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Sephardic | Define Sephardic at Dictionary.com

plural of Sephardi “a Spanish or Portuguese Jew” (1851), from Modern Hebrew Sepharaddim “Spaniards, Jews of Spain,” from Sepharad, name of a country mentioned only in Obad. v:20, probably meaning “Asia Minor” or a part of it (Lydia, Phrygia), but identified by the rabbis after the Jonathan Targum as “Spain.” Related: Sephardic.

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Stella’s Sephardic Table: Jewish family recipes from the …

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Sephardi Jews | Familypedia | FANDOM powered by Wikia

Sephardi Jews (Yahadut Sfarad) Total population Sephardi Jews2,200,000up to 16% of world Jewish population Regions with significant populations Israel 1.4 million France 300,000400,000 United States 200,000300,000 Argentina 50,000 Turkey 26,000 United Kingdom 8,000 Colombia 7,000 Morocco 6,000 Greece 6,000 Tunisia 2,000 Bosnia and Herzegovina 2,000 Panama 8,000 Languages

Historical: Ladino, Arabic, Haketia, Judeo-Portuguese, Berber, Catalanic, Shuadit, local languages Modern: Local languages, primarily Hebrew, French, English, Spanish, Turkish, Portuguese, Italian, Ladino, Arabic.

Judaism

Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions, Samaritans, other Levantines, other Near Eastern Semitic people, Spaniards, Portuguese and Hispanics/Latinos

Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or simply Sephardim (Hebrew: , Modern Hebrew: Sfaraddi, Tiberian: Spradd, lit. “The Jews of Spain”), are a Jewish ethnic division whose ethnogenesis and emergence as a distinct community of Jews coalesced in the Iberian Peninsula around the start of the 2nd millennium (i.e., about the year 1000). They established communities throughout Spain and Portugal, where they traditionally resided, evolving what would become their distinctive characteristics and diasporic identity. Their millennial residence as an open and organised Jewish community in Iberia was brought to an end starting with the Alhambra Decree by Spain’s Catholic Monarchs in the late 15th century, which resulted in a combination of internal and external migrations, mass conversions and executions.

Historically, the vernacular languages of Sephardim and their descendants have been:

More broadly, the term Sephardim has today also come to refer to traditionally Eastern Jewish communities of West Asia and beyond who, although not having genealogical roots in the Jewish communities of Iberia, have adopted a Sephardic style of liturgy and Sephardic law and customs imparted to them by the Iberian Jewish exiles over the course of the last few centuries. This article deals with Sephardim within the narrower ethnic definition.

The name Sephardi means “Spanish” or “Hispanic”, derived from Sepharad (Hebrew: , ModernSfard TiberianSpr ), a Biblical location.[1] The location of the biblical Sepharad is disputed, but Sepharad was identified by later Jews as Hispania, that is, the Iberian Peninsula. Sepharad () still means “Spain” in modern Hebrew.

In other languages and scripts, “Sephardi” may be translated as plural Hebrew: , ModernSfaraddim TiberianSpraddm; sefard or Spanish: Sefardes; Portuguese: Sefarditas; sefardita or Catalan: Sefardites; Aragonese: Safards; Basque: Sefardiak; French: Sfarades; Galician: Sefards; Italian: Sefarditi; Greek: Sephardites; Bulgarian: Sefaradi; Template:Lang-bs; Serbian: Sefardi; Turkish: Sefarad, Judaeo-Spanish: Sefaradies/Sefaradim; and Arabic: Safrdiyyn.

In the narrower ethnic definition, a Sephardi Jew is a Jew descended from the Jews who lived in the Iberian Peninsula in the late 15th century, immediately prior to the issuance of the Alhambra Decree of 1492 by order of the Catholic Monarchs in Spain, and the decree of 1496 in Portugal by order of King Manuel I.

In Hebrew, the term “Sephardim Tehorim” ( , literally “Pure Sephardim”) is used to distinguish Sephardim proper “who trace their lineage back to the Iberian/Spanish population” from Sephardim in the broader religious sense.[2] This distinction has also been made in reference to genetic findings in research on Sephardim proper in contrast to other communities of Jews today termed Sephardi more broadly[3]

The modern Israeli Hebrew definition of Sephardi is a much broader, religious based, definition that generally excludes ethnic considerations. In its most basic form, this broad religious definition of a Sephardi refers to any Jew, of any ethnic background, who follows the customs and traditions of Sepharad. For religious purposes, and in modern Israel, “Sephardim” is most often used in this wider sense which encompasses most non-Ashkenazi Jews who are not ethnically Sephardi, but are in most instances of West Asian origin, but who nonetheless commonly use a Sephardic style of liturgy.

The term Sephardi in the broad sense, thus describes the nusach (Hebrew language, “liturgical tradition”) used by Sephardi Jews in their Siddur (prayer book). A nusach is defined by a liturgical tradition’s choice of prayers, order of prayers, text of prayers and melodies used in the singing of prayers. Sephardim traditionally pray using Minhag Sefarad. The term Nusach Sefard or Nusach Sfarad does not refer to the liturgy generally recited by Sephardim proper or even Sephardi in a broader sense, but rather to an alternative Eastern European liturgy used by many Hasidim who are in fact Ashkenazi.

Additionally, Ethiopian Jews, whose branch of practiced Judaism is known as Haymanot, have recently come under the umbrella of Israel’s already broad Sephardic Chief Rabbinate. Furthermore, in modern times, the term Sephardi has also been applied to Jews who may not have even been born Jewish, but attend Sephardic synagogues and practice Sephardic traditions.

The divisions among Sephardim and their descendants today is largely a result of the consequences of the royal edicts. Both the Spanish and Portuguese edicts ordered their respective Jewish populations to choose from one of three options:1) convert to Catholicism to be allowed to remain within the kingdom,2) remain Jews and be expelled by the stipulated deadline, or3) be subjected to death without trial for any Jew who did not convert or leave by the deadline.

In Spain, the Jews were only given four months from the time the decree was issued before the expiry of the set deadline. Under the edict, Jews were promised royal “protection and security” for the effective three-month window before the deadline. They were permitted to take their belongings with them except “gold or silver or minted money”. It has been argued by British scholar Henry Kamen, that “the real purpose of the 1492 edict likely was not expulsion, but compulsory conversion of all Spanish Jews. Yet in giving Jews a choice and three months to think about it, the plan backfired; many opted to leave the country rather than convert”,[4] which ultimately was to Spain’s detriment. Between a third to one half of Spain’s Jewish origin population opted for exile, many flooding into Portugal.

Foreseeing the economic aftermath of a similar Jewish flight from Portugal, King Manuel’s decree five years later was largely pro-forma to appease a precondition the Spanish monarchs had set for him if he wished to marry their daughter. While the stipulations were similar in the Portuguese decree, King Manuel then largely prevented Portugal’s Jews from leaving, by blocking Portugal’s ports of exit. This failure to leave Portugal was then reasoned by the king to signify a default acceptance of Catholicism by the Jews, and the king then proceeded to proclaim them New Christians. Actual physical forced conversions, however, were also experienced throughout Portugal.

Sephardi Jews, therefore, encompasses Jews descended from those Jews who left the Iberian Peninsula as Jews by the expiration of the respective decreed deadlines. This group is further divided between those who fled south to North Africa, as opposed to those who fled eastwards to the Balkans, West Asia and beyond. Also included among Sephardi Jews are those who descend from “New Christian” conversos, but then returned to Judaism after leaving Iberia, largely after reaching Central and Northern Europe. From these regions, many would again migrate, this time to the non-Iberian territories of the Americas. Additional to all these Sephardic Jewish groups are the descendants of those New Christian conversos who either remained in Iberia, or moved from Iberia directly to the Iberian colonial possessions across what are today the various Latin American countries. The descendants of this group of conversos, for historical reasons and circumstances, were never able to formally return to the Jewish religion.

All these sub-groups are defined by a combination of geography, identity, religious evolution, language evolution, and the timeframe of their reversion (for those who had in the interim undergone a temporary nominal conversion to Catholicism) or non-reversion back to Judaism.

It should be noted that these Sephardic sub-groups are separate from any pre-existing local Jewish communities they encountered in their new areas of settlement. From the perspective of the present day, the first three sub-groups appeared to have developed as separate branches, each with its own traditions.

In earlier centuries, and as late as the editing of the Jewish Encyclopedia at the beginning of the 20th century, they were usually regarded as together forming a continuum. The Jewish community of Livorno acted as the clearing-house of personnel and traditions among the first three sub-groups; it also developed as the chief publishing centre.Template:Synthesis-inline.

The relationship between Sephardi-descended communities is illustrated in the following diagram:

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Sephardic Genealogy – London, United Kingdom | Facebook

(JTA) Police in Portugal are searching for a local politician whom they suspect fled the country after pocketing $130,000 earmarked for developing Jewish heritage sites. Marco Baptista, who represents the Social Democratic Party in the eastern town of Covilha, dropped off the radar earlier this …

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Sephardic Jews: History, Religion and People: Ron D Hart …

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Who Are Sephardic Jews? | My Jewish Learning

Many historical documents recount a large population of Jews in Spain during the early years of the Common Era. Their cultural distinctiveness is characterized in Roman writings as a corrupting influence. Later, with the arrival of Christianity, Jewish legal authorities became worried about assimilation and maintaining Jewish identity. Despite these concerns, by the seventh century Sephardim had flourished, beginning a time known as the Golden Age of Spain.

During this period, Sephardic Jews reached the highest echelons of secular government and the military. Many Jews gained renown in non-Jewish circles as poets, scholars, and physicians. New forms of Hebrew poetry arose, and talmudic and halachic (Jewish law) study took on great sophistication.

Ladino, the Judeo-Spanish language, unified Jews throughout the peninsula in daily life, ritual, and song. Ladino, a blend of medieval Spanish with significant loan words from Hebrew, Arabic, and Portuguese, had both a formal, literary dialect, and numerous daily, spoken dialects which evolved during the immigrations of Sephardic Jews to new lands.

The Sephardic Golden Age ended when Christian princes consolidated their kingdoms and reestablished Christian rule throughout Spain and Portugal. In 1492, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella expelled all Jews from Spain; soon after, a similar law exiled Jews from Portugal. Sephardic Jews immigrated to Amsterdam, North Africa, and the Middle East.

Others established new communities in the Americas or converted publicly to Christianity, sometimes secretly maintaining a Jewish life. These converts (known in Ladino as conversos and in Hebrew as anusim, forced converts) often maintained their Judaism in secret. In the 21st century, there are still people in both Europe and the Americas who are discovering and reclaiming their Jewish ancestry.

Wherever Sephardic Jews traveled, they brought with them their unique ritual customs, language, arts, and architecture. Sephardic synagogues often retain the influence of Islam in their architecture by favoring geometric, calligraphic, and floral decorative motifs. Although they may align with the Ashkenazic religious denominations (usually Orthodoxy), the denominational identity of Sephardic synagogues is, in most cases, less strong than their ethnic identity.

At home, Ladino songs convey family traditions at the Shabbat table, although Ladino is rapidly disappearing from daily use. Sephardic Jews often maintain unique holiday customs, such as a seder for Rosh Hashanah that includes a series of special foods eaten as omens for a good new year and the eating of rice and legumes (kitniyot)on Passover.

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Sephardic – definition of Sephardic by The Free Dictionary

As the Purim holiday approaches, a group of 35 leading Sephardic Haredi rabbis penned a letter expressing their opposition to the popular custom of dressing up as IDF soldiers.Here’s a history lesson for today: In 1901, a Sephardic woman named Alice Franchetti founded the Montesca School in Italy, experimenting with innovative pedagogical methodologies and providing free education for the children of farm workers.Moreover, Balbuena’s book shows that Ladino is as intimately and inescapably connected with Sephardic identity as it is with exile and Diaspora.Portugal’s Institute of Registers and Notaries (IRN) has until now accepted a mere 8%292 out of 3,838of the applications for Portuguese citizenship from the descendants of Sephardic Jews who had been persecuted under the InquisitionThe words of “The New Colossus” are emblazoned on a plaque at the Statue of Liberty in New York City, written by poet Emma Lazarus – a Sephardic Jew.and Italy, documentation of an Ottoman excavation in Syria, the Rajputs of South Asia, church destruction in the Fatimid Era, placemaking in Sephardic Salonica, Al-Hairi’s Maqamat, the patronage of Vizier Mirza Salman, and an Iskandarnama of Nizami produced for Ibrahim Sultan.Ora de Despertar is a children’s album entirely in Ladino, a language also known as Judeo-Spanish, primarily spoken among Sephardic Jews and also used in Sephardic religious texts, secular literature, and songs.Angel gently reclaims the natural, balanced and insightful teachings of Sephardic Judaism that can and should imbue modern Jewish spirituality in the pages of “The Rhythms of Jewish Living”.Previously known as the Sephardic Nursing and Rehabilitation Center, the facility will now be known in the Allure Group family of homes as the King David Center for Nursing and Rehabilitation.Synopsis: “The Blind Eye: A Sephardic Journey” is comprised of parallel stories set in 15th century Portugal and the 1990’s, as two women explore their identities.Several years ago, a Frenchman of Sephardic Jewish ancestry was on a visit to Toledo.During the dias-pora, it remained a popular ingredient for Jewish cooks, particularly in the Sephardic world where it was both readily available and pareve, which made it a good substitute for butter in cakes, breads and other baked goods that might be served with meat.

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Sephardim | Define Sephardim at Dictionary.com

plural of Sephardi “a Spanish or Portuguese Jew” (1851), from Modern Hebrew Sepharaddim “Spaniards, Jews of Spain,” from Sepharad, name of a country mentioned only in Obad. v:20, probably meaning “Asia Minor” or a part of it (Lydia, Phrygia), but identified by the rabbis after the Jonathan Targum as “Spain.” Related: Sephardic.

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Sephardic Jewry | jewishideas.org

From the recent ruling in Spain allowing the return of Jews expelled in 1492 to differences in pronunciation and changes to tradition over time, below is a selection of the Institute’s articles and books on Sephardic Jewry.

Spanish Passports for Sephardic Jews? a Blog by Rabbi Marc D. Angel -The Spanish government has indicated that it will offer Spanish passports to individuals of Spanish Jewish/Sephardic heritage. The ostensible motive for this gesture is the desire to redress a historic sin: Spains expulsion of Jews in 1492. Now, more than five centuries after this nefarious expulsion, Spain wishes to reach out to descendants of those Jewish victims and welcome them back home in Spain. Read more

A Sephardic Passover Haggadah -Ktav Publishing House has just issued a limited printing of Rabbi Marc D. Angel’s popular Sephardic Haggadah. Originally published in 1988, it includes the Hebrew text of the Haggadah with Rabbi Angel’s English translation, as well as an ongoing selection of commentaries drawn from a wide range of Sephardic sages. Read more

Sephardic Rabbis in Ashkenazic Garb!!! -“Does it bother anyone else that Sephardim have begun wearing the funeral dress of Ashkenazim- the blackhats. suits, and other “garb” of Eastern European Jews ? Even Rabbi X, a well-respected Sephardi Hakham, has succumbed to this garbage. I fear for the future of Sephardi customs and traditions !!” Read more

Is “Sephardic” a Name Brand? -We’re addicted to branding. By we, I mean Americans, but it’s probably true of most people, and for good reason. Seeking out name brands may be a simple and effective survival tactic. Pick a good brand (olive oil, car, university) and you feel confident you will live and be well, otherwise, who knows? Conversely, we don’t just buy brand names, but sell them. For success in business, or in the arts, college graduates were told at a recent convocation, you must brand yourself, figure out and highlight the one key brandable thing you have to offer, and name it in a way that sparks recognition and interest. Read more

Models of Sephardic Rabbinic Leadership -In the early 1970s, shortly after I had begun my rabbinical service to Congregation Shearith Israel, the historic Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue of New York City, I attended a shiur, a lecture, at Yeshiva University given by the recently elected Rishon leZion, Rabbi Ovadya Yosef. As a young Sephardic rabbi, I was eager to hear the words of this prominent and erudite Sephardic rabbinic leader. The message of that shiur made a great impression on me and has remained with me to this day. Read more

1939 in the Sephardic World – The Nazi menace decimated European Jewry, and its tentacles of hatred and violence reached even to North Africa and the Middle East. Jews of all backgrounds were victimized, and many stories about murdered family members remain as the heritage of Jews throughout the world. In our family-whose roots were in the Sephardic community of the Island of Rhodes-we also have a story. Read more

Saf, Taf, Loshon HaKodesh, and Pronunciation of the Prayer for the State of Israel, Guest Blog By Alan Krinsky -In my Modern Orthodox and Religious Zionist synagogue, when we sing and recite Avinu ShebaShamayim, the prayer for the State of Israel, we pronounce the last letter of the Hebrew alphabet as taf, and not saf, despite the fact that the Rabbi and most members of the congregation are of Ashkenazi descent.[1] In truth, the synagogue has no set pronunciation rulesthe Ashkenazim are more or less split on taf and saf in their davening and our regular baal koreh uses tafbut lately I have been wondering about the proper pronunciation of the Avinu ShebaShamayim prayer for otherwise saf-saying Ashkenazi Jews. Read more

What All Jews Can Learn From Great Sephardic Rabbis of Recent Centuries -To limit Sephardic tradition to those of Sephardic ancestry is like limiting Shakespeare to Englishmen. While persons born in the British Isles may rightfully take pride in their illustrious countryman, his genius is relevant to all people, and is not contingent upon his place of birth. So too, with regard to central values and religious orientations found in the writings of Sephardic rabbis of recent centuries: their import extends beyond Sephardim by birth, to all Jews attempting to chart a course for a personal and communal life in which authentic Judaism and humanity go hand in hand. Read more

Conversations, Issue 13: Insights from the Sephardic Experience -The spring 2012 issue of Conversations features articles relating to Sephardic approaches to Jewish law; kabbala; Judeo-Spanish tradition; Sephardic identity and more. It also includes an article on late medieval Italian Jewry, and an essay dealing with the Benei Israel of India. Read more

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Sephardic | Define Sephardic at Dictionary.com

plural of Sephardi “a Spanish or Portuguese Jew” (1851), from Modern Hebrew Sepharaddim “Spaniards, Jews of Spain,” from Sepharad, name of a country mentioned only in Obad. v:20, probably meaning “Asia Minor” or a part of it (Lydia, Phrygia), but identified by the rabbis after the Jonathan Targum as “Spain.” Related: Sephardic.

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Stella’s Sephardic Table: Jewish family recipes from the …

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August 15, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Sephardic  Comments Closed

Sephardi Jews | Familypedia | FANDOM powered by Wikia

Sephardi Jews (Yahadut Sfarad) Total population Sephardi Jews2,200,000up to 16% of world Jewish population Regions with significant populations Israel 1.4 million France 300,000400,000 United States 200,000300,000 Argentina 50,000 Turkey 26,000 United Kingdom 8,000 Colombia 7,000 Morocco 6,000 Greece 6,000 Tunisia 2,000 Bosnia and Herzegovina 2,000 Panama 8,000 Languages Historical: Ladino, Arabic, Haketia, Judeo-Portuguese, Berber, Catalanic, Shuadit, local languages Modern: Local languages, primarily Hebrew, French, English, Spanish, Turkish, Portuguese, Italian, Ladino, Arabic. Judaism Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions, Samaritans, other Levantines, other Near Eastern Semitic people, Spaniards, Portuguese and Hispanics/Latinos Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or simply Sephardim (Hebrew: , Modern Hebrew: Sfaraddi, Tiberian: Spradd, lit. “The Jews of Spain”), are a Jewish ethnic division whose ethnogenesis and emergence as a distinct community of Jews coalesced in the Iberian Peninsula around the start of the 2nd millennium (i.e., about the year 1000). They established communities throughout Spain and Portugal, where they traditionally resided, evolving what would become their distinctive characteristics and diasporic identity. Their millennial residence as an open and organised Jewish community in Iberia was brought to an end starting with the Alhambra Decree by Spain’s Catholic Monarchs in the late 15th century, which resulted in a combination of internal and external migrations, mass conversions and executions. Historically, the vernacular languages of Sephardim and their descendants have been: More broadly, the term Sephardim has today also come to refer to traditionally Eastern Jewish communities of West Asia and beyond who, although not having genealogical roots in the Jewish communities of Iberia, have adopted a Sephardic style of liturgy and Sephardic law and customs imparted to them by the Iberian Jewish exiles over the course of the last few centuries. This article deals with Sephardim within the narrower ethnic definition. The name Sephardi means “Spanish” or “Hispanic”, derived from Sepharad (Hebrew: , ModernSfard TiberianSpr ), a Biblical location.[1] The location of the biblical Sepharad is disputed, but Sepharad was identified by later Jews as Hispania, that is, the Iberian Peninsula. Sepharad () still means “Spain” in modern Hebrew. In other languages and scripts, “Sephardi” may be translated as plural Hebrew: , ModernSfaraddim TiberianSpraddm; sefard or Spanish: Sefardes; Portuguese: Sefarditas; sefardita or Catalan: Sefardites; Aragonese: Safards; Basque: Sefardiak; French: Sfarades; Galician: Sefards; Italian: Sefarditi; Greek: Sephardites; Bulgarian: Sefaradi; Template:Lang-bs; Serbian: Sefardi; Turkish: Sefarad, Judaeo-Spanish: Sefaradies/Sefaradim; and Arabic: Safrdiyyn. In the narrower ethnic definition, a Sephardi Jew is a Jew descended from the Jews who lived in the Iberian Peninsula in the late 15th century, immediately prior to the issuance of the Alhambra Decree of 1492 by order of the Catholic Monarchs in Spain, and the decree of 1496 in Portugal by order of King Manuel I. In Hebrew, the term “Sephardim Tehorim” ( , literally “Pure Sephardim”) is used to distinguish Sephardim proper “who trace their lineage back to the Iberian/Spanish population” from Sephardim in the broader religious sense.[2] This distinction has also been made in reference to genetic findings in research on Sephardim proper in contrast to other communities of Jews today termed Sephardi more broadly[3] The modern Israeli Hebrew definition of Sephardi is a much broader, religious based, definition that generally excludes ethnic considerations. In its most basic form, this broad religious definition of a Sephardi refers to any Jew, of any ethnic background, who follows the customs and traditions of Sepharad. For religious purposes, and in modern Israel, “Sephardim” is most often used in this wider sense which encompasses most non-Ashkenazi Jews who are not ethnically Sephardi, but are in most instances of West Asian origin, but who nonetheless commonly use a Sephardic style of liturgy. The term Sephardi in the broad sense, thus describes the nusach (Hebrew language, “liturgical tradition”) used by Sephardi Jews in their Siddur (prayer book). A nusach is defined by a liturgical tradition’s choice of prayers, order of prayers, text of prayers and melodies used in the singing of prayers. Sephardim traditionally pray using Minhag Sefarad. The term Nusach Sefard or Nusach Sfarad does not refer to the liturgy generally recited by Sephardim proper or even Sephardi in a broader sense, but rather to an alternative Eastern European liturgy used by many Hasidim who are in fact Ashkenazi. Additionally, Ethiopian Jews, whose branch of practiced Judaism is known as Haymanot, have recently come under the umbrella of Israel’s already broad Sephardic Chief Rabbinate. Furthermore, in modern times, the term Sephardi has also been applied to Jews who may not have even been born Jewish, but attend Sephardic synagogues and practice Sephardic traditions. The divisions among Sephardim and their descendants today is largely a result of the consequences of the royal edicts. Both the Spanish and Portuguese edicts ordered their respective Jewish populations to choose from one of three options:1) convert to Catholicism to be allowed to remain within the kingdom,2) remain Jews and be expelled by the stipulated deadline, or3) be subjected to death without trial for any Jew who did not convert or leave by the deadline. In Spain, the Jews were only given four months from the time the decree was issued before the expiry of the set deadline. Under the edict, Jews were promised royal “protection and security” for the effective three-month window before the deadline. They were permitted to take their belongings with them except “gold or silver or minted money”. It has been argued by British scholar Henry Kamen, that “the real purpose of the 1492 edict likely was not expulsion, but compulsory conversion of all Spanish Jews. Yet in giving Jews a choice and three months to think about it, the plan backfired; many opted to leave the country rather than convert”,[4] which ultimately was to Spain’s detriment. Between a third to one half of Spain’s Jewish origin population opted for exile, many flooding into Portugal. Foreseeing the economic aftermath of a similar Jewish flight from Portugal, King Manuel’s decree five years later was largely pro-forma to appease a precondition the Spanish monarchs had set for him if he wished to marry their daughter. While the stipulations were similar in the Portuguese decree, King Manuel then largely prevented Portugal’s Jews from leaving, by blocking Portugal’s ports of exit. This failure to leave Portugal was then reasoned by the king to signify a default acceptance of Catholicism by the Jews, and the king then proceeded to proclaim them New Christians. Actual physical forced conversions, however, were also experienced throughout Portugal. Sephardi Jews, therefore, encompasses Jews descended from those Jews who left the Iberian Peninsula as Jews by the expiration of the respective decreed deadlines. This group is further divided between those who fled south to North Africa, as opposed to those who fled eastwards to the Balkans, West Asia and beyond. Also included among Sephardi Jews are those who descend from “New Christian” conversos, but then returned to Judaism after leaving Iberia, largely after reaching Central and Northern Europe. From these regions, many would again migrate, this time to the non-Iberian territories of the Americas. Additional to all these Sephardic Jewish groups are the descendants of those New Christian conversos who either remained in Iberia, or moved from Iberia directly to the Iberian colonial possessions across what are today the various Latin American countries. The descendants of this group of conversos, for historical reasons and circumstances, were never able to formally return to the Jewish religion. All these sub-groups are defined by a combination of geography, identity, religious evolution, language evolution, and the timeframe of their reversion (for those who had in the interim undergone a temporary nominal conversion to Catholicism) or non-reversion back to Judaism. It should be noted that these Sephardic sub-groups are separate from any pre-existing local Jewish communities they encountered in their new areas of settlement. From the perspective of the present day, the first three sub-groups appeared to have developed as separate branches, each with its own traditions. In earlier centuries, and as late as the editing of the Jewish Encyclopedia at the beginning of the 20th century, they were usually regarded as together forming a continuum. The Jewish community of Livorno acted as the clearing-house of personnel and traditions among the first three sub-groups; it also developed as the chief publishing centre.Template:Synthesis-inline. The relationship between Sephardi-descended communities is illustrated in the following diagram:

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July 28, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Sephardic  Comments Closed

Sephardic Genealogy – London, United Kingdom | Facebook

(JTA) Police in Portugal are searching for a local politician whom they suspect fled the country after pocketing $130,000 earmarked for developing Jewish heritage sites. Marco Baptista, who represents the Social Democratic Party in the eastern town of Covilha, dropped off the radar earlier this …

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July 23, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Sephardic  Comments Closed

Sephardic Jews: History, Religion and People: Ron D Hart …

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July 19, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Sephardic  Comments Closed

Who Are Sephardic Jews? | My Jewish Learning

Many historical documents recount a large population of Jews in Spain during the early years of the Common Era. Their cultural distinctiveness is characterized in Roman writings as a corrupting influence. Later, with the arrival of Christianity, Jewish legal authorities became worried about assimilation and maintaining Jewish identity. Despite these concerns, by the seventh century Sephardim had flourished, beginning a time known as the Golden Age of Spain. During this period, Sephardic Jews reached the highest echelons of secular government and the military. Many Jews gained renown in non-Jewish circles as poets, scholars, and physicians. New forms of Hebrew poetry arose, and talmudic and halachic (Jewish law) study took on great sophistication. Ladino, the Judeo-Spanish language, unified Jews throughout the peninsula in daily life, ritual, and song. Ladino, a blend of medieval Spanish with significant loan words from Hebrew, Arabic, and Portuguese, had both a formal, literary dialect, and numerous daily, spoken dialects which evolved during the immigrations of Sephardic Jews to new lands. The Sephardic Golden Age ended when Christian princes consolidated their kingdoms and reestablished Christian rule throughout Spain and Portugal. In 1492, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella expelled all Jews from Spain; soon after, a similar law exiled Jews from Portugal. Sephardic Jews immigrated to Amsterdam, North Africa, and the Middle East. Others established new communities in the Americas or converted publicly to Christianity, sometimes secretly maintaining a Jewish life. These converts (known in Ladino as conversos and in Hebrew as anusim, forced converts) often maintained their Judaism in secret. In the 21st century, there are still people in both Europe and the Americas who are discovering and reclaiming their Jewish ancestry. Wherever Sephardic Jews traveled, they brought with them their unique ritual customs, language, arts, and architecture. Sephardic synagogues often retain the influence of Islam in their architecture by favoring geometric, calligraphic, and floral decorative motifs. Although they may align with the Ashkenazic religious denominations (usually Orthodoxy), the denominational identity of Sephardic synagogues is, in most cases, less strong than their ethnic identity. At home, Ladino songs convey family traditions at the Shabbat table, although Ladino is rapidly disappearing from daily use. Sephardic Jews often maintain unique holiday customs, such as a seder for Rosh Hashanah that includes a series of special foods eaten as omens for a good new year and the eating of rice and legumes (kitniyot)on Passover. Empower your Jewish discovery, daily

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Sephardic – definition of Sephardic by The Free Dictionary

As the Purim holiday approaches, a group of 35 leading Sephardic Haredi rabbis penned a letter expressing their opposition to the popular custom of dressing up as IDF soldiers.Here’s a history lesson for today: In 1901, a Sephardic woman named Alice Franchetti founded the Montesca School in Italy, experimenting with innovative pedagogical methodologies and providing free education for the children of farm workers.Moreover, Balbuena’s book shows that Ladino is as intimately and inescapably connected with Sephardic identity as it is with exile and Diaspora.Portugal’s Institute of Registers and Notaries (IRN) has until now accepted a mere 8%292 out of 3,838of the applications for Portuguese citizenship from the descendants of Sephardic Jews who had been persecuted under the InquisitionThe words of “The New Colossus” are emblazoned on a plaque at the Statue of Liberty in New York City, written by poet Emma Lazarus – a Sephardic Jew.and Italy, documentation of an Ottoman excavation in Syria, the Rajputs of South Asia, church destruction in the Fatimid Era, placemaking in Sephardic Salonica, Al-Hairi’s Maqamat, the patronage of Vizier Mirza Salman, and an Iskandarnama of Nizami produced for Ibrahim Sultan.Ora de Despertar is a children’s album entirely in Ladino, a language also known as Judeo-Spanish, primarily spoken among Sephardic Jews and also used in Sephardic religious texts, secular literature, and songs.Angel gently reclaims the natural, balanced and insightful teachings of Sephardic Judaism that can and should imbue modern Jewish spirituality in the pages of “The Rhythms of Jewish Living”.Previously known as the Sephardic Nursing and Rehabilitation Center, the facility will now be known in the Allure Group family of homes as the King David Center for Nursing and Rehabilitation.Synopsis: “The Blind Eye: A Sephardic Journey” is comprised of parallel stories set in 15th century Portugal and the 1990’s, as two women explore their identities.Several years ago, a Frenchman of Sephardic Jewish ancestry was on a visit to Toledo.During the dias-pora, it remained a popular ingredient for Jewish cooks, particularly in the Sephardic world where it was both readily available and pareve, which made it a good substitute for butter in cakes, breads and other baked goods that might be served with meat.

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Sephardim | Define Sephardim at Dictionary.com

plural of Sephardi “a Spanish or Portuguese Jew” (1851), from Modern Hebrew Sepharaddim “Spaniards, Jews of Spain,” from Sepharad, name of a country mentioned only in Obad. v:20, probably meaning “Asia Minor” or a part of it (Lydia, Phrygia), but identified by the rabbis after the Jonathan Targum as “Spain.” Related: Sephardic.

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Sephardic Jewry | jewishideas.org

From the recent ruling in Spain allowing the return of Jews expelled in 1492 to differences in pronunciation and changes to tradition over time, below is a selection of the Institute’s articles and books on Sephardic Jewry. Spanish Passports for Sephardic Jews? a Blog by Rabbi Marc D. Angel -The Spanish government has indicated that it will offer Spanish passports to individuals of Spanish Jewish/Sephardic heritage. The ostensible motive for this gesture is the desire to redress a historic sin: Spains expulsion of Jews in 1492. Now, more than five centuries after this nefarious expulsion, Spain wishes to reach out to descendants of those Jewish victims and welcome them back home in Spain. Read more A Sephardic Passover Haggadah -Ktav Publishing House has just issued a limited printing of Rabbi Marc D. Angel’s popular Sephardic Haggadah. Originally published in 1988, it includes the Hebrew text of the Haggadah with Rabbi Angel’s English translation, as well as an ongoing selection of commentaries drawn from a wide range of Sephardic sages. Read more Sephardic Rabbis in Ashkenazic Garb!!! -“Does it bother anyone else that Sephardim have begun wearing the funeral dress of Ashkenazim- the blackhats. suits, and other “garb” of Eastern European Jews ? Even Rabbi X, a well-respected Sephardi Hakham, has succumbed to this garbage. I fear for the future of Sephardi customs and traditions !!” Read more Is “Sephardic” a Name Brand? -We’re addicted to branding. By we, I mean Americans, but it’s probably true of most people, and for good reason. Seeking out name brands may be a simple and effective survival tactic. Pick a good brand (olive oil, car, university) and you feel confident you will live and be well, otherwise, who knows? Conversely, we don’t just buy brand names, but sell them. For success in business, or in the arts, college graduates were told at a recent convocation, you must brand yourself, figure out and highlight the one key brandable thing you have to offer, and name it in a way that sparks recognition and interest. Read more Models of Sephardic Rabbinic Leadership -In the early 1970s, shortly after I had begun my rabbinical service to Congregation Shearith Israel, the historic Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue of New York City, I attended a shiur, a lecture, at Yeshiva University given by the recently elected Rishon leZion, Rabbi Ovadya Yosef. As a young Sephardic rabbi, I was eager to hear the words of this prominent and erudite Sephardic rabbinic leader. The message of that shiur made a great impression on me and has remained with me to this day. Read more 1939 in the Sephardic World – The Nazi menace decimated European Jewry, and its tentacles of hatred and violence reached even to North Africa and the Middle East. Jews of all backgrounds were victimized, and many stories about murdered family members remain as the heritage of Jews throughout the world. In our family-whose roots were in the Sephardic community of the Island of Rhodes-we also have a story. Read more Saf, Taf, Loshon HaKodesh, and Pronunciation of the Prayer for the State of Israel, Guest Blog By Alan Krinsky -In my Modern Orthodox and Religious Zionist synagogue, when we sing and recite Avinu ShebaShamayim, the prayer for the State of Israel, we pronounce the last letter of the Hebrew alphabet as taf, and not saf, despite the fact that the Rabbi and most members of the congregation are of Ashkenazi descent.[1] In truth, the synagogue has no set pronunciation rulesthe Ashkenazim are more or less split on taf and saf in their davening and our regular baal koreh uses tafbut lately I have been wondering about the proper pronunciation of the Avinu ShebaShamayim prayer for otherwise saf-saying Ashkenazi Jews. Read more What All Jews Can Learn From Great Sephardic Rabbis of Recent Centuries -To limit Sephardic tradition to those of Sephardic ancestry is like limiting Shakespeare to Englishmen. While persons born in the British Isles may rightfully take pride in their illustrious countryman, his genius is relevant to all people, and is not contingent upon his place of birth. So too, with regard to central values and religious orientations found in the writings of Sephardic rabbis of recent centuries: their import extends beyond Sephardim by birth, to all Jews attempting to chart a course for a personal and communal life in which authentic Judaism and humanity go hand in hand. Read more Conversations, Issue 13: Insights from the Sephardic Experience -The spring 2012 issue of Conversations features articles relating to Sephardic approaches to Jewish law; kabbala; Judeo-Spanish tradition; Sephardic identity and more. It also includes an article on late medieval Italian Jewry, and an essay dealing with the Benei Israel of India. Read more

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