completely, or be prepared for a full-scale war against radical Islam. He later worked as a CBS analyst and a professor at Georgetown University. In late 2014, the same month he said he married Alfreda, he published a blog post on his site that The Daily Beast, Gawker, and The Hoya, a Georgetown University student newspaper, all interpreted as endorsing the assassination of President Obama and British Prime Minister David Cameron. Later, in an interview with The Hoya, he was quoted saying, At some point, when push comes to shove, you kill people and get them out of the way. In his interview with BuzzFeed News he said he was not endorsing the assassination of the president, but was arguing that people have to take action when a government becomes too repressive. Among many CIA veterans he is viewed with dislike. Hes a complete fucking nut, said one. In his interview with BuzzFeed News, Scheuer said he believes the U.S. government should encourage a wider Sunni-Shiite war. They love to kill each other more than they love to kill us. I would stoke it. It would distract them from attacking us. I think thats a crackpot idea, said former Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Near East Affairs David Mack, asked about Scheuers theory. I dont see it as something that would serve US interests. Scheuer would not discuss Alfredas philosophy on Islam. My views are only my views, sir. He also said he does not discuss his wifes work with her.

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Michael Scheuer – Covert History Wiki

For the German canoer, see Michael Scheuer (kayaker). Michael F. Scheuer (born 1952[1]) is a former CIA intelligence officer, American blogger, historian, foreign policy critic, and political analyst. He is currently an adjunct professor at Georgetown University’s Center for Peace and Security Studies and an Expert at Wikistrat.[2] In his 22-year career, he served as the Chief of the Bin Laden Issue Station (aka “Alec Station”), from 1996 to 1999, the Osama bin Laden tracking unit at the Counterterrorist Center. He then worked again as Special Advisor to the Chief of the bin Laden unit from September 2001 to November 2004. Scheuer became a public figure after being outed as the anonymous author of the 2004 book Imperial Hubris, in which he criticized many of the United States’ assumptions about Islamist insurgencies and particularly Osama bin Laden. He depicts bin Laden as a rational actor who is fighting to weaken the United States by weakening its economy, rather than merely combating and killing Americans. He challenges the common assumption that terrorism is the threat that the United States is facing in the modern era, arguing rather that Islamist insurgency (and not “terrorism”)[3] is the core of the conflict between the U.S. and Islamist forces, who in places such as Kashmir, Xinjiang, and Chechnya are “struggling not just for independence but against institutionalized barbarism.”[3][4] Osama bin Laden acknowledged the book in a 2007 statement, suggesting that it revealed “the reasons for your losing the war against us”.[5][6] In February 2009, Scheuer was terminated from his position as a senior fellow of The Jamestown Foundation. Scheuer has written that he was fired by the organization for stating that “the current state of the U.S.-Israel relationship undermined U.S. national security.”[7] Scheuer was born in Buffalo and graduated from Canisius College in 1974, and went on to earn an M.A. from Niagara University in 1976 and another M.A. from Carleton University in 1982.[8][9] He also received a Ph.D. in British Empire-U.S.-Canada-U.K. relations from the University of Manitoba in 1986.[10][11] Scheuer served in the CIA for 22 years before resigning in 2004. He was chief of the Osama bin Laden unit at the Counterterrorist Center from 1996 to 1999.[12] He worked as Special Adviser to the Chief of the bin Laden Unit from September 2001 to November 2004.[13] He is now known to have been the anonymous author of both the 2004 book Imperial Hubris: Why the West is Losing the War on Terror and the earlier anonymous work, Through Our Enemies’ Eyes: Osama bin Laden, Radical Islam, and the Future of America.[14] After his anonymously-published books had been publicly associated with his name, he was mentioned in an Osama bin Laden statement of September 7, 2007. According to bin Laden, “If you want to understand what’s going on and if you would like to get to know some of the reasons for your losing the war against us, then read the book of Michael Scheuer in this regard.”[5] After leaving the CIA in 2004, Scheuer worked as a news analyst for CBS News and a terrorism analyst for The Jamestown Foundation’s online publication Global Terrorism Analysis.[15] He also makes radio and television appearances and teaches a graduate-level course on Al-Qaeda at Georgetown University. He also participates in conferences on terrorism and national security issues, such as the New America Foundation’s December 2004 conference, “Al Qaeda 2.0: Transnational Terrorism After 9/11.”[16] In 2009, Scheuer reported that he had lost his position as a Senior Fellow with the Jamestown Foundation, after “several major financial donors to Jamestown threatened to withdraw funding” if he continued in that role.[17] The funding threats were pursuant to his criticism of Barack Obama’s “dancing the Tel Aviv two-step” in allegedly kowtowing to the Israeli lobby, as well as Scheuer’s disdaining of Obama’s selection as Chief of Staff of Rahm Emanuel, “a U.S. citizen who during the 1991 Gulf War left America to serve in Israel’s military.”[17] Scheuer’s book, Marching Toward Hell: America and Islam After Iraq was released on February 12, 2008.[18] His first book, published anonymously, is an analysis of the public discourse available on al Qaeda’s ideology and strategy. In it, Scheuer explores the bin Laden phenomenon and its implications for U.S. security. He began the book in 1999 as an unclassified manual for counterterrorism officers. Due to the secrecy agreement he signed as an employee of the CIA, the book is based solely on unclassified intelligence or material available from open sources such as media reports. His main thesis in the work is that the view of bin Laden as a lunatic is a form of “myopia” that limits Western military thinkers’ ability to respond to the bin Laden phenomenon. He writes that “the West’s road to hell lies in approaching the bin Laden problem with the presumption that only the lunatic fringe could oppose what the United States is trying to accomplish through its foreign policy toward the Muslim world. Bin Laden’s philosophy is slowly harnessing the two most powerful motivating forces in contemporary international affairs: religion and nationalism.”[19] In his second book, Imperial Hubris, a New York Times bestseller, Scheuer writes that the Islamist threat to the United States is rooted in “how easy it is for Muslims to see, hear, experience, and hate the six U.S. policies bin Laden repeatedly refers to as anti-Muslim: Scheuer contends that Al Qaeda is following a martial strategy that is more rational than it is given credit for among Western politicians and media. He cites Clausewitz’s dictum that one must strike one’s enemy’s “center of gravity”, and pairs it with an al Qaeda writer’s assertion that “the American economy is the American center of gravity”.[22] In a videotape released around September 7, 2007, Osama bin Laden stated, “If you want to understand what’s going on and if you would like to get to know some of the reasons for your losing the war against us, then read the book of Michael Scheuer.”[5] Released in 2008, Marching Toward Hell: America and Islam After Iraq how the 2003 Iraq War has affected Al-Qaeda and the United States. He argues that the instability in the Iraq War has benefited Al-Qaeda without serving any U.S. interests. Scheuer’s views have emphasized the danger of Osama bin Laden and al Qaeda, as well as the ineffectiveness of U.S. policy against these imminent threats. The threat to the United States, Scheuer has consistently maintained, continues to grow, and the U.S. continually fails to grasp the nature of the struggle in which it is engaged:[23] Islamist and anti-American sentiment continue to grow around the world, and the bin Laden movement is aimed, not at killing or conquering Americans or reforming their internal political systems, but rather bankrupting them in order to reduce their worldwide influence and thereby liberate Muslims from the yoke of American political, military, and financial influence. The failure of the U.S. to apprehend this threat is, in part, rooted in a misunderstanding and underestimation of Osama bin Laden himself. To Scheuer, Osama bin Laden’s “beliefs, goals, and intentions” are Scheuer’s criticism of U.S. foreign policy includes a sweeping condemnation of the invasion of Iraq, which he has characterized as a “Christmas present” to Osama bin Laden’s Islamist recruitment efforts, and a validation of bin Laden’s claims that the U.S. is at war with Islam. From his personal involvement in background research in the run up to the war, Scheuer states that “there was no connection between [Al Qaeda] and Saddam.”[25] U.S. rhetoric about bin Laden’s allegedly “hating freedom” has also irked Scheuer, who suggests that those “willing to give their lives to destroy the dictatorship in Saudi Arabia… must want freedom in some kind of way.”[26] This erroneous rhetoric, according to Scheuer, is not only to be found in the media and among politicians, but even in the 9/11 Commission report, in which bin Laden and his followers are identified “as takfiris, who kill Muslims if they dont agree with them. Theyre not takfiris. Theyre just very devout, severe Salafists and Wahhabis.” The insistence on referring to al Qaeda and the Islamist movement around it as a terrorist group or terrorist movement has also been a mistake, according to Scheuer. The U.S. is faced with an insurgency, rather than mere terrorism. Scheuer has been critical of the Bush and Clinton administrations for not killing bin Laden, for costly and disastrous policy missteps, and for not taking decisive measures to defend the country. He states that Clinton had eight to ten opportunities to kill bin Laden prior to September 11, and Bush had one opportunity thereafter. Richard A. Clarke and the Clinton administration, according to Scheuer, thwarted the CIA’s ambitions to kidnap or kill bin Laden when they had the chance.[27] According to Scheuer, Of the Bush administration, Scheuer warns against assigning it full responsibility for the nation’s troubles since September 11, 2001. Although the “unprovoked attack of Iraq” will forever be remembered as “infamous”, as will Dick Cheney’s “reptilian contention that Americans who criticize U.S. foreign policy are ‘validating the strategy of the terrorists’,” according to Scheuer, a “bipartisan governing elite”, both Democratic and Republican, is to blame for the nation’s woes.[29] (Notwithstanding the bipartisan responsibility, Scheuer comments, “the thought of what history will say about Donald Rumsfeld’s tenure at the Department of Defense ought to make his relatives shudder down to their latest generation.”)[29] “The Iranians are no threat to the United States unless we provoke them. They may be a threat to the Israelis. Theyre not a threat to the United States. The threat to the United States, inside the United States, comes from al Qaeda….These people are going to detonate a nuclear device inside the United States, and we’re going to have absolutely nothing to respond against.” (Countdown with Keith Olbermann, February 19, 2006) Scheuer has stated that the Mearsheimer and Walt paper The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy is essentially correct. Israel, according to Scheuer, has engaged in one of the most successful campaigns to influence public opinion in the United States ever conducted by a foreign government. Scheuer said to NPR that “They [Mearsheimer and Walt] should be credited for the courage they have had to actually present a paper on the subject. I hope they move on and do the Saudi lobby, which is probably more dangerous to the United States than the Israeli lobby.”[30] In Marching Toward Hell, Scheuer laments “the war in Iraq that was instigated by U.S. citizen Israel-firsters and their evangelical Christian allies”.[31] He continues, In April 2009, Scheuer participated in the Doha Debates at Georgetown University, where he debated for the motion “This house believes that it is time for the USA to get tough on Israel” with fellow speaker Avraham Burg. Speakers against the motion were Dore Gold and Alan Dershowitz. Burg and Scheuer won the debate, with 63% of the audience voting for the motion. During the debate, Scheuer suggested that “the war in Iraq is the responsibility of the American fifth column that supports Israel” and accused Dershowitz of being part of this “fifth column”. Dershowitz responded that he opposed the war in Iraq, that “more Jews than any other ethnic group in America opposed the war in Iraq” and that Scheuer was engaging in “bigotry.”[33] Thomas Joscelyn of Weekly Standard wrote a critical piece on Scheuer and an interview Scheuer did on Chris Matthews Hardball.[34] According to Joscelyn, Scheuer’s claims that “there was no evidence of a relationship between Saddam Hussein’s Iraq and al Qaeda”, in various interviews, “directly contradicted” Scheuer’s earlier assertions, in his first book, in which Scheuer “cited numerous pieces of evidence showing that there was, in fact, a working relationship between Saddam and al Qaeda.” Scheuer wrote about a relationship between Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda in his 2002 book. Yet when interviewed in 2004 he stated that he had found no evidence of a Saddam/al-Qaeda connection. Tim Russert asked Scheuer to explain the seeming contradiction on Meet the Press (30 November 2004): Scheuer explains more fully in the revised edition of his 2002 book the exhaustive study of the evidence of Iraq-al-Qaeda cooperation that eventually led him to the conclusion that there was no relationship between the two forces: Scheuer has stated his objection to any involvement by the US in the Libyan insurgency, being particularly critical of the work of United States’ UN representative Susan E. Rice, calling the whole affair “none of our business” and essentially a “recruiting tool for terrorists.”[37]His overall view being that the interests of US foreign policy are far better served by the current status quo, whereby the existing autocratic regimes are better able to suppress the threat he perceives from Al Qaida incursion than western style democratic systems.Scheuer believes that, irrespective of NATO ostensibly leading the bombing operations, “in the Muslim world, this is Americans killing Muslims again, and it looks like it’s for oil.”[37] Scheuer penned an editorial in late December 2011 endorsing US Presidential candidate Ron Paul. He said, “Dr. Pauls precise use of history and common sense exposes the exorbitantly costly effort to build democracies in the Islamic world for what it is; namely, Washington throwing money down the drain for a cause that is impossibly lost from the start and one that will involve us in wars where we have no interests.” [38] Template:War on TerrorTemplate:Fox News personalities

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NAACP | Become a Member

Thank you for your interest in renewing your NAACP membership! Check out our options for NAACP lifetime and annual membership renewal, and select the one that works best for you. Nearly all of our membership options are available as one-time payments, or as subscribing payments over time.

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Who is Tommy Robinson and why is he in jail? – BBC News

Tommy Robinson has been jailed for 13 months after breaking contempt of court laws for streaming a Facebook Live outside Leeds court. Since his imprisonment there’s been mass protests to #freetommy, claiming he’s a victim of censorship. We explain who he is, why he has been sent to jail and why his imprisonment is more about the right to a fair trial than freedom of speech.

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EDL founder Tommy Robinson could make 1m US trip after bail …

English Defence League founder Tommy Robinson could make more than 1m from a possible trip to the US after being formally released from bail. Judge Nicholas Hilliard QC announced that the far-right figure, real name Stephen Yaxley-Lennon, was no longer subject to any bail conditions after referring his contempt of court case to the attorney general. The judge said at a brief hearing at the Old Bailey on Monday: “This is simply to indicate in open court that now the matter has been referred to the attorney general, Mr Yaxley-Lennon is no longer on bail to this court. “As there is no bail, there are no bail conditions.” Robinson nor his lawyer were required to attend the hearing. Robinson was released from prison in August after the Court of Appeal quashed a contempt of court finding made at Leeds Crown Court. However, he faces a retrial and could be sent back to jail if he is again found in contempt for filming people at a grooming trial in Leeds and broadcasting the footage on social media. Leeds Crown Court heard that he denied breaching the Contempt of Court Act and making a broadcast likely to seriously prejudice the trial. The bail announcement comes after reports that Robinson could earn more than 1m by making speeches in the US later this month. It has been reported that he is waiting to see if US authorities will grant him a visa. “The inevitable media coverage that will surround the visit will no doubt lead to an increase in his already significant monthly donations from America,” Hope Not Hate researcher Joe Mulhall told the Guardian. “We believe that, should he be allowed to enter the US for this event, he stands to make in the range of 1m in donations with the potential for much more. “America offers the opportunity for further large-scale investment in Lennon.”

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