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For the organization that coordinated pre-state Jewish immigration, see Mossad Le’aliyah Bet.Template:Infobox Govt Agency

Template:Coord/display/title

The Mossad (Template:Lang-he, Template:IPA-he; Template:Lang-ar, Template:Transl; literally meaning “the Institute”), short for Template:Transl (Template:Lang-he, meaning “Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations”; Template:Lang-ar Template:Transl), is the national intelligence agency of Israel.

The Mossad is responsible for intelligence collection, covert operations, and counterterrorism, as well as bringing Jews to Israel from countries where official Aliyah agencies are forbidden, and protecting Jewish communities worldwide. It is one of the main entities in the Israeli Intelligence Community, along with Aman (military intelligence) and Shin Bet (internal security), but its director reports directly to the Prime Minister.

The largest department of the Mossad is Collections, tasked with many aspects of conducting espionage overseas. Employees in the Collections Department operate under a variety of covers, including diplomatic and unofficial.[1] The Political Action and Liaison Department is responsible for working with allied foreign intelligence services, and nations that have no normal diplomatic relations with Israel.[1] Additionally, the Mossad has a Research Department, tasked with intelligence production, and a Technology Department concerned with the development of tools for Mossad activities.[2]

Mossad was formed on December 13, 1949 as the “Central Institute for Coordination” at the recommendation of Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion to Reuven Shiloah. Ben Gurion wanted a central body to coordinate and improve cooperation between the existing security services the army’s intelligence department (AMAN), the Internal Security Service (“Shin Bet”) and the foreign office’s “political department”. In March 1951, it was reorganized and made a part of the prime minister’s office, reporting directly to the prime minister.

Mossad’s former motto, be-tachblt ta`aseh lekh milchmh (Template:Lang-he) is a quote from the Bible (Proverbs 24:6): “For by wise guidance you can wage your war” (NRSV). The motto was later changed to another Proverbs passage: be-‘yn tachblt yippol `m; -tesh`h be-rov y’ts (Template:Lang-he, Proverbs 11:14). This is translated by NRSV as: “Where there is no guidance, a nation falls, but in an abundance of counselors there is safety.”

In 1960, the Mossad discovered that the Nazi leader Adolf Eichmann was in Argentina. A team of five Mossad agents slipped into Argentina and through surveillance, confirmed that he had been living there under the name of Ricardo Klement. He was abducted on May 11, 1960 and taken to a hideout. He was subsequently smuggled to Israel, where he was tried and executed. Argentina protested what it considered as the violation of its sovereignty, and the United Nations Security Council noted that “repetition of acts such as [this] would involve a breach of the principles upon which international order is founded, creating an atmosphere of insecurity and distrust incompatible with the preservation of peace” while also acknowledging that “Eichmann should be brought to appropriate justice for the crimes of which he is accused” and that “this resolution should in no way be interpreted as condoning the odious crimes of which Eichmann is accused.”[4][5] Mossad abandoned a second operation, intended to capture Josef Mengele.[6]

During the 1990s, the Mossad discovered a Hezbollah agent operating within the United States in order to procure materials needed to manufacture IEDs and other weapons. In a joint operation with U.S. intelligence, the agent was kept under surveillance in hopes that he would betray more Hezbollah operatives, but was eventually arrested.[7]

The Mossad informed the FBI and CIA in August 2001 that based on its intelligence as many as 200 terrorists were slipping into the United States and planning “a major assault on the United States.” The Israeli intelligence agency cautioned the FBI that it had picked up indications of a “large-scale target” in the United States and that Americans would be “very vulnerable.”[8] However, “It is not known whether U.S. authorities thought the warning to be credible, or whether it contained enough details to allow counter-terrorism teams to come up with a response,”[9] A month later, terrorists struck at the World Trade Center and the Pentagon.[8]

Mossad assassinated Latvian Nazi collaborator Herberts Cukurs in 1965.[10]

The Mossad gathered information on Austrian politician Jrg Haider using a mole.[11]

The Mossad is alleged to be responsible for the killing of Canadian engineer and ballistics expert Gerald Bull on March 22, 1990. He was shot multiple times in the head outside his Brussels apartment.[12] Bull was at the time working for Iraq on the Project Babylon supergun.[13] Others, including Bull’s son, believe that the Mossad is taking credit for an act they did not commit to scare off others who may try to help enemy regimes. The alternative theory is that Bull was killed by the CIA. Iraq and Iran are also candidates for suspicion.[14]

Assisted in air and overland evacuations of Bosnian Jews from war-torn Sarajevo to Israel in 1992 and 1993.[citation needed]

The killing of Hussein Al Bashir in Nicosia, Cyprus, in 1973 in relation to the Munich massacre.[15]

Cherbourg Project – Operation Noa, the 1969 smuggling of Israel Navy boats out of Cherbourg.

The alleged killing of Zuheir Mohsen, a pro-Syrian member of the PLO in 1979.[16]

The alleged killing of Atef Bseiso, a top intelligence officer of the PLO in Paris in 1992. French police believe that a team of assassins followed Atef Bseiso from Berlin, where that first team connected with another team to close in on him in front of a Left Bank hotel, where he received three head-shots at point blank range.[17]

The killing of Yehia El-Mashad, the head of the Iraq nuclear weapons program, in 1980.[18]

The killing of Dr. Mahmoud Hamshari, coordinator of the Munich massacre with an exploding telephone in his Paris apartment in 1972.[15]

The killing of Dr. Basil Al-Kubaissi, who was involved in the Munich massacre, in Paris in 1973.[15]

The killing of Mohammad Boudia, member of the PFLP, in Paris in 1973.[15]

On April 5, 1979, Mossad agents are believed to have triggered an explosion which destroyed 60 percent of components being built in Toulouse for an Iraqi reactor. Although an environmental organization, Groupe des cologistes franais, unheard of before this incident, claimed credit for the blast,[19] most French officials discount the claim. The reactor itself was subsequently destroyed by an Israeli air strike in 1981.[19][20]

The Mossad allegedly assisted Morocco’s domestic security service in the disappearance of dissident politician Mehdi Ben Barka in 1965.[21]

Operation Plumbat (1968) was an operation by Lekem-Mossad to further Israel’s nuclear program. The German freighter “Scheersberg A”, disappeared on its way from Antwerp to Genoa along with its cargo of 200 tons of yellowcake, after supposedly being transferred to an Israeli ship.[22]

The sending of letter bombs during the Operation Wrath of God campaign. Some of these attacks were not fatal. Their purpose might not have been to kill the receiver. Some of the more famous examples of the Mossad letter bombs were those sent to Nazi war-criminal Alois Brunner.[23]

The alleged targeted killing of Dr Wadie Haddad, using poisoned chocolate, in 1978. The PFLP-EO movement dissolved after his killing.[citation needed]

The Mossad discovered that Hezbollah had recruited a German national named Steven Smyrek, and that he was travelling to Israel. In an operation conducted by the Mossad, the CIA, the German Internal Security agency Bundesamt fr Verfassungsschutz (BFD), and the Israeli Internal Security agency Shin Bet, Smyrek was kept under constant surveillance, and arrested as soon as he landed in Israel.[24]

Mossad is alleged to have been involved in industrial espionage in Germany. In the late 1990s, the head of the BFD reportedly warned his department chiefs that Mossad remained a prime threat in stealing the country’s latest computer secrets.[25]

The killing of Zaiad Muchasi, Fatah representative to Cyprus, by an explosion in his Athens hotel room in 1973.[15]

The killing of Wael Zwaiter, thought to be a member of Black September.[26][27]

In 1986, Mossad used an undercover agent to lure nuclear whistleblower Mordechai Vanunu from the United Kingdom to Italy in a honey trap style operation where he was abducted and transported to Israel where he was tried and found guilty of treason because of his role in exposing Israel’s nuclear programme.[28]

The killing of Fathi Shiqaqi. Shiqaqi a leader of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad, was shot several times in the head in 1995 in front of the Diplomat Hotel in Sliema, Malta.[29]

On July 21, 1973, Ahmed Bouchiki, a Moroccan waiter in Lillehammer, Norway, was killed by Mossad agents. He had been mistaken for Ali Hassan Salameh, one of the leaders of Black September, the Palestinian group responsible for the Munich massacre, who had been given shelter in Norway. The Mossad agents had used fake Canadian passports, which angered the Canadian government. Six Mossad agents were arrested, and the incident became known as the Lillehammer affair. Israel subsequently paid compensation to Bouchiki’s family.[28][30][31]

Mossad assisted the UK Intelligence organisation MI5 following the 7/7 bombings in London. According to the 2007 edition of a book about the Mossad titled Gideons Spies, shortly after the 7/7 London underground bombings, MI5 gathered evidence that a senior al-Qaeda operative known only by the alias Mustafa travelled in and out of Britain shortly before the 7/7 bombings. For months, the real identity of Mustafa remained unknown, but in early October 2005, Mossad told MI5 that this person was, in fact, Azhari Husin, a bomb-making expert with Jemaah Islamiyah, the main al-Qaeda affiliate in Southeast Asia. Husin studied in Britain and reports claim that he met the main 7/7 bomber, Mohammad Sidique Khan, in late 2001 in a militant training camp in the Philippines (see Late 2001). Meir Dagan, the then head of Mossad, apparently also told MI5 that Husin helped plan and recruit volunteers for the bombings. Mossad claimed that Husin may have been in London at the time of the bombings, and then fled to al-Qaedas principal haven in the tribal area of Pakistan, where he sometimes hid after bombings. Husin was killed in a shootout in Indonesia in November 2005.[32] Later official British government reports about the 7/7 bombings did not mention Husin.[33]

In February 1998, five Mossad agents were caught wiretapping the home of a Hezbollah agent in a Bern suburb. Four agents were freed, but the fifth was tried, found guilty, sentenced to one year in prison, and following his release was banned from entering Switzerland for five years.[34]

The Mossad was involved in outreach to Refuseniks in the Soviet Union during the crackdown on Soviet Jews in the 50’s, 60’s, 70’s, and 80’s. Mossad helped establish contact with Refuseniks in the USSR, and helped them acquire Jewish religious items, banned by the Soviet government, in addition to passing communications into and out of the USSR. Many rabbinical students from Western countries travelled to the Soviet Union as part of this program in order to establish and maintain contact with refuseniks.

In February 2011, a Palestinian engineer, Dirar Abu Seesi, was allegedly pulled off a train by Mossad agents enroute to the capital Kiev from Kharkiv. He had been planning to apply for Ukrainian citizenship, and reappeared in an Israeli jail only 3 weeks after the incident.[35]

Prior to the Iranian Revolution of 197879, SAVAK (Organization of National Security and Information), the Iranian secret police and intelligence service was created under the guidance of United States and Israeli intelligence officers in 1957.[37] After security relations between the United States and Iran grew more distant in the early 1960s which led the CIA training team to leave Iran, Mossad became increasingly active in Iran, “training SAVAK personnel and carrying out a broad variety of joint operations with SAVAK.”[citation needed]

A US intelligence official told The Washington Post that Israel orchestrated the defection of Iranian general Ali Reza Askari on February 7, 2007.[38] This has been denied by Israeli spokesman Mark Regev. The Sunday Times reported that Askari had been a Mossad asset since 2003, and left only when his cover was about to be blown.[39]

Le Figaro claimed that the Mossad was possibly behind a blast at the Iranian Revolutionary Guard’s Imam Ali military base, on October 12, 2010. The explosion at the base killed 18 and injured 10 others. Among the dead was also general Hassan Tehrani Moghaddam, who served as the commander of the Revolutionary Guards missile program and was a crucial figure in building Irans long-range missile program.[40] The base is believed to store long-range missiles, including the Shahab-3, and also has hangars. It is one of Iran’s most secure military bases.[41]

Iranian Intelligence Minister Heydar Moslehi has accused Mossad of assassination plots and killings of Iranian physicists in 2010. Reports have noted that such information has not yet been evidently proven. Iranian state TV broadcast a stated confession from Majid Jamali-Fash, an Iranian man who claimed to have visited Israel to be trained by the Mossad.[42]

The Mossad has been accused of assassinating Masoud Alimohammadi, Ardeshir Hosseinpour, Majid Shahriari, Darioush Rezaeinejad and Mostafa Ahmadi-Roshan; scientists involved in the Iranian nuclear program. It is also suspected of being behind the attempted assassination of Iranian nuclear scientist Fereydoon Abbasi.[43][44] Meir Dagan – who served as Director of the Mossad from 2002 until 2009 – while not taking credit for the assassinations, praised them in an interview with a journalist, saying “the removal of important brains” from the Iranian nuclear project had achieved so-called “white defections,” frightening other Iranian nuclear scientists into requesting that they be transferred to civilian projects.[36]

In early February 2012, Mossad director Tamir Pardo met with U.S. national security officials in Washington, D.C. to sound them out on possible American reactions in the event Israel attacked Iran over the objections of the United States.[45]

Assistance in the defection and rescuing of the family of Munir Redfa, an Iraqi pilot who defected and flew his MiG-21 to Israel in 1966: “Operation Diamond”. Redfa’s entire family was also successfully smuggled from Iraq to Israel. Previously unknown information about the MiG-21 was subsequently shared with the United States.

Operation Sphinx[19] Between 1978 and 1981, obtained highly sensitive information about Iraq’s Osirak nuclear reactor by recruiting an Iraqi nuclear scientist in France.

Operation Bramble Bush II In the 1990s, the Mossad began scouting locations in Iraq where Saddam Hussein could be ambushed by Sayeret Matkal commandos inserted into Iraq from Jordan. The mission was called off due to Operation Desert Fox and the ongoing Israeli-Arab peace process.

In what is thought to have been a reprisal action for a Hamas suicide-bombing in Jerusalem on July 30, 1997 that killed 16 Israelis, Benjamin Netanyahu authorised an operation against Khaled Mashal, the Hamas representative in Jordan.[46] On September 25, 1997, Mashal was injected in the ear with a toxin (thought to have been a derivative of the synthetic opiate Fentanyl called Levofentanyl).[47][48] Jordanian authorities apprehended two Mossad agents posing as Canadian tourists and trapped a further six in the Israeli embassy. In exchange for their release, an Israeli physician had to fly to Amman and deliver an antidote for Mashal. The fallout from the failed killing eventually led to the release of Sheik Ahmed Yassin, the founder and spiritual leader of the Hamas movement, and scores of Hamas prisoners. Netanyahu flew into Amman on September 29 to apologize personally to King Hussein, but was met instead by the King’s brother, Crown Prince Hassan.[47]

The provision of intelligence and operational assistance in the 1973 Operation Spring of Youth special forces raid on Beirut. The sending of letter bombs to PFLP member Bassam Abu Sharif. Sharif was severely wounded, but survived.[49]

The targeted killing of Ali Hassan Salameh, the leader of Black September, on January 22, 1979 in Beirut by a car bomb.[50][51]

The killing of the Palestinian writer and leading PFLP member Ghassan Kanafani, also by a car bomb, in 1972.[52]

Providing intelligence for the killing of Abbas al-Musawi, secretary general of Hezbollah, in Beirut in 1992.[15]

Allegedly killed Jihad Ahmed Jibril, the leader of the military wing of the PFLP-GC, in Beirut in 2002.[53]

Allegedly killed Ghaleb Awwali, a senior Hezbollah official, in Beirut in 2004.[54]

Allegedly killed Mahmoud al-Majzoub, a leader of Palestinian Islamic Jihad, in Sidon in 2006.[55]

The Mossad was suspected of establishing a large spy network in Lebanon, recruited from Druze, Christian, and Sunni Muslim communities, and officials in the Lebanese government, to spy on Hezbollah and its Iranian Revolutionary Guard advisors. Some have allegedly been active since the 1982 Lebanon War. In 2009, Lebanese Security Services supported by Hezbollah’s intelligence unit, and working in collaboration with Syria, Iran, and possibly Russia, launched a major crackdown which resulted in the arrests of around 100 alleged spies “working for Israel”.[56] Previously, in 2006, the Lebanese army uncovered a network that allegedly assassinated several Lebanese and Palestinian leaders on behalf of Israeli intelligence agency Mossad.[57]

In a September 2003 news article, it was alleged by Rediff News that General Pervez Musharaf, the then-President of Pakistan, decided to establish a clandestine relationship between Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) and Mossad via officers of the two services posted at their embassies in Washington, DC.

In January 2009 it was alleged by Indian news agencies that Mossad officers led a rescue mission to extract an Indian former member of parliament and an Israeli cultural attache who were arrested on the charges of producing methamphetamine.

Eli Cohen infiltrated the highest echelons of the Syrian government, was a close friend of the Syrian President, and was considered for the post of Minister of Defense. He gave his handlers a complete plan of the Syrian defenses on the Golan Heights, the Syrian Armed Forces order of battle, and a complete list of the Syrian military’s weapons inventory. He also ordered the planting of trees by every Syrian fortified position under the pretext of shading soldiers, but the trees actually served as targeting markers for the Israel Defense Forces. He was discovered by Syrian and Soviet intelligence, tried in secret, and executed publicly in 1965.[58] His information played a crucial role during the Six Day War.

The alleged killing of Izz El-Deen Sheikh Khalil, a senior member of the military wing of Hamas, in an automobile booby trap in September 2004 in Damascus.[59]

The alleged killing of Muhammad Suleiman, head of Syria’s nuclear program, in 2008. Suleiman was killed by a sniper firing from a boat while on a beach in Tartus.[60]

The alleged killing of Imad Mughniyah, a senior leader of Hezbollah complicit in the 1983 United States embassy bombing, with an exploding headrest in Damascus in 2008.[61]

The Mossad is suspected of killing Mahmoud al-Mabhouh, a senior Hamas military commander, in January 2010 at Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The team which carried out the killing is estimated, on the basis of CCTV and other evidence, to have consisted of at least 26 agents traveling on bogus passports. The operatives entered al-Mabhouh’s hotel room, where Mabhouh was subjected to electric shocks and interrogated. The door to his room was reported to have been locked from the inside.[62][63][64][65][66] Although the UAE police and Hamas have declared Israel responsible for the killing, no direct evidence linking Mossad to the crime has been found. The agents’ bogus passports included six British passports, cloned from those of real British nationals resident in Israel and suspected by Dubai, five Irish passports, apparently forged from those of living individuals,[67] forged Australian passports that raised fears of reprisal against innocent victims of identity theft,[68] a genuine German passport and a false French passport. Emirati police say they have fingerprint and DNA evidence of some of the attackers, as well as retinal scans of 11 suspects recorded at Dubai airport.[69][70] Dubai’s police chief has said “I am now completely sure that it was Mossad,” adding: “I have presented the (Dubai) prosecutor with a request for the arrest of (Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin) Netanyahu and the head of Mossad,” for the murder.[71]

In September 1956, the Mossad established a secretive network in Morocco to smuggle Moroccan Jews to Israel after a ban on immigration to Israel was imposed.[72]

In early 1991, two Mossad operatives infiltrated the Moroccan port of Casablanca and planted a tracking device on the freighter Al-Yarmouk, which was carrying a cargo of North Korean missiles bound for Syria. The ship was to be sunk by the Israeli Air Force, but the mission was later called off by Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin.[73]

The 1988 killing of Khalil al-Wazir (Abu Jihad), a founder of Fatah.[74]

The alleged killing of Salah Khalaf, head of intelligence of the PLO and second in command of Fatah behind Yasser Arafat, in 1991.[75]

For Operation Entebbe in 1976, Mossad provided intelligence regarding Entebbe International Airport[76] and extensively interviewed hostages who had been released.[77]

After the Mossad discovered the presence of two Iranian agents in Johannesburg[when?] on a mission to procure advanced weapons systems from Denel, a Mossad agent was deployed, and met up with a local Jewish contact. Posing as South African intelligence, they abducted the Iranians, drove them to a warehouse, and beat and intimidated them before forcing them to leave the country.[78]

After the 1994 AMIA bombing, the largest bombing in Argentine history, the Mossad began gathering intelligence for a raid by Israeli Special Forces on the Iranian embassy in Khartoum as retaliation. The operation was called off due to fears that another attack against worldwide Jewish communities might take place as revenge. The Mossad also assisted in Operation Moses, the evacuation of Ethiopian Jews to Israel from a famine-ridden region of Sudan in 1984, also maintaining a relationship with the Ethiopian government.

The Mossad secretly evacuated Zimbabwean Jews out of the country due to fears of persecution by the Zimbabwean government, which was allied with the Palestine Liberation Organization and Libya.[when?] The Mossad infiltrated the Zimbabwean government’s Central Intelligence Organization, in response to the supply of uranium from the Congo via Zimbabwe to North Korea, Syria, and Iran.[citation needed]

In July 2004, New Zealand imposed diplomatic sanctions on Israel over an incident in which two Australian based Israelis, Uriel Kelman and Eli Cara, who were allegedly working for Mossad, attempted to fraudulently obtain New Zealand passports by claiming the identity of a severely disabled man. Israeli Foreign Minister Silvan Shalom later apologized to New Zealand for their actions. New Zealand cancelled several other passports believed to have been obtained by Israeli agents.[79] Both Kelman and Cara served half of their six-month sentences and, upon release, were deported to Israel. Two others, an Israeli, Ze’ev Barkan, and a New Zealander, David Reznick, are believed to have been the third and fourth men involved in the passport affair but they both managed to leave New Zealand before being apprehended.[80]

Mossad may have been involved in the 2004 explosion of Ryongchon, where several Syrian nuclear scientists working on the Syrian and Iranian nuclear-weapons programs were killed and a train carrying fissionable material was destroyed.[25]

Template:Israeli Intelligence CommunityTemplate:External national intelligence agencies

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Mossad – definition of Mossad by The Free Dictionary

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(Government, Politics & Diplomacy) the secret intelligence service of Israel

[C20: Hebrew Mosad LeModi’in U-LeTafkidim Miyuhadim establishment for information and special tasks]

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n Mossad m (israelischer Geheimdienst)

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Mossad – definition of Mossad by The Free Dictionary

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Coordinates: 320844N 345040E / 32.145494N 34.844344E / 32.145494; 34.844344

The Mossad (Hebrew: , IPA:[ha mosad]; Arabic language: , al-Msd; literally meaning “the Institute”), short for HaMossad leModiin uleTafkidim Meyuadim (Hebrew: , meaning “Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations”; Arabic language: al-Msd lil-Istikhbrt wal-Mahmm al-Khah), is the national intelligence agency of Israel. It is one of the main entities in the Israeli Intelligence Community, along with Aman (military intelligence) and Shin Bet (internal security).

The Mossad is responsible for intelligence collection, covert operations, and counterterrorism, as well as bringing Jews to Israel from countries where official Aliyah agencies are forbidden, and protecting Jewish communities. Its director reports directly to the Prime Minister.

The largest department of the Mossad is Collections, tasked with many aspects of conducting espionage overseas. Employees in the Collections Department operate under a variety of covers, including diplomatic and unofficial.[1] The Political Action and Liaison Department is responsible for working with allied foreign intelligence services, and nations that have no normal diplomatic relations with Israel.[1] Additionally, the Mossad has a Research Department, tasked with intelligence production, and a Technology Department concerned with the development of tools for Mossad activities.[2]

Mossad was formed on December 13, 1949, as the “Central Institute for Coordination” at the recommendation of Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion to Reuven Shiloah. Ben Gurion wanted a central body to coordinate and improve cooperation between the existing security servicesthe army’s intelligence department (AMAN), the Internal Security Service (Shin Bet), and the foreign office’s “political department”. In March 1951, it was reorganized and made a part of the prime minister’s office, reporting directly to the prime minister.

Mossad’s former motto, be-tachblt ta`aseh lekh milchmh (Hebrew: ) is a quote from the Bible (Proverbs 24:6): “For by wise guidance you can wage your war” (NRSV). The motto was later changed to another Proverbs passage: be-‘yn tachblt yippol `m; -tesh`h be-rov y’ts (Hebrew: , , Proverbs 11:14). This is translated by NRSV as: “Where there is no guidance, a nation falls, but in an abundance of counselors there is safety.”

The Kidon is described by Yaakov Katz as “an elite group of expert assassins who operate under the Caesarea branch of the espionage organization. Not much is known about this mysterious unit, details of which are some of the most closely guarded secrets in the Israeli intelligence community.” The unit only recruits from “former soldiers from the elite IDF special force units.”[3]

In 1960, the Mossad discovered that the Nazi leader Adolf Eichmann was in Argentina. A team of five Mossad agents led by Shimon Ben Aharon slipped into Argentina and through surveillance, confirmed that he had been living there under the name of Ricardo Klement. He was abducted on May 11, 1960 and taken to a hideout. He was subsequently smuggled to Israel, where he was tried and executed. Argentina protested what it considered as the violation of its sovereignty, and the United Nations Security Council noted that “repetition of acts such as [this] would involve a breach of the principles upon which international order is founded, creating an atmosphere of insecurity and distrust incompatible with the preservation of peace” while also acknowledging that “Eichmann should be brought to appropriate justice for the crimes of which he is accused” and that “this resolution should in no way be interpreted as condoning the odious crimes of which Eichmann is accused.”[5][6] Mossad abandoned a second operation, intended to capture Josef Mengele.[7]

During the 1990s, the Mossad discovered a Hezbollah agent operating within the United States in order to procure materials needed to manufacture IEDs and other weapons. In a joint operation with U.S. intelligence, the agent was kept under surveillance in hopes that he would betray more Hezbollah operatives, but was eventually arrested.[8]

The Mossad informed the and CIA in August 2001 that based on its intelligence as many as 200 terrorists were slipping into the United States and planning “a major assault on the United States.” The Israeli intelligence agency cautioned the FBI that it had picked up indications of a “large-scale target” in the United States and that Americans would be “very vulnerable.”[9] However, “It is not known whether U.S. authorities thought the warning to be credible, or whether it contained enough details to allow counter-terrorism teams to come up with a response,”[10] A month later, terrorists struck at the World Trade Center and the Pentagon.[9]

Mossad assassinated Latvian Nazi collaborator Herberts Cukurs in 1965.[11]

The Mossad gathered information on Austrian politician Jrg Haider using a mole.[12]

The Mossad is alleged to be responsible for the killing of Canadian engineer and ballistics expert Gerald Bull on March 22, 1990. He was shot multiple times in the head outside his Brussels apartment.[13] Bull was at the time working for Iraq on the Project Babylon supergun.[14] Others, including Bull’s son, believe that the Mossad is taking credit for an act they did not commit to scare off others who may try to help enemy regimes. The alternative theory is that Bull was killed by the CIA. Iraq and Iran are also candidates for suspicion.[15]

Assisted in air and overland evacuations of Bosnian Jews from war-torn Sarajevo to Israel in 1992 and 1993.[citation needed]

The killing of Hussein Al Bashir in Nicosia, Cyprus, in 1973 in relation to the Munich massacre.[16]

Cherbourg Project – Operation Noa, the 1969 smuggling of five Sa’ar 3-class missile boats out of Cherbourg.

The alleged killing of Zuheir Mohsen, a pro-Syrian member of the PLO in 1979.[17]

The alleged killing of Atef Bseiso, a top intelligence officer of the PLO in Paris in 1992. French police believe that a team of assassins followed Atef Bseiso from Berlin, where that first team connected with another team to close in on him in front of a Left Bank hotel, where he received three head-shots at point blank range.[18]

The killing of Yehia El-Mashad, the head of the Iraq nuclear weapons program, in 1980.[19]

The killing of Dr. Mahmoud Hamshari, coordinator of the Munich massacre, with an exploding telephone in his Paris apartment in 1972.[16]

The killing of Dr. Basil Al-Kubaissi, who was involved in the Munich massacre, in Paris in 1973.[16]

The killing of Mohammad Boudia, member of the PFLP, in Paris in 1973.[16]

On April 5, 1979, Mossad agents are believed to have triggered an explosion which destroyed 60 percent of components being built in Toulouse for an Iraqi reactor. Although an environmental organization, Groupe des cologistes franais, unheard of before this incident, claimed credit for the blast,[20] most French officials discount the claim. The reactor itself was subsequently destroyed by an Israeli air strike in 1981.[20][21]

The Mossad allegedly assisted Morocco’s domestic security service in the disappearance of dissident politician Mehdi Ben Barka in 1965.[22]

Operation Plumbat (1968) was an operation by Lekem-Mossad to further Israel’s nuclear program. The German freighter “Scheersberg A” disappeared on its way from Antwerp to Genoa along with its cargo of 200 tons of yellowcake, after supposedly being transferred to an Israeli ship.[23]

The sending of letter bombs during the Operation Wrath of God campaign. Some of these attacks were not fatal. Their purpose might not have been to kill the receiver. Some of the more famous examples of the Mossad letter bombs were those sent to Nazi war-criminal Alois Brunner.[24]

The alleged targeted killing of Dr Wadie Haddad, using poisoned chocolate, in 1978. The PFLP-EO movement dissolved after his killing.[citation needed]

The Mossad discovered that Hezbollah had recruited a German national named Steven Smyrek, and that he was travelling to Israel. In an operation conducted by the Mossad, the CIA, the German Internal Security agency Bundesamt fr Verfassungsschutz (BfV), and the Israeli Internal Security agency Shin Bet, Smyrek was kept under constant surveillance, and arrested as soon as he landed in Israel.[25]

Mossad is alleged to have been involved in industrial espionage in Germany. In the late 1990s, the head of the BfV reportedly warned his department chiefs that Mossad remained a prime threat in stealing the country’s latest computer secrets.[26]

The killing of Zaiad Muchasi, Fatah representative to Cyprus, by an explosion in his Athens hotel room in 1973.[16]

The killing of Wael Zwaiter, thought to be a member of Black September.[27][28]

In 1986, Mossad used an undercover agent to lure nuclear whistleblower Mordechai Vanunu from the United Kingdom to Italy in a honey trap style operation where he was abducted and shipped to Israel where he was tried and found guilty of treason because of his role in exposing Israel’s nuclear programme.[29]

The killing of Fathi Shiqaqi. Shiqaqi, a leader of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad, was shot several times in the head in 1995 in front of the Diplomat Hotel in Sliema, Malta.[30]

On July 21, 1973, Ahmed Bouchiki, a waiter in Lillehammer, Norway, was killed by Mossad agents. He had been mistaken for Ali Hassan Salameh, one of the leaders of Black September, the Palestinian group responsible for the Munich massacre, who had been given shelter in Norway. The Mossad agents had used fake Canadian passports, which angered the Canadian government. Six Mossad agents were arrested, and the incident became known as the Lillehammer affair. Israel subsequently paid compensation to Bouchiki’s family.[29][31][32]

Mossad assisted the UK Intelligence organisation MI5 following the 7/7 bombings in London. According to the 2007 edition of a book about the Mossad titled Gideons Spies, shortly after the 7/7 London underground bombings, MI5 gathered evidence that a senior al-Qaeda operative known only by the alias Mustafa travelled in and out of Britain shortly before the 7/7 bombings. For months, the real identity of Mustafa remained unknown, but in early October 2005, Mossad told MI5 that this person was, in fact, Azhari Husin, a bomb-making expert with Jemaah Islamiyah, the main al-Qaeda affiliate in Southeast Asia. Husin studied in Britain and reports claim that he met the main 7/7 bomber, Mohammad Sidique Khan, in late 2001 in a militant training camp in the Philippines (see Late 2001). Meir Dagan, the then head of Mossad, apparently also told MI5 that Husin helped plan and recruit volunteers for the bombings. Mossad claimed that Husin may have been in London at the time of the bombings, and then fled to al-Qaedas principal haven in the tribal area of Pakistan, where he sometimes hid after bombings. Husin was killed in a shootout in Indonesia in November 2005.[33] Later official British government reports about the 7/7 bombings did not mention Husin.[34]

In February 1998, five Mossad agents were caught wiretapping the home of a Hezbollah agent in a Bern suburb. Four agents were freed, but the fifth was tried, found guilty, sentenced to one year in prison, and following his release was banned from entering Switzerland for five years.[35]

The Mossad was involved in outreach to Refuseniks in the Soviet Union during the crackdown on Soviet Jews in the 50’s, 60’s, 70’s, and 80’s. Mossad helped establish contact with Refuseniks in the USSR, and helped them acquire Jewish religious items, banned by the Soviet government, in addition to passing communications into and out of the USSR. Many rabbinical students from Western countries travelled to the Soviet Union as part of this program in order to establish and maintain contact with refuseniks.

In February 2011, a Palestinian engineer, Dirar Abu Seesi, was allegedly pulled off a train by Mossad agents en route to the capital Kiev from Kharkiv. He had been planning to apply for Ukrainian citizenship, and reappeared in an Israeli jail only 3 weeks after the incident.[36]

Prior to the Iranian Revolution of 197879, SAVAK (Organization of National Security and Information), the Iranian secret police and intelligence service was created under the guidance of United States and Israeli intelligence officers in 1957.[38] After security relations between the United States and Iran grew more distant in the early 1960s which led the CIA training team to leave Iran, Mossad became increasingly active in Iran, “training SAVAK personnel and carrying out a broad variety of joint operations with SAVAK.”[citation needed]

A US intelligence official told The Washington Post that Israel orchestrated the defection of Iranian general Ali Reza Askari on February 7, 2007.[39] This has been denied by Israeli spokesman Mark Regev. The Sunday Times reported that Askari had been a Mossad asset since 2003, and left only when his cover was about to be blown.[40]

Le Figaro claimed that the Mossad was possibly behind a blast at the Iranian Revolutionary Guard’s Imam Ali military base, on October 12, 2010. The explosion at the base killed 18 and injured 10 others. Among the dead was also general Hassan Tehrani Moghaddam, who served as the commander of the Revolutionary Guards missile program and was a crucial figure in building Irans long-range missile program.[41] The base is believed to store long-range missiles, including the Shahab-3, and also has hangars. It is one of Iran’s most secure military bases.[42]

Iranian Intelligence Minister Heydar Moslehi has accused Mossad of assassination plots and killings of Iranian physicists in 2010. Reports have noted that such information has not yet been evidently proven. Iranian state TV broadcast a stated confession from Majid Jamali-Fash, an Iranian man who claimed to have visited Israel to be trained by the Mossad.[43]

The Mossad has been accused of assassinating Masoud Alimohammadi, Ardeshir Hosseinpour, Majid Shahriari, Darioush Rezaeinejad and Mostafa Ahmadi-Roshan; scientists involved in the Iranian nuclear program. It is also suspected of being behind the attempted assassination of Iranian nuclear scientist Fereydoon Abbasi.[44] Meir Dagan, who served as Director of the Mossad from 2002 until 2009, while not taking credit for the assassinations, praised them in an interview with a journalist, saying “the removal of important brains” from the Iranian nuclear project had achieved so-called “white defections,” frightening other Iranian nuclear scientists into requesting that they be transferred to civilian projects.[37]

In early February 2012, Mossad director Tamir Pardo met with U.S. national security officials in Washington, D.C. to sound them out on possible American reactions in the event Israel attacked Iran over the objections of the United States.[45]

MiG-21 at the Israeli Air Force Museum in Hatzerim

Assistance in the defection and rescuing of the family of Munir Redfa, an Iraqi pilot who defected and flew his MiG-21 to Israel in 1966: “Operation Diamond”. Redfa’s entire family was also successfully smuggled from Iraq to Israel. Previously unknown information about the MiG-21 was subsequently shared with the United States.

Operation Sphinx[20] Between 1978 and 1981, obtained highly sensitive information about Iraq’s Osirak nuclear reactor by recruiting an Iraqi nuclear scientist in France.

Operation Bramble Bush II In the 1990s, the Mossad began scouting locations in Iraq where Saddam Hussein could be ambushed by Sayeret Matkal commandos inserted into Iraq from Jordan. The mission was called off due to Operation Desert Fox and the ongoing Israeli-Arab peace process.

In what is thought to have been a reprisal action for a Hamas suicide-bombing in Jerusalem on July 30, 1997 that killed 16 Israelis, Benjamin Netanyahu authorised an operation against Khaled Mashal, the Hamas representative in Jordan.[46] On September 25, 1997, Mashal was injected in the ear with a toxin (thought to have been a derivative of the synthetic opiate Fentanyl called Levofentanyl).[47][48] Jordanian authorities apprehended two Mossad agents posing as Canadian tourists and trapped a further six in the Israeli embassy. In exchange for their release, an Israeli physician had to fly to Amman and deliver an antidote for Mashal. The fallout from the failed killing eventually led to the release of Sheik Ahmed Yassin, the founder and spiritual leader of the Hamas movement, and scores of Hamas prisoners. Netanyahu flew into Amman on September 29 to apologize personally to King Hussein, but was met instead by the King’s brother, Crown Prince Hassan.[47]

The provision of intelligence and operational assistance in the 1973 Operation Spring of Youth special forces raid on Beirut.

The sending of letter bombs to PFLP member Bassam Abu Sharif. Sharif was severely wounded, but survived.[49]

The targeted killing of Ali Hassan Salameh, the leader of Black September, on January 22, 1979 in Beirut by a car bomb.[50][51]

The killing of the Palestinian writer and leading PFLP member Ghassan Kanafani, also by a car bomb, in 1972.[52]

Providing intelligence for the killing of Abbas al-Musawi, secretary general of Hezbollah, in Beirut in 1992.[16]

Allegedly killed Jihad Ahmed Jibril, the leader of the military wing of the PFLP-GC, in Beirut in 2002.[53]

Allegedly killed Ali Hussein Saleh, member of Hezbollah, in Beirut in 2003.[54]

Allegedly killed Ghaleb Awwali, a senior Hezbollah official, in Beirut in 2004.[55]

Allegedly killed Mahmoud al-Majzoub, a leader of Palestinian Islamic Jihad, in Sidon in 2006.[56]

The Mossad was suspected of establishing a large spy network in Lebanon, recruited from Druze, Christian, and Sunni Muslim communities, and officials in the Lebanese government, to spy on Hezbollah and its Iranian Revolutionary Guard advisors. Some have allegedly been active since the 1982 Lebanon War. In 2009, Lebanese Security Services supported by Hezbollah’s intelligence unit, and working in collaboration with Syria, Iran, and possibly Russia, launched a major crackdown which resulted in the arrests of around 100 alleged spies “working for Israel”.[57] Previously, in 2006, the Lebanese army uncovered a network that allegedly assassinated several Lebanese and Palestinian leaders on behalf of Israeli intelligence agency Mossad.[58]

Eli Cohen infiltrated the highest echelons of the Syrian government, was a close friend of the Syrian President, and was considered for the post of Minister of Defense. He gave his handlers a complete plan of the Syrian defenses on the Golan Heights, the Syrian Armed Forces order of battle, and a complete list of the Syrian military’s weapons inventory. He also ordered the planting of trees by every Syrian fortified position under the pretext of shading soldiers, but the trees actually served as targeting markers for the Israel Defense Forces. He was discovered by Syrian and Soviet intelligence, tried in secret, and executed publicly in 1965.[59] His information played a crucial role during the Six Day War.

On 1 April 1978, 12 Syrian military and secret service personnel were killed by a sophisticated Israeli listening device planted on the main telephone cable between Damascus and Jordan.[60]

The alleged death of General Anatoly Kuntsevich, who from the late 1990s was suspected of aiding the Syrians in the manufacture of VX nerve-gas, in exchange for which he was paid huge amounts of money by the Syrian government. On April 3, 2002, Kuntsevich died mysteriously during a plane journey, amid allegations that Mossad was responsible.[60]

The alleged killing of Izz El-Deen Sheikh Khalil, a senior member of the military wing of Hamas, in an automobile booby trap in September 2004 in Damascus.[61]

The uncovering of a nuclear reactor being built in Syria as a result of surveillance by Mossad of Syrian officials working under the command of Muhammad Suleiman. As a result, the Syrian nuclear reactor was destroyed by Israeli Air Forces in September 2007 (see Operation Orchard), while Suleiman was assassinated by Israel a year later.[60]

The alleged killing of Muhammad Suleiman, head of Syria’s nuclear program, in 2008. Suleiman was on a beach in Tartus and was killed by a sniper firing from a boat.[62]

On July 25, 2007, the al-Safir chemical weapons depot exploded, killing 15 Syrian personnel as well as 10 Iranian engineers. Syrian investigations blamed Israeli sabotage.[60]

The alleged killing of Imad Mughniyah, a senior leader of Hezbollah complicit in the 1983 United States embassy bombing, with an exploding headrest in Damascus in 2008.[63]

The decomposed body of Yuri Ivanov, the deputy head of the GRU, Russia’s foreign military intelligence service, was found on a Turkish beach in early August 2010,[64] amid allegations that Mossad may have played a role. He had disappeared while staying near Latakia, Syria.[65]

The Mossad is suspected of killing Mahmoud al-Mabhouh, a senior Hamas military commander, in January 2010 at Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The team which carried out the killing is estimated, on the basis of CCTV and other evidence, to have consisted of at least 26 agents traveling on bogus passports. The operatives entered al-Mabhouh’s hotel room, where Mabhouh was subjected to electric shocks and interrogated. The door to his room was reported to have been locked from the inside.[66][67][68][69][70] Although the UAE police and Hamas have declared Israel responsible for the killing, no direct evidence linking Mossad to the crime has been found. The agents’ bogus passports included six British passports, cloned from those of real British nationals resident in Israel and suspected by Dubai, five Irish passports, apparently forged from those of living individuals,[71] forged Australian passports that raised fears of reprisal against innocent victims of identity theft,[72] a genuine German passport and a false French passport. Emirati police say they have fingerprint and DNA evidence of some of the attackers, as well as retinal scans of 11 suspects recorded at Dubai airport.[73][74] Dubai’s police chief has said “I am now completely sure that it was Mossad,” adding: “I have presented the (Dubai) prosecutor with a request for the arrest of (Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin) Netanyahu and the head of Mossad,” for the murder.[75]

In September 1956, the Mossad established a secretive network in Morocco to smuggle Moroccan Jews to Israel after a ban on immigration to Israel was imposed.[76]

In early 1991, two Mossad operatives infiltrated the Moroccan port of Casablanca and planted a tracking device on the freighter Al-Yarmouk, which was carrying a cargo of North Korean missiles bound for Syria. The ship was to be sunk by the Israeli Air Force, but the mission was later called off by Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin.[77]

The 1988 killing of Khalil al-Wazir (Abu Jihad), a founder of Fatah.[78]

The alleged killing of Salah Khalaf, head of intelligence of the PLO and second in command of Fatah behind Yasser Arafat, in 1991.[79]

For Operation Entebbe in 1976, Mossad provided intelligence regarding Entebbe International Airport[80] and extensively interviewed hostages who had been released.[81]

In the late 1990s, after the Mossad was tipped off to the presence of two Iranian agents in Johannesburg on a mission to procure advanced weapons systems from Denel, a Mossad agent was deployed, and met up with a local Jewish contact. Posing as South African intelligence, they abducted the Iranians, drove them to a warehouse, and beat and intimidated them before forcing them to leave the country.[82]

After the 1994 AMIA bombing, the largest bombing in Argentine history, the Mossad began gathering intelligence for a raid by Israeli Special Forces on the Iranian embassy in Khartoum as retaliation. The operation was called off due to fears that another attack against worldwide Jewish communities might take place as revenge. The Mossad also assisted in Operation Moses, the evacuation of Ethiopian Jews to Israel from a famine-ridden region of Sudan in 1984, also maintaining a relationship with the Ethiopian government.

The Mossad secretly evacuated Zimbabwean Jews out of the country due to fears of persecution by the Zimbabwean government, which was allied with the Palestine Liberation Organization and Libya.[when?] The Mossad infiltrated the Zimbabwean government’s Central Intelligence Organization, in response to the supply of uranium from the Congo via Zimbabwe to North Korea, Syria, and Iran.[citation needed]

In July 2004, New Zealand imposed diplomatic sanctions on Israel over an incident in which two Australian based Israelis, Uriel Kelman and Eli Cara, who were allegedly working for Mossad, attempted to fraudulently obtain New Zealand passports by claiming the identity of a severely disabled man. Israeli Foreign Minister Silvan Shalom later apologized to New Zealand for their actions. New Zealand cancelled several other passports believed to have been obtained by Israeli agents.[83] Both Kelman and Cara served half of their six-month sentences and, upon release, were deported to Israel. Two others, an Israeli, Ze’ev Barkan, and a New Zealander, David Reznick, are believed to have been the third and fourth men involved in the passport affair but they both managed to leave New Zealand before being apprehended.[84]

In a September 2003 news article, it was alleged by Rediff News that General Pervez Musharaf, the then-President of Pakistan, decided to establish a clandestine relationship between Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) and Mossad via officers of the two services posted at their embassies in Washington, DC.

Mossad may have been involved in the 2004 explosion of Ryongchon, where several Syrian nuclear scientists working on the Syrian and Iranian nuclear-weapons programs were killed and a train carrying fissionable material was destroyed.[85]

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MOSSAD – What does MOSSAD stand for? The Free Dictionary

The Mossad agents at the Athens airport reconfirmed the positive identification, adding: “The objective has grown a longer beard to mislead.The Mossad is responsible for collecting intelligence and conducting secret operations, and the management of espionage operations outside Israel.We have come to know that Home Minister Rajnath Singh has met the Mossad chief in Delhi.Il a note que le Mossad avait pas utilise une nouvelle technique pour [beaucoup moins que]mener a bien[beaucoup plus grand que] l’assassinat, et a souligne que c’est une pratique courante que le meurtre ait lieu apres que l'[beaucoup moins que]appat[beaucoup plus grand que] a quitte la scene.Skorzeny later lured Krug to a meeting in Spain, pretending to be offering security advice on ways to protect himself from Mossad spies.The Mossad described Dagan as a distinguished member of the Israeli establishment community revered by many both at home and abroad.In 2012 Mossad told South African intelligence that Iran “does not appear to be ready” to enrich uranium to the higher levels necessary for nuclear weapons, regardless of the fact that their prime minister was telling the UN General Assmbly that Iran was close to having nuclear weapons.The Mossad conclusion thus serves a religious purpose.Israel’s cabinet on Sunday appointed Yossi Cohen, the outgoing deputy director of the Mossad spy agency, as national security adviser and National Security Council chief, the premier’s office said.The state-owned newspaper Al-Ahram reported the private sector employee is accused of working as a spy for the Israeli Mossad intelligence agency.htm) Israeli-Australian Mossad spy who allegedly committed suicide at a high-security prison in Tel Aviv, was jailed for leaking secrets to Hezbollah in Lebanon, according to a report on a German newspaper.The reason, it turns out, was that he had been recruited by Mossad, the Israeli external intelligence agency, to supply it with Australian passports for use in its foreign operations.

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List of Israeli assassinations – Wikipedia

DatePlaceLocationTargetDescriptionActionExecutorNovember 9, 2000Beit SahurWest BankHussein Mohammed Abayat (37);Abayat was a senior official of the Fatah faction Tanzim.Killed while driving his Mitsubishi by a Hellfire anti-tank missile fired from an Israeli Apache helicopter. Rahma Sheibat, (50); Aziza Dannoun Jobran (52), two local women, were killed by a second missile, and Nazhmi Sheibat and his wife were also injured. Accused of shooting at the Gilo settlement.[5][53][55]Israel Defense Forces[56]November 22, 2000MoragGaza StripJamal Abdel Raziq (39), and Awni Dhuheir (38).[57]Senior official of the Fatah faction TanzimKilled on the Rafah-Khan Yunis western road near the junction leading to Morag settlement while in a Honda Civic with the driver, Awni Dhuheir when their car was machine-gunned from two tanks at close range. The first version, they were about to attack Morag; the second version, Raziq was targeted after firing at IDF soldiers. His uncle was later sentenced to death for collaborating in his nephew’s death by furnishing Israel with details.[53] Two bystanders in a taxi behind them also killed (Sami Abu Laban, 29, baker, and Nael Shehdeh El-Leddawi, 25, student).[57][58]November 23, 2000NablusWest BankIbrahim ‘Abd al-Karim Bani ‘Odeh (34)Unknown. Had been jailed for 3 years by the PNA until two weeks before his death.Killed while driving a Subaru near Al-Salam mosque. Israeli version, he died from his own rudimentary bomb. Palestinian version: his cousin Allan Bani Oudeh confessed to collaborating with Israel in an assassination, and was convicted and shot in Jan 2001.[53]?[56]December 11, 2000NablusWest BankAnwar Mahmoud Hamran (28)A PIJ bombing suspect. Jailed for 2 years by PNA and released 6 weeks before his death.Targeted on a campus of Al-Quds Open University while waiting for a taxi-cab. Shot 19 times by a sniper at 500 yards. IDF version shot by soldiers in self-defence. Palestinian version, he died with books in his hand.[5][53][56]Israel Defense ForcesDecember 12, 2000al-KhaderWest BankYusef Ahmad Mahmoud Abu Sawi (28)UnknownTargeted and shot by a sniper at 200 metres, 17 bullets.[56]December 13, 2000HebronWest BankAbbas Othman El-Oweiwi(25)Hamas activistTargeted and shot 3 times in head and chest by a sniper while standing in front of his store in Wadi Al-Tuffah Street.[53][56]December 14, 2000BurinWest BankSaed Ibrahim Taha al-Kharuf (35)Targeted and shot dead.

rowspan=2|Israel Defense Forces.[56]

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Israel’s Mossad may be behind car bombing that killed top …

The New York Times reported that Israel’s famed spy agency may have planted a car bomb that killed a top Syrian rocket scientist.

The Mossad, Israels famed spy agency, may have been behind the Saturday car bombing in the Syrian city of Masyaf that killed one of Demascus’ most important rocket scientists, The New York Times reported on Monday.

The paper cited a senior official from an intelligence agency that focuses on the Middle East. The official spoke on the condition of anonymity.

Israel has reportedly dismissed news reports in Syria and Lebanon that suggested its spies were behind the bombing.

The Times reported that the killing of Aziz Asbar was at least the fourth assassination attempt by Israel in the past three years on foreign soil.

Asbar was a major player in the country and had his own security detail, the report said. He worked on precision-guided missiles that could threaten Israeli cities.

The report said he most recently worked at Syrias low-technology arsenal of rockets. His reported goal was to improve the arsenal and make it more accurate.

The Mossad, long shrouded in mystery and mythology, is legendary in international intelligence circles for being behind what are believed to be some of the most daring covert operations of the past century. Only a few have come to light and often only years later. Asbar was reportedly being eyed by Israel for a while.

The Times reported that Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Defense Minister Avigdor Lieberman did not comment for the report. Only Netanyahu could order an assassination, the report said.

Every day in the Middle East there are hundreds of explosions and settling of scores, Lieberman told Israels Channel 2. Every time they try to place the blame on us. So we wont take this too seriously.

The Associated Press contributed to this report

Edmund DeMarche is a news editor for FoxNews.com. Follow him on Twitter @EDeMarche.

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Israel Intelligence & Security: The Mossad

When the State of Israel was declared, David Ben-Gurion, Israels first Prime Minister, expressed his views on the necessity of creating intelligence agencies to operate on behalf of the nascent state. On June 7, 1948, he held his first meeting on this matter with intelligence officials. On December 13, 1949, following detailed staff work, Ben-Gurion appointed foreign ministry special operations adviser and former Jewish Agency state department official, Reuben Shiloah, to establish and head the Institute for Collating and Co-ordinating Intelligence Operations. This date is considered the date the Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations was established.

On March 2, 1951, as a result of the experience gained in running State intelligence agencies, particularly in overseas operations, Ben-Gurion ordered Reuben Shiloah to set up the Directorate, within the Institute for Coordination, to take all overseas intelligence operations under its wing. The Directorate was the initial incarnation of the main collection unit in the Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations.

In 1952, Reuben Shiloah retired and was replaced by General Security Agency chief Isser Harel. He served as Mossad Director until 1963. The two founders shaped the Mossad to address the reality and the needs of the State of Israel in its early years.

Over the years the Mossad expanded into many fields (the most prominent of which were):

Some of the Mossads operations include:

These are only a sample of the Mossads operations, which include collecting information in accordance with priority intelligence requirements, covert relations with other countries and intelligence agencies making major contributions to the peace treaties with Egypt and Jordan redeeming MIAs, technology and research.

The Mossad teamed up with venture capital firm Sequoia Capital in June 2017 to launch a new technological innovation fund named Libertad. Theproject’s aim is to take advantage of Israel’s start-up atmosphere, and ensure the Mossad and IDF retain technological superiority over their enemies. The Libertad fund’s website describes it as seek[ing]to strengthen both start-up companies and the Mossads knowledge base, operating at the forefront of technological innovation. Upon it’s launch, Libertad’s executives issued a call for proposals in the fields of energy, robotics, encryption, big data, and text analysis.

The Mossad welcomed it’s first recruit from the Ultra-Orthodox Haredi Jewish community in April 2018. Many Haredim recieve exemptions from Israeli national military service, but some still choose to serve.

Sources: The Mossad;Herb Keinon.Israel’s Mossad is looking for a few good startups, Jerusalem Post, (June 27, 2017);First haredi man to serve in Israels Mossad agency, JNS, (April 26, 2018).

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Mossad chief ‘100 percent certain’ Iran seeks nuclear bomb …

JERUSALEM The head of Israel’s Mossad intelligence agency is “100 percent certain” that Iran remains committed to developing a nuclear bomb and believes the international community must change or scrap its nuclear deal with the Islamic Republic.

The comments by Yossi Cohen added an influential voice to a global debate over Iran’s nuclear program ahead of a deadline set by President Donald Trump for toughening the deal. Trump, like Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, has been a fierce critic of the 2015 nuclear deal.

Trump has set a mid-May deadline to reach agreement with the European nations to toughen restrictions on Iran, including by extending the limitations on nuclear activity that are currently set to expire under the deal in several years. If the U.S. and the Europeans can’t agree on new punishments that are to Trump’s liking, he will withdraw from the deal and re-impose U.S. sanctions on Tehran, the White House has said.

With the clock ticking, Cohen has been holding discussions on the matter and delivered his assessment in a recent closed meeting with senior officials, according to a person who attended the meeting. Cohen’s analysis signaled Israeli support for Trump’s efforts.

Cohen called the nuclear deal a “terrible mistake,” saying it allows Iran to keep key elements of its nuclear program intact and will remove other restraints in a few years.

“Then Iran will be able to enrich enough uranium for an arsenal of nuclear bombs,” Cohen said, according to the meeting participant, who spoke on condition of anonymity because he was discussing a classified security matter.

Cohen also criticized the deal’s easing of sanctions, saying it has resulted in “significantly increased” aggression by Iran, and noted Iran’s continued development of long-range ballistic missiles.

“As head of the Mossad, I am 100 percent certain that Iran has never abandoned its military nuclear vision for a single instant. This deal enables Iran to achieve that vision,” Cohen said. “That is why I believe the deal must be completely changed or scrapped. The failure to do so would be a grave threat to Israel’s security.”

Under the deal, Iran agreed to curbs and inspections on its nuclear program in exchange for relief from international sanctions. Proponents have said the deal puts Iranian nuclear development on hold for 10 to 15 years and opens the way for engagement with the Iranians on other issues.

Netanyahu has been a leading critic of the deal, saying it did not contain sufficient safeguards to prevent Iran from reaching nuclear-weapons capability or address Iran’s other activities across the region.

Trump’s disdain for the deal has been a welcome development for Netanyahu. Israel has identified Iran as its top threat, citing the nuclear program, its hostile rhetoric, support for anti-Israel militant groups and its development of long-range missiles.

Yet the confrontational approach also carries risks. It appears increasingly unlikely that the U.S. and Europe can reach a compromise by Trump’s deadline, especially after Trump’s recent named a new national security adviser and secretary of state who have both firmly opposed the Iran deal in the past.

It also is unclear how Iran will react if the U.S. withdraws. Iran has said U.S. withdrawal from the nuclear deal and reimposed sanctions would destroy the agreement and has threatened a range of responses, including immediately restarting nuclear activities currently barred under the deal.

The issue has also set off some debate within Israel’s security ranks. As head of a powerful agency, Cohen is one of the most influential voices in that debate and appears to be siding firmly with Netanyahu.

Yet other security experts, both active and former, have taken a more nuanced approach. While Israeli officials widely panned the deal when it was reached, some have noted that it has some positive aspects.

In a recent interview, Lt. Gen. Gadi Eisenkot told the newspaper Haaretz that he knows of no violations of the nuclear deal by Iran, though he said Israel is closely watching.

“If its intentions change, we will know. Right now the agreement, with all its faults, is working and is putting off realization of the Iranian nuclear vision by 10 to 15 years,” he was quoted as saying.

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Mossad | Covert History Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia

For the organization that coordinated pre-state Jewish immigration, see Mossad Le’aliyah Bet.Template:Infobox Govt Agency Template:Coord/display/title The Mossad (Template:Lang-he, Template:IPA-he; Template:Lang-ar, Template:Transl; literally meaning “the Institute”), short for Template:Transl (Template:Lang-he, meaning “Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations”; Template:Lang-ar Template:Transl), is the national intelligence agency of Israel. The Mossad is responsible for intelligence collection, covert operations, and counterterrorism, as well as bringing Jews to Israel from countries where official Aliyah agencies are forbidden, and protecting Jewish communities worldwide. It is one of the main entities in the Israeli Intelligence Community, along with Aman (military intelligence) and Shin Bet (internal security), but its director reports directly to the Prime Minister. The largest department of the Mossad is Collections, tasked with many aspects of conducting espionage overseas. Employees in the Collections Department operate under a variety of covers, including diplomatic and unofficial.[1] The Political Action and Liaison Department is responsible for working with allied foreign intelligence services, and nations that have no normal diplomatic relations with Israel.[1] Additionally, the Mossad has a Research Department, tasked with intelligence production, and a Technology Department concerned with the development of tools for Mossad activities.[2] Mossad was formed on December 13, 1949 as the “Central Institute for Coordination” at the recommendation of Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion to Reuven Shiloah. Ben Gurion wanted a central body to coordinate and improve cooperation between the existing security services the army’s intelligence department (AMAN), the Internal Security Service (“Shin Bet”) and the foreign office’s “political department”. In March 1951, it was reorganized and made a part of the prime minister’s office, reporting directly to the prime minister. Mossad’s former motto, be-tachblt ta`aseh lekh milchmh (Template:Lang-he) is a quote from the Bible (Proverbs 24:6): “For by wise guidance you can wage your war” (NRSV). The motto was later changed to another Proverbs passage: be-‘yn tachblt yippol `m; -tesh`h be-rov y’ts (Template:Lang-he, Proverbs 11:14). This is translated by NRSV as: “Where there is no guidance, a nation falls, but in an abundance of counselors there is safety.” In 1960, the Mossad discovered that the Nazi leader Adolf Eichmann was in Argentina. A team of five Mossad agents slipped into Argentina and through surveillance, confirmed that he had been living there under the name of Ricardo Klement. He was abducted on May 11, 1960 and taken to a hideout. He was subsequently smuggled to Israel, where he was tried and executed. Argentina protested what it considered as the violation of its sovereignty, and the United Nations Security Council noted that “repetition of acts such as [this] would involve a breach of the principles upon which international order is founded, creating an atmosphere of insecurity and distrust incompatible with the preservation of peace” while also acknowledging that “Eichmann should be brought to appropriate justice for the crimes of which he is accused” and that “this resolution should in no way be interpreted as condoning the odious crimes of which Eichmann is accused.”[4][5] Mossad abandoned a second operation, intended to capture Josef Mengele.[6] During the 1990s, the Mossad discovered a Hezbollah agent operating within the United States in order to procure materials needed to manufacture IEDs and other weapons. In a joint operation with U.S. intelligence, the agent was kept under surveillance in hopes that he would betray more Hezbollah operatives, but was eventually arrested.[7] The Mossad informed the FBI and CIA in August 2001 that based on its intelligence as many as 200 terrorists were slipping into the United States and planning “a major assault on the United States.” The Israeli intelligence agency cautioned the FBI that it had picked up indications of a “large-scale target” in the United States and that Americans would be “very vulnerable.”[8] However, “It is not known whether U.S. authorities thought the warning to be credible, or whether it contained enough details to allow counter-terrorism teams to come up with a response,”[9] A month later, terrorists struck at the World Trade Center and the Pentagon.[8] Mossad assassinated Latvian Nazi collaborator Herberts Cukurs in 1965.[10] The Mossad gathered information on Austrian politician Jrg Haider using a mole.[11] The Mossad is alleged to be responsible for the killing of Canadian engineer and ballistics expert Gerald Bull on March 22, 1990. He was shot multiple times in the head outside his Brussels apartment.[12] Bull was at the time working for Iraq on the Project Babylon supergun.[13] Others, including Bull’s son, believe that the Mossad is taking credit for an act they did not commit to scare off others who may try to help enemy regimes. The alternative theory is that Bull was killed by the CIA. Iraq and Iran are also candidates for suspicion.[14] Assisted in air and overland evacuations of Bosnian Jews from war-torn Sarajevo to Israel in 1992 and 1993.[citation needed] The killing of Hussein Al Bashir in Nicosia, Cyprus, in 1973 in relation to the Munich massacre.[15] Cherbourg Project – Operation Noa, the 1969 smuggling of Israel Navy boats out of Cherbourg. The alleged killing of Zuheir Mohsen, a pro-Syrian member of the PLO in 1979.[16] The alleged killing of Atef Bseiso, a top intelligence officer of the PLO in Paris in 1992. French police believe that a team of assassins followed Atef Bseiso from Berlin, where that first team connected with another team to close in on him in front of a Left Bank hotel, where he received three head-shots at point blank range.[17] The killing of Yehia El-Mashad, the head of the Iraq nuclear weapons program, in 1980.[18] The killing of Dr. Mahmoud Hamshari, coordinator of the Munich massacre with an exploding telephone in his Paris apartment in 1972.[15] The killing of Dr. Basil Al-Kubaissi, who was involved in the Munich massacre, in Paris in 1973.[15] The killing of Mohammad Boudia, member of the PFLP, in Paris in 1973.[15] On April 5, 1979, Mossad agents are believed to have triggered an explosion which destroyed 60 percent of components being built in Toulouse for an Iraqi reactor. Although an environmental organization, Groupe des cologistes franais, unheard of before this incident, claimed credit for the blast,[19] most French officials discount the claim. The reactor itself was subsequently destroyed by an Israeli air strike in 1981.[19][20] The Mossad allegedly assisted Morocco’s domestic security service in the disappearance of dissident politician Mehdi Ben Barka in 1965.[21] Operation Plumbat (1968) was an operation by Lekem-Mossad to further Israel’s nuclear program. The German freighter “Scheersberg A”, disappeared on its way from Antwerp to Genoa along with its cargo of 200 tons of yellowcake, after supposedly being transferred to an Israeli ship.[22] The sending of letter bombs during the Operation Wrath of God campaign. Some of these attacks were not fatal. Their purpose might not have been to kill the receiver. Some of the more famous examples of the Mossad letter bombs were those sent to Nazi war-criminal Alois Brunner.[23] The alleged targeted killing of Dr Wadie Haddad, using poisoned chocolate, in 1978. The PFLP-EO movement dissolved after his killing.[citation needed] The Mossad discovered that Hezbollah had recruited a German national named Steven Smyrek, and that he was travelling to Israel. In an operation conducted by the Mossad, the CIA, the German Internal Security agency Bundesamt fr Verfassungsschutz (BFD), and the Israeli Internal Security agency Shin Bet, Smyrek was kept under constant surveillance, and arrested as soon as he landed in Israel.[24] Mossad is alleged to have been involved in industrial espionage in Germany. In the late 1990s, the head of the BFD reportedly warned his department chiefs that Mossad remained a prime threat in stealing the country’s latest computer secrets.[25] The killing of Zaiad Muchasi, Fatah representative to Cyprus, by an explosion in his Athens hotel room in 1973.[15] The killing of Wael Zwaiter, thought to be a member of Black September.[26][27] In 1986, Mossad used an undercover agent to lure nuclear whistleblower Mordechai Vanunu from the United Kingdom to Italy in a honey trap style operation where he was abducted and transported to Israel where he was tried and found guilty of treason because of his role in exposing Israel’s nuclear programme.[28] The killing of Fathi Shiqaqi. Shiqaqi a leader of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad, was shot several times in the head in 1995 in front of the Diplomat Hotel in Sliema, Malta.[29] On July 21, 1973, Ahmed Bouchiki, a Moroccan waiter in Lillehammer, Norway, was killed by Mossad agents. He had been mistaken for Ali Hassan Salameh, one of the leaders of Black September, the Palestinian group responsible for the Munich massacre, who had been given shelter in Norway. The Mossad agents had used fake Canadian passports, which angered the Canadian government. Six Mossad agents were arrested, and the incident became known as the Lillehammer affair. Israel subsequently paid compensation to Bouchiki’s family.[28][30][31] Mossad assisted the UK Intelligence organisation MI5 following the 7/7 bombings in London. According to the 2007 edition of a book about the Mossad titled Gideons Spies, shortly after the 7/7 London underground bombings, MI5 gathered evidence that a senior al-Qaeda operative known only by the alias Mustafa travelled in and out of Britain shortly before the 7/7 bombings. For months, the real identity of Mustafa remained unknown, but in early October 2005, Mossad told MI5 that this person was, in fact, Azhari Husin, a bomb-making expert with Jemaah Islamiyah, the main al-Qaeda affiliate in Southeast Asia. Husin studied in Britain and reports claim that he met the main 7/7 bomber, Mohammad Sidique Khan, in late 2001 in a militant training camp in the Philippines (see Late 2001). Meir Dagan, the then head of Mossad, apparently also told MI5 that Husin helped plan and recruit volunteers for the bombings. Mossad claimed that Husin may have been in London at the time of the bombings, and then fled to al-Qaedas principal haven in the tribal area of Pakistan, where he sometimes hid after bombings. Husin was killed in a shootout in Indonesia in November 2005.[32] Later official British government reports about the 7/7 bombings did not mention Husin.[33] In February 1998, five Mossad agents were caught wiretapping the home of a Hezbollah agent in a Bern suburb. Four agents were freed, but the fifth was tried, found guilty, sentenced to one year in prison, and following his release was banned from entering Switzerland for five years.[34] The Mossad was involved in outreach to Refuseniks in the Soviet Union during the crackdown on Soviet Jews in the 50’s, 60’s, 70’s, and 80’s. Mossad helped establish contact with Refuseniks in the USSR, and helped them acquire Jewish religious items, banned by the Soviet government, in addition to passing communications into and out of the USSR. Many rabbinical students from Western countries travelled to the Soviet Union as part of this program in order to establish and maintain contact with refuseniks. In February 2011, a Palestinian engineer, Dirar Abu Seesi, was allegedly pulled off a train by Mossad agents enroute to the capital Kiev from Kharkiv. He had been planning to apply for Ukrainian citizenship, and reappeared in an Israeli jail only 3 weeks after the incident.[35] Prior to the Iranian Revolution of 197879, SAVAK (Organization of National Security and Information), the Iranian secret police and intelligence service was created under the guidance of United States and Israeli intelligence officers in 1957.[37] After security relations between the United States and Iran grew more distant in the early 1960s which led the CIA training team to leave Iran, Mossad became increasingly active in Iran, “training SAVAK personnel and carrying out a broad variety of joint operations with SAVAK.”[citation needed] A US intelligence official told The Washington Post that Israel orchestrated the defection of Iranian general Ali Reza Askari on February 7, 2007.[38] This has been denied by Israeli spokesman Mark Regev. The Sunday Times reported that Askari had been a Mossad asset since 2003, and left only when his cover was about to be blown.[39] Le Figaro claimed that the Mossad was possibly behind a blast at the Iranian Revolutionary Guard’s Imam Ali military base, on October 12, 2010. The explosion at the base killed 18 and injured 10 others. Among the dead was also general Hassan Tehrani Moghaddam, who served as the commander of the Revolutionary Guards missile program and was a crucial figure in building Irans long-range missile program.[40] The base is believed to store long-range missiles, including the Shahab-3, and also has hangars. It is one of Iran’s most secure military bases.[41] Iranian Intelligence Minister Heydar Moslehi has accused Mossad of assassination plots and killings of Iranian physicists in 2010. Reports have noted that such information has not yet been evidently proven. Iranian state TV broadcast a stated confession from Majid Jamali-Fash, an Iranian man who claimed to have visited Israel to be trained by the Mossad.[42] The Mossad has been accused of assassinating Masoud Alimohammadi, Ardeshir Hosseinpour, Majid Shahriari, Darioush Rezaeinejad and Mostafa Ahmadi-Roshan; scientists involved in the Iranian nuclear program. It is also suspected of being behind the attempted assassination of Iranian nuclear scientist Fereydoon Abbasi.[43][44] Meir Dagan – who served as Director of the Mossad from 2002 until 2009 – while not taking credit for the assassinations, praised them in an interview with a journalist, saying “the removal of important brains” from the Iranian nuclear project had achieved so-called “white defections,” frightening other Iranian nuclear scientists into requesting that they be transferred to civilian projects.[36] In early February 2012, Mossad director Tamir Pardo met with U.S. national security officials in Washington, D.C. to sound them out on possible American reactions in the event Israel attacked Iran over the objections of the United States.[45] Assistance in the defection and rescuing of the family of Munir Redfa, an Iraqi pilot who defected and flew his MiG-21 to Israel in 1966: “Operation Diamond”. Redfa’s entire family was also successfully smuggled from Iraq to Israel. Previously unknown information about the MiG-21 was subsequently shared with the United States. Operation Sphinx[19] Between 1978 and 1981, obtained highly sensitive information about Iraq’s Osirak nuclear reactor by recruiting an Iraqi nuclear scientist in France. Operation Bramble Bush II In the 1990s, the Mossad began scouting locations in Iraq where Saddam Hussein could be ambushed by Sayeret Matkal commandos inserted into Iraq from Jordan. The mission was called off due to Operation Desert Fox and the ongoing Israeli-Arab peace process. In what is thought to have been a reprisal action for a Hamas suicide-bombing in Jerusalem on July 30, 1997 that killed 16 Israelis, Benjamin Netanyahu authorised an operation against Khaled Mashal, the Hamas representative in Jordan.[46] On September 25, 1997, Mashal was injected in the ear with a toxin (thought to have been a derivative of the synthetic opiate Fentanyl called Levofentanyl).[47][48] Jordanian authorities apprehended two Mossad agents posing as Canadian tourists and trapped a further six in the Israeli embassy. In exchange for their release, an Israeli physician had to fly to Amman and deliver an antidote for Mashal. The fallout from the failed killing eventually led to the release of Sheik Ahmed Yassin, the founder and spiritual leader of the Hamas movement, and scores of Hamas prisoners. Netanyahu flew into Amman on September 29 to apologize personally to King Hussein, but was met instead by the King’s brother, Crown Prince Hassan.[47] The provision of intelligence and operational assistance in the 1973 Operation Spring of Youth special forces raid on Beirut. The sending of letter bombs to PFLP member Bassam Abu Sharif. Sharif was severely wounded, but survived.[49] The targeted killing of Ali Hassan Salameh, the leader of Black September, on January 22, 1979 in Beirut by a car bomb.[50][51] The killing of the Palestinian writer and leading PFLP member Ghassan Kanafani, also by a car bomb, in 1972.[52] Providing intelligence for the killing of Abbas al-Musawi, secretary general of Hezbollah, in Beirut in 1992.[15] Allegedly killed Jihad Ahmed Jibril, the leader of the military wing of the PFLP-GC, in Beirut in 2002.[53] Allegedly killed Ghaleb Awwali, a senior Hezbollah official, in Beirut in 2004.[54] Allegedly killed Mahmoud al-Majzoub, a leader of Palestinian Islamic Jihad, in Sidon in 2006.[55] The Mossad was suspected of establishing a large spy network in Lebanon, recruited from Druze, Christian, and Sunni Muslim communities, and officials in the Lebanese government, to spy on Hezbollah and its Iranian Revolutionary Guard advisors. Some have allegedly been active since the 1982 Lebanon War. In 2009, Lebanese Security Services supported by Hezbollah’s intelligence unit, and working in collaboration with Syria, Iran, and possibly Russia, launched a major crackdown which resulted in the arrests of around 100 alleged spies “working for Israel”.[56] Previously, in 2006, the Lebanese army uncovered a network that allegedly assassinated several Lebanese and Palestinian leaders on behalf of Israeli intelligence agency Mossad.[57] In a September 2003 news article, it was alleged by Rediff News that General Pervez Musharaf, the then-President of Pakistan, decided to establish a clandestine relationship between Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) and Mossad via officers of the two services posted at their embassies in Washington, DC. In January 2009 it was alleged by Indian news agencies that Mossad officers led a rescue mission to extract an Indian former member of parliament and an Israeli cultural attache who were arrested on the charges of producing methamphetamine. Eli Cohen infiltrated the highest echelons of the Syrian government, was a close friend of the Syrian President, and was considered for the post of Minister of Defense. He gave his handlers a complete plan of the Syrian defenses on the Golan Heights, the Syrian Armed Forces order of battle, and a complete list of the Syrian military’s weapons inventory. He also ordered the planting of trees by every Syrian fortified position under the pretext of shading soldiers, but the trees actually served as targeting markers for the Israel Defense Forces. He was discovered by Syrian and Soviet intelligence, tried in secret, and executed publicly in 1965.[58] His information played a crucial role during the Six Day War. The alleged killing of Izz El-Deen Sheikh Khalil, a senior member of the military wing of Hamas, in an automobile booby trap in September 2004 in Damascus.[59] The alleged killing of Muhammad Suleiman, head of Syria’s nuclear program, in 2008. Suleiman was killed by a sniper firing from a boat while on a beach in Tartus.[60] The alleged killing of Imad Mughniyah, a senior leader of Hezbollah complicit in the 1983 United States embassy bombing, with an exploding headrest in Damascus in 2008.[61] The Mossad is suspected of killing Mahmoud al-Mabhouh, a senior Hamas military commander, in January 2010 at Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The team which carried out the killing is estimated, on the basis of CCTV and other evidence, to have consisted of at least 26 agents traveling on bogus passports. The operatives entered al-Mabhouh’s hotel room, where Mabhouh was subjected to electric shocks and interrogated. The door to his room was reported to have been locked from the inside.[62][63][64][65][66] Although the UAE police and Hamas have declared Israel responsible for the killing, no direct evidence linking Mossad to the crime has been found. The agents’ bogus passports included six British passports, cloned from those of real British nationals resident in Israel and suspected by Dubai, five Irish passports, apparently forged from those of living individuals,[67] forged Australian passports that raised fears of reprisal against innocent victims of identity theft,[68] a genuine German passport and a false French passport. Emirati police say they have fingerprint and DNA evidence of some of the attackers, as well as retinal scans of 11 suspects recorded at Dubai airport.[69][70] Dubai’s police chief has said “I am now completely sure that it was Mossad,” adding: “I have presented the (Dubai) prosecutor with a request for the arrest of (Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin) Netanyahu and the head of Mossad,” for the murder.[71] In September 1956, the Mossad established a secretive network in Morocco to smuggle Moroccan Jews to Israel after a ban on immigration to Israel was imposed.[72] In early 1991, two Mossad operatives infiltrated the Moroccan port of Casablanca and planted a tracking device on the freighter Al-Yarmouk, which was carrying a cargo of North Korean missiles bound for Syria. The ship was to be sunk by the Israeli Air Force, but the mission was later called off by Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin.[73] The 1988 killing of Khalil al-Wazir (Abu Jihad), a founder of Fatah.[74] The alleged killing of Salah Khalaf, head of intelligence of the PLO and second in command of Fatah behind Yasser Arafat, in 1991.[75] For Operation Entebbe in 1976, Mossad provided intelligence regarding Entebbe International Airport[76] and extensively interviewed hostages who had been released.[77] After the Mossad discovered the presence of two Iranian agents in Johannesburg[when?] on a mission to procure advanced weapons systems from Denel, a Mossad agent was deployed, and met up with a local Jewish contact. Posing as South African intelligence, they abducted the Iranians, drove them to a warehouse, and beat and intimidated them before forcing them to leave the country.[78] After the 1994 AMIA bombing, the largest bombing in Argentine history, the Mossad began gathering intelligence for a raid by Israeli Special Forces on the Iranian embassy in Khartoum as retaliation. The operation was called off due to fears that another attack against worldwide Jewish communities might take place as revenge. The Mossad also assisted in Operation Moses, the evacuation of Ethiopian Jews to Israel from a famine-ridden region of Sudan in 1984, also maintaining a relationship with the Ethiopian government. The Mossad secretly evacuated Zimbabwean Jews out of the country due to fears of persecution by the Zimbabwean government, which was allied with the Palestine Liberation Organization and Libya.[when?] The Mossad infiltrated the Zimbabwean government’s Central Intelligence Organization, in response to the supply of uranium from the Congo via Zimbabwe to North Korea, Syria, and Iran.[citation needed] In July 2004, New Zealand imposed diplomatic sanctions on Israel over an incident in which two Australian based Israelis, Uriel Kelman and Eli Cara, who were allegedly working for Mossad, attempted to fraudulently obtain New Zealand passports by claiming the identity of a severely disabled man. Israeli Foreign Minister Silvan Shalom later apologized to New Zealand for their actions. New Zealand cancelled several other passports believed to have been obtained by Israeli agents.[79] Both Kelman and Cara served half of their six-month sentences and, upon release, were deported to Israel. Two others, an Israeli, Ze’ev Barkan, and a New Zealander, David Reznick, are believed to have been the third and fourth men involved in the passport affair but they both managed to leave New Zealand before being apprehended.[80] Mossad may have been involved in the 2004 explosion of Ryongchon, where several Syrian nuclear scientists working on the Syrian and Iranian nuclear-weapons programs were killed and a train carrying fissionable material was destroyed.[25] Template:Israeli Intelligence CommunityTemplate:External national intelligence agencies ar:az:Mossadbe:bg:bs:Mossadbr:Mossadca:Mossadcs:Mosadcy:Mossadda:Mossadde:Mossadet:Mossadel:es:Mosadeo:Mosadoeu:Mossadfa:fr:Mossadfy:Mossadko:hr:Mossadid:Mossadis:Mossadit:Mossadhe: jv:Mossadka:ht:Mossadku:Mossadlad:Mosadlv:Mossadlt:Mossadhu:Moszadml:arz:ms:Mossadnl:Mossadnew:ja:no:Mossadnn:Mossadps:pl:Mossadpt:Mossadro:Mosadru:sq:Mossadsimple:Mossadsk:Mosadsl:Mosadckb:sr:fi:Mossadsv:Mossadta:tr:Mossaduk:ur:vi:Mossadyi: ()zh:

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Mossad – definition of Mossad by The Free Dictionary

. (Government, Politics & Diplomacy) the secret intelligence service of Israel [C20: Hebrew Mosad LeModi’in U-LeTafkidim Miyuhadim establishment for information and special tasks] ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend: Translations n Mossad m (israelischer Geheimdienst)

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Mossad | Military Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia

Coordinates: 320844N 345040E / 32.145494N 34.844344E / 32.145494; 34.844344 The Mossad (Hebrew: , IPA:[ha mosad]; Arabic language: , al-Msd; literally meaning “the Institute”), short for HaMossad leModiin uleTafkidim Meyuadim (Hebrew: , meaning “Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations”; Arabic language: al-Msd lil-Istikhbrt wal-Mahmm al-Khah), is the national intelligence agency of Israel. It is one of the main entities in the Israeli Intelligence Community, along with Aman (military intelligence) and Shin Bet (internal security). The Mossad is responsible for intelligence collection, covert operations, and counterterrorism, as well as bringing Jews to Israel from countries where official Aliyah agencies are forbidden, and protecting Jewish communities. Its director reports directly to the Prime Minister. The largest department of the Mossad is Collections, tasked with many aspects of conducting espionage overseas. Employees in the Collections Department operate under a variety of covers, including diplomatic and unofficial.[1] The Political Action and Liaison Department is responsible for working with allied foreign intelligence services, and nations that have no normal diplomatic relations with Israel.[1] Additionally, the Mossad has a Research Department, tasked with intelligence production, and a Technology Department concerned with the development of tools for Mossad activities.[2] Mossad was formed on December 13, 1949, as the “Central Institute for Coordination” at the recommendation of Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion to Reuven Shiloah. Ben Gurion wanted a central body to coordinate and improve cooperation between the existing security servicesthe army’s intelligence department (AMAN), the Internal Security Service (Shin Bet), and the foreign office’s “political department”. In March 1951, it was reorganized and made a part of the prime minister’s office, reporting directly to the prime minister. Mossad’s former motto, be-tachblt ta`aseh lekh milchmh (Hebrew: ) is a quote from the Bible (Proverbs 24:6): “For by wise guidance you can wage your war” (NRSV). The motto was later changed to another Proverbs passage: be-‘yn tachblt yippol `m; -tesh`h be-rov y’ts (Hebrew: , , Proverbs 11:14). This is translated by NRSV as: “Where there is no guidance, a nation falls, but in an abundance of counselors there is safety.” The Kidon is described by Yaakov Katz as “an elite group of expert assassins who operate under the Caesarea branch of the espionage organization. Not much is known about this mysterious unit, details of which are some of the most closely guarded secrets in the Israeli intelligence community.” The unit only recruits from “former soldiers from the elite IDF special force units.”[3] In 1960, the Mossad discovered that the Nazi leader Adolf Eichmann was in Argentina. A team of five Mossad agents led by Shimon Ben Aharon slipped into Argentina and through surveillance, confirmed that he had been living there under the name of Ricardo Klement. He was abducted on May 11, 1960 and taken to a hideout. He was subsequently smuggled to Israel, where he was tried and executed. Argentina protested what it considered as the violation of its sovereignty, and the United Nations Security Council noted that “repetition of acts such as [this] would involve a breach of the principles upon which international order is founded, creating an atmosphere of insecurity and distrust incompatible with the preservation of peace” while also acknowledging that “Eichmann should be brought to appropriate justice for the crimes of which he is accused” and that “this resolution should in no way be interpreted as condoning the odious crimes of which Eichmann is accused.”[5][6] Mossad abandoned a second operation, intended to capture Josef Mengele.[7] During the 1990s, the Mossad discovered a Hezbollah agent operating within the United States in order to procure materials needed to manufacture IEDs and other weapons. In a joint operation with U.S. intelligence, the agent was kept under surveillance in hopes that he would betray more Hezbollah operatives, but was eventually arrested.[8] The Mossad informed the and CIA in August 2001 that based on its intelligence as many as 200 terrorists were slipping into the United States and planning “a major assault on the United States.” The Israeli intelligence agency cautioned the FBI that it had picked up indications of a “large-scale target” in the United States and that Americans would be “very vulnerable.”[9] However, “It is not known whether U.S. authorities thought the warning to be credible, or whether it contained enough details to allow counter-terrorism teams to come up with a response,”[10] A month later, terrorists struck at the World Trade Center and the Pentagon.[9] Mossad assassinated Latvian Nazi collaborator Herberts Cukurs in 1965.[11] The Mossad gathered information on Austrian politician Jrg Haider using a mole.[12] The Mossad is alleged to be responsible for the killing of Canadian engineer and ballistics expert Gerald Bull on March 22, 1990. He was shot multiple times in the head outside his Brussels apartment.[13] Bull was at the time working for Iraq on the Project Babylon supergun.[14] Others, including Bull’s son, believe that the Mossad is taking credit for an act they did not commit to scare off others who may try to help enemy regimes. The alternative theory is that Bull was killed by the CIA. Iraq and Iran are also candidates for suspicion.[15] Assisted in air and overland evacuations of Bosnian Jews from war-torn Sarajevo to Israel in 1992 and 1993.[citation needed] The killing of Hussein Al Bashir in Nicosia, Cyprus, in 1973 in relation to the Munich massacre.[16] Cherbourg Project – Operation Noa, the 1969 smuggling of five Sa’ar 3-class missile boats out of Cherbourg. The alleged killing of Zuheir Mohsen, a pro-Syrian member of the PLO in 1979.[17] The alleged killing of Atef Bseiso, a top intelligence officer of the PLO in Paris in 1992. French police believe that a team of assassins followed Atef Bseiso from Berlin, where that first team connected with another team to close in on him in front of a Left Bank hotel, where he received three head-shots at point blank range.[18] The killing of Yehia El-Mashad, the head of the Iraq nuclear weapons program, in 1980.[19] The killing of Dr. Mahmoud Hamshari, coordinator of the Munich massacre, with an exploding telephone in his Paris apartment in 1972.[16] The killing of Dr. Basil Al-Kubaissi, who was involved in the Munich massacre, in Paris in 1973.[16] The killing of Mohammad Boudia, member of the PFLP, in Paris in 1973.[16] On April 5, 1979, Mossad agents are believed to have triggered an explosion which destroyed 60 percent of components being built in Toulouse for an Iraqi reactor. Although an environmental organization, Groupe des cologistes franais, unheard of before this incident, claimed credit for the blast,[20] most French officials discount the claim. The reactor itself was subsequently destroyed by an Israeli air strike in 1981.[20][21] The Mossad allegedly assisted Morocco’s domestic security service in the disappearance of dissident politician Mehdi Ben Barka in 1965.[22] Operation Plumbat (1968) was an operation by Lekem-Mossad to further Israel’s nuclear program. The German freighter “Scheersberg A” disappeared on its way from Antwerp to Genoa along with its cargo of 200 tons of yellowcake, after supposedly being transferred to an Israeli ship.[23] The sending of letter bombs during the Operation Wrath of God campaign. Some of these attacks were not fatal. Their purpose might not have been to kill the receiver. Some of the more famous examples of the Mossad letter bombs were those sent to Nazi war-criminal Alois Brunner.[24] The alleged targeted killing of Dr Wadie Haddad, using poisoned chocolate, in 1978. The PFLP-EO movement dissolved after his killing.[citation needed] The Mossad discovered that Hezbollah had recruited a German national named Steven Smyrek, and that he was travelling to Israel. In an operation conducted by the Mossad, the CIA, the German Internal Security agency Bundesamt fr Verfassungsschutz (BfV), and the Israeli Internal Security agency Shin Bet, Smyrek was kept under constant surveillance, and arrested as soon as he landed in Israel.[25] Mossad is alleged to have been involved in industrial espionage in Germany. In the late 1990s, the head of the BfV reportedly warned his department chiefs that Mossad remained a prime threat in stealing the country’s latest computer secrets.[26] The killing of Zaiad Muchasi, Fatah representative to Cyprus, by an explosion in his Athens hotel room in 1973.[16] The killing of Wael Zwaiter, thought to be a member of Black September.[27][28] In 1986, Mossad used an undercover agent to lure nuclear whistleblower Mordechai Vanunu from the United Kingdom to Italy in a honey trap style operation where he was abducted and shipped to Israel where he was tried and found guilty of treason because of his role in exposing Israel’s nuclear programme.[29] The killing of Fathi Shiqaqi. Shiqaqi, a leader of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad, was shot several times in the head in 1995 in front of the Diplomat Hotel in Sliema, Malta.[30] On July 21, 1973, Ahmed Bouchiki, a waiter in Lillehammer, Norway, was killed by Mossad agents. He had been mistaken for Ali Hassan Salameh, one of the leaders of Black September, the Palestinian group responsible for the Munich massacre, who had been given shelter in Norway. The Mossad agents had used fake Canadian passports, which angered the Canadian government. Six Mossad agents were arrested, and the incident became known as the Lillehammer affair. Israel subsequently paid compensation to Bouchiki’s family.[29][31][32] Mossad assisted the UK Intelligence organisation MI5 following the 7/7 bombings in London. According to the 2007 edition of a book about the Mossad titled Gideons Spies, shortly after the 7/7 London underground bombings, MI5 gathered evidence that a senior al-Qaeda operative known only by the alias Mustafa travelled in and out of Britain shortly before the 7/7 bombings. For months, the real identity of Mustafa remained unknown, but in early October 2005, Mossad told MI5 that this person was, in fact, Azhari Husin, a bomb-making expert with Jemaah Islamiyah, the main al-Qaeda affiliate in Southeast Asia. Husin studied in Britain and reports claim that he met the main 7/7 bomber, Mohammad Sidique Khan, in late 2001 in a militant training camp in the Philippines (see Late 2001). Meir Dagan, the then head of Mossad, apparently also told MI5 that Husin helped plan and recruit volunteers for the bombings. Mossad claimed that Husin may have been in London at the time of the bombings, and then fled to al-Qaedas principal haven in the tribal area of Pakistan, where he sometimes hid after bombings. Husin was killed in a shootout in Indonesia in November 2005.[33] Later official British government reports about the 7/7 bombings did not mention Husin.[34] In February 1998, five Mossad agents were caught wiretapping the home of a Hezbollah agent in a Bern suburb. Four agents were freed, but the fifth was tried, found guilty, sentenced to one year in prison, and following his release was banned from entering Switzerland for five years.[35] The Mossad was involved in outreach to Refuseniks in the Soviet Union during the crackdown on Soviet Jews in the 50’s, 60’s, 70’s, and 80’s. Mossad helped establish contact with Refuseniks in the USSR, and helped them acquire Jewish religious items, banned by the Soviet government, in addition to passing communications into and out of the USSR. Many rabbinical students from Western countries travelled to the Soviet Union as part of this program in order to establish and maintain contact with refuseniks. In February 2011, a Palestinian engineer, Dirar Abu Seesi, was allegedly pulled off a train by Mossad agents en route to the capital Kiev from Kharkiv. He had been planning to apply for Ukrainian citizenship, and reappeared in an Israeli jail only 3 weeks after the incident.[36] Prior to the Iranian Revolution of 197879, SAVAK (Organization of National Security and Information), the Iranian secret police and intelligence service was created under the guidance of United States and Israeli intelligence officers in 1957.[38] After security relations between the United States and Iran grew more distant in the early 1960s which led the CIA training team to leave Iran, Mossad became increasingly active in Iran, “training SAVAK personnel and carrying out a broad variety of joint operations with SAVAK.”[citation needed] A US intelligence official told The Washington Post that Israel orchestrated the defection of Iranian general Ali Reza Askari on February 7, 2007.[39] This has been denied by Israeli spokesman Mark Regev. The Sunday Times reported that Askari had been a Mossad asset since 2003, and left only when his cover was about to be blown.[40] Le Figaro claimed that the Mossad was possibly behind a blast at the Iranian Revolutionary Guard’s Imam Ali military base, on October 12, 2010. The explosion at the base killed 18 and injured 10 others. Among the dead was also general Hassan Tehrani Moghaddam, who served as the commander of the Revolutionary Guards missile program and was a crucial figure in building Irans long-range missile program.[41] The base is believed to store long-range missiles, including the Shahab-3, and also has hangars. It is one of Iran’s most secure military bases.[42] Iranian Intelligence Minister Heydar Moslehi has accused Mossad of assassination plots and killings of Iranian physicists in 2010. Reports have noted that such information has not yet been evidently proven. Iranian state TV broadcast a stated confession from Majid Jamali-Fash, an Iranian man who claimed to have visited Israel to be trained by the Mossad.[43] The Mossad has been accused of assassinating Masoud Alimohammadi, Ardeshir Hosseinpour, Majid Shahriari, Darioush Rezaeinejad and Mostafa Ahmadi-Roshan; scientists involved in the Iranian nuclear program. It is also suspected of being behind the attempted assassination of Iranian nuclear scientist Fereydoon Abbasi.[44] Meir Dagan, who served as Director of the Mossad from 2002 until 2009, while not taking credit for the assassinations, praised them in an interview with a journalist, saying “the removal of important brains” from the Iranian nuclear project had achieved so-called “white defections,” frightening other Iranian nuclear scientists into requesting that they be transferred to civilian projects.[37] In early February 2012, Mossad director Tamir Pardo met with U.S. national security officials in Washington, D.C. to sound them out on possible American reactions in the event Israel attacked Iran over the objections of the United States.[45] MiG-21 at the Israeli Air Force Museum in Hatzerim Assistance in the defection and rescuing of the family of Munir Redfa, an Iraqi pilot who defected and flew his MiG-21 to Israel in 1966: “Operation Diamond”. Redfa’s entire family was also successfully smuggled from Iraq to Israel. Previously unknown information about the MiG-21 was subsequently shared with the United States. Operation Sphinx[20] Between 1978 and 1981, obtained highly sensitive information about Iraq’s Osirak nuclear reactor by recruiting an Iraqi nuclear scientist in France. Operation Bramble Bush II In the 1990s, the Mossad began scouting locations in Iraq where Saddam Hussein could be ambushed by Sayeret Matkal commandos inserted into Iraq from Jordan. The mission was called off due to Operation Desert Fox and the ongoing Israeli-Arab peace process. In what is thought to have been a reprisal action for a Hamas suicide-bombing in Jerusalem on July 30, 1997 that killed 16 Israelis, Benjamin Netanyahu authorised an operation against Khaled Mashal, the Hamas representative in Jordan.[46] On September 25, 1997, Mashal was injected in the ear with a toxin (thought to have been a derivative of the synthetic opiate Fentanyl called Levofentanyl).[47][48] Jordanian authorities apprehended two Mossad agents posing as Canadian tourists and trapped a further six in the Israeli embassy. In exchange for their release, an Israeli physician had to fly to Amman and deliver an antidote for Mashal. The fallout from the failed killing eventually led to the release of Sheik Ahmed Yassin, the founder and spiritual leader of the Hamas movement, and scores of Hamas prisoners. Netanyahu flew into Amman on September 29 to apologize personally to King Hussein, but was met instead by the King’s brother, Crown Prince Hassan.[47] The provision of intelligence and operational assistance in the 1973 Operation Spring of Youth special forces raid on Beirut. The sending of letter bombs to PFLP member Bassam Abu Sharif. Sharif was severely wounded, but survived.[49] The targeted killing of Ali Hassan Salameh, the leader of Black September, on January 22, 1979 in Beirut by a car bomb.[50][51] The killing of the Palestinian writer and leading PFLP member Ghassan Kanafani, also by a car bomb, in 1972.[52] Providing intelligence for the killing of Abbas al-Musawi, secretary general of Hezbollah, in Beirut in 1992.[16] Allegedly killed Jihad Ahmed Jibril, the leader of the military wing of the PFLP-GC, in Beirut in 2002.[53] Allegedly killed Ali Hussein Saleh, member of Hezbollah, in Beirut in 2003.[54] Allegedly killed Ghaleb Awwali, a senior Hezbollah official, in Beirut in 2004.[55] Allegedly killed Mahmoud al-Majzoub, a leader of Palestinian Islamic Jihad, in Sidon in 2006.[56] The Mossad was suspected of establishing a large spy network in Lebanon, recruited from Druze, Christian, and Sunni Muslim communities, and officials in the Lebanese government, to spy on Hezbollah and its Iranian Revolutionary Guard advisors. Some have allegedly been active since the 1982 Lebanon War. In 2009, Lebanese Security Services supported by Hezbollah’s intelligence unit, and working in collaboration with Syria, Iran, and possibly Russia, launched a major crackdown which resulted in the arrests of around 100 alleged spies “working for Israel”.[57] Previously, in 2006, the Lebanese army uncovered a network that allegedly assassinated several Lebanese and Palestinian leaders on behalf of Israeli intelligence agency Mossad.[58] Eli Cohen infiltrated the highest echelons of the Syrian government, was a close friend of the Syrian President, and was considered for the post of Minister of Defense. He gave his handlers a complete plan of the Syrian defenses on the Golan Heights, the Syrian Armed Forces order of battle, and a complete list of the Syrian military’s weapons inventory. He also ordered the planting of trees by every Syrian fortified position under the pretext of shading soldiers, but the trees actually served as targeting markers for the Israel Defense Forces. He was discovered by Syrian and Soviet intelligence, tried in secret, and executed publicly in 1965.[59] His information played a crucial role during the Six Day War. On 1 April 1978, 12 Syrian military and secret service personnel were killed by a sophisticated Israeli listening device planted on the main telephone cable between Damascus and Jordan.[60] The alleged death of General Anatoly Kuntsevich, who from the late 1990s was suspected of aiding the Syrians in the manufacture of VX nerve-gas, in exchange for which he was paid huge amounts of money by the Syrian government. On April 3, 2002, Kuntsevich died mysteriously during a plane journey, amid allegations that Mossad was responsible.[60] The alleged killing of Izz El-Deen Sheikh Khalil, a senior member of the military wing of Hamas, in an automobile booby trap in September 2004 in Damascus.[61] The uncovering of a nuclear reactor being built in Syria as a result of surveillance by Mossad of Syrian officials working under the command of Muhammad Suleiman. As a result, the Syrian nuclear reactor was destroyed by Israeli Air Forces in September 2007 (see Operation Orchard), while Suleiman was assassinated by Israel a year later.[60] The alleged killing of Muhammad Suleiman, head of Syria’s nuclear program, in 2008. Suleiman was on a beach in Tartus and was killed by a sniper firing from a boat.[62] On July 25, 2007, the al-Safir chemical weapons depot exploded, killing 15 Syrian personnel as well as 10 Iranian engineers. Syrian investigations blamed Israeli sabotage.[60] The alleged killing of Imad Mughniyah, a senior leader of Hezbollah complicit in the 1983 United States embassy bombing, with an exploding headrest in Damascus in 2008.[63] The decomposed body of Yuri Ivanov, the deputy head of the GRU, Russia’s foreign military intelligence service, was found on a Turkish beach in early August 2010,[64] amid allegations that Mossad may have played a role. He had disappeared while staying near Latakia, Syria.[65] The Mossad is suspected of killing Mahmoud al-Mabhouh, a senior Hamas military commander, in January 2010 at Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The team which carried out the killing is estimated, on the basis of CCTV and other evidence, to have consisted of at least 26 agents traveling on bogus passports. The operatives entered al-Mabhouh’s hotel room, where Mabhouh was subjected to electric shocks and interrogated. The door to his room was reported to have been locked from the inside.[66][67][68][69][70] Although the UAE police and Hamas have declared Israel responsible for the killing, no direct evidence linking Mossad to the crime has been found. The agents’ bogus passports included six British passports, cloned from those of real British nationals resident in Israel and suspected by Dubai, five Irish passports, apparently forged from those of living individuals,[71] forged Australian passports that raised fears of reprisal against innocent victims of identity theft,[72] a genuine German passport and a false French passport. Emirati police say they have fingerprint and DNA evidence of some of the attackers, as well as retinal scans of 11 suspects recorded at Dubai airport.[73][74] Dubai’s police chief has said “I am now completely sure that it was Mossad,” adding: “I have presented the (Dubai) prosecutor with a request for the arrest of (Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin) Netanyahu and the head of Mossad,” for the murder.[75] In September 1956, the Mossad established a secretive network in Morocco to smuggle Moroccan Jews to Israel after a ban on immigration to Israel was imposed.[76] In early 1991, two Mossad operatives infiltrated the Moroccan port of Casablanca and planted a tracking device on the freighter Al-Yarmouk, which was carrying a cargo of North Korean missiles bound for Syria. The ship was to be sunk by the Israeli Air Force, but the mission was later called off by Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin.[77] The 1988 killing of Khalil al-Wazir (Abu Jihad), a founder of Fatah.[78] The alleged killing of Salah Khalaf, head of intelligence of the PLO and second in command of Fatah behind Yasser Arafat, in 1991.[79] For Operation Entebbe in 1976, Mossad provided intelligence regarding Entebbe International Airport[80] and extensively interviewed hostages who had been released.[81] In the late 1990s, after the Mossad was tipped off to the presence of two Iranian agents in Johannesburg on a mission to procure advanced weapons systems from Denel, a Mossad agent was deployed, and met up with a local Jewish contact. Posing as South African intelligence, they abducted the Iranians, drove them to a warehouse, and beat and intimidated them before forcing them to leave the country.[82] After the 1994 AMIA bombing, the largest bombing in Argentine history, the Mossad began gathering intelligence for a raid by Israeli Special Forces on the Iranian embassy in Khartoum as retaliation. The operation was called off due to fears that another attack against worldwide Jewish communities might take place as revenge. The Mossad also assisted in Operation Moses, the evacuation of Ethiopian Jews to Israel from a famine-ridden region of Sudan in 1984, also maintaining a relationship with the Ethiopian government. The Mossad secretly evacuated Zimbabwean Jews out of the country due to fears of persecution by the Zimbabwean government, which was allied with the Palestine Liberation Organization and Libya.[when?] The Mossad infiltrated the Zimbabwean government’s Central Intelligence Organization, in response to the supply of uranium from the Congo via Zimbabwe to North Korea, Syria, and Iran.[citation needed] In July 2004, New Zealand imposed diplomatic sanctions on Israel over an incident in which two Australian based Israelis, Uriel Kelman and Eli Cara, who were allegedly working for Mossad, attempted to fraudulently obtain New Zealand passports by claiming the identity of a severely disabled man. Israeli Foreign Minister Silvan Shalom later apologized to New Zealand for their actions. New Zealand cancelled several other passports believed to have been obtained by Israeli agents.[83] Both Kelman and Cara served half of their six-month sentences and, upon release, were deported to Israel. Two others, an Israeli, Ze’ev Barkan, and a New Zealander, David Reznick, are believed to have been the third and fourth men involved in the passport affair but they both managed to leave New Zealand before being apprehended.[84] In a September 2003 news article, it was alleged by Rediff News that General Pervez Musharaf, the then-President of Pakistan, decided to establish a clandestine relationship between Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) and Mossad via officers of the two services posted at their embassies in Washington, DC. Mossad may have been involved in the 2004 explosion of Ryongchon, where several Syrian nuclear scientists working on the Syrian and Iranian nuclear-weapons programs were killed and a train carrying fissionable material was destroyed.[85]

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November 4, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Mossad  Comments Closed

MOSSAD – What does MOSSAD stand for? The Free Dictionary

The Mossad agents at the Athens airport reconfirmed the positive identification, adding: “The objective has grown a longer beard to mislead.The Mossad is responsible for collecting intelligence and conducting secret operations, and the management of espionage operations outside Israel.We have come to know that Home Minister Rajnath Singh has met the Mossad chief in Delhi.Il a note que le Mossad avait pas utilise une nouvelle technique pour [beaucoup moins que]mener a bien[beaucoup plus grand que] l’assassinat, et a souligne que c’est une pratique courante que le meurtre ait lieu apres que l'[beaucoup moins que]appat[beaucoup plus grand que] a quitte la scene.Skorzeny later lured Krug to a meeting in Spain, pretending to be offering security advice on ways to protect himself from Mossad spies.The Mossad described Dagan as a distinguished member of the Israeli establishment community revered by many both at home and abroad.In 2012 Mossad told South African intelligence that Iran “does not appear to be ready” to enrich uranium to the higher levels necessary for nuclear weapons, regardless of the fact that their prime minister was telling the UN General Assmbly that Iran was close to having nuclear weapons.The Mossad conclusion thus serves a religious purpose.Israel’s cabinet on Sunday appointed Yossi Cohen, the outgoing deputy director of the Mossad spy agency, as national security adviser and National Security Council chief, the premier’s office said.The state-owned newspaper Al-Ahram reported the private sector employee is accused of working as a spy for the Israeli Mossad intelligence agency.htm) Israeli-Australian Mossad spy who allegedly committed suicide at a high-security prison in Tel Aviv, was jailed for leaking secrets to Hezbollah in Lebanon, according to a report on a German newspaper.The reason, it turns out, was that he had been recruited by Mossad, the Israeli external intelligence agency, to supply it with Australian passports for use in its foreign operations.

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September 23, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Mossad  Comments Closed

List of Israeli assassinations – Wikipedia

DatePlaceLocationTargetDescriptionActionExecutorNovember 9, 2000Beit SahurWest BankHussein Mohammed Abayat (37);Abayat was a senior official of the Fatah faction Tanzim.Killed while driving his Mitsubishi by a Hellfire anti-tank missile fired from an Israeli Apache helicopter. Rahma Sheibat, (50); Aziza Dannoun Jobran (52), two local women, were killed by a second missile, and Nazhmi Sheibat and his wife were also injured. Accused of shooting at the Gilo settlement.[5][53][55]Israel Defense Forces[56]November 22, 2000MoragGaza StripJamal Abdel Raziq (39), and Awni Dhuheir (38).[57]Senior official of the Fatah faction TanzimKilled on the Rafah-Khan Yunis western road near the junction leading to Morag settlement while in a Honda Civic with the driver, Awni Dhuheir when their car was machine-gunned from two tanks at close range. The first version, they were about to attack Morag; the second version, Raziq was targeted after firing at IDF soldiers. His uncle was later sentenced to death for collaborating in his nephew’s death by furnishing Israel with details.[53] Two bystanders in a taxi behind them also killed (Sami Abu Laban, 29, baker, and Nael Shehdeh El-Leddawi, 25, student).[57][58]November 23, 2000NablusWest BankIbrahim ‘Abd al-Karim Bani ‘Odeh (34)Unknown. Had been jailed for 3 years by the PNA until two weeks before his death.Killed while driving a Subaru near Al-Salam mosque. Israeli version, he died from his own rudimentary bomb. Palestinian version: his cousin Allan Bani Oudeh confessed to collaborating with Israel in an assassination, and was convicted and shot in Jan 2001.[53]?[56]December 11, 2000NablusWest BankAnwar Mahmoud Hamran (28)A PIJ bombing suspect. Jailed for 2 years by PNA and released 6 weeks before his death.Targeted on a campus of Al-Quds Open University while waiting for a taxi-cab. Shot 19 times by a sniper at 500 yards. IDF version shot by soldiers in self-defence. Palestinian version, he died with books in his hand.[5][53][56]Israel Defense ForcesDecember 12, 2000al-KhaderWest BankYusef Ahmad Mahmoud Abu Sawi (28)UnknownTargeted and shot by a sniper at 200 metres, 17 bullets.[56]December 13, 2000HebronWest BankAbbas Othman El-Oweiwi(25)Hamas activistTargeted and shot 3 times in head and chest by a sniper while standing in front of his store in Wadi Al-Tuffah Street.[53][56]December 14, 2000BurinWest BankSaed Ibrahim Taha al-Kharuf (35)Targeted and shot dead. rowspan=2|Israel Defense Forces.[56]

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September 6, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Mossad  Comments Closed

Israel’s Mossad may be behind car bombing that killed top …

The New York Times reported that Israel’s famed spy agency may have planted a car bomb that killed a top Syrian rocket scientist. The Mossad, Israels famed spy agency, may have been behind the Saturday car bombing in the Syrian city of Masyaf that killed one of Demascus’ most important rocket scientists, The New York Times reported on Monday. The paper cited a senior official from an intelligence agency that focuses on the Middle East. The official spoke on the condition of anonymity. Israel has reportedly dismissed news reports in Syria and Lebanon that suggested its spies were behind the bombing. The Times reported that the killing of Aziz Asbar was at least the fourth assassination attempt by Israel in the past three years on foreign soil. Asbar was a major player in the country and had his own security detail, the report said. He worked on precision-guided missiles that could threaten Israeli cities. The report said he most recently worked at Syrias low-technology arsenal of rockets. His reported goal was to improve the arsenal and make it more accurate. The Mossad, long shrouded in mystery and mythology, is legendary in international intelligence circles for being behind what are believed to be some of the most daring covert operations of the past century. Only a few have come to light and often only years later. Asbar was reportedly being eyed by Israel for a while. The Times reported that Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Defense Minister Avigdor Lieberman did not comment for the report. Only Netanyahu could order an assassination, the report said. Every day in the Middle East there are hundreds of explosions and settling of scores, Lieberman told Israels Channel 2. Every time they try to place the blame on us. So we wont take this too seriously. The Associated Press contributed to this report Edmund DeMarche is a news editor for FoxNews.com. Follow him on Twitter @EDeMarche.

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August 10, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Mossad  Comments Closed

Mossad – Home | Facebook

www.nightofheroes.co.uk/nominate Just 5 days remaining to nominate your Israel Hero: Stand-out heroes based in Israel that have contributed to the well-being or betterment of the country – whether in the charity sector, science, innovation or humanitarian work.

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August 5, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Mossad  Comments Closed

Israel Intelligence & Security: The Mossad

When the State of Israel was declared, David Ben-Gurion, Israels first Prime Minister, expressed his views on the necessity of creating intelligence agencies to operate on behalf of the nascent state. On June 7, 1948, he held his first meeting on this matter with intelligence officials. On December 13, 1949, following detailed staff work, Ben-Gurion appointed foreign ministry special operations adviser and former Jewish Agency state department official, Reuben Shiloah, to establish and head the Institute for Collating and Co-ordinating Intelligence Operations. This date is considered the date the Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations was established. On March 2, 1951, as a result of the experience gained in running State intelligence agencies, particularly in overseas operations, Ben-Gurion ordered Reuben Shiloah to set up the Directorate, within the Institute for Coordination, to take all overseas intelligence operations under its wing. The Directorate was the initial incarnation of the main collection unit in the Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations. In 1952, Reuben Shiloah retired and was replaced by General Security Agency chief Isser Harel. He served as Mossad Director until 1963. The two founders shaped the Mossad to address the reality and the needs of the State of Israel in its early years. Over the years the Mossad expanded into many fields (the most prominent of which were): Some of the Mossads operations include: These are only a sample of the Mossads operations, which include collecting information in accordance with priority intelligence requirements, covert relations with other countries and intelligence agencies making major contributions to the peace treaties with Egypt and Jordan redeeming MIAs, technology and research. The Mossad teamed up with venture capital firm Sequoia Capital in June 2017 to launch a new technological innovation fund named Libertad. Theproject’s aim is to take advantage of Israel’s start-up atmosphere, and ensure the Mossad and IDF retain technological superiority over their enemies. The Libertad fund’s website describes it as seek[ing]to strengthen both start-up companies and the Mossads knowledge base, operating at the forefront of technological innovation. Upon it’s launch, Libertad’s executives issued a call for proposals in the fields of energy, robotics, encryption, big data, and text analysis. The Mossad welcomed it’s first recruit from the Ultra-Orthodox Haredi Jewish community in April 2018. Many Haredim recieve exemptions from Israeli national military service, but some still choose to serve. Sources: The Mossad;Herb Keinon.Israel’s Mossad is looking for a few good startups, Jerusalem Post, (June 27, 2017);First haredi man to serve in Israels Mossad agency, JNS, (April 26, 2018).

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July 27, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Mossad  Comments Closed

Mossad chief ‘100 percent certain’ Iran seeks nuclear bomb …

JERUSALEM The head of Israel’s Mossad intelligence agency is “100 percent certain” that Iran remains committed to developing a nuclear bomb and believes the international community must change or scrap its nuclear deal with the Islamic Republic. The comments by Yossi Cohen added an influential voice to a global debate over Iran’s nuclear program ahead of a deadline set by President Donald Trump for toughening the deal. Trump, like Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, has been a fierce critic of the 2015 nuclear deal. Trump has set a mid-May deadline to reach agreement with the European nations to toughen restrictions on Iran, including by extending the limitations on nuclear activity that are currently set to expire under the deal in several years. If the U.S. and the Europeans can’t agree on new punishments that are to Trump’s liking, he will withdraw from the deal and re-impose U.S. sanctions on Tehran, the White House has said. With the clock ticking, Cohen has been holding discussions on the matter and delivered his assessment in a recent closed meeting with senior officials, according to a person who attended the meeting. Cohen’s analysis signaled Israeli support for Trump’s efforts. Cohen called the nuclear deal a “terrible mistake,” saying it allows Iran to keep key elements of its nuclear program intact and will remove other restraints in a few years. “Then Iran will be able to enrich enough uranium for an arsenal of nuclear bombs,” Cohen said, according to the meeting participant, who spoke on condition of anonymity because he was discussing a classified security matter. Cohen also criticized the deal’s easing of sanctions, saying it has resulted in “significantly increased” aggression by Iran, and noted Iran’s continued development of long-range ballistic missiles. “As head of the Mossad, I am 100 percent certain that Iran has never abandoned its military nuclear vision for a single instant. This deal enables Iran to achieve that vision,” Cohen said. “That is why I believe the deal must be completely changed or scrapped. The failure to do so would be a grave threat to Israel’s security.” Under the deal, Iran agreed to curbs and inspections on its nuclear program in exchange for relief from international sanctions. Proponents have said the deal puts Iranian nuclear development on hold for 10 to 15 years and opens the way for engagement with the Iranians on other issues. Netanyahu has been a leading critic of the deal, saying it did not contain sufficient safeguards to prevent Iran from reaching nuclear-weapons capability or address Iran’s other activities across the region. Trump’s disdain for the deal has been a welcome development for Netanyahu. Israel has identified Iran as its top threat, citing the nuclear program, its hostile rhetoric, support for anti-Israel militant groups and its development of long-range missiles. Yet the confrontational approach also carries risks. It appears increasingly unlikely that the U.S. and Europe can reach a compromise by Trump’s deadline, especially after Trump’s recent named a new national security adviser and secretary of state who have both firmly opposed the Iran deal in the past. It also is unclear how Iran will react if the U.S. withdraws. Iran has said U.S. withdrawal from the nuclear deal and reimposed sanctions would destroy the agreement and has threatened a range of responses, including immediately restarting nuclear activities currently barred under the deal. The issue has also set off some debate within Israel’s security ranks. As head of a powerful agency, Cohen is one of the most influential voices in that debate and appears to be siding firmly with Netanyahu. Yet other security experts, both active and former, have taken a more nuanced approach. While Israeli officials widely panned the deal when it was reached, some have noted that it has some positive aspects. In a recent interview, Lt. Gen. Gadi Eisenkot told the newspaper Haaretz that he knows of no violations of the nuclear deal by Iran, though he said Israel is closely watching. “If its intentions change, we will know. Right now the agreement, with all its faults, is working and is putting off realization of the Iranian nuclear vision by 10 to 15 years,” he was quoted as saying.

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April 5, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Mossad  Comments Closed


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