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Sephardi – definition of Sephardi by The Free Dictionary

Here the notion of powerful Jewish networks links the Sephardi not merely to European but also to Muslim spaces.EDyRNE (CyHAN)- Attending the newly restored synagogue, hundreds of Jewish people flocked into western Turkish province of Edirne on Thursday to visit ancient graves of their ancestors of Sephardi Jews who have settled in Anatolian lands in 15th century after being banished from Spain and Portugal.Yet, the children of ANLIT also reflect all Israel: religious and secular, Ashkenazi and Sephardi, Sabra and new immigrant.Chapter three continues the analyses and discussion of identity negotiation by focusing on the young Sephardi intelligentsia of Jerusalem.Summary: New York – The American Sephardi Federation (ASF) held, on Sunday in New York, an international symposium on “2000 years of Jewish life in Morocco”, celebrating the plural identity of one of the oldest and most dynamic Sephardic communities in the world.Barda’s research shows that Ashkenazi Egyptians, who constituted only eight percent of the Jewish population in Egypt, made up nearly 25 percent of the Egyptian immigrants to Australia and that they migrated earlier than did their Sephardi compatriots.The issue erupted when the court intervened in a dispute at the Ultra-Orthodox school in the Immanuel settlement, where parents from the strictly observant Slonim Hassidic sect of Ashkenazi Jewry refused to let their girls attend classes with girls of Sephardi descent.The Council also condemned Israeli attempts to seize Palestinian property in the occupied city of Jerusalem, including by the Assembly of the Sephardi to overtake six houses in the Old City.Although austere timbres and melancholy feeling dominated, in five Sephardi songs Ellis moved convincingly from the lilting and bright, through plaintive chant to grittier emotion, and two klezmer-like Yiddish numbers saw vigorous rhythmic attack.Leading Israeli political scientists discuss the revival of the Israeli left and the increased strength of ethnic Sephardi, Russian and Arab electorates.Sephardi Jews had extensive social services that were absent in the Ashkenazi community, as well as ties to Lurianic Kabbalah, which Gershom Scholem demonstrated had extensive influence on Jewish mentalities.Norman Stillman’s Sephardi Religious Responses to Modernity is a sympathetic attempt to describe religious aspects of the Sephardi and Oriental encounter with “modernity” and the consequences of that encounter.

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Eastern Sephardim – Wikipedia

Eastern Sephardim are a distinctive sub-group of Sephardi Jews, mostly descended from families expelled and exiled from Iberia as Jews in the 15th century following the Alhambra Decree of 1492 in Spain and the decree of 1497 in Portugal. This branch of descendants of the Jews of Iberia settled in the Eastern Mediterranean.

Eastern Sephardim settled mostly in various parts of the Ottoman Empire, which included areas in West Asia (Middle East, Anatolia, etc.), the Balkans in Southern Europe, plus Egypt. For centuries, these Jews made up the majority of the population of Salonica (now called Thessaloniki, Greece), Constantinople (now called Istanbul, Turkey), and Sarajevo (in what is today Bosnia and Herzegovina), all of which were located in the Ottoman-ruled parts of Europe.

Some migrated farther east to territories of the Ottoman Empire, settling among the long-established Arabic-speaking Jewish communities in Baghdad in Iraq, Damascus in Syria and Alexandria in Egypt. A few of the Eastern Sephardim followed the spice trade routes as far as the Malabar coast of southern India, where they settled among the established Cochin Jewish community, again imparting their culture and customs to the local Jews. The presence of Sephardim and New Christians along the Malabar coast eventually aroused the ire of the Catholic Church, which then obtained permission from the Portuguese crown to establish the Goan Inquisition against the Sephardic Jews of India.

In recent times, principally after 1948, most Eastern Sephardim have since relocated to Israel, and others to the United States, France and Latin America.

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The term Sephardi means “Spanish” or “Hispanic”, and is derived from Sepharad, a Biblical location. The location of the biblical Sepharad is disputed, but Sepharad was identified by later Jews as Hispania, that is, the Iberian Peninsula. Sepharad now means “Spain” in modern Hebrew.

Their traditional spoken languages were referred to as Judaeo-Spanish and Judaeo-Portuguese. For the most part, Eastern Sephardim did not maintain their own separate Sephardic religious and cultural institutions from the pre-existing Jews, but instead the local Jews came to adopt the culture and customs of the recent Sephardic arrivals. This phenomenon is just one of the factors which has today led to the broader religious definition of Sephardi.

The relationship between Sephardi-descended communities is illustrated in the following diagram:

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Sephardic | Define Sephardic at Dictionary.com

plural of Sephardi “a Spanish or Portuguese Jew” (1851), from Modern Hebrew Sepharaddim “Spaniards, Jews of Spain,” from Sepharad, name of a country mentioned only in Obad. v:20, probably meaning “Asia Minor” or a part of it (Lydia, Phrygia), but identified by the rabbis after the Jonathan Targum as “Spain.” Related: Sephardic.

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Stella’s Sephardic Table: Jewish family recipes from the …

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Sephardi Jews | Familypedia | FANDOM powered by Wikia

Sephardi Jews (Yahadut Sfarad) Total population Sephardi Jews2,200,000up to 16% of world Jewish population Regions with significant populations Israel 1.4 million France 300,000400,000 United States 200,000300,000 Argentina 50,000 Turkey 26,000 United Kingdom 8,000 Colombia 7,000 Morocco 6,000 Greece 6,000 Tunisia 2,000 Bosnia and Herzegovina 2,000 Panama 8,000 Languages

Historical: Ladino, Arabic, Haketia, Judeo-Portuguese, Berber, Catalanic, Shuadit, local languages Modern: Local languages, primarily Hebrew, French, English, Spanish, Turkish, Portuguese, Italian, Ladino, Arabic.

Judaism

Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions, Samaritans, other Levantines, other Near Eastern Semitic people, Spaniards, Portuguese and Hispanics/Latinos

Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or simply Sephardim (Hebrew: , Modern Hebrew: Sfaraddi, Tiberian: Spradd, lit. “The Jews of Spain”), are a Jewish ethnic division whose ethnogenesis and emergence as a distinct community of Jews coalesced in the Iberian Peninsula around the start of the 2nd millennium (i.e., about the year 1000). They established communities throughout Spain and Portugal, where they traditionally resided, evolving what would become their distinctive characteristics and diasporic identity. Their millennial residence as an open and organised Jewish community in Iberia was brought to an end starting with the Alhambra Decree by Spain’s Catholic Monarchs in the late 15th century, which resulted in a combination of internal and external migrations, mass conversions and executions.

Historically, the vernacular languages of Sephardim and their descendants have been:

More broadly, the term Sephardim has today also come to refer to traditionally Eastern Jewish communities of West Asia and beyond who, although not having genealogical roots in the Jewish communities of Iberia, have adopted a Sephardic style of liturgy and Sephardic law and customs imparted to them by the Iberian Jewish exiles over the course of the last few centuries. This article deals with Sephardim within the narrower ethnic definition.

The name Sephardi means “Spanish” or “Hispanic”, derived from Sepharad (Hebrew: , ModernSfard TiberianSpr ), a Biblical location.[1] The location of the biblical Sepharad is disputed, but Sepharad was identified by later Jews as Hispania, that is, the Iberian Peninsula. Sepharad () still means “Spain” in modern Hebrew.

In other languages and scripts, “Sephardi” may be translated as plural Hebrew: , ModernSfaraddim TiberianSpraddm; sefard or Spanish: Sefardes; Portuguese: Sefarditas; sefardita or Catalan: Sefardites; Aragonese: Safards; Basque: Sefardiak; French: Sfarades; Galician: Sefards; Italian: Sefarditi; Greek: Sephardites; Bulgarian: Sefaradi; Template:Lang-bs; Serbian: Sefardi; Turkish: Sefarad, Judaeo-Spanish: Sefaradies/Sefaradim; and Arabic: Safrdiyyn.

In the narrower ethnic definition, a Sephardi Jew is a Jew descended from the Jews who lived in the Iberian Peninsula in the late 15th century, immediately prior to the issuance of the Alhambra Decree of 1492 by order of the Catholic Monarchs in Spain, and the decree of 1496 in Portugal by order of King Manuel I.

In Hebrew, the term “Sephardim Tehorim” ( , literally “Pure Sephardim”) is used to distinguish Sephardim proper “who trace their lineage back to the Iberian/Spanish population” from Sephardim in the broader religious sense.[2] This distinction has also been made in reference to genetic findings in research on Sephardim proper in contrast to other communities of Jews today termed Sephardi more broadly[3]

The modern Israeli Hebrew definition of Sephardi is a much broader, religious based, definition that generally excludes ethnic considerations. In its most basic form, this broad religious definition of a Sephardi refers to any Jew, of any ethnic background, who follows the customs and traditions of Sepharad. For religious purposes, and in modern Israel, “Sephardim” is most often used in this wider sense which encompasses most non-Ashkenazi Jews who are not ethnically Sephardi, but are in most instances of West Asian origin, but who nonetheless commonly use a Sephardic style of liturgy.

The term Sephardi in the broad sense, thus describes the nusach (Hebrew language, “liturgical tradition”) used by Sephardi Jews in their Siddur (prayer book). A nusach is defined by a liturgical tradition’s choice of prayers, order of prayers, text of prayers and melodies used in the singing of prayers. Sephardim traditionally pray using Minhag Sefarad. The term Nusach Sefard or Nusach Sfarad does not refer to the liturgy generally recited by Sephardim proper or even Sephardi in a broader sense, but rather to an alternative Eastern European liturgy used by many Hasidim who are in fact Ashkenazi.

Additionally, Ethiopian Jews, whose branch of practiced Judaism is known as Haymanot, have recently come under the umbrella of Israel’s already broad Sephardic Chief Rabbinate. Furthermore, in modern times, the term Sephardi has also been applied to Jews who may not have even been born Jewish, but attend Sephardic synagogues and practice Sephardic traditions.

The divisions among Sephardim and their descendants today is largely a result of the consequences of the royal edicts. Both the Spanish and Portuguese edicts ordered their respective Jewish populations to choose from one of three options:1) convert to Catholicism to be allowed to remain within the kingdom,2) remain Jews and be expelled by the stipulated deadline, or3) be subjected to death without trial for any Jew who did not convert or leave by the deadline.

In Spain, the Jews were only given four months from the time the decree was issued before the expiry of the set deadline. Under the edict, Jews were promised royal “protection and security” for the effective three-month window before the deadline. They were permitted to take their belongings with them except “gold or silver or minted money”. It has been argued by British scholar Henry Kamen, that “the real purpose of the 1492 edict likely was not expulsion, but compulsory conversion of all Spanish Jews. Yet in giving Jews a choice and three months to think about it, the plan backfired; many opted to leave the country rather than convert”,[4] which ultimately was to Spain’s detriment. Between a third to one half of Spain’s Jewish origin population opted for exile, many flooding into Portugal.

Foreseeing the economic aftermath of a similar Jewish flight from Portugal, King Manuel’s decree five years later was largely pro-forma to appease a precondition the Spanish monarchs had set for him if he wished to marry their daughter. While the stipulations were similar in the Portuguese decree, King Manuel then largely prevented Portugal’s Jews from leaving, by blocking Portugal’s ports of exit. This failure to leave Portugal was then reasoned by the king to signify a default acceptance of Catholicism by the Jews, and the king then proceeded to proclaim them New Christians. Actual physical forced conversions, however, were also experienced throughout Portugal.

Sephardi Jews, therefore, encompasses Jews descended from those Jews who left the Iberian Peninsula as Jews by the expiration of the respective decreed deadlines. This group is further divided between those who fled south to North Africa, as opposed to those who fled eastwards to the Balkans, West Asia and beyond. Also included among Sephardi Jews are those who descend from “New Christian” conversos, but then returned to Judaism after leaving Iberia, largely after reaching Central and Northern Europe. From these regions, many would again migrate, this time to the non-Iberian territories of the Americas. Additional to all these Sephardic Jewish groups are the descendants of those New Christian conversos who either remained in Iberia, or moved from Iberia directly to the Iberian colonial possessions across what are today the various Latin American countries. The descendants of this group of conversos, for historical reasons and circumstances, were never able to formally return to the Jewish religion.

All these sub-groups are defined by a combination of geography, identity, religious evolution, language evolution, and the timeframe of their reversion (for those who had in the interim undergone a temporary nominal conversion to Catholicism) or non-reversion back to Judaism.

It should be noted that these Sephardic sub-groups are separate from any pre-existing local Jewish communities they encountered in their new areas of settlement. From the perspective of the present day, the first three sub-groups appeared to have developed as separate branches, each with its own traditions.

In earlier centuries, and as late as the editing of the Jewish Encyclopedia at the beginning of the 20th century, they were usually regarded as together forming a continuum. The Jewish community of Livorno acted as the clearing-house of personnel and traditions among the first three sub-groups; it also developed as the chief publishing centre.Template:Synthesis-inline.

The relationship between Sephardi-descended communities is illustrated in the following diagram:

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Sephardic Genealogy – London, United Kingdom | Facebook

(JTA) Police in Portugal are searching for a local politician whom they suspect fled the country after pocketing $130,000 earmarked for developing Jewish heritage sites. Marco Baptista, who represents the Social Democratic Party in the eastern town of Covilha, dropped off the radar earlier this …

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Sephardic Jews: History, Religion and People: Ron D Hart …

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Who Are Sephardic Jews? | My Jewish Learning

Many historical documents recount a large population of Jews in Spain during the early years of the Common Era. Their cultural distinctiveness is characterized in Roman writings as a corrupting influence. Later, with the arrival of Christianity, Jewish legal authorities became worried about assimilation and maintaining Jewish identity. Despite these concerns, by the seventh century Sephardim had flourished, beginning a time known as the Golden Age of Spain.

During this period, Sephardic Jews reached the highest echelons of secular government and the military. Many Jews gained renown in non-Jewish circles as poets, scholars, and physicians. New forms of Hebrew poetry arose, and talmudic and halachic (Jewish law) study took on great sophistication.

Ladino, the Judeo-Spanish language, unified Jews throughout the peninsula in daily life, ritual, and song. Ladino, a blend of medieval Spanish with significant loan words from Hebrew, Arabic, and Portuguese, had both a formal, literary dialect, and numerous daily, spoken dialects which evolved during the immigrations of Sephardic Jews to new lands.

The Sephardic Golden Age ended when Christian princes consolidated their kingdoms and reestablished Christian rule throughout Spain and Portugal. In 1492, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella expelled all Jews from Spain; soon after, a similar law exiled Jews from Portugal. Sephardic Jews immigrated to Amsterdam, North Africa, and the Middle East.

Others established new communities in the Americas or converted publicly to Christianity, sometimes secretly maintaining a Jewish life. These converts (known in Ladino as conversos and in Hebrew as anusim, forced converts) often maintained their Judaism in secret. In the 21st century, there are still people in both Europe and the Americas who are discovering and reclaiming their Jewish ancestry.

Wherever Sephardic Jews traveled, they brought with them their unique ritual customs, language, arts, and architecture. Sephardic synagogues often retain the influence of Islam in their architecture by favoring geometric, calligraphic, and floral decorative motifs. Although they may align with the Ashkenazic religious denominations (usually Orthodoxy), the denominational identity of Sephardic synagogues is, in most cases, less strong than their ethnic identity.

At home, Ladino songs convey family traditions at the Shabbat table, although Ladino is rapidly disappearing from daily use. Sephardic Jews often maintain unique holiday customs, such as a seder for Rosh Hashanah that includes a series of special foods eaten as omens for a good new year and the eating of rice and legumes (kitniyot)on Passover.

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Sephardic – definition of Sephardic by The Free Dictionary

As the Purim holiday approaches, a group of 35 leading Sephardic Haredi rabbis penned a letter expressing their opposition to the popular custom of dressing up as IDF soldiers.Here’s a history lesson for today: In 1901, a Sephardic woman named Alice Franchetti founded the Montesca School in Italy, experimenting with innovative pedagogical methodologies and providing free education for the children of farm workers.Moreover, Balbuena’s book shows that Ladino is as intimately and inescapably connected with Sephardic identity as it is with exile and Diaspora.Portugal’s Institute of Registers and Notaries (IRN) has until now accepted a mere 8%292 out of 3,838of the applications for Portuguese citizenship from the descendants of Sephardic Jews who had been persecuted under the InquisitionThe words of “The New Colossus” are emblazoned on a plaque at the Statue of Liberty in New York City, written by poet Emma Lazarus – a Sephardic Jew.and Italy, documentation of an Ottoman excavation in Syria, the Rajputs of South Asia, church destruction in the Fatimid Era, placemaking in Sephardic Salonica, Al-Hairi’s Maqamat, the patronage of Vizier Mirza Salman, and an Iskandarnama of Nizami produced for Ibrahim Sultan.Ora de Despertar is a children’s album entirely in Ladino, a language also known as Judeo-Spanish, primarily spoken among Sephardic Jews and also used in Sephardic religious texts, secular literature, and songs.Angel gently reclaims the natural, balanced and insightful teachings of Sephardic Judaism that can and should imbue modern Jewish spirituality in the pages of “The Rhythms of Jewish Living”.Previously known as the Sephardic Nursing and Rehabilitation Center, the facility will now be known in the Allure Group family of homes as the King David Center for Nursing and Rehabilitation.Synopsis: “The Blind Eye: A Sephardic Journey” is comprised of parallel stories set in 15th century Portugal and the 1990’s, as two women explore their identities.Several years ago, a Frenchman of Sephardic Jewish ancestry was on a visit to Toledo.During the dias-pora, it remained a popular ingredient for Jewish cooks, particularly in the Sephardic world where it was both readily available and pareve, which made it a good substitute for butter in cakes, breads and other baked goods that might be served with meat.

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Sephardi – definition of Sephardi by The Free Dictionary

Here the notion of powerful Jewish networks links the Sephardi not merely to European but also to Muslim spaces.EDyRNE (CyHAN)- Attending the newly restored synagogue, hundreds of Jewish people flocked into western Turkish province of Edirne on Thursday to visit ancient graves of their ancestors of Sephardi Jews who have settled in Anatolian lands in 15th century after being banished from Spain and Portugal.Yet, the children of ANLIT also reflect all Israel: religious and secular, Ashkenazi and Sephardi, Sabra and new immigrant.Chapter three continues the analyses and discussion of identity negotiation by focusing on the young Sephardi intelligentsia of Jerusalem.Summary: New York – The American Sephardi Federation (ASF) held, on Sunday in New York, an international symposium on “2000 years of Jewish life in Morocco”, celebrating the plural identity of one of the oldest and most dynamic Sephardic communities in the world.Barda’s research shows that Ashkenazi Egyptians, who constituted only eight percent of the Jewish population in Egypt, made up nearly 25 percent of the Egyptian immigrants to Australia and that they migrated earlier than did their Sephardi compatriots.The issue erupted when the court intervened in a dispute at the Ultra-Orthodox school in the Immanuel settlement, where parents from the strictly observant Slonim Hassidic sect of Ashkenazi Jewry refused to let their girls attend classes with girls of Sephardi descent.The Council also condemned Israeli attempts to seize Palestinian property in the occupied city of Jerusalem, including by the Assembly of the Sephardi to overtake six houses in the Old City.Although austere timbres and melancholy feeling dominated, in five Sephardi songs Ellis moved convincingly from the lilting and bright, through plaintive chant to grittier emotion, and two klezmer-like Yiddish numbers saw vigorous rhythmic attack.Leading Israeli political scientists discuss the revival of the Israeli left and the increased strength of ethnic Sephardi, Russian and Arab electorates.Sephardi Jews had extensive social services that were absent in the Ashkenazi community, as well as ties to Lurianic Kabbalah, which Gershom Scholem demonstrated had extensive influence on Jewish mentalities.Norman Stillman’s Sephardi Religious Responses to Modernity is a sympathetic attempt to describe religious aspects of the Sephardi and Oriental encounter with “modernity” and the consequences of that encounter.

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Eastern Sephardim – Wikipedia

Eastern Sephardim are a distinctive sub-group of Sephardi Jews, mostly descended from families expelled and exiled from Iberia as Jews in the 15th century following the Alhambra Decree of 1492 in Spain and the decree of 1497 in Portugal. This branch of descendants of the Jews of Iberia settled in the Eastern Mediterranean. Eastern Sephardim settled mostly in various parts of the Ottoman Empire, which included areas in West Asia (Middle East, Anatolia, etc.), the Balkans in Southern Europe, plus Egypt. For centuries, these Jews made up the majority of the population of Salonica (now called Thessaloniki, Greece), Constantinople (now called Istanbul, Turkey), and Sarajevo (in what is today Bosnia and Herzegovina), all of which were located in the Ottoman-ruled parts of Europe. Some migrated farther east to territories of the Ottoman Empire, settling among the long-established Arabic-speaking Jewish communities in Baghdad in Iraq, Damascus in Syria and Alexandria in Egypt. A few of the Eastern Sephardim followed the spice trade routes as far as the Malabar coast of southern India, where they settled among the established Cochin Jewish community, again imparting their culture and customs to the local Jews. The presence of Sephardim and New Christians along the Malabar coast eventually aroused the ire of the Catholic Church, which then obtained permission from the Portuguese crown to establish the Goan Inquisition against the Sephardic Jews of India. In recent times, principally after 1948, most Eastern Sephardim have since relocated to Israel, and others to the United States, France and Latin America. Contents The term Sephardi means “Spanish” or “Hispanic”, and is derived from Sepharad, a Biblical location. The location of the biblical Sepharad is disputed, but Sepharad was identified by later Jews as Hispania, that is, the Iberian Peninsula. Sepharad now means “Spain” in modern Hebrew. Their traditional spoken languages were referred to as Judaeo-Spanish and Judaeo-Portuguese. For the most part, Eastern Sephardim did not maintain their own separate Sephardic religious and cultural institutions from the pre-existing Jews, but instead the local Jews came to adopt the culture and customs of the recent Sephardic arrivals. This phenomenon is just one of the factors which has today led to the broader religious definition of Sephardi. The relationship between Sephardi-descended communities is illustrated in the following diagram:

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Sephardic | Define Sephardic at Dictionary.com

plural of Sephardi “a Spanish or Portuguese Jew” (1851), from Modern Hebrew Sepharaddim “Spaniards, Jews of Spain,” from Sepharad, name of a country mentioned only in Obad. v:20, probably meaning “Asia Minor” or a part of it (Lydia, Phrygia), but identified by the rabbis after the Jonathan Targum as “Spain.” Related: Sephardic.

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Stella’s Sephardic Table: Jewish family recipes from the …

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Sephardi Jews | Familypedia | FANDOM powered by Wikia

Sephardi Jews (Yahadut Sfarad) Total population Sephardi Jews2,200,000up to 16% of world Jewish population Regions with significant populations Israel 1.4 million France 300,000400,000 United States 200,000300,000 Argentina 50,000 Turkey 26,000 United Kingdom 8,000 Colombia 7,000 Morocco 6,000 Greece 6,000 Tunisia 2,000 Bosnia and Herzegovina 2,000 Panama 8,000 Languages Historical: Ladino, Arabic, Haketia, Judeo-Portuguese, Berber, Catalanic, Shuadit, local languages Modern: Local languages, primarily Hebrew, French, English, Spanish, Turkish, Portuguese, Italian, Ladino, Arabic. Judaism Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions, Samaritans, other Levantines, other Near Eastern Semitic people, Spaniards, Portuguese and Hispanics/Latinos Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or simply Sephardim (Hebrew: , Modern Hebrew: Sfaraddi, Tiberian: Spradd, lit. “The Jews of Spain”), are a Jewish ethnic division whose ethnogenesis and emergence as a distinct community of Jews coalesced in the Iberian Peninsula around the start of the 2nd millennium (i.e., about the year 1000). They established communities throughout Spain and Portugal, where they traditionally resided, evolving what would become their distinctive characteristics and diasporic identity. Their millennial residence as an open and organised Jewish community in Iberia was brought to an end starting with the Alhambra Decree by Spain’s Catholic Monarchs in the late 15th century, which resulted in a combination of internal and external migrations, mass conversions and executions. Historically, the vernacular languages of Sephardim and their descendants have been: More broadly, the term Sephardim has today also come to refer to traditionally Eastern Jewish communities of West Asia and beyond who, although not having genealogical roots in the Jewish communities of Iberia, have adopted a Sephardic style of liturgy and Sephardic law and customs imparted to them by the Iberian Jewish exiles over the course of the last few centuries. This article deals with Sephardim within the narrower ethnic definition. The name Sephardi means “Spanish” or “Hispanic”, derived from Sepharad (Hebrew: , ModernSfard TiberianSpr ), a Biblical location.[1] The location of the biblical Sepharad is disputed, but Sepharad was identified by later Jews as Hispania, that is, the Iberian Peninsula. Sepharad () still means “Spain” in modern Hebrew. In other languages and scripts, “Sephardi” may be translated as plural Hebrew: , ModernSfaraddim TiberianSpraddm; sefard or Spanish: Sefardes; Portuguese: Sefarditas; sefardita or Catalan: Sefardites; Aragonese: Safards; Basque: Sefardiak; French: Sfarades; Galician: Sefards; Italian: Sefarditi; Greek: Sephardites; Bulgarian: Sefaradi; Template:Lang-bs; Serbian: Sefardi; Turkish: Sefarad, Judaeo-Spanish: Sefaradies/Sefaradim; and Arabic: Safrdiyyn. In the narrower ethnic definition, a Sephardi Jew is a Jew descended from the Jews who lived in the Iberian Peninsula in the late 15th century, immediately prior to the issuance of the Alhambra Decree of 1492 by order of the Catholic Monarchs in Spain, and the decree of 1496 in Portugal by order of King Manuel I. In Hebrew, the term “Sephardim Tehorim” ( , literally “Pure Sephardim”) is used to distinguish Sephardim proper “who trace their lineage back to the Iberian/Spanish population” from Sephardim in the broader religious sense.[2] This distinction has also been made in reference to genetic findings in research on Sephardim proper in contrast to other communities of Jews today termed Sephardi more broadly[3] The modern Israeli Hebrew definition of Sephardi is a much broader, religious based, definition that generally excludes ethnic considerations. In its most basic form, this broad religious definition of a Sephardi refers to any Jew, of any ethnic background, who follows the customs and traditions of Sepharad. For religious purposes, and in modern Israel, “Sephardim” is most often used in this wider sense which encompasses most non-Ashkenazi Jews who are not ethnically Sephardi, but are in most instances of West Asian origin, but who nonetheless commonly use a Sephardic style of liturgy. The term Sephardi in the broad sense, thus describes the nusach (Hebrew language, “liturgical tradition”) used by Sephardi Jews in their Siddur (prayer book). A nusach is defined by a liturgical tradition’s choice of prayers, order of prayers, text of prayers and melodies used in the singing of prayers. Sephardim traditionally pray using Minhag Sefarad. The term Nusach Sefard or Nusach Sfarad does not refer to the liturgy generally recited by Sephardim proper or even Sephardi in a broader sense, but rather to an alternative Eastern European liturgy used by many Hasidim who are in fact Ashkenazi. Additionally, Ethiopian Jews, whose branch of practiced Judaism is known as Haymanot, have recently come under the umbrella of Israel’s already broad Sephardic Chief Rabbinate. Furthermore, in modern times, the term Sephardi has also been applied to Jews who may not have even been born Jewish, but attend Sephardic synagogues and practice Sephardic traditions. The divisions among Sephardim and their descendants today is largely a result of the consequences of the royal edicts. Both the Spanish and Portuguese edicts ordered their respective Jewish populations to choose from one of three options:1) convert to Catholicism to be allowed to remain within the kingdom,2) remain Jews and be expelled by the stipulated deadline, or3) be subjected to death without trial for any Jew who did not convert or leave by the deadline. In Spain, the Jews were only given four months from the time the decree was issued before the expiry of the set deadline. Under the edict, Jews were promised royal “protection and security” for the effective three-month window before the deadline. They were permitted to take their belongings with them except “gold or silver or minted money”. It has been argued by British scholar Henry Kamen, that “the real purpose of the 1492 edict likely was not expulsion, but compulsory conversion of all Spanish Jews. Yet in giving Jews a choice and three months to think about it, the plan backfired; many opted to leave the country rather than convert”,[4] which ultimately was to Spain’s detriment. Between a third to one half of Spain’s Jewish origin population opted for exile, many flooding into Portugal. Foreseeing the economic aftermath of a similar Jewish flight from Portugal, King Manuel’s decree five years later was largely pro-forma to appease a precondition the Spanish monarchs had set for him if he wished to marry their daughter. While the stipulations were similar in the Portuguese decree, King Manuel then largely prevented Portugal’s Jews from leaving, by blocking Portugal’s ports of exit. This failure to leave Portugal was then reasoned by the king to signify a default acceptance of Catholicism by the Jews, and the king then proceeded to proclaim them New Christians. Actual physical forced conversions, however, were also experienced throughout Portugal. Sephardi Jews, therefore, encompasses Jews descended from those Jews who left the Iberian Peninsula as Jews by the expiration of the respective decreed deadlines. This group is further divided between those who fled south to North Africa, as opposed to those who fled eastwards to the Balkans, West Asia and beyond. Also included among Sephardi Jews are those who descend from “New Christian” conversos, but then returned to Judaism after leaving Iberia, largely after reaching Central and Northern Europe. From these regions, many would again migrate, this time to the non-Iberian territories of the Americas. Additional to all these Sephardic Jewish groups are the descendants of those New Christian conversos who either remained in Iberia, or moved from Iberia directly to the Iberian colonial possessions across what are today the various Latin American countries. The descendants of this group of conversos, for historical reasons and circumstances, were never able to formally return to the Jewish religion. All these sub-groups are defined by a combination of geography, identity, religious evolution, language evolution, and the timeframe of their reversion (for those who had in the interim undergone a temporary nominal conversion to Catholicism) or non-reversion back to Judaism. It should be noted that these Sephardic sub-groups are separate from any pre-existing local Jewish communities they encountered in their new areas of settlement. From the perspective of the present day, the first three sub-groups appeared to have developed as separate branches, each with its own traditions. In earlier centuries, and as late as the editing of the Jewish Encyclopedia at the beginning of the 20th century, they were usually regarded as together forming a continuum. The Jewish community of Livorno acted as the clearing-house of personnel and traditions among the first three sub-groups; it also developed as the chief publishing centre.Template:Synthesis-inline. The relationship between Sephardi-descended communities is illustrated in the following diagram:

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Sephardic Genealogy – London, United Kingdom | Facebook

(JTA) Police in Portugal are searching for a local politician whom they suspect fled the country after pocketing $130,000 earmarked for developing Jewish heritage sites. Marco Baptista, who represents the Social Democratic Party in the eastern town of Covilha, dropped off the radar earlier this …

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Sephardic Jews: History, Religion and People: Ron D Hart …

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July 19, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Sephardic  Comments Closed

Who Are Sephardic Jews? | My Jewish Learning

Many historical documents recount a large population of Jews in Spain during the early years of the Common Era. Their cultural distinctiveness is characterized in Roman writings as a corrupting influence. Later, with the arrival of Christianity, Jewish legal authorities became worried about assimilation and maintaining Jewish identity. Despite these concerns, by the seventh century Sephardim had flourished, beginning a time known as the Golden Age of Spain. During this period, Sephardic Jews reached the highest echelons of secular government and the military. Many Jews gained renown in non-Jewish circles as poets, scholars, and physicians. New forms of Hebrew poetry arose, and talmudic and halachic (Jewish law) study took on great sophistication. Ladino, the Judeo-Spanish language, unified Jews throughout the peninsula in daily life, ritual, and song. Ladino, a blend of medieval Spanish with significant loan words from Hebrew, Arabic, and Portuguese, had both a formal, literary dialect, and numerous daily, spoken dialects which evolved during the immigrations of Sephardic Jews to new lands. The Sephardic Golden Age ended when Christian princes consolidated their kingdoms and reestablished Christian rule throughout Spain and Portugal. In 1492, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella expelled all Jews from Spain; soon after, a similar law exiled Jews from Portugal. Sephardic Jews immigrated to Amsterdam, North Africa, and the Middle East. Others established new communities in the Americas or converted publicly to Christianity, sometimes secretly maintaining a Jewish life. These converts (known in Ladino as conversos and in Hebrew as anusim, forced converts) often maintained their Judaism in secret. In the 21st century, there are still people in both Europe and the Americas who are discovering and reclaiming their Jewish ancestry. Wherever Sephardic Jews traveled, they brought with them their unique ritual customs, language, arts, and architecture. Sephardic synagogues often retain the influence of Islam in their architecture by favoring geometric, calligraphic, and floral decorative motifs. Although they may align with the Ashkenazic religious denominations (usually Orthodoxy), the denominational identity of Sephardic synagogues is, in most cases, less strong than their ethnic identity. At home, Ladino songs convey family traditions at the Shabbat table, although Ladino is rapidly disappearing from daily use. Sephardic Jews often maintain unique holiday customs, such as a seder for Rosh Hashanah that includes a series of special foods eaten as omens for a good new year and the eating of rice and legumes (kitniyot)on Passover. Empower your Jewish discovery, daily

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Sephardic – definition of Sephardic by The Free Dictionary

As the Purim holiday approaches, a group of 35 leading Sephardic Haredi rabbis penned a letter expressing their opposition to the popular custom of dressing up as IDF soldiers.Here’s a history lesson for today: In 1901, a Sephardic woman named Alice Franchetti founded the Montesca School in Italy, experimenting with innovative pedagogical methodologies and providing free education for the children of farm workers.Moreover, Balbuena’s book shows that Ladino is as intimately and inescapably connected with Sephardic identity as it is with exile and Diaspora.Portugal’s Institute of Registers and Notaries (IRN) has until now accepted a mere 8%292 out of 3,838of the applications for Portuguese citizenship from the descendants of Sephardic Jews who had been persecuted under the InquisitionThe words of “The New Colossus” are emblazoned on a plaque at the Statue of Liberty in New York City, written by poet Emma Lazarus – a Sephardic Jew.and Italy, documentation of an Ottoman excavation in Syria, the Rajputs of South Asia, church destruction in the Fatimid Era, placemaking in Sephardic Salonica, Al-Hairi’s Maqamat, the patronage of Vizier Mirza Salman, and an Iskandarnama of Nizami produced for Ibrahim Sultan.Ora de Despertar is a children’s album entirely in Ladino, a language also known as Judeo-Spanish, primarily spoken among Sephardic Jews and also used in Sephardic religious texts, secular literature, and songs.Angel gently reclaims the natural, balanced and insightful teachings of Sephardic Judaism that can and should imbue modern Jewish spirituality in the pages of “The Rhythms of Jewish Living”.Previously known as the Sephardic Nursing and Rehabilitation Center, the facility will now be known in the Allure Group family of homes as the King David Center for Nursing and Rehabilitation.Synopsis: “The Blind Eye: A Sephardic Journey” is comprised of parallel stories set in 15th century Portugal and the 1990’s, as two women explore their identities.Several years ago, a Frenchman of Sephardic Jewish ancestry was on a visit to Toledo.During the dias-pora, it remained a popular ingredient for Jewish cooks, particularly in the Sephardic world where it was both readily available and pareve, which made it a good substitute for butter in cakes, breads and other baked goods that might be served with meat.

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