Archive for the ‘Ukraine’ Category

Ukraine – definition of Ukraine by The Free Dictionary

On his return from his furlough Nicholas, having been joyfully welcomed by his comrades, was sent to obtain remounts and brought back from the Ukraine excellent horses which pleased him and earned him commendation from his commanders.We did not tell Pavel’s secret to anyone, but guarded it jealously–as if the wolves of the Ukraine had gathered that night long ago, and the wedding party been sacrificed, to give us a painful and peculiar pleasure.Finland’s development cooperation allocated to Ukraine will be EUR 15 million in 20182021.The company recalled that SOCAR’s retail network includes 59 refueling complexes and two oil loading bunkers located in nine regions of Ukraine.In a statement issued here on Friday, he said that during the previous year Ukraine, despite all difficulties, demonstrated a stable growth of economy -3,5%, increase in inflow of foreign investments and improved living standards of population.Ensuring sustainable and tangible changes in the governance system to eliminate corruption opportunities and ensure proper prosecution and punishment for corruption-related crimes remains one of the key challenges Ukraine faces in its reform process hindering the improvement of the business and investment climate.Ukraine and Russia called for a ceasefire deal back in February of 2015.Government assistance to Ukraine aims to support the development of a democratic, prosperous, and secure Ukraine, fully integrated into the Euro-Atlantic community.TO WIN Ukraine 8/13 Slovenia 11/2 Draw 5/2 SCORELINE Draw 0-0 6/1 Draw 1-1 6/1 Ukraine 1-0 15/4 Ukraine 2-0 5/1 Ukraine 2-1 8/1 Ukraine 3-0 10/1 Slovenia 1-0 11/1 Slovenia 2-0 33/1 Slovenia 2-1 20/1 1ST SCORER Y Seleznyov 9/2 A Yarmolenko 9/2 A Kravets 11/2 No Scorer 6/1 P Budkivsky 6/1 Y Konoplyanka 6/1 O Gladky 7/1 OGusev 8/1 M Novakovic 9/1 Z Ljubijankic 10/1 R Malinovsky 11/1 D Garmash 12/1 LadbrokesWITH a major battle around the rail hub of Debaltseve ending with the withdrawal of Ukrainian government forces, it looks like the tenuous truce in eastern Ukraine may hold.In order to buy gas on a pre-paid basis, Ukraine together with the European Commission should search for the financial resources of $1.Under the deal, which each country’s government still needs to approve, Ukraine will pay $385 per 1,000 cubics meters for gas for the next six months.

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Ukraine Overview – worldbank.org

Strategy

World Bank Portfolio

No. of projects:8 IBRD investment operations, plus one guarantee

Total lending:US$2.5 billion, including US$148 million from the Clean Technology Fund (CTF)

Ukraine joined the World Bank in 1992. Over the 26 years of cooperation, the Banks commitments to the country have totaled close to US$12 billion in about 70 projects and programs.

In March 2014, after receiving a request from the-then Ukrainian Government, the World Bank Group (WBG) immediately announced its support for a reform agenda aiming to put the Ukrainian economy on a path to sustainability. The current International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) portfolio consists of eight investment operations of roughly US$2.5 billion and one guarantee of US$500 million.

The World Bank and the authorities are implementing a Country Partnership Framework (CPF) for Ukraine for FY1721 that supports the countrys efforts to achieve a lasting economic recovery benefiting the entire population. The new CPF focuses on ensuring that markets work more effectively, establishing the necessary conditions for fiscal and financial stability, and improving service delivery for all Ukrainians.

Key Engagement

Responding to the crisis in Ukraine, in March 2014, the WBG announced that it would provide additional financial and technical support to the country. Since 2014, the Bank has supported the people of Ukraine through two series of Development Policy Loans (DPLs), seven new investment operations, and a guarantee amounting to approximately US$5.5 billion aimed at improving critical public services, supporting reforms, and bolstering the private sector.

The World Bank has supported high-priority reform measures to address the key structural roots of the current economic crisis in Ukraine and to lay the foundation for inclusive and sustainable growth through two series of budget support operations: the multi-sector DPL series (MSDPL-1, US$750 million, approved in 2014, and MSDPL-2, US$500 million, approved in 2015) and the Financial Sector (FS) DPL series (FSDP -1, US$500 million, approved in 2014, and FSDPL-2, US$500 million, approved in 2015).

Reform measures aided by these four budget support operations promote good governance, transparency, and accountability in the public sector, as well as stability in the banking sector; a reduction in the cost of doing business; and the effective use of scarce public resources to provide quality public services at a crucial time. These operations also support the authorities in continuing to reform an inefficient and inequitable housing subsidy system while protecting the poor from tariff increases by strengthening social assistance.

World Bank investment projects have focused and will continue to focus on improving basic public services, such as district heating, water and sanitation, health, and social protection, as well as public infrastructure, such as the power transmission networks and roads. The Bank is also supporting Ukraine through policy advice and technical assistance on formulating and implementing comprehensive structural reforms.

In addition to financing several ongoing private sector projects, the International Finance Corporation (IFC) is implementing a large advisory program in the country, working to simplify regulations, improve the investment climate and energy efficiency, boost the completeness of local food producers, help open new markets, and increase access to finance.

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Doing Business in Ukraine – World Bank Group

Note:

If the duration and frequency of outages is 100 or less, the economy is eligible to score on the Reliability of supply and transparency of tariff index.

If the duration and frequency of outages is not available, or is over 100, the economy is not eligible to score on the index.

If the minimum outage time considered for SAIDI/SAIFI is over 5 minutes, the economy is not eligible to score on the index.

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Ukraine Travel: Your Ukrainian Guide for Things to Do, Hotels …

Kiev Oblast

There are few cities in Ukraine which enjoy such a well documented ancient past as Vyshhorod. While today Vyshhorod in Ukraine is a modest city with a population of over 23,000, in the early 900s it was a bustling metropolis that enjoyed royal favor. Vyshhorod is located along the banks of the Dnieper River just a short distance upstream from Kiev. Thus, the name Vyshhgorod is a good …

Culture

Traditional Ukrainian wedding customs are made up of various ceremonial stages sealing the union of the groom and bride. Younger generations are in some cases following Western wedding customs, however, those from more traditional families or couples in villages still observe the wedding customs of Ukraine. A wedding in Ukraine is a solemn occasion involving important religious rituals, but …

Religious Sites

The St. Volodymyrs Cathedral lies in the centre of Kiev, which is the main city of Ukraine. It is also considered as the mother cathedral to the ‘Ukrainian Orthodox Church Kiev Patriarchy’, thus making it one of two very important Ukrainian Orthodox churches. Like most churches it has a variety of names that it is commonly referred to, such as: Volodymyrsky Cathedral, St. Vladimirs …

Sumy Oblast

The Ukrainian town of Hlukhiv, with an approximate population of 35,000, has been inhabited from the 5th century. Archaeologists have confirmed this, but the town was only mentioned in documents from the year 1152. In 1644, the town of Hlukhiv, received its Magdeburg Rights. Peter the Great then went on to transform the town, located in the Sumy Oblast, into the capital for the Hetman. …

Regions

The Khmelnytskyi Oblast is located in western Ukraine, with its administrative center, the city of Khmelnytskyi, lying on the banks of the Southern Buh River, around 340 kilometers from Ukraine’s capital city, Kiev. It is a beautiful part of the country with at least 120 rivers and tributaries running through it, and an estimated 1,858 ponds, lakes and reservoirs scattered over the landscape.

Zhytomyr Oblast

The city of Berdychiv is a quaint city in the Zhytomyr Oblast that has an extremely interesting past. The exact date as to when the city was founded is mere speculation, and how its name came about can only be guessed. In all honesty, Berdychiv’s establishment is shrouded in mystery, and scientists and historians have been able to piece some of this fascinating puzzle together.

Religious Sites

The Kiev Pechersk Lavra Monastery is a complex that is made up from various fascinating buildings and sights. These diverse memories of the past all carry the strong architectural signature of the Ukrainian Baroque construction style and form a network of beautiful and spectacular structures. The monastery and surrounding complex is also known as the Calvin Cave Monastery.

Art Galleries

The building that houses the ARTEast Gallery on Reytarska Street in Kiev is as famous and well-known as the gallery itself. It was once home to Yuriy Davydovs Ballet Studio which doubled as an Opera Studio and became the blue print for ballet studios all over the world. It was the first studio to offer subjects such as languages and grammar together with lessons given by Illya Chestyakov. …

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Ukrainian language – Wikipedia

Ukrainian (listen) ( ukrajinka mova) is an East Slavic language. It is the official state language of Ukraine and first of two principal languages of Ukrainians; it is one of the three official languages in the unrecognized state of Transnistria, the other two being Romanian and Russian. Written Ukrainian uses a variant of the Cyrillic script (see Ukrainian alphabet).

Historical linguists trace the origin of the Ukrainian language to the Old East Slavic of the early medieval state of Kievan Rus’. After the fall of the Kievan Rus’ as well as the Kingdom of GaliciaVolhynia, the language developed into a form called the Ruthenian language. The Modern Ukrainian language has been in common use since the late 17th century, associated with the establishment of the Cossack Hetmanate. From 1804 until the Russian Revolution, the Ukrainian language was banned from schools in the Russian Empire, of which the biggest part of Ukraine (Central, Eastern and Southern) was a part at the time.[7] It has always maintained a sufficient base in Western Ukraine, where the language was never banned,[8] in its folklore songs, itinerant musicians, and prominent authors.[8][9]

The standard Ukrainian language is regulated by the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NANU), particularly by its Institute for the Ukrainian Language, Ukrainian language-information fund, and Potebnya Institute of Language Studies. The Ukrainian language retains a degree of mutual intelligibility with Belarusian and Russian.[10]

The first theory of the origin of Ukrainian language was suggested in Imperial Russia in the middle of the 18th century by Mikhail Lomonosov. This theory posits the existence of a common language spoken by all East Slavic people in the time of the Rus’. According to Lomonosov, the differences that subsequently developed between Great Russian and Ukrainian (which he referred to as Little Russian) could be explained by the influence of the Polish and Slovak languages on Ukrainian and the influence of Uralic languages on Russian from the 13th to the 17th centuries.[full citation needed]

Another point of view developed during the 19th and 20th centuries by linguists of Imperial Russia and the Soviet Union. Like Lomonosov, they assumed the existence of a common language spoken by East Slavs in the past. But unlike Lomonosov’s hypothesis, this theory does not view “Polonization” or any other external influence as the main driving force that led to the formation of three different languages (Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian) from the common Old East Slavic language. This general point of view is the most accepted amongst academics worldwide,[11] particularly outside Ukraine. The supporters of this theory disagree, however, about the time when the different languages were formed.

Soviet scholars set the divergence between Ukrainian and Russian only at later time periods (14th through 16th centuries). According to this view, Old East Slavic diverged into Belarusian and Ukrainian to the west (collectively, the Ruthenian language of the 15th to 18th centuries), and Old Russian to the north-east, after the political boundaries of the Kievan Rus’ were redrawn in the 14th century. During the time of the incorporation of Ruthenia (Ukraine and Belarus) into the PolishLithuanian Commonwealth, Ukrainian and Belarusian diverged into identifiably separate languages.[citation needed]

Some scholars[who?] see a divergence between the language of Galicia-Volhynia and the language of Novgorod-Suzdal by the 12th century, assuming that before the 12th century, the two languages were practically indistinguishable. This point of view is, however, at variance with some historical data. In fact, several East Slavic tribes, such as Polans, Drevlyans, Severians, Dulebes (that later likely became Volhynians and Buzhans), White Croats, Tiverians and Ulichs lived on the territory of today’s Ukraine long before the 12th century. Notably, some Ukrainian features[which?] were recognizable in the southern dialects of Old East Slavic as far back as the language can be documented.[12]

Some researchers, while admitting the differences between the dialects spoken by East Slavic tribes in the 10th and 11th centuries, still consider them as “regional manifestations of a common language” (see, for instance, the article by Vasyl Nimchuk).[13] In contrast, Ahatanhel Krymsky and Alexei Shakhmatov assumed the existence of the common spoken language of Eastern Slavs only in prehistoric times.[14] According to their point of view, the diversification of the Old East Slavic language took place in the 8th or early 9th century.

Ukrainian linguist Stepan Smal-Stotsky went even further, denying the existence of a common Old East Slavic language at any time in the past.[15] Similar points of view were shared by Yevhen Tymchenko, Vsevolod Hantsov, Olena Kurylo, Ivan Ohienko and others. According to this theory, the dialects of East Slavic tribes evolved gradually from the common Proto-Slavic language without any intermediate stages during the 6th through 9th centuries. The Ukrainian language was formed by convergence of tribal dialects, mostly due to an intensive migration of the population within the territory of today’s Ukraine in later historical periods. This point of view was also supported by George Shevelov’s phonological studies.[12]

As the result of close Slavic contacts with the remnants of the Scythian and Sarmatian population north of the Black Sea, lasting into the early Middle Ages, the appearance of voiced fricative (h) in modern Ukrainian and some southern Russian dialects is explained, that initially emerged in Scythian and the related eastern Iranian dialects from earlier common Proto-Indo-European *g and *g.[16][17][18]

During the 13th century, when German settlers were invited to Ukraine by the princes of Galicia-Vollhynia, German words began to appear in the language spoken in Ukraine. Their influence would continue under Poland not only through German colonists but also through the Yiddish-speaking Jews. Often such words involve trade or handicrafts. Examples of words of German or Yiddish origin spoken in Ukraine include dakh (roof), rura (pipe), rynok (market), kushnir (furrier), and majster (master or craftsman).[19]

In the 13th century, eastern parts of Rus’ (including Moscow) came under Tatar yoke until their unification under the Tsardom of Muscovy, whereas the south-western areas (including Kiev) were incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. For the following four centuries, the language of the two regions evolved in relative isolation from each other. Direct written evidence of the existence of the Ukrainian language dates to the late 16th century.[20] By the 16th century, a peculiar official language was formed: a mixture of Old Church Slavonic, Ruthenian and Polish, with the influence of the last of these three gradually increasing. Documents soon took on many Polish characteristics superimposed on Ruthenian phonetics.[21] Polish rule and education also involved significant exposure to the Latin language. Much of the influence of Poland on the development of the Ukrainian language has been attributed to this period and is reflected in multiple words and constructions used in everyday Ukrainian speech that were taken from Polish or Latin. Examples of Polish words adopted from this period include zavzhdy (always; taken from old Polish word zawdy) and obitsiaty (to promise; taken from Polish obieca) and from Latin (via Polish) raptom (suddenly) and meta (aim or goal).[19]

Significant contact with Tatars and Turks resulted in many Turkic words, particularly those involving military matters and steppe industry, being adopted into the Ukrainian language. Examples include torba (bag) and tyutyun (tobacco).[19]

Due to heavy borrowings from Polish, German, Czech and Latin, early modern vernacular Ukrainian (prosta mova, “simple speech”) had more lexical similarity with West Slavic languages than with Russian or Church Slavonic.[22] By the mid-17th century, the linguistic divergence between the Ukrainian and Russian languages was so acute that there was a need for translators during negotiations for the Treaty of Pereyaslav, between Bohdan Khmelnytsky, head of the Zaporozhian Host, and the Russian state.[23]

During the Khazar period, the territory of Ukraine, settled at that time by Iranian (post-Scythian), Turkic (post-Hunnic, proto-Bulgarian), and Uralic (proto-Hungarian) tribes, was progressively Slavicized by several waves of migration from the Slavic north. Finally, the Varangian ruler of Novgorod, called Oleg, seized Kiev (Kyiv) and established the political entity of Rus’. Some theorists see an early Ukrainian stage in language development here; others term this era Old East Slavic or Old Ruthenian/Rus’ian. Russian theorists tend to amalgamate Rus’ to the modern nation of Russia, and call this linguistic era Old Russian. Some hold that linguistic unity over Rus’ was not present, but tribal diversity in language was.

The era of Rus’ is the subject of some linguistic controversy, as the language of much of the literature was purely or heavily Old Slavonic. At the same time, most legal documents throughout Rus’ were written in a purely Old East Slavic language (supposed to be based on the Kiev dialect of that epoch). Scholarly controversies over earlier development aside, literary records from Rus’ testify to substantial divergence between Russian and Ruthenian/Rusyn forms of the Ukrainian language as early as the era of Rus’. One vehicle of this divergence (or widening divergence) was the large scale appropriation of the Old Slavonic language in the northern reaches of Rus’ and of the Polish language at the territory of modern Ukraine. As evidenced by the contemporary chronicles, the ruling princes of Galich (modern Halych) and Kiev called themselves “People of Rus'” (with the exact Cyrillic spelling of the adjective from of Rus’ varying among sources), which contrasts sharply with the lack of ethnic self-appellation for the area until the mid-19th century.[citation needed]

After the fall of GaliciaVolhynia, Ukrainians mainly fell under the rule of Lithuania and then Poland. Local autonomy of both rule and language was a marked feature of Lithuanian rule. In the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Old Slavic became the language of the chancellery and gradually evolved into the Ruthenian language. Polish rule, which came later, was accompanied by a more assimilationist policy. By the 1569 Union of Lublin that formed the PolishLithuanian Commonwealth, a significant part of Ukrainian territory was moved from Lithuanian rule to Polish administration, resulting in cultural Polonization and visible attempts to colonize Ukraine by the Polish nobility. Many Ukrainian nobles learned the Polish language and adopted Catholicism during that period.[24] Lower classes were less affected because literacy was common only in the upper class and clergy. The latter were also under significant Polish pressure after the Union with the Catholic Church. Most of the educational system was gradually Polonized. In Ruthenia, the language of administrative documents gradually shifted towards Polish.

The Polish language has had heavy influences on Ukrainian (particularly in Western Ukraine). The southwestern Ukrainian dialects are transitional to Polish.[25] As the Ukrainian language developed further, some borrowings from Tatar and Turkish occurred. Ukrainian culture and language flourished in the sixteenth and first half of the 17th century, when Ukraine was part of the PolishLithuanian Commonwealth. Among many schools established in that time, the Kiev-Mogila Collegium (the predecessor of modern Kyiv-Mohyla Academy), founded by the Orthodox Metropolitan Peter Mogila (Petro Mohyla), was the most important. At that time languages were associated more with religions: Catholics spoke Polish, and members of the Orthodox church spoke Ruthenian.

After the Treaty of Pereyaslav, Ukrainian high culture went into a long period of steady decline. In the aftermath, the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy was taken over by the Russian Empire and closed down later in the 19th century. Most of the remaining Ukrainian schools also switched to Polish or Russian in the territories controlled by these respective countries, which was followed by a new wave of Polonization and Russification of the native nobility. Gradually the official language of Ukrainian provinces under Poland was changed to Polish, while the upper classes in the Russian part of Ukraine used Russian.

During the 19th century, a revival of Ukrainian self-identification manifested in the literary classes of both Russian-Empire Dnieper Ukraine and Austrian Galicia. The Brotherhood of Sts Cyril and Methodius in Kiev applied an old word for the Cossack motherland, Ukrajina, as a self-appellation for the nation of Ukrainians, and Ukrajins’ka mova for the language. Many writers published works in the Romantic tradition of Europe demonstrating that Ukrainian was not merely a language of the village but suitable for literary pursuits.

However, in the Russian Empire expressions of Ukrainian culture and especially language were repeatedly persecuted for fear that a self-aware Ukrainian nation would threaten the unity of the empire. In 1804 Ukrainian as a subject and language of instruction was banned from schools.[7] In 1811 by the Order of the Russian government, the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy was closed. The Academy had been open since 1632 and was the first university in Eastern Europe. In 1847 the Brotherhood of Sts Cyril and Methodius was terminated. The same year Taras Shevchenko was arrested, exiled for ten years, and banned for political reasons from writing and painting. In 1862 Pavlo Chubynsky was exiled for seven years to Arkhangelsk. The Ukrainian magazine Osnova was discontinued. In 1863, the tsarist interior minister Pyotr Valuyev proclaimed in his decree that “there never has been, is not, and never can be a separate Little Russian language”.[26] A following ban on Ukrainian books led to Alexander II’s secret Ems Ukaz, which prohibited publication and importation of most Ukrainian-language books, public performances and lectures, and even banned the printing of Ukrainian texts accompanying musical scores.[27] A period of leniency after 1905 was followed by another strict ban in 1914, which also affected Russian-occupied Galicia.

For much of the 19th century the Austrian authorities demonstrated some preference for Polish culture, but the Ukrainians were relatively free to partake in their own cultural pursuits in Halychyna and Bukovyna, where Ukrainian was widely used in education and official documents.[29] The suppression by Russia retarded the literary development of the Ukrainian language in Dnipro Ukraine, but there was a constant exchange with Halychyna, and many works were published under Austria and smuggled to the east.

By the time of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the collapse of Austro-Hungary in 1918, the former ‘Ruthenians’ or ‘Little Russians’ were ready to openly develop a body of national literature, institute a Ukrainian-language educational system, and form an independent state named Ukraine (the Ukrainian People’s Republic, shortly joined by the West Ukrainian People’s Republic). During this brief independent statehood the stature and use of Ukrainian greatly improved.[9]

In the Russian Empire Census of 1897 the following picture emerged, with Ukrainian being the second most spoken language of the Russian Empire. According to the Imperial census’s terminology, the Russian language () was subdivided into Ukrainian (, ‘Little Russian’), what we know as Russian today (, ‘Great Russian’), and Belarusian (, ‘White Russian’).

The following table shows the distribution of settlement by native language (” “) in 1897 in Russian Empire governorates (guberniyas) that had more than 100,000 Ukrainian speakers.[30]

Although in the rural regions of the Ukraine provinces, 80% of the inhabitants said that Ukrainian was their native language in the Census of 1897 (for which the results are given above), in the urban regions only 32.5% of the population claimed Ukrainian as their native language. For example, in Odessa (then part of the Russian Empire), at the time the largest city in the territory of current Ukraine, only 5.6% of the population said Ukrainian was their native language.[31] Until the 1920s the urban population in Ukraine grew faster than the number of Ukrainian speakers. This implies that there was a (relative) decline in the use of Ukrainian language. For example, in Kiev, the number of people stating that Ukrainian was their native language declined from 30.3% in 1874 to 16.6% in 1917.[31]

During the seven-decade-long Soviet era, the Ukrainian language held the formal position of the principal local language in the Ukrainian SSR.[32] However, practice was often a different story:[32] Ukrainian always had to compete with Russian, and the attitudes of the Soviet leadership towards Ukrainian varied from encouragement and tolerance to discouragement.

Officially, there was no state language in the Soviet Union until the very end when it was proclaimed in 1990 that Russian language was the all-Union state language and that the constituent republics had rights to declare additional state languages within their jurisdictions.[33] Still it was implicitly understood in the hopes of minority nations that Ukrainian would be used in the Ukrainian SSR, Uzbek would be used in the Uzbek SSR, and so on. However, Russian was used in all parts of the Soviet Union and a special term, “a language of inter-ethnic communication”, was coined to denote its status.

Soviet language policy in Ukraine may be divided into the following policy periods:

Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Empire was broken up. In different parts of the former empire, several nations, including Ukrainians, developed a renewed sense of national identity. In the chaotic post-revolutionary years the Ukrainian language gained some usage in government affairs. Initially, this trend continued under the Bolshevik government of the Soviet Union, which in a political struggle to retain its grip over the territory had to encourage the national movements of the former Russian Empire. While trying to ascertain and consolidate its power, the Bolshevik government was by far more concerned about many political oppositions connected to the pre-revolutionary order than about the national movements inside the former empire, where it could always find allies.

The widening use of Ukrainian further developed in the first years of Bolshevik rule into a policy called korenizatsiya. The government pursued a policy of Ukrainianization by lifting a ban on the Ukrainian language. That led to the introduction of an impressive education program which allowed Ukrainian-taught classes and raised the literacy of the Ukrainophone population. This policy was led by Education Commissar Mykola Skrypnyk and was directed to approximate the language to Russian. Newly generated academic efforts from the period of independence were co-opted by the Bolshevik government. The party and government apparatus was mostly Russian-speaking but were encouraged to learn the Ukrainian language. Simultaneously, the newly literate ethnic Ukrainians migrated to the cities, which became rapidly largely Ukrainianized in both population and in education.

The policy even reached those regions of southern Russian SFSR where the ethnic Ukrainian population was significant, particularly the areas by the Don River and especially Kuban in the North Caucasus. Ukrainian language teachers, just graduated from expanded institutions of higher education in Soviet Ukraine, were dispatched to these regions to staff newly opened Ukrainian schools or to teach Ukrainian as a second language in Russian schools. A string of local Ukrainian-language publications were started and departments of Ukrainian studies were opened in colleges. Overall, these policies were implemented in thirty-five raions (administrative districts) in southern Russia.

Soviet policy towards the Ukrainian language changed abruptly in late 1932 and early 1933, with the termination of the policy of Ukrainianization. In December 1932, the regional party cells received a telegram signed by V. Molotov and Stalin with an order to immediately reverse the Ukrainianization policies. The telegram condemned Ukrainianization as ill-considered and harmful and demanded to “immediately halt Ukrainianization in raions (districts), switch all Ukrainianized newspapers, books and publications into Russian and prepare by autumn of 1933 for the switching of schools and instruction into Russian”.[citation needed]

The following years were characterized by massive repression and discrimination for the Ukrainophones. Western and most contemporary Ukrainian historians emphasize that the cultural repression was applied earlier and more fiercely in Ukraine than in other parts of the Soviet Union, and were therefore anti-Ukrainian; others assert that Stalin’s goal was the generic crushing of any dissent, rather than targeting the Ukrainians in particular.

Stalinist policies shifted to define Russian as the language of (inter-ethnic) communication. Although Ukrainian continued to be used (in print, education, radio and later television programs), it lost its primary place in advanced learning and republic-wide media. Ukrainian was demoted to a language of secondary importance, often associated with the rise in Ukrainian self-awareness and nationalism and often branded “politically incorrect”. The new Soviet Constitution adopted in 1936, however, stipulated that teaching in schools should be conducted in native languages.

Major repression started in 192930, when a large group of Ukrainian intelligentsia was arrested and most were executed. In Ukrainian history, this group is often referred to as “Executed Renaissance” (Ukrainian: ). “Ukrainian bourgeois nationalism” was declared to be the primary problem in Ukraine.[34] The terror peaked in 1933, four to five years before the Soviet-wide “Great Purge”, which, for Ukraine, was a second blow. The vast majority of leading scholars and cultural leaders of Ukraine were liquidated, as were the “Ukrainianized” and “Ukrainianizing” portions of the Communist party. Soviet Ukraine’s autonomy was completely destroyed by the late 1930s.[citation needed] In its place, the glorification of Russia as the first nation to throw off the capitalist yoke had begun, accompanied by the migration of Russian workers into parts of Ukraine which were undergoing industrialization and mandatory instruction of classic Russian language and literature. Ideologists warned of over-glorifying Ukraine’s Cossack past, and supported the closing of Ukrainian cultural institutions and literary publications. The systematic assault upon Ukrainian identity in culture and education, combined with effects of an artificial famine (Holodomor) upon the peasantrythe backbone of the nationdealt Ukrainian language and identity a crippling blow.[citation needed]

This sequence of policy change was repeated in Western Ukraine when it was incorporated into Soviet Ukraine. In 1939, and again in the late 1940s, a policy of Ukrainianization was implemented. By the early 1950s, Ukrainian was persecuted and a campaign of Russification began.

After the death of Stalin (1953), a general policy of relaxing the language policies of the past was implemented (1958 to 1963). The Nikita Khrushchev era which followed saw a policy of relatively lenient concessions to development of the languages at the local and republic level, though its results in Ukraine did not go nearly as far as those of the Soviet policy of Ukrainianization in the 1920s. Journals and encyclopedic publications advanced in the Ukrainian language during the Khrushchev era, as well as transfer of Crimea under Ukrainian SSR jurisdiction.

Yet, the 1958 school reform that allowed parents to choose the language of primary instruction for their children, unpopular among the circles of the national intelligentsia in parts of the USSR, meant that non-Russian languages would slowly give way to Russian in light of the pressures of survival and advancement. The gains of the past, already largely reversed by the Stalin era, were offset by the liberal attitude towards the requirement to study the local languages (the requirement to study Russian remained). Parents were usually free to choose the language of study of their children (except in few areas where attending the Ukrainian school might have required a long daily commute) and they often chose Russian, which reinforced the resulting Russification. In this sense, some analysts argue that it was not the “oppression” or “persecution”, but rather the lack of protection against the expansion of Russian language that contributed to the relative decline of Ukrainian in the 1970s and 1980s. According to this view, it was inevitable that successful careers required a good command of Russian, while knowledge of Ukrainian was not vital, so it was common for Ukrainian parents to send their children to Russian-language schools, even though Ukrainian-language schools were usually available. While in the Russian-language schools within the republic, Ukrainian was supposed to be learned as a second language at comparable level, the instruction of other subjects was in Russian and, as a result, students had a greater command of Russian than Ukrainian on graduation. Additionally, in some areas of the republic, the attitude towards teaching and learning of Ukrainian in schools was relaxed and it was, sometimes, considered a subject of secondary importance and even a waiver from studying it was sometimes given under various, ever expanding, circumstances.

The complete suppression of all expressions of separatism or Ukrainian nationalism also contributed to lessening interest in Ukrainian. Some people who persistently used Ukrainian on a daily basis were often perceived as though they were expressing sympathy towards, or even being members of, the political opposition. This, combined with advantages given by Russian fluency and usage, made Russian the primary language of choice for many Ukrainians, while Ukrainian was more of a hobby. In any event, the mild liberalization in Ukraine and elsewhere was stifled by new suppression of freedoms at the end of the Khrushchev era (1963) when a policy of gradually creeping suppression of Ukrainian was re-instituted.

The next part of the Soviet Ukrainian language policy divides into two eras: first, the Shelest period (early 1960s to early 1970s), which was relatively liberal towards the development of the Ukrainian language. The second era, the policy of Shcherbytsky (early 1970s to early 1990s), was one of gradual suppression of the Ukrainian language.

The Communist Party leader from 1963 to 1972, Petro Shelest, pursued a policy of defending Ukraine’s interests within the Soviet Union. He proudly promoted the beauty of the Ukrainian language and developed plans to expand the role of Ukrainian in higher education. He was removed, however, after only a brief tenure, for being too lenient on Ukrainian nationalism.

The new party boss from 1972 to 1989, Volodymyr Shcherbytsky, purged the local party, was fierce in suppressing dissent, and insisted Russian be spoken at all official functions, even at local levels. His policy of Russification was lessened only slightly after 1985.

The management of dissent by the local Ukrainian Communist Party was more fierce and thorough than in other parts of the Soviet Union. As a result, at the start of the Mikhail Gorbachev reforms perebudova and hlasnist (Ukrainian for perestroika and glasnost), Ukraine under Shcherbytsky was slower to liberalize than Russia itself.

Although Ukrainian still remained the native language for the majority in the nation on the eve of Ukrainian independence, a significant share of ethnic Ukrainians were russified. In Donetsk there were no Ukrainian language schools and in Kiev only a quarter of children went to Ukrainian language schools.[35]

The Russian language was the dominant vehicle, not just of government function, but of the media, commerce, and modernity itself. This was substantially less the case for western Ukraine, which escaped the artificial famine, Great Purge, and most of Stalinism. And this region became the center of a hearty, if only partial, renaissance of the Ukrainian language during independence.

Since 1991, Ukrainian has been the official state language in Ukraine, and the state administration implemented government policies to broaden the use of Ukrainian. The educational system in Ukraine has been transformed over the first decade of independence from a system that is partly Ukrainian to one that is overwhelmingly so. The government has also mandated a progressively increased role for Ukrainian in the media and commerce. In some cases the abrupt changing of the language of instruction in institutions of secondary and higher education led to the charges of Ukrainianization, raised mostly by the Russian-speaking population. This transition, however, lacked most of the controversies that arose during the de-russification of the other former Soviet Republics.

With time, most residents, including ethnic Russians, people of mixed origin, and Russian-speaking Ukrainians, started to self-identify as Ukrainian nationals, even those who remained Russophone. The Russian language, however, still dominates the print media in most of Ukraine and private radio and TV broadcasting in the eastern, southern, and, to a lesser degree, central regions. The state-controlled broadcast media have become exclusively Ukrainian. There are few obstacles to the usage of Russian in commerce and it is still occasionally used in government affairs.

Late 20th century Russian politicians like Alexander Lebed and Mikhail Yur’ev still claimed that Ukrainian is a Russian dialect.[36]

In the 2001 census, 67.5% of the country population named Ukrainian as their native language (a 2.8% increase from 1989), while 29.6% named Russian (a 3.2% decrease). It should be noted, though, that for many Ukrainians (of various ethnic descent), the term native language may not necessarily associate with the language they use more frequently. The overwhelming majority of ethnic Ukrainians consider the Ukrainian language native, including those who often speak Russian. According to the official 2001 census data[37] approximately 75% of Kiev’s population responded “Ukrainian” to the native language (ridna mova) census question, and roughly 25% responded “Russian”. On the other hand, when the question “What language do you use in everyday life?” was asked in the sociological survey, the Kievans’ answers were distributed as follows:[38] “mostly Russian”: 52%, “both Russian and Ukrainian in equal measure”: 32%, “mostly Ukrainian”: 14%, “exclusively Ukrainian”: 4.3%.

Ethnic minorities, such as Romanians, Tatars and Jews usually use Russian as their lingua franca. But there are tendencies within these minority groups to use Ukrainian. The Jewish writer Olexander Beyderman from the mainly Russian-speaking city of Odessa is now writing most of his dramas in Ukrainian. The emotional relationship regarding Ukrainian is changing in southern and eastern areas.

Opposition to expansion of Ukrainian-language teaching is a matter of contention in eastern regions closer to Russia in May 2008, the Donetsk city council prohibited the creation of any new Ukrainian schools in the city in which 80% of them are Russian-language schools.[39]

The literary Ukrainian language, which was preceded by Old East Slavic literature, may be subdivided into three stages: old Ukrainian (12th to 14th centuries), middle Ukrainian (14th to 18th centuries), and modern Ukrainian (end of the 18th century to the present). Much literature was written in the periods of the old and middle Ukrainian language, including legal acts, polemical articles, science treatises and fiction of all sorts.

Influential literary figures in the development of modern Ukrainian literature include the philosopher Hryhorii Skovoroda, Ivan Kotlyarevsky, Mykola Kostomarov, Mykhailo Kotsiubynsky, Taras Shevchenko, Ivan Franko, and Lesia Ukrainka. The earliest literary work in the modern Ukrainian language was recorded in 1798 when Ivan Kotlyarevsky, a playwright from Poltava in southeastern Ukraine, published his epic poem, Eneyida, a burlesque in Ukrainian, based on Virgil’s Aeneid. His book was published in vernacular Ukrainian in a satirical way to avoid being censored, and is the earliest known Ukrainian published book to survive through Imperial and, later, Soviet policies on the Ukrainian language.

Kotlyarevsky’s work and that of another early writer using the Ukrainian vernacular language, Petro Artemovsky, used the southeastern dialect spoken in the Poltava, Kharkiv and southern Kieven regions of the Russian Empire. This dialect would serve as the basis of the Ukrainian literary language when it was developed by Taras Shevchenko and Panteleimon Kulish in the mid 19th century. In order to raise its status from that of a dialect to that of a language, various elements from folklore and traditional styles were added to it.[40]

The Ukrainian literary language developed further when the Russian state banned the use of the Ukrainian language, prompting many of its writers to move to the western Ukrainian region of Galicia which was under more liberal Austrian rule; after the 1860s the majority of Ukrainian literary works were published in Austrian Galicia. During this period Galician influences were adopted in the Ukrainian literary language, particularly with respect to vocabulary involving law, government, technology, science, and administration.[40]

The use of the Ukrainian language is increasing after a long period of decline. Although there are almost fifty million ethnic Ukrainians worldwide, including 37.5 million in Ukraine (77.8% of the total population), the Ukrainian language is prevalent only in western and central Ukraine. In Kiev, both Ukrainian and Russian are spoken, a notable shift from the recent past when the city was primarily Russian-speaking. The shift is believed to be caused, largely, by an influx of the rural population and migrants from the western regions of Ukraine but also by some Kievans’ turning to use the language they speak at home more widely in everyday matters. Public signs and announcements in Kiev are in Ukrainian. In southern and eastern Ukraine, Russian is the prevalent language of the urban population. According to the Ukrainian Census of 2001, 87.8% people living in Ukraine communicate in Ukrainian.[41]

Use of the Ukrainian language in Ukraine can be expected to increase, as the rural population migrates into the cities. In eastern and southern Ukraine, the rural Ukrainophones continue to prefer Russian. Interest in Ukrainian literature is growing rapidly, compensating for the periods when its development was hindered by either policies of direct suppression or lack of state support.

Ukrainian has become popular in other countries through movies and songs performed in the Ukrainian language. The most popular Ukrainian rock bands, such as Okean Elzy, Vopli Vidopliassova, BoomBox, and others perform regularly in tours across Europe, Israel, North America and especially Russia. In countries with significant Ukrainian populations, bands singing in the Ukrainian language sometimes reach top places in the charts, such as Enej from Poland. Other notable Ukrainian-language bands are The Ukrainians from the United Kingdom, Klooch from Canada, Ukrainian Village Band from the United States, and the Kuban Cossack Choir from the Kuban region in Russia.

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. Last update: 17 November 2013 (April 2017)

The 2010s saw a revival of Ukrainian cinema.[42] Top Ukrainian-language films by IMDb rating:[43]

Oleksa Horbach’s 1951 study of argots analyzed sources (argots of professionals, thugs, prisoners, homeless, school children, etc.) with special attention to an etymological analysis of argots, ways of word formation and borrowing depending on the source-language (Church Slavonic, Russian, Czech, Polish, Romani, Greek, Romanian, Hungarian, German).[44]

Northern group

South-eastern group

South-western group

Several modern dialects of Ukrainian exist[45][46]

All the countries neighbouring Ukraine (except for Hungary) historically have regions with a sizable Ukrainian population and therefore Ukrainian language speakers. Ukrainian is an official minority language in some of them.[which?]

Ukrainian is also spoken by a large migr population, particularly in Canada (see Canadian Ukrainian), United States, and several countries of South America like Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay. The founders of this population primarily emigrated from Galicia, which used to be part of Austro-Hungary before World War I, and belonged to Poland between the World Wars. The language spoken by most of them is the Galician dialect of Ukrainian from the first half of the 20th century. Compared with modern Ukrainian, the vocabulary of Ukrainians outside Ukraine reflects less influence of Russian, but often contains many loanwords from the local language.

Most of the countries where it is spoken are ex-USSR, where many Ukrainians have migrated. Canada and the United States are also home to a large Ukrainian population. Broken up by country (to the nearest thousand):[60]

Ukrainian is one of three official languages of the breakaway Moldovan republic of Transnistria.[65]

Ukrainian is widely spoken within the 400,000-strong (in 1994) Ukrainian community in Brazil.[66]

Ukrainian is a fusional, nominative-accusative, satellite framed language. It exhibits T-V distinction, and is null-subject. The canonical word order of Ukrainian is SVO.[67] Other word orders are usual due to the free word order created by Ukrainian’s inflectional system.

Nouns decline for 7 cases: nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, instrumental, locative, vocative; 3 genders: masculine, feminine, neuter; and 2 numbers: singular, plural. Adjectives agree with nouns in case, gender, and number.

Verbs conjugate for 3 tenses: past, present, future; 2 voices: active, mediopassive, 3 persons: first, second, third; and 2 numbers, singular, and plural. Ukrainian verbs come in aspect pairs: perfective, and imperfective. Pairs are usually formed by a prepositional prefix and occasionally a root change. The past tense agrees with its subject in number and gender, having developed from the perfect participle.

The Old East Slavic and Russian o in syllables ending in a consonant, often corresponds to a Ukrainian i, as in pod > pid (, ‘under’). Thus, in the declension of nouns, the o can re-appear as it is no longer located in a closed syllable, such as rik (, ‘year’) (nom): rotsi (loc) (). Similarly, some words can have in some declensions when most of the declension have o, for example (nominative singular), (nominative plural) but i (genitive plural).

Ukrainian case endings are somewhat different from Old East Slavic, and the vocabulary includes a large overlay of Polish terminology. Russian na pervom etae ‘on the first floor’ is in the locative (prepositional) case. The Ukrainian corresponding expression is na peromu poversi ( ). -omu is the standard locative (prepositional) ending, but variants in -im are common in dialect and poetry, and allowed by the standards bodies. The kh of Ukrainian poverkh () has mutated into s under the influence of the soft vowel i (k is similarly mutable into c in final positions).

The Ukrainian language has six vowels, /i, u, , , , a/.

A number of the consonants come in three forms: hard, soft (palatalized) and long, for example, /l/, /l/, and /l/ or /n/, /n/, and /n/.

The letter represents voiced glottal fricative //, often transliterated as Latin h. It is the voiced equivalent of English /h/. Russian speakers from Ukraine often use the soft Ukrainian // in place of Russian //, which comes from northern dialects of Old East Slavic. The Ukrainian alphabet has the additional letter for //, which appears in a few native words such as gryndoly ‘sleigh’ and gudzyk ‘button’. However, // appears almost exclusively in loan words, and is usually simply written . For example, loanwords from English on public signs usually use for both English g and h.

Another phonetic divergence between the Ukrainian and Russian languages is the pronunciation of Cyrillic v/w. While in standard Russian it represents /v/, in many Ukrainian dialects it denotes /w/ (following a vowel and preceding a consonant (cluster), either within a word or at a word boundary, it denotes the allophone [u], and like the off-glide in the English words “flow” and “cow”, it forms a diphthong with the preceding vowel). Native Russian speakers will pronounce the Ukrainian as [v], which is one way to tell the two groups apart. As with above, Ukrainians use to render both English v and w; Russians occasionally use for w instead.

Unlike Russian and most other modern Slavic languages, Ukrainian does not have final devoicing.

Ukrainian is written in a version of Cyrillic, consisting of 33 letters, representing 38 phonemes; an apostrophe is also used. Ukrainian orthography is based on the phonemic principle, with one letter generally corresponding to one phoneme, although there are a number of exceptions. The orthography also has cases where the semantic, historical, and morphological principles are applied.

The modern Ukrainian alphabet is the result of a number of proposed alphabetic reforms from the 19th and early 20th centuries, in Ukraine under the Russian Empire, in Austrian Galicia, and later in Soviet Ukraine. A unified Ukrainian alphabet (the Skrypnykivka, after Mykola Skrypnyk) was officially established at a 1927 international Orthographic Conference in Kharkiv, during the period of Ukrainization in Soviet Ukraine. But the policy was reversed in the 1930s, and the Soviet Ukrainian orthography diverged from that used by the diaspora. The Ukrainian letter ge was banned in the Soviet Union from 1933 until the period of Glasnost in 1990.[68]

The letter represents two consonants [t]. The combination of [j] with some of the vowels is also represented by a single letter ([ja] = , [je] = , [ji] or [j] = , [ju] = ), while [j] = and the rare regional [j] = are written using two letters. These iotated vowel letters and a special soft sign change a preceding consonant from hard to soft. An apostrophe is used to indicate the hardness of the sound in the cases when normally the vowel would change the consonant to soft; in other words, it functions like the yer in the Russian alphabet.

A consonant letter is doubled to indicate that the sound is doubled, or long.

The phonemes [dz] and [d] do not have dedicated letters in the alphabet and are rendered with the digraphs and , respectively. [dz] is equivalent to English ds in pods, [d] is equivalent to j in jump.

The Dictionary of Ukrainian Language in 11 volumes contains 135,000 entries.[citation needed] Lexical card catalog of the Ukrainian Institute of Language Studies has 6 million cards.[69] The same Institute is going to publish the new Dictionary of Ukrainian Language in 13 volumes.[citation needed] As mentioned at the top of the article, Ukrainian is most closely related lexically to Belarusian, and is also closer to Polish than to Russian (for example, , mozhlyvist’, “possibility”, and Polish moliwo, but Russian , vozmozhnost’).

Ukrainian has varying degrees of mutual intelligibility with other Slavic languages and is considered to be most closely related to Belarusian.[70]

In the 19th century, the question of whether Ukrainian, Belarusian and Russian languages are dialects of a single language or three separate languages was actively discussed, with the debate affected by linguistic and political factors.[10] The political situation (Ukraine and Belarus being mainly part of the Russian Empire at the time) and the historical existence of the medieval state of Kievan Rus’, which occupied large parts of these three nations, led to the creation of the common classification known later as the East Slavic languages. The underlying theory of the grouping is their descent from a common ancestor. In modern times, Ukrainian, Russian, and Belarusian are usually listed by linguists as separate languages.[71][72]

Until the 17th and 18th centuries (the time of national and language revival of Ukraine) the Ukrainians were predominantly peasants and petits bourgeois; as a result, the Ukrainian language was mostly vernacular and few earlier literary works from the period can be found. In the cities, Ukrainian coexisted with Church Slavonic a literary language of religion that evolved from the Old Slavonic and later Polish and Russian, both languages which were more often used in formal writing and communication during that time.

The Ukrainian language has the following similarities and differences with other Slavic languages:

Unlike all other Slavic languages, Ukrainian has a synthetic future (also termed inflectional future) tense which developed through the erosion and cliticization of the verb ‘to have’ (or possibly ‘to take’): pysa-ty-mu (infinitive-future-1st sg.) I will write.[74] Although the inflectional future (based on the verb ‘to have’) is characteristic of Romance languages, Ukrainian linguist A. Danylenko argues that Ukrainian differs from Romance in the choice of auxiliary, which should be interpreted as ‘to take’ and not ‘to have.’ He states that Late Common Slavic (LCS) had three verbs with the same root *em-:

The three verbs became conflated in East Slavic due to morphological overlap, in particular of imti to have and jati to take as exemplified in the Middle Ukrainian homonymic imut from both imti ( future is found in Chinese and Hungarian.[75]

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Ukraine | Hetalia Archives | FANDOM powered by Wikia

Ukraine (, , Ukuraina) is a character in the series Hetalia: Axis Powers.

She has short blonde hair (which she keeps held back with a blue or green headband and clips), blue eyes, and wears a long-sleeved white blouse and blue overalls. Her most notable physical feature, however, is her large breast size, representing Ukraine’s status as a major agricultural nation (“large tracts of land”). She can also be seen carrying a pitchfork at times.

In a sketch by Hidekaz Himaruya, she is shown to wear a long brown coat, pants, boots, and hat as her military uniform.

Ukraine is the oldest of the three siblings and is constantly getting dragged into some sort of mess. She is described by her brother as being very warm-hearted and motherly, having taken care of him and Belarus when they were little. He also notes that she’s a bit of a cry-baby, yet with a big heart. She apparently has chest and back pains due to her assets. She was the one who gave Russia his scarf, which he continues to wear today. He told Japan that it is part of his body, therefore he cannot take it off.

Main Article:Belarus

Belarus is shown to be jealous of Ukraine for Russia’s attention to her; however, they have been known to get along with each other, such as Belarus offering to massage Ukraine’s back and breasts, and sharing an image song .

Ukraine is Russia’s older sister, and acted as a mother to both him and Belarus when they were younger. She was the one who gave him his scarf. Though she wishes to be with him again, she either winds up running away at the chance due to the issues that arisen between them (such as paying for gas), or due to being blocked from seeing him in some way (such as her boss prohibiting her from giving him anything). However, Russia does still care deeply about her.

Ukraine in Episode 42

Ukraine makes her debut anime appearance in Episode 42, which adapts Russia’s Big And Little Sisters from volume 2 of the published manga. In the episode, she is unable to come up with payment for gas due to her poverty situation, and is later forbidden from sharing milk with her brother by her boss because of the gas conflict.

Ukraine as a child in Episode 43

In the anime adaptation, her headband was changed to yellow while her hair became more of a platinum shade. Sound effects were also added to her movement for further elaboration on her large breast size.

Though no actual human name was given for Ukraine by Hidekaz Himaruya, Japanese fans quickly coined the nickname Katyusha as a it is diminutive form of the name Yekaterina, and a term for rocket artillery). Some fans would later expand on this and coin the name Yekaterina “Katyusha” Braginskaya, which has been used as a human name for her in various fanworks.Yekaterina is the russian equivalent of the name Katherine, and is the name of a notable Tsaritsa, Catherine the Great ( ).

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Ukraine in Gakuen uniform.

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Amazon.com: Ukraine: A History (9781442609914): Orest …

‘An excellent history of Ukrainians.’ (Paul Robert Magocsi, Journal of Ukrainian Studies)

‘Orest Subtelny’s Ukraine: A History is the standard work on the subject … Enormously readable and eminently “useable” in many educational contexts, [it] is required reading for anyone interested in the emergence of a Ukrainian territory, identity, and state.’ (Myroslav Shkandrij, Canadian Book Review Annual)

‘Highly recommended for its lucidity, meticulous attention to detail, and scholarly precision, Ukraine: A History is a “must” for anyone who wants to learn about this fascinating land and its people.’ (Midwest Book Review)

‘The best history of Ukraine in English.’ (World Affairs Report)

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Ukraine Travel guide at Wikivoyage

Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) is a large country in Eastern Europe. It lies at the northwest end of the Black Sea, with Russia to the east, Belarus to the north, Poland to the northwest, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, and Romania to the south west and south, with Moldova in between.

Most parts of the country are still as safe as before the war, as the fighting zone is contained and also very far from Kiev and most parts of the country, where life goes on as normal.

While the international community recognizes Crimea as part of Ukraine, it is under the de facto control of Russia, and travellers can only realistically reach it from Russia. Accordingly, we cover it as part of Southern Russia. This is not a political endorsement of claims by either side in the dispute.

Below is a selection of nine of Ukraine’s most notable cities. Other cities can be found under their specific regions.

See also UNESCO World Heritage List, Ukraine section

Most of Ukraine (the central and eastern portions) was formerly a part of the Russian Empire; after the October Revolution and the Civil War, the entire country, known as the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, was a part of the Soviet Union. Ukraine is the second-largest country in Europe, albeit with one of the most rapidly declining populations of any large country due to high emigration, low immigration, early deaths (particularly amongst males) and a shrinking birthrate that was already below replacement levels.

Ukrainian history is long and proud, with the inception of Kyivan Rus (possibly founded by Swedish Vikings) as the most powerful state in Medieval Europe. While this state fell prey to Mongol conquest, the western part of Ukraine became part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from the 14th until the 18th century, even modern Ukraine owes it a debt of sorts. A subsequent Ukrainian state was able, in the face of pressure from the ascendant Muscovy, to remain autonomous for more than a century, but the Russian Empire absorbed much of Ukraine in the 18th century to the detriment of their culture and identity.

Despite a brief, but uncertain, flash of independence at the end of the czarist regime, Ukraine was incorporated into the new USSR after the Russian Civil War in 1922 and subject to two disastrous famines (1932-33 and 1946) as well as brutal fighting during World War II. As a Soviet republic, the Ukrainian language was often ‘sidelined’ when compared to Russian to varying degrees; Stalinist repressions during the 1930s, attempts at decentralisation during the Khrushchev administration and the re-tightening of control during the Brezhnev-Kosygin era of the 1970s and early 1980s. In any case, the traditionally bilingual province had signs in both Russian and Ukrainian in virtually all cities, including Lviv, where Ukrainian is most prevalent. The 1986 Chernobyl accident was a further catastrophe for the republic but also widely considered as an event which, in the long run, galvanized the population’s regional sentiment and led to increasing pressure on the central Soviet government to promote autonomy.

Ukraine declared its sovereignty within the Soviet Union in July 1990 as a prelude to unfolding events in the year to come. The Verkhovna Rada (Ukraine’s Parliament) again declared its independence in early December 1991 following the results of a referendum in November 1991 which indicated overwhelming popular support (90% in favour of independence). This declaration became a concrete reality as the Soviet Union formally ceased to exist on 25 December 1991. Initially, severe economic difficulties, hyperinflation, and oligarchic rule prevailed in the early years following independence. The issues of cronyism, corruption and alleged voting irregularities came to a head during the heavily-disputed 2004 Presidential election, where allegations of vote-rigging sparked what became known as the “Orange Revolution”. This revolution resulted in the subsequent election of opposition candidate Viktor Yushchenko as President. During the ongoing five years the “Orange coalition” broke up and Viktor Yushchenko lost the support of majority of Ukrainians. Ironically, his former adversary Viktor Yanukovich was elected President; ultimately the pro-Russian Yanukovich was ousted in early 2014 after months of popular protest against his failure to complete a key trade agreement with the European Union, but his departure comes at a time when the nation’s treasury is empty and the government in disarray.

For the most up-to-date information please visit Visa Requirements For Foreigners page of the MFA government website. Select your country to get more information.

More up-to-date country-specific information and requirements may be available at Ukraine’s Embassy website. You may find a list of embassies of Ukraine here, on official government MFA website: press ‘Find an Embassy’ and select your region and then country or visit MFA website, Visa requirements page.

Citizens of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova, and Uzbekistan can visit and stay in Ukraine indefinitely visa free. However, citizens of Moldova and Uzbekistan must hold proof of sufficient funds on arrival.

Citizens of all European Union member states, Albania, Andorra, Belarus, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Iceland, Israel, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Russia, San Marino, St. Kitts and Nevis, South Korea, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Turkey, the United States/American Samoa and Vatican City can visit visa free for up to 90 days within a 180 day period. However, citizens of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan must also have proof of sufficient funds when arriving in Ukraine. For citizens of Mongolia, the visa free only applies to service, tourist and private trips on conditions that documents certifying the purpose of the trip are provided.

Citizens of Argentina can visit visa free for up to 90 days within a 365 day period.

Citizens of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brunei and Serbia can visit visa free for up to 30 days within a 60-day period.

Citizens of Hong Kong can visit visa free for up to 14 days.

Those holding a diplomatic or official/service passports of Albania, Cambodia, Chile, China, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Iran, Kuwait, Laos, Morocco, North Korea, Peru, Qatar, Singapore, Thailand, Turkmenistan, Uruguay, Venezuela and Vietnam and only diplomatic passports of India and Mexico do not require a visa for Ukraine.

For the most up-to-date details, visit MFA website, Visa On Arrival page

More up-to-date country-specific information and requirements may be available at Ukraine’s Embassy website. You may find a list of embassies of Ukraine here, on official government MFA website: press ‘Find an Embassy’ and select your region and then country or visit MFA website, Visa requirements page.

Citizens of Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, the Bahamas, Bahrain, Barbados, China (PRC), Dominica, East Timor, El Salvador, Guatemala, Grenada, Guatemala, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Kuwait, Macau, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Micronesia, New Zealand, Oman, Palau, Peru, Qatar, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Singapore, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, the United Arab Emirates and Vanuatu can visit Ukraine for up to 15 days, provided that the citizens of the countries obtain a visa at the Kyiv Boryspil Airport, Kyiv Zhuliany Airport or Odesa Airport (as of August 2017).

Those obtaining a visa on arrival need to provide one of the following documents:

Please note, the Visa Office at the airport is only open between 9:00am and 7:30pm. Arrivals outside of these hours must first wait for the office to open before a visa will be issued and then proceed to Passport Control. It is also important to note that at times, the Visa on Arrival office may suffer from a lack of manpower (for example, a single officer to deal with a plane of passengers manually doing data entry for all fields of the application form as well as single handedly doing all necessary checks and controls). This can lead to delays in exiting the airport of 2-4 hours, which is especially crucial to note for transit visa applicants hoping to do a day trip into Kyiv. If you have limited time, then you may consider an ordinary visa application at your embassy. Payment for Visa on Arrival can be done by credit card.

For other countries, visas are obtainable within a few hours of visiting a Ukrainian consulate/embassy. ‘Letter of invitation’ from friend, family member, perspective lodging or business provider may be required. For the most up-to-date details, visit MFA website, Visa requirements page and select your country from the list. Information below may be not up-to-date.

More up-to-date country-specific information and requirements may be available at Ukraine’s Embassy website. You may find a list of embassies of Ukraine here, on official government MFA website: press ‘Find an Embassy’ and select your region and then country or visit MFA website, Visa requirements page.

Always know how much currency you have with you. Customs officials might inquire about the amount being brought into the country. It is prohibited to bring large amounts of Ukrainian currency (hryvnia) in to the country unless it was declared upon leaving Ukraine. Cash equvivalent of EUR 10,000 or more must be declared upo entry or leaving Ukraine.

When entering the country you will no longer normally be required to complete an immigration form. However, if your passport has no space for stamps, or you don’t want it to be stamped, you can still fill out an immigration form at home and have it stamped instead of the passport.

Citizens of Australia, Albania, Guatemala, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand and Singapore do not require a invitation letter to visit Ukraine.

After the annexation of Crimea by Russia in March 2014, Russian immigration and custom agencies started operating in the peninsula’s ports of entries. It was announced by the Russian authorities on April 1, 2014, that foreign citizens would need regular Russian entry visas to visit Crimea. However, Crimea’s authorities plan to petition Russia’s federal government for introducing a simplified visa regime for certain categories of short-term visitors, different from that applied in mainland Russia.

Since Ukraine does not recognize Russian’s annexation of the peninsula, an entry to Crimea not from mainland Ukraine is considered by the Ukrainian authorities as an “illegal entry to the territory of Ukraine”. If the fact of such a visit is discovered by the Ukrainian border authorities when a foreign national later tries to enter the mainland Ukraine, the foreign citizen will be subject to an “administrative punishment” (a fine, or possibly denial of entry to Ukraine).

The cheapest way to fly into Ukraine is through the Boryspil International Airport near Kiev. The main international hubs for these flights are Budapest, Frankfurt, Milan, Munich, Prague, London, Rome, Vienna and Warsaw with several flights a day of Austrian AUA, CSA Czech Airlines, LOT, Lufthansa, Alitalia, Air France, British Airways, KLM and Ukraine International, which code-shares on these routes with the respective carriers. Special offers on flights come and go, depending on the whim of the carrier.

Low-cost airline Wizzair started operations from other countries and within Ukraine as well. The only other low cost carrier serving Ukraine is AirBaltic, with flights routing through either Riga, Latvia, or Vilnius, Lithuania. Be advised that if you have a lot of baggage, Wizzair offers 30kg against the others 20kg allowances.

There are several airlines which offer direct flights to cities like Dnipropetrovsk (Lufthansa), Odessa (LOT, Austrian, CSA Czech Airlines), Kharkiv and Lviv (LOT, Austrian Airlines), but they are more expensive.

To fly inside Ukraine, the most common airline is Ukraine International Airlines. It is the unofficial national airline, and its routes cover all of Ukraine’s major destinations. Planes used are newer Boeing 737 aircraft.

There are daily direct overnight trains from Prague, Warsaw, Belgrade, Budapest, Bucharest and Vienna and Sofia to Lviv or Kiev. When coming from Western Europe there will be a 2-3 hour wait at the border while the train’s bogies are changed in order to adapt to a different rail gauge. It’s generally quicker and cheaper to buy a ticket to the border and then change trains, rather than to wait for a through train.

From Kiev there are good international connections with central Europe and Russia. Departures from Belgrade (36h), Budapest (24h), Chiinu (15h), Minsk (12h), Prague (35h), Sofia (37h) via Bucharest (26h) and Warsaw (16h) are nightly. From Moscow there are a multitude of trains with the fastest one being Metropolitan Express taking just 8 hours. Saint Petersburg is also well served with an overnight train taking 23 hours. There is also a connection from Venice (45h) via Ljubljana (41h) once a week, departing Thursdays.

More exotic cities with infrequent departures from Kiev include Astana (73h, Thu), Baku (64h, Wed) and Murmansk (61h, seasonal). And if you are looking for a real journey, hop on train 133E linking Kiev with Vladivostok. It’s one of the longest journeys possible by train, taking eight nights!

Information about trains can be found on the website of the Ukrainian rail-roads in English and Ukrainian. The website is still ‘beta’ and has some issues, particularly with booking online.

There are inexpensive direct bus services to Lviv and Ivano-Frankivsk from Poland.They usually offer a budget level of comfort and cost about UAH 90-100.

There are ferries to Ukraine several times a week from Batumi and Poti in Georgia (48 hours), and from Istanbul Haydarpasa (27 hours). For schedules, prices and tickets see www.ukrferry.com. These ferries land in Ukraine at Chornomorske (formerly called Illichivs’k) 20 km SW of Odessa – see that page for onward transport options. They run all year and take vehicles.

This network of ferries serves other Black Sea ports such as Samsun, Varna & Constanta, but usually without direct sailing to Odessa.

The nearest significant town on the Polish side is Przemyl, and it’s easy to find by following route #4 (which passes through Przemyl), also known as the E40 in European terms.

When you arrive, the road is fairly narrow (no motorway/autobahn this) with a queue of trucks and vans parked to the right of the road; a hard-core parking area with cafe/bar to the left. Don’t stop behind the goods vehicles, slip up the side of them and then feed into the customs area when the guy flags you forward (for courteous Europeans, you’re not jumping the queue – commercial traffic goes through a different process).

If you’re in an EU registered car then make for the EU-passports, passport control section. Thence to Ukrainian passport control and then Ukrainian customs and then you’re through. It used to be a nightmare, with apocalyptic tales of 5-6+ hours at the border, but the Ukrainians have made great advances in efficiency and it takes about an hour to make the crossing (2012). Don’t expect the border police to treat you in a friendly or even respectful manner, in fact, expect anything ranging from neutral to extremely obnoxious behaviour.

Once through, just follow the main road towards Lviv on the E40 – this is the route right across Ukraine to Kiev (and thence on to the east). Stick to this – the main towns on the way are Lviv, Rivne, Zhytomyr.

Watch out about 15-20km inside Ukraine, in Mostyska, as police have gone crazy about traffic calming measures here (speed bumps or “sleeping policemen”). They are like icebergs across the road, and very badly marked. There are about four or five sets of them through the village.

Other than that, take care on the road, which although the main east/west highway, and the main road route into the EU, still remains in a miserable condition (surface-wise). You will soon realise why Ukraine has such poor statistics in relation to driver and pedestrian fatalities and injuries. Drive defensively!

You can walk across the 200m long bridge from Sighetu Marmaiei, Romania. Once you get to Solotvino, Ukraine, you can continue your travel in a car or a train. Bicycling is also a possibility in summer. When you have crossed the wonderful old bridge go uphill, at the church turn right. After some 50 metres there is an ATM right-hand! That’s important because train tickets can be bought only in hryvnya and there is neither an exchange point nor an ATM nor the possibility to pay by credit card on the train station! Go ahead and before the rail-road crossing turn left.There is one train a day to Lviv (in the late afternoon). It stops in every village and takes about 13 hours to get to the final destination, the ticket is about 10.

You cannot cross the border at Krocienko (Poland) by foot or by bicycle. You must be in a vehicle. Coming from Poland by bicycle in August 2011 a cyclist only has to wait about 5 minutes to flag down a driver who was willing (and had space) to take him, a bicycle, and a full cycle touring kit. The actually crossing then took about an hour or so. There was no charge by the driver or the immigration officials. Update July 2017: crossing with a bicycle was not a problem at all, there is even a signposted cycling route (R63) between Poland and Ukraine. You might also be able to skip the car queue and go straight to the checkpoint.

Be aware that all foreigners are subject to higher scrutiny by police when travelling on public transportation, especially intercity forms of it. Be prepared to show your passport and entry papers and keep your embassy/consulate number handy in case you come across a corrupt official. If you are caught outside your base city without your official documents, be prepared for a big fine.

The quickest way to get around big cities is the so-called marshrutka: the minibuses which follow routes much like the regular buses do. You can generally flag them down or ask them to stop at places other than the specified bus stops. The fare is paid as soon as you get in, and is fixed no matter how far you want to go. This is the same for the conventional buses, tram, trolley-buses and the Metro. Tell the driver that you want to get off when you are approaching the destination.

Each city has an intercity bus station from which you can go pretty much anywhere in Ukraine. Fares and quality of service vary widely.

UIA offers cheap flights that can be booked on-line and can be a time-saving alternative. For example, the flight Odessa-Kiev (one way) is USD180 (including tax and fees) and takes 1.5 hours. However, be sure to book early for the cheapest fares.

Trains are operated by state-owned Ukrainian Railways. Train classes, coaches and ticket system are very similar to Russia and other CIS countries, see Russian train article.

Ukrainian trains are quite old and slow by West European standards, and not very frequent, but they are punctual, reliable and very cheap. For example Kiev to Odessa only has 3 direct services per day, 7 hours & 550 uah by the fastest “Inter-city”, 9-10 hours & 400 uah by the slower “express”. So for a 300-mile journey with some half a dozen stops, the trains are averaging 30-40 mph on straight level terrain – the Bullet Train it’s not.

Generally, in Ukraine, for long distance the train is preferred over the bus because of their comfort and because often they are even cheaper. The “Lux” sleeping cars have a two-berth cabin. Second class are cabins with four berths. Third class have six berths through which the aisle passes.

Advance online booking is highly recommended, firstly because some trains are popular and will sell out, secondly because it avoids having to negotiate your journey at a frenetic foreign railway station. For timetables, prices and bookings visit Ukraine Railways or Ukrainian Railways e-shop (these websites are in English, Russian and Ukrainian). Tickets with a little QR code icon should be printed off at home and are good to go. Other e-tickets are just a voucher which must be exchanged in advance for a ticket, at any mainline station in Ukraine. (So don’t buy such a ticket for a journey that starts outside Ukraine.) Do this preferably an hour before departure, because close to departure of a long-distance express, the ticket area will become a frantic maul. Large train stations may have dedicated counters for e-vouchers; eg Kiev does, while in Odessa any window will do. Either way, before queuing look out for the “technical break” times posted on each window.

If you have to buy on the day, write your destination and train number on a piece of paper; desk clerks have little English or German. Large stations have big screens that show tickets available for the upcoming trains.

There are two major bus companies that run buses from all of the major cities to and from Kiev: they are Avtolux, and Gunsel. Prices run about UAH100-120 for service to Dnipro and Kharkiv.

The major advantage of the bus service is that it leaves from Boryspil and stops in Kiev, so if your destination is not Kiev, its easier than taking a bus to the Main Passenger Railway Station in Kiev. The buses are standard coach buses, serve cold drinks and tea, show movies, and make a stop about every 3-4 hours. They run every few hours.

Avtolux has a VIP bus to and from Odessa that has nice leather seats and is more less non-stop. It departs once a day, takes four hours or so both to and from Kiev and costs about UAH160-170.

In addition, just as in Russia, there are private minibuses called Marshrutka. These run on fixed routes and may be licensed as either buses or taxis. You can board one at the start of the route or at fixed stops. Some of them will also stop at any point between designated stops, but this largely depends on the region and even on the driver’s mood. Officially, they are not supposed to drop passengers outside designated bus stops, but in reality they do it quite often. At the start of the route and at fixed routes, you may find a queue you will have to stand in. At other places, just wave your hand when you see one. if there are seats available, the minibus will stop for you. To get off, tell the driver when you reach your destination and he will stop. You need to pay the amount of your fare to the driver. You don’t get a ticket, unless you ask for it. Often it’s not easy to figure out which Marshrutka will take you to your destination, as in any city there are literally hundreds of different routes.

Taxi is probably the most safe way to get around the city. You want to ask your hotel or restaurant to call you a taxi. Ukraine is largely a referral based economy, and this is how you get quality, safety and good service. Taxis are always busy. Locals will tell you to call in advance. Trying to hail a cab won’t be productive at best and get you in deep trouble at worst.

It might seem unreasonable to hire a taxi to take you 100km to the next city. If you use your hotels referral, you will get a decent rate. It might be twice as expensive as train, but convenient, less time consuming, and secure. Keep in mind, you need a taxi to take you to the bus or train station. Americans will find the buses for long distance travel crowded and uncomfortable.

It is possible to get around in Ukraine by car, but one must be aware of certain particulars:

The signs are all in Ukrainian (Cyrillic alphabet). Only a few signs (every 200km or so) are written in the Latin alphabet, and indicate main cities. It is recommended you have a good road map (those available are mainly in Ukrainian, but Latin alphabet maps are starting to appear), because place names aren’t well posted on road signs.

You are strongly advised to respect the signs, especially speed limits. Be aware that unlike in Western countries, where limits are repeated several times, in Ukraine, an obligation or a prohibition is often indicated on a single sign, which you must not miss. And even these signs are often far off the road, covered by branches, etc. The police are always there to remind you.

Speed in cities is limited to 60km/h (40mph). However people do drive fast anyway.

Speed in “nationals” (single carriageway countryside roads) is limited to 90km/h (55mph). The poor average quality of the roads already acts as a speed checker.

Speed on highways (motorways) is limited to 110-120km/h (75mph).

Be aware that corruption is widespread among Ukrainian police, and tourists are an especially profitable target. When you are stopped for speeding or other offences, officers might aggressively try and extract ridiculous sums of money from you (100 and up), offering “reductions” if you pay on the spot (the proposed alternative being some unpleasant and more expensive way, all made up). If you’re asked anything beyond that, demand a written ticket for you to pay later instead. Don’t let them intimidate you. It’s very useful to have an embassy phone number handy for these cases. If you mention that, they’ll let you off the hook quicker than you know it. At any rate, write down the officers’ badge numbers, rank, plate number of the police car, and notify the nearest embassy/consulate in detail, to help fight these corrupt practices.

Fuel is no longer a problem in Ukraine, especially for those who remember travelling to Ukraine during the early 1990s, when petrol was considered precious. Today, there are plenty service stations. There are varying types of fuel, such as diesel, unleaded 95 octane, and (more rarely) unleaded 98 octane; one finds also 80 and 76 octane. Note that if you choose to fill-up in a rural filling station, you will need to pay first, and in cash. Even there many stations do accept credit cards, however.

The state of the roads is a huge subject:

The main roads are OK for all cars, as long as you don’t go too fast. Numerous running repairs have created a patchwork road surface, and it will seriously test your suspension – even on the major dual carriageways.

Secondary roads are passable, but beware: certain zones can be full of potholes and you must treat them with extra care, or avoid them entirely. Roads between villages are often little more than dirt tracks and not metalled.

Road works have been ongoing, but the quality of the roads is shy of Western Europe (with the exception of Kiev).

Be careful when driving in towns or villages. Sometimes animals prefer to walk on the road, and they are a hazard for all drivers. You’re likely to see plenty of animals hit by cars, so be prepared…

Bicycle traffic is not very common, but you will sometimes see an aged man transporting a sack of grass on an old road-bike or a cycling enthusiast in bright clothes riding a semi-professional racing bike. Those are even more likely to be met on well-maintained roads where the pavement is smooth. Also cyclists will use both lanes of the road in both directions equally i.e. you are just as likely to meet a cyclist coming towards you, riding on the verge, as you will travelling in your direction. And almost invariably without lights or bright clothing so be extra careful when driving at night and dawn/dusk.

Also, don’t be surprised to see plenty of horse drawn carts – even on the dual carriageways.

Hitchhiking in Ukraine is average. It’s possible to go by hitchhiking – usually cargo trucks will take you for free – but it’s still worth to try stop personal cars as well. Good people are everywhere; you may be picked up in a Lada or a Lexus. (More usually the former.)

The usual hitchhiking gesture (also used to hail taxis and marshrutkas) is to face oncoming traffic and point at the road with a straight right arm held away from the body. Sometimes, for visibility, you may add a downward waving motion of the open right hand. It’s a good idea to write on a piece of paper your destination’s name.

Ukrainian is the official language. Near the neighbouring countries, Russian, Romanian, Polish, and Hungarian are spoken. Russian is a close relative of Ukrainian and is most often the language of choice in the south and east of Ukraine. It is safe to assume that virtually any Ukrainian will understand Russian; however, in the western parts people may be reluctant to help you if you speak Russian, though to foreigners, Ukrainians will be more forgiving than to Russians. Especially in Lviv, you will have the hardest time because they not only mostly speak Ukrainian but they have a special dialect of their own.

On the other hand, in the eastern parts, Russian is the most commonly spoken language. In the central and eastern parts of the country, you may also find people speaking transitional dialects (generically referred to as the surzhyk, i.e. the “mix [of languages]”). It is also common for people to talk to others in their native language, irrespective of the interlocutors one, so a visitor speaking Russian may be responded to in Ukrainian and vice versa.

Kiev, the capital, speaks both languages, but Russian is more commonly used. So Ukrainian is more frequently met in Central and Western Ukraine, Russian in Eastern and Southern Ukraine.

Young people are more likely to speak a little English, as it is the most widely taught foreign language in school. Most people in the tourism industry (hostels etc.) do speak English. Also, thanks to Ukraine hosting the Euro 2012, there was a lot of improvement in tourist facilities and police learning English to better assist the people there for the games.

In general, Ukrainian is gaining more ground as time goes on. Certain regions may have special rules and can have schooling in Russian like in Luhansk. Russian is in general still the lingua franca but the newer generation of people are encouraging their children to speak Ukrainian in the home. The biggest wall to Ukrainization is that there is a resistance in the East and South from people who would even like Russian to be an official language of the state. Moreover, a lot of media such as books, videos, and video games are only in Russian but there have been a few titles with the option of Ukrainian subtitles on DVDs and some authors write exclusively in Ukrainian, so it is making ground. Universities used to have a choice between Ukrainian or Russian but now most of the national universities except those in special areas or private schools are exclusively taught in Ukrainian. There are plenty of people, however, that believe Ukraine will always have both languages and don’t feel one threatens the other’s existence.

Though everyone there is Ukrainian by citizenship, there are more than a million who are of Russian origin; for example Kharkiv itself sports 1 million ethnic Russians. It’s hard to say they are really ethnically different, but they did migrate during the Soviet Union and are proud of their roots as Russians and continue speaking Russian with their kids even though their kids are getting an education in Ukrainian. The whole language thing in Ukrainian is a touchy subject, so hopefully the information provided seems neutral.

If you are travelling to Ukraine, learn either basic Ukrainian or basic Russian beforehand (know your phrasebook well) and/or have some means of access to a bilingual speakera mobile/cell number (almost everyone has a mobile phone) can be a godsend. Virtually nobody in any official position (train stations, police, bus drivers, information desks, etc.) will be able to speak any language other than Ukrainian and Russian. If you already know another Slavic language, you will, however, be able to communicate as the Slavic languages are closely related.

It is a good idea to familiarize yourself with the Cyrillic alphabet to save you a lot of time and difficulty. Knowing the alphabet helps a lot, because certain words are close to English, like telefon (telephone), so if you can read the Cyrillic alphabet you’ll understand them.

– A – B – V – G – D – Zh – Z

– I – Y – K – L – M – N – O

– P – R – S – T – U – F – Kh

– Ts – Ch – Sh – Shch – ‘ – Yu – Ya

– G – E – Ye – I – Yi

E – Ye – Yo – ‘ – I – E

Vast in size and diverse in culture and landscapes, Ukraine has a range of great attractions to offer. Largely unknown to the world, the country’s main draws include some great and quintessentially Slavic cities, impressive cultural heritage and of course top class natural areas.

Head to the historic city of Lviv, listed as a Unesco World Heritage Site but still a bustling place and a true centre for learning and culture in the country. Its cobblestoned streets are packed with monuments going back to Medieval times, seemingly untouched by the destructive force of wars that have changed some of Ukraine’s other cities so thoroughly. Even the extensive Soviet planning that has shaped many other places on the far east side of Europe have left only a minimal mark on the colourful mix of building styles. Highlights include the Korniakt Palace (right on the market square) and several beautiful churches. For an even more sophisticated taste of culture, try the fine collection of the Lviv National Art Gallery.

Then there’s the must-see’s of Kiev, a colourful place where the golden roofs of the Unesco World Heritage sites Saint-Sophia Cathedral and Pechersk Lavra make for some excellent highlights. Take an afternoon stroll through Andriyivsky Uzviz, the Montmartre of Kiev, where you’ll find a bustling mix of artist and souvenir sellers. Follow in the footsteps of Apostle Andrew, who – according to legend – climbed the steep stairs of this bohemian neighbourhood two thousand years ago, to the top where you’ll now find a church with his name. Don’t miss the excellent Pyrohovo Museum of Folk Architecture. Last but not least, Kiev is one of the best spots to visit Ukraine’s lively markets (but Odesa or Kharkiv have good ones too). Also, consider a trip to the Residence of Bukovinian and the Dalmatian Metropolitans in Chernivtsi.

In terms of natural attractions, the lovely Carpathian Mountains are among the best destinations this otherwise remarkably flat country has to offer. They hold beautiful panoramas of forested hills, lush valleys and snowy peaks and offer ample opportunities for hiking and biking as well as for winter sports. The rather little explored Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve is another great pick for nature lovers and bird watchers. Base yourself in the charming town of Vylkovo, with its many canals, and go boating and bird-watching during the day.

Exchange rates for Ukrainian hryvnia

As of January 2018:

Read more here:

Ukraine Travel guide at Wikivoyage

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Holidays and observances in Ukraine in 2018

Jan 1MondayNew Year’s DayNational holidayJan 7SundayOrthodox Christmas DayNational holiday, OrthodoxJan 8MondayChristmas holidayNational holiday, OrthodoxJan 14SundayOrthodox New YearObservance, OrthodoxJan 22MondayUkrainian Unity DayObservanceJan 25ThursdayTatiana DayObservanceFeb 14WednesdayValentine’s DayObservanceMar 3SaturdaySpecial Working DayObservanceMar 8ThursdayInternational Women’s DayNational holidayMar 9FridayInternational Women’s Day holidayNational holidayMar 20TuesdayMarch equinoxSeasonMar 25SundayDaylight Saving Time startsClock change/Daylight Saving TimeApr 1SundayApril FoolsObservanceApr 8SundayOrthodox Easter DayNational holiday, OrthodoxApr 9MondayOrthodox Easter Day holidayNational holiday, OrthodoxApr 30MondayLabor Day HolidayNational holidayMay 1TuesdayLabor DayNational holidayMay 5SaturdaySpecial Working DayObservanceMay 9WednesdayVictory Day / Memorial DayNational holidayMay 13SundayMother’s DayObservanceMay 19SaturdayEurope DayObservanceMay 27SundayOrthodox PentecostNational holiday, OrthodoxMay 27SundayCultural Workers and Folk Artists DayObservanceMay 27SundayKiev DayObservanceMay 28MondayOrthodox Pentecost holidayNational holiday, OrthodoxJun 21ThursdayJune SolsticeSeasonJun 23SaturdaySpecial Working DayObservanceJun 28ThursdayConstitution DayNational holidayJun 29FridayConstitution Day HolidayNational holidayJul 7SaturdayKupala NightObservanceJul 8SundayFamily DayObservanceJul 28SaturdayBaptism of Kyivan RusObservanceJul 29SundayNavy DayObservanceAug 24FridayIndependence DayNational holidaySep 23SundaySeptember equinoxSeasonOct 7SundayTeacher’s DayObservanceOct 14SundayDefenders’ DayNational holidayOct 15MondayDefenders’ Day observedNational holidayOct 28SundayDaylight Saving Time endsClock change/Daylight Saving TimeNov 21WednesdayDignity and Freedom DayObservanceDec 6ThursdayArmy DayObservanceDec 19WednesdaySt. Nicholas DayObservance, OrthodoxDec 21FridayDecember SolsticeSeasonDec 22SaturdaySpecial Working DayObservanceDec 24MondayCatholic Christmas holidayNational holidayDec 25TuesdayCatholic Christmas DayNational holidayDec 29SaturdaySpecial Working DayObservanceDec 31MondayNew Year’s Day holidayNational holiday

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Holidays and observances in Ukraine in 2018

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Ukraine – definition of Ukraine by The Free Dictionary

On his return from his furlough Nicholas, having been joyfully welcomed by his comrades, was sent to obtain remounts and brought back from the Ukraine excellent horses which pleased him and earned him commendation from his commanders.We did not tell Pavel’s secret to anyone, but guarded it jealously–as if the wolves of the Ukraine had gathered that night long ago, and the wedding party been sacrificed, to give us a painful and peculiar pleasure.Finland’s development cooperation allocated to Ukraine will be EUR 15 million in 20182021.The company recalled that SOCAR’s retail network includes 59 refueling complexes and two oil loading bunkers located in nine regions of Ukraine.In a statement issued here on Friday, he said that during the previous year Ukraine, despite all difficulties, demonstrated a stable growth of economy -3,5%, increase in inflow of foreign investments and improved living standards of population.Ensuring sustainable and tangible changes in the governance system to eliminate corruption opportunities and ensure proper prosecution and punishment for corruption-related crimes remains one of the key challenges Ukraine faces in its reform process hindering the improvement of the business and investment climate.Ukraine and Russia called for a ceasefire deal back in February of 2015.Government assistance to Ukraine aims to support the development of a democratic, prosperous, and secure Ukraine, fully integrated into the Euro-Atlantic community.TO WIN Ukraine 8/13 Slovenia 11/2 Draw 5/2 SCORELINE Draw 0-0 6/1 Draw 1-1 6/1 Ukraine 1-0 15/4 Ukraine 2-0 5/1 Ukraine 2-1 8/1 Ukraine 3-0 10/1 Slovenia 1-0 11/1 Slovenia 2-0 33/1 Slovenia 2-1 20/1 1ST SCORER Y Seleznyov 9/2 A Yarmolenko 9/2 A Kravets 11/2 No Scorer 6/1 P Budkivsky 6/1 Y Konoplyanka 6/1 O Gladky 7/1 OGusev 8/1 M Novakovic 9/1 Z Ljubijankic 10/1 R Malinovsky 11/1 D Garmash 12/1 LadbrokesWITH a major battle around the rail hub of Debaltseve ending with the withdrawal of Ukrainian government forces, it looks like the tenuous truce in eastern Ukraine may hold.In order to buy gas on a pre-paid basis, Ukraine together with the European Commission should search for the financial resources of $1.Under the deal, which each country’s government still needs to approve, Ukraine will pay $385 per 1,000 cubics meters for gas for the next six months.

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Ukraine Overview – worldbank.org

Strategy World Bank Portfolio No. of projects:8 IBRD investment operations, plus one guarantee Total lending:US$2.5 billion, including US$148 million from the Clean Technology Fund (CTF) Ukraine joined the World Bank in 1992. Over the 26 years of cooperation, the Banks commitments to the country have totaled close to US$12 billion in about 70 projects and programs. In March 2014, after receiving a request from the-then Ukrainian Government, the World Bank Group (WBG) immediately announced its support for a reform agenda aiming to put the Ukrainian economy on a path to sustainability. The current International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) portfolio consists of eight investment operations of roughly US$2.5 billion and one guarantee of US$500 million. The World Bank and the authorities are implementing a Country Partnership Framework (CPF) for Ukraine for FY1721 that supports the countrys efforts to achieve a lasting economic recovery benefiting the entire population. The new CPF focuses on ensuring that markets work more effectively, establishing the necessary conditions for fiscal and financial stability, and improving service delivery for all Ukrainians. Key Engagement Responding to the crisis in Ukraine, in March 2014, the WBG announced that it would provide additional financial and technical support to the country. Since 2014, the Bank has supported the people of Ukraine through two series of Development Policy Loans (DPLs), seven new investment operations, and a guarantee amounting to approximately US$5.5 billion aimed at improving critical public services, supporting reforms, and bolstering the private sector. The World Bank has supported high-priority reform measures to address the key structural roots of the current economic crisis in Ukraine and to lay the foundation for inclusive and sustainable growth through two series of budget support operations: the multi-sector DPL series (MSDPL-1, US$750 million, approved in 2014, and MSDPL-2, US$500 million, approved in 2015) and the Financial Sector (FS) DPL series (FSDP -1, US$500 million, approved in 2014, and FSDPL-2, US$500 million, approved in 2015). Reform measures aided by these four budget support operations promote good governance, transparency, and accountability in the public sector, as well as stability in the banking sector; a reduction in the cost of doing business; and the effective use of scarce public resources to provide quality public services at a crucial time. These operations also support the authorities in continuing to reform an inefficient and inequitable housing subsidy system while protecting the poor from tariff increases by strengthening social assistance. World Bank investment projects have focused and will continue to focus on improving basic public services, such as district heating, water and sanitation, health, and social protection, as well as public infrastructure, such as the power transmission networks and roads. The Bank is also supporting Ukraine through policy advice and technical assistance on formulating and implementing comprehensive structural reforms. In addition to financing several ongoing private sector projects, the International Finance Corporation (IFC) is implementing a large advisory program in the country, working to simplify regulations, improve the investment climate and energy efficiency, boost the completeness of local food producers, help open new markets, and increase access to finance.

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Doing Business in Ukraine – World Bank Group

Note: If the duration and frequency of outages is 100 or less, the economy is eligible to score on the Reliability of supply and transparency of tariff index. If the duration and frequency of outages is not available, or is over 100, the economy is not eligible to score on the index. If the minimum outage time considered for SAIDI/SAIFI is over 5 minutes, the economy is not eligible to score on the index.

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Ukraine Travel: Your Ukrainian Guide for Things to Do, Hotels …

Kiev Oblast There are few cities in Ukraine which enjoy such a well documented ancient past as Vyshhorod. While today Vyshhorod in Ukraine is a modest city with a population of over 23,000, in the early 900s it was a bustling metropolis that enjoyed royal favor. Vyshhorod is located along the banks of the Dnieper River just a short distance upstream from Kiev. Thus, the name Vyshhgorod is a good … Culture Traditional Ukrainian wedding customs are made up of various ceremonial stages sealing the union of the groom and bride. Younger generations are in some cases following Western wedding customs, however, those from more traditional families or couples in villages still observe the wedding customs of Ukraine. A wedding in Ukraine is a solemn occasion involving important religious rituals, but … Religious Sites The St. Volodymyrs Cathedral lies in the centre of Kiev, which is the main city of Ukraine. It is also considered as the mother cathedral to the ‘Ukrainian Orthodox Church Kiev Patriarchy’, thus making it one of two very important Ukrainian Orthodox churches. Like most churches it has a variety of names that it is commonly referred to, such as: Volodymyrsky Cathedral, St. Vladimirs … Sumy Oblast The Ukrainian town of Hlukhiv, with an approximate population of 35,000, has been inhabited from the 5th century. Archaeologists have confirmed this, but the town was only mentioned in documents from the year 1152. In 1644, the town of Hlukhiv, received its Magdeburg Rights. Peter the Great then went on to transform the town, located in the Sumy Oblast, into the capital for the Hetman. … Regions The Khmelnytskyi Oblast is located in western Ukraine, with its administrative center, the city of Khmelnytskyi, lying on the banks of the Southern Buh River, around 340 kilometers from Ukraine’s capital city, Kiev. It is a beautiful part of the country with at least 120 rivers and tributaries running through it, and an estimated 1,858 ponds, lakes and reservoirs scattered over the landscape. Zhytomyr Oblast The city of Berdychiv is a quaint city in the Zhytomyr Oblast that has an extremely interesting past. The exact date as to when the city was founded is mere speculation, and how its name came about can only be guessed. In all honesty, Berdychiv’s establishment is shrouded in mystery, and scientists and historians have been able to piece some of this fascinating puzzle together. Religious Sites The Kiev Pechersk Lavra Monastery is a complex that is made up from various fascinating buildings and sights. These diverse memories of the past all carry the strong architectural signature of the Ukrainian Baroque construction style and form a network of beautiful and spectacular structures. The monastery and surrounding complex is also known as the Calvin Cave Monastery. Art Galleries The building that houses the ARTEast Gallery on Reytarska Street in Kiev is as famous and well-known as the gallery itself. It was once home to Yuriy Davydovs Ballet Studio which doubled as an Opera Studio and became the blue print for ballet studios all over the world. It was the first studio to offer subjects such as languages and grammar together with lessons given by Illya Chestyakov. …

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Ukrainian language – Wikipedia

Ukrainian (listen) ( ukrajinka mova) is an East Slavic language. It is the official state language of Ukraine and first of two principal languages of Ukrainians; it is one of the three official languages in the unrecognized state of Transnistria, the other two being Romanian and Russian. Written Ukrainian uses a variant of the Cyrillic script (see Ukrainian alphabet). Historical linguists trace the origin of the Ukrainian language to the Old East Slavic of the early medieval state of Kievan Rus’. After the fall of the Kievan Rus’ as well as the Kingdom of GaliciaVolhynia, the language developed into a form called the Ruthenian language. The Modern Ukrainian language has been in common use since the late 17th century, associated with the establishment of the Cossack Hetmanate. From 1804 until the Russian Revolution, the Ukrainian language was banned from schools in the Russian Empire, of which the biggest part of Ukraine (Central, Eastern and Southern) was a part at the time.[7] It has always maintained a sufficient base in Western Ukraine, where the language was never banned,[8] in its folklore songs, itinerant musicians, and prominent authors.[8][9] The standard Ukrainian language is regulated by the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NANU), particularly by its Institute for the Ukrainian Language, Ukrainian language-information fund, and Potebnya Institute of Language Studies. The Ukrainian language retains a degree of mutual intelligibility with Belarusian and Russian.[10] The first theory of the origin of Ukrainian language was suggested in Imperial Russia in the middle of the 18th century by Mikhail Lomonosov. This theory posits the existence of a common language spoken by all East Slavic people in the time of the Rus’. According to Lomonosov, the differences that subsequently developed between Great Russian and Ukrainian (which he referred to as Little Russian) could be explained by the influence of the Polish and Slovak languages on Ukrainian and the influence of Uralic languages on Russian from the 13th to the 17th centuries.[full citation needed] Another point of view developed during the 19th and 20th centuries by linguists of Imperial Russia and the Soviet Union. Like Lomonosov, they assumed the existence of a common language spoken by East Slavs in the past. But unlike Lomonosov’s hypothesis, this theory does not view “Polonization” or any other external influence as the main driving force that led to the formation of three different languages (Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian) from the common Old East Slavic language. This general point of view is the most accepted amongst academics worldwide,[11] particularly outside Ukraine. The supporters of this theory disagree, however, about the time when the different languages were formed. Soviet scholars set the divergence between Ukrainian and Russian only at later time periods (14th through 16th centuries). According to this view, Old East Slavic diverged into Belarusian and Ukrainian to the west (collectively, the Ruthenian language of the 15th to 18th centuries), and Old Russian to the north-east, after the political boundaries of the Kievan Rus’ were redrawn in the 14th century. During the time of the incorporation of Ruthenia (Ukraine and Belarus) into the PolishLithuanian Commonwealth, Ukrainian and Belarusian diverged into identifiably separate languages.[citation needed] Some scholars[who?] see a divergence between the language of Galicia-Volhynia and the language of Novgorod-Suzdal by the 12th century, assuming that before the 12th century, the two languages were practically indistinguishable. This point of view is, however, at variance with some historical data. In fact, several East Slavic tribes, such as Polans, Drevlyans, Severians, Dulebes (that later likely became Volhynians and Buzhans), White Croats, Tiverians and Ulichs lived on the territory of today’s Ukraine long before the 12th century. Notably, some Ukrainian features[which?] were recognizable in the southern dialects of Old East Slavic as far back as the language can be documented.[12] Some researchers, while admitting the differences between the dialects spoken by East Slavic tribes in the 10th and 11th centuries, still consider them as “regional manifestations of a common language” (see, for instance, the article by Vasyl Nimchuk).[13] In contrast, Ahatanhel Krymsky and Alexei Shakhmatov assumed the existence of the common spoken language of Eastern Slavs only in prehistoric times.[14] According to their point of view, the diversification of the Old East Slavic language took place in the 8th or early 9th century. Ukrainian linguist Stepan Smal-Stotsky went even further, denying the existence of a common Old East Slavic language at any time in the past.[15] Similar points of view were shared by Yevhen Tymchenko, Vsevolod Hantsov, Olena Kurylo, Ivan Ohienko and others. According to this theory, the dialects of East Slavic tribes evolved gradually from the common Proto-Slavic language without any intermediate stages during the 6th through 9th centuries. The Ukrainian language was formed by convergence of tribal dialects, mostly due to an intensive migration of the population within the territory of today’s Ukraine in later historical periods. This point of view was also supported by George Shevelov’s phonological studies.[12] As the result of close Slavic contacts with the remnants of the Scythian and Sarmatian population north of the Black Sea, lasting into the early Middle Ages, the appearance of voiced fricative (h) in modern Ukrainian and some southern Russian dialects is explained, that initially emerged in Scythian and the related eastern Iranian dialects from earlier common Proto-Indo-European *g and *g.[16][17][18] During the 13th century, when German settlers were invited to Ukraine by the princes of Galicia-Vollhynia, German words began to appear in the language spoken in Ukraine. Their influence would continue under Poland not only through German colonists but also through the Yiddish-speaking Jews. Often such words involve trade or handicrafts. Examples of words of German or Yiddish origin spoken in Ukraine include dakh (roof), rura (pipe), rynok (market), kushnir (furrier), and majster (master or craftsman).[19] In the 13th century, eastern parts of Rus’ (including Moscow) came under Tatar yoke until their unification under the Tsardom of Muscovy, whereas the south-western areas (including Kiev) were incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. For the following four centuries, the language of the two regions evolved in relative isolation from each other. Direct written evidence of the existence of the Ukrainian language dates to the late 16th century.[20] By the 16th century, a peculiar official language was formed: a mixture of Old Church Slavonic, Ruthenian and Polish, with the influence of the last of these three gradually increasing. Documents soon took on many Polish characteristics superimposed on Ruthenian phonetics.[21] Polish rule and education also involved significant exposure to the Latin language. Much of the influence of Poland on the development of the Ukrainian language has been attributed to this period and is reflected in multiple words and constructions used in everyday Ukrainian speech that were taken from Polish or Latin. Examples of Polish words adopted from this period include zavzhdy (always; taken from old Polish word zawdy) and obitsiaty (to promise; taken from Polish obieca) and from Latin (via Polish) raptom (suddenly) and meta (aim or goal).[19] Significant contact with Tatars and Turks resulted in many Turkic words, particularly those involving military matters and steppe industry, being adopted into the Ukrainian language. Examples include torba (bag) and tyutyun (tobacco).[19] Due to heavy borrowings from Polish, German, Czech and Latin, early modern vernacular Ukrainian (prosta mova, “simple speech”) had more lexical similarity with West Slavic languages than with Russian or Church Slavonic.[22] By the mid-17th century, the linguistic divergence between the Ukrainian and Russian languages was so acute that there was a need for translators during negotiations for the Treaty of Pereyaslav, between Bohdan Khmelnytsky, head of the Zaporozhian Host, and the Russian state.[23] During the Khazar period, the territory of Ukraine, settled at that time by Iranian (post-Scythian), Turkic (post-Hunnic, proto-Bulgarian), and Uralic (proto-Hungarian) tribes, was progressively Slavicized by several waves of migration from the Slavic north. Finally, the Varangian ruler of Novgorod, called Oleg, seized Kiev (Kyiv) and established the political entity of Rus’. Some theorists see an early Ukrainian stage in language development here; others term this era Old East Slavic or Old Ruthenian/Rus’ian. Russian theorists tend to amalgamate Rus’ to the modern nation of Russia, and call this linguistic era Old Russian. Some hold that linguistic unity over Rus’ was not present, but tribal diversity in language was. The era of Rus’ is the subject of some linguistic controversy, as the language of much of the literature was purely or heavily Old Slavonic. At the same time, most legal documents throughout Rus’ were written in a purely Old East Slavic language (supposed to be based on the Kiev dialect of that epoch). Scholarly controversies over earlier development aside, literary records from Rus’ testify to substantial divergence between Russian and Ruthenian/Rusyn forms of the Ukrainian language as early as the era of Rus’. One vehicle of this divergence (or widening divergence) was the large scale appropriation of the Old Slavonic language in the northern reaches of Rus’ and of the Polish language at the territory of modern Ukraine. As evidenced by the contemporary chronicles, the ruling princes of Galich (modern Halych) and Kiev called themselves “People of Rus'” (with the exact Cyrillic spelling of the adjective from of Rus’ varying among sources), which contrasts sharply with the lack of ethnic self-appellation for the area until the mid-19th century.[citation needed] After the fall of GaliciaVolhynia, Ukrainians mainly fell under the rule of Lithuania and then Poland. Local autonomy of both rule and language was a marked feature of Lithuanian rule. In the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Old Slavic became the language of the chancellery and gradually evolved into the Ruthenian language. Polish rule, which came later, was accompanied by a more assimilationist policy. By the 1569 Union of Lublin that formed the PolishLithuanian Commonwealth, a significant part of Ukrainian territory was moved from Lithuanian rule to Polish administration, resulting in cultural Polonization and visible attempts to colonize Ukraine by the Polish nobility. Many Ukrainian nobles learned the Polish language and adopted Catholicism during that period.[24] Lower classes were less affected because literacy was common only in the upper class and clergy. The latter were also under significant Polish pressure after the Union with the Catholic Church. Most of the educational system was gradually Polonized. In Ruthenia, the language of administrative documents gradually shifted towards Polish. The Polish language has had heavy influences on Ukrainian (particularly in Western Ukraine). The southwestern Ukrainian dialects are transitional to Polish.[25] As the Ukrainian language developed further, some borrowings from Tatar and Turkish occurred. Ukrainian culture and language flourished in the sixteenth and first half of the 17th century, when Ukraine was part of the PolishLithuanian Commonwealth. Among many schools established in that time, the Kiev-Mogila Collegium (the predecessor of modern Kyiv-Mohyla Academy), founded by the Orthodox Metropolitan Peter Mogila (Petro Mohyla), was the most important. At that time languages were associated more with religions: Catholics spoke Polish, and members of the Orthodox church spoke Ruthenian. After the Treaty of Pereyaslav, Ukrainian high culture went into a long period of steady decline. In the aftermath, the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy was taken over by the Russian Empire and closed down later in the 19th century. Most of the remaining Ukrainian schools also switched to Polish or Russian in the territories controlled by these respective countries, which was followed by a new wave of Polonization and Russification of the native nobility. Gradually the official language of Ukrainian provinces under Poland was changed to Polish, while the upper classes in the Russian part of Ukraine used Russian. During the 19th century, a revival of Ukrainian self-identification manifested in the literary classes of both Russian-Empire Dnieper Ukraine and Austrian Galicia. The Brotherhood of Sts Cyril and Methodius in Kiev applied an old word for the Cossack motherland, Ukrajina, as a self-appellation for the nation of Ukrainians, and Ukrajins’ka mova for the language. Many writers published works in the Romantic tradition of Europe demonstrating that Ukrainian was not merely a language of the village but suitable for literary pursuits. However, in the Russian Empire expressions of Ukrainian culture and especially language were repeatedly persecuted for fear that a self-aware Ukrainian nation would threaten the unity of the empire. In 1804 Ukrainian as a subject and language of instruction was banned from schools.[7] In 1811 by the Order of the Russian government, the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy was closed. The Academy had been open since 1632 and was the first university in Eastern Europe. In 1847 the Brotherhood of Sts Cyril and Methodius was terminated. The same year Taras Shevchenko was arrested, exiled for ten years, and banned for political reasons from writing and painting. In 1862 Pavlo Chubynsky was exiled for seven years to Arkhangelsk. The Ukrainian magazine Osnova was discontinued. In 1863, the tsarist interior minister Pyotr Valuyev proclaimed in his decree that “there never has been, is not, and never can be a separate Little Russian language”.[26] A following ban on Ukrainian books led to Alexander II’s secret Ems Ukaz, which prohibited publication and importation of most Ukrainian-language books, public performances and lectures, and even banned the printing of Ukrainian texts accompanying musical scores.[27] A period of leniency after 1905 was followed by another strict ban in 1914, which also affected Russian-occupied Galicia. For much of the 19th century the Austrian authorities demonstrated some preference for Polish culture, but the Ukrainians were relatively free to partake in their own cultural pursuits in Halychyna and Bukovyna, where Ukrainian was widely used in education and official documents.[29] The suppression by Russia retarded the literary development of the Ukrainian language in Dnipro Ukraine, but there was a constant exchange with Halychyna, and many works were published under Austria and smuggled to the east. By the time of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the collapse of Austro-Hungary in 1918, the former ‘Ruthenians’ or ‘Little Russians’ were ready to openly develop a body of national literature, institute a Ukrainian-language educational system, and form an independent state named Ukraine (the Ukrainian People’s Republic, shortly joined by the West Ukrainian People’s Republic). During this brief independent statehood the stature and use of Ukrainian greatly improved.[9] In the Russian Empire Census of 1897 the following picture emerged, with Ukrainian being the second most spoken language of the Russian Empire. According to the Imperial census’s terminology, the Russian language () was subdivided into Ukrainian (, ‘Little Russian’), what we know as Russian today (, ‘Great Russian’), and Belarusian (, ‘White Russian’). The following table shows the distribution of settlement by native language (” “) in 1897 in Russian Empire governorates (guberniyas) that had more than 100,000 Ukrainian speakers.[30] Although in the rural regions of the Ukraine provinces, 80% of the inhabitants said that Ukrainian was their native language in the Census of 1897 (for which the results are given above), in the urban regions only 32.5% of the population claimed Ukrainian as their native language. For example, in Odessa (then part of the Russian Empire), at the time the largest city in the territory of current Ukraine, only 5.6% of the population said Ukrainian was their native language.[31] Until the 1920s the urban population in Ukraine grew faster than the number of Ukrainian speakers. This implies that there was a (relative) decline in the use of Ukrainian language. For example, in Kiev, the number of people stating that Ukrainian was their native language declined from 30.3% in 1874 to 16.6% in 1917.[31] During the seven-decade-long Soviet era, the Ukrainian language held the formal position of the principal local language in the Ukrainian SSR.[32] However, practice was often a different story:[32] Ukrainian always had to compete with Russian, and the attitudes of the Soviet leadership towards Ukrainian varied from encouragement and tolerance to discouragement. Officially, there was no state language in the Soviet Union until the very end when it was proclaimed in 1990 that Russian language was the all-Union state language and that the constituent republics had rights to declare additional state languages within their jurisdictions.[33] Still it was implicitly understood in the hopes of minority nations that Ukrainian would be used in the Ukrainian SSR, Uzbek would be used in the Uzbek SSR, and so on. However, Russian was used in all parts of the Soviet Union and a special term, “a language of inter-ethnic communication”, was coined to denote its status. Soviet language policy in Ukraine may be divided into the following policy periods: Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Empire was broken up. In different parts of the former empire, several nations, including Ukrainians, developed a renewed sense of national identity. In the chaotic post-revolutionary years the Ukrainian language gained some usage in government affairs. Initially, this trend continued under the Bolshevik government of the Soviet Union, which in a political struggle to retain its grip over the territory had to encourage the national movements of the former Russian Empire. While trying to ascertain and consolidate its power, the Bolshevik government was by far more concerned about many political oppositions connected to the pre-revolutionary order than about the national movements inside the former empire, where it could always find allies. The widening use of Ukrainian further developed in the first years of Bolshevik rule into a policy called korenizatsiya. The government pursued a policy of Ukrainianization by lifting a ban on the Ukrainian language. That led to the introduction of an impressive education program which allowed Ukrainian-taught classes and raised the literacy of the Ukrainophone population. This policy was led by Education Commissar Mykola Skrypnyk and was directed to approximate the language to Russian. Newly generated academic efforts from the period of independence were co-opted by the Bolshevik government. The party and government apparatus was mostly Russian-speaking but were encouraged to learn the Ukrainian language. Simultaneously, the newly literate ethnic Ukrainians migrated to the cities, which became rapidly largely Ukrainianized in both population and in education. The policy even reached those regions of southern Russian SFSR where the ethnic Ukrainian population was significant, particularly the areas by the Don River and especially Kuban in the North Caucasus. Ukrainian language teachers, just graduated from expanded institutions of higher education in Soviet Ukraine, were dispatched to these regions to staff newly opened Ukrainian schools or to teach Ukrainian as a second language in Russian schools. A string of local Ukrainian-language publications were started and departments of Ukrainian studies were opened in colleges. Overall, these policies were implemented in thirty-five raions (administrative districts) in southern Russia. Soviet policy towards the Ukrainian language changed abruptly in late 1932 and early 1933, with the termination of the policy of Ukrainianization. In December 1932, the regional party cells received a telegram signed by V. Molotov and Stalin with an order to immediately reverse the Ukrainianization policies. The telegram condemned Ukrainianization as ill-considered and harmful and demanded to “immediately halt Ukrainianization in raions (districts), switch all Ukrainianized newspapers, books and publications into Russian and prepare by autumn of 1933 for the switching of schools and instruction into Russian”.[citation needed] The following years were characterized by massive repression and discrimination for the Ukrainophones. Western and most contemporary Ukrainian historians emphasize that the cultural repression was applied earlier and more fiercely in Ukraine than in other parts of the Soviet Union, and were therefore anti-Ukrainian; others assert that Stalin’s goal was the generic crushing of any dissent, rather than targeting the Ukrainians in particular. Stalinist policies shifted to define Russian as the language of (inter-ethnic) communication. Although Ukrainian continued to be used (in print, education, radio and later television programs), it lost its primary place in advanced learning and republic-wide media. Ukrainian was demoted to a language of secondary importance, often associated with the rise in Ukrainian self-awareness and nationalism and often branded “politically incorrect”. The new Soviet Constitution adopted in 1936, however, stipulated that teaching in schools should be conducted in native languages. Major repression started in 192930, when a large group of Ukrainian intelligentsia was arrested and most were executed. In Ukrainian history, this group is often referred to as “Executed Renaissance” (Ukrainian: ). “Ukrainian bourgeois nationalism” was declared to be the primary problem in Ukraine.[34] The terror peaked in 1933, four to five years before the Soviet-wide “Great Purge”, which, for Ukraine, was a second blow. The vast majority of leading scholars and cultural leaders of Ukraine were liquidated, as were the “Ukrainianized” and “Ukrainianizing” portions of the Communist party. Soviet Ukraine’s autonomy was completely destroyed by the late 1930s.[citation needed] In its place, the glorification of Russia as the first nation to throw off the capitalist yoke had begun, accompanied by the migration of Russian workers into parts of Ukraine which were undergoing industrialization and mandatory instruction of classic Russian language and literature. Ideologists warned of over-glorifying Ukraine’s Cossack past, and supported the closing of Ukrainian cultural institutions and literary publications. The systematic assault upon Ukrainian identity in culture and education, combined with effects of an artificial famine (Holodomor) upon the peasantrythe backbone of the nationdealt Ukrainian language and identity a crippling blow.[citation needed] This sequence of policy change was repeated in Western Ukraine when it was incorporated into Soviet Ukraine. In 1939, and again in the late 1940s, a policy of Ukrainianization was implemented. By the early 1950s, Ukrainian was persecuted and a campaign of Russification began. After the death of Stalin (1953), a general policy of relaxing the language policies of the past was implemented (1958 to 1963). The Nikita Khrushchev era which followed saw a policy of relatively lenient concessions to development of the languages at the local and republic level, though its results in Ukraine did not go nearly as far as those of the Soviet policy of Ukrainianization in the 1920s. Journals and encyclopedic publications advanced in the Ukrainian language during the Khrushchev era, as well as transfer of Crimea under Ukrainian SSR jurisdiction. Yet, the 1958 school reform that allowed parents to choose the language of primary instruction for their children, unpopular among the circles of the national intelligentsia in parts of the USSR, meant that non-Russian languages would slowly give way to Russian in light of the pressures of survival and advancement. The gains of the past, already largely reversed by the Stalin era, were offset by the liberal attitude towards the requirement to study the local languages (the requirement to study Russian remained). Parents were usually free to choose the language of study of their children (except in few areas where attending the Ukrainian school might have required a long daily commute) and they often chose Russian, which reinforced the resulting Russification. In this sense, some analysts argue that it was not the “oppression” or “persecution”, but rather the lack of protection against the expansion of Russian language that contributed to the relative decline of Ukrainian in the 1970s and 1980s. According to this view, it was inevitable that successful careers required a good command of Russian, while knowledge of Ukrainian was not vital, so it was common for Ukrainian parents to send their children to Russian-language schools, even though Ukrainian-language schools were usually available. While in the Russian-language schools within the republic, Ukrainian was supposed to be learned as a second language at comparable level, the instruction of other subjects was in Russian and, as a result, students had a greater command of Russian than Ukrainian on graduation. Additionally, in some areas of the republic, the attitude towards teaching and learning of Ukrainian in schools was relaxed and it was, sometimes, considered a subject of secondary importance and even a waiver from studying it was sometimes given under various, ever expanding, circumstances. The complete suppression of all expressions of separatism or Ukrainian nationalism also contributed to lessening interest in Ukrainian. Some people who persistently used Ukrainian on a daily basis were often perceived as though they were expressing sympathy towards, or even being members of, the political opposition. This, combined with advantages given by Russian fluency and usage, made Russian the primary language of choice for many Ukrainians, while Ukrainian was more of a hobby. In any event, the mild liberalization in Ukraine and elsewhere was stifled by new suppression of freedoms at the end of the Khrushchev era (1963) when a policy of gradually creeping suppression of Ukrainian was re-instituted. The next part of the Soviet Ukrainian language policy divides into two eras: first, the Shelest period (early 1960s to early 1970s), which was relatively liberal towards the development of the Ukrainian language. The second era, the policy of Shcherbytsky (early 1970s to early 1990s), was one of gradual suppression of the Ukrainian language. The Communist Party leader from 1963 to 1972, Petro Shelest, pursued a policy of defending Ukraine’s interests within the Soviet Union. He proudly promoted the beauty of the Ukrainian language and developed plans to expand the role of Ukrainian in higher education. He was removed, however, after only a brief tenure, for being too lenient on Ukrainian nationalism. The new party boss from 1972 to 1989, Volodymyr Shcherbytsky, purged the local party, was fierce in suppressing dissent, and insisted Russian be spoken at all official functions, even at local levels. His policy of Russification was lessened only slightly after 1985. The management of dissent by the local Ukrainian Communist Party was more fierce and thorough than in other parts of the Soviet Union. As a result, at the start of the Mikhail Gorbachev reforms perebudova and hlasnist (Ukrainian for perestroika and glasnost), Ukraine under Shcherbytsky was slower to liberalize than Russia itself. Although Ukrainian still remained the native language for the majority in the nation on the eve of Ukrainian independence, a significant share of ethnic Ukrainians were russified. In Donetsk there were no Ukrainian language schools and in Kiev only a quarter of children went to Ukrainian language schools.[35] The Russian language was the dominant vehicle, not just of government function, but of the media, commerce, and modernity itself. This was substantially less the case for western Ukraine, which escaped the artificial famine, Great Purge, and most of Stalinism. And this region became the center of a hearty, if only partial, renaissance of the Ukrainian language during independence. Since 1991, Ukrainian has been the official state language in Ukraine, and the state administration implemented government policies to broaden the use of Ukrainian. The educational system in Ukraine has been transformed over the first decade of independence from a system that is partly Ukrainian to one that is overwhelmingly so. The government has also mandated a progressively increased role for Ukrainian in the media and commerce. In some cases the abrupt changing of the language of instruction in institutions of secondary and higher education led to the charges of Ukrainianization, raised mostly by the Russian-speaking population. This transition, however, lacked most of the controversies that arose during the de-russification of the other former Soviet Republics. With time, most residents, including ethnic Russians, people of mixed origin, and Russian-speaking Ukrainians, started to self-identify as Ukrainian nationals, even those who remained Russophone. The Russian language, however, still dominates the print media in most of Ukraine and private radio and TV broadcasting in the eastern, southern, and, to a lesser degree, central regions. The state-controlled broadcast media have become exclusively Ukrainian. There are few obstacles to the usage of Russian in commerce and it is still occasionally used in government affairs. Late 20th century Russian politicians like Alexander Lebed and Mikhail Yur’ev still claimed that Ukrainian is a Russian dialect.[36] In the 2001 census, 67.5% of the country population named Ukrainian as their native language (a 2.8% increase from 1989), while 29.6% named Russian (a 3.2% decrease). It should be noted, though, that for many Ukrainians (of various ethnic descent), the term native language may not necessarily associate with the language they use more frequently. The overwhelming majority of ethnic Ukrainians consider the Ukrainian language native, including those who often speak Russian. According to the official 2001 census data[37] approximately 75% of Kiev’s population responded “Ukrainian” to the native language (ridna mova) census question, and roughly 25% responded “Russian”. On the other hand, when the question “What language do you use in everyday life?” was asked in the sociological survey, the Kievans’ answers were distributed as follows:[38] “mostly Russian”: 52%, “both Russian and Ukrainian in equal measure”: 32%, “mostly Ukrainian”: 14%, “exclusively Ukrainian”: 4.3%. Ethnic minorities, such as Romanians, Tatars and Jews usually use Russian as their lingua franca. But there are tendencies within these minority groups to use Ukrainian. The Jewish writer Olexander Beyderman from the mainly Russian-speaking city of Odessa is now writing most of his dramas in Ukrainian. The emotional relationship regarding Ukrainian is changing in southern and eastern areas. Opposition to expansion of Ukrainian-language teaching is a matter of contention in eastern regions closer to Russia in May 2008, the Donetsk city council prohibited the creation of any new Ukrainian schools in the city in which 80% of them are Russian-language schools.[39] The literary Ukrainian language, which was preceded by Old East Slavic literature, may be subdivided into three stages: old Ukrainian (12th to 14th centuries), middle Ukrainian (14th to 18th centuries), and modern Ukrainian (end of the 18th century to the present). Much literature was written in the periods of the old and middle Ukrainian language, including legal acts, polemical articles, science treatises and fiction of all sorts. Influential literary figures in the development of modern Ukrainian literature include the philosopher Hryhorii Skovoroda, Ivan Kotlyarevsky, Mykola Kostomarov, Mykhailo Kotsiubynsky, Taras Shevchenko, Ivan Franko, and Lesia Ukrainka. The earliest literary work in the modern Ukrainian language was recorded in 1798 when Ivan Kotlyarevsky, a playwright from Poltava in southeastern Ukraine, published his epic poem, Eneyida, a burlesque in Ukrainian, based on Virgil’s Aeneid. His book was published in vernacular Ukrainian in a satirical way to avoid being censored, and is the earliest known Ukrainian published book to survive through Imperial and, later, Soviet policies on the Ukrainian language. Kotlyarevsky’s work and that of another early writer using the Ukrainian vernacular language, Petro Artemovsky, used the southeastern dialect spoken in the Poltava, Kharkiv and southern Kieven regions of the Russian Empire. This dialect would serve as the basis of the Ukrainian literary language when it was developed by Taras Shevchenko and Panteleimon Kulish in the mid 19th century. In order to raise its status from that of a dialect to that of a language, various elements from folklore and traditional styles were added to it.[40] The Ukrainian literary language developed further when the Russian state banned the use of the Ukrainian language, prompting many of its writers to move to the western Ukrainian region of Galicia which was under more liberal Austrian rule; after the 1860s the majority of Ukrainian literary works were published in Austrian Galicia. During this period Galician influences were adopted in the Ukrainian literary language, particularly with respect to vocabulary involving law, government, technology, science, and administration.[40] The use of the Ukrainian language is increasing after a long period of decline. Although there are almost fifty million ethnic Ukrainians worldwide, including 37.5 million in Ukraine (77.8% of the total population), the Ukrainian language is prevalent only in western and central Ukraine. In Kiev, both Ukrainian and Russian are spoken, a notable shift from the recent past when the city was primarily Russian-speaking. The shift is believed to be caused, largely, by an influx of the rural population and migrants from the western regions of Ukraine but also by some Kievans’ turning to use the language they speak at home more widely in everyday matters. Public signs and announcements in Kiev are in Ukrainian. In southern and eastern Ukraine, Russian is the prevalent language of the urban population. According to the Ukrainian Census of 2001, 87.8% people living in Ukraine communicate in Ukrainian.[41] Use of the Ukrainian language in Ukraine can be expected to increase, as the rural population migrates into the cities. In eastern and southern Ukraine, the rural Ukrainophones continue to prefer Russian. Interest in Ukrainian literature is growing rapidly, compensating for the periods when its development was hindered by either policies of direct suppression or lack of state support. Ukrainian has become popular in other countries through movies and songs performed in the Ukrainian language. The most popular Ukrainian rock bands, such as Okean Elzy, Vopli Vidopliassova, BoomBox, and others perform regularly in tours across Europe, Israel, North America and especially Russia. In countries with significant Ukrainian populations, bands singing in the Ukrainian language sometimes reach top places in the charts, such as Enej from Poland. Other notable Ukrainian-language bands are The Ukrainians from the United Kingdom, Klooch from Canada, Ukrainian Village Band from the United States, and the Kuban Cossack Choir from the Kuban region in Russia. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. Last update: 17 November 2013 (April 2017) The 2010s saw a revival of Ukrainian cinema.[42] Top Ukrainian-language films by IMDb rating:[43] Oleksa Horbach’s 1951 study of argots analyzed sources (argots of professionals, thugs, prisoners, homeless, school children, etc.) with special attention to an etymological analysis of argots, ways of word formation and borrowing depending on the source-language (Church Slavonic, Russian, Czech, Polish, Romani, Greek, Romanian, Hungarian, German).[44] Northern group South-eastern group South-western group Several modern dialects of Ukrainian exist[45][46] All the countries neighbouring Ukraine (except for Hungary) historically have regions with a sizable Ukrainian population and therefore Ukrainian language speakers. Ukrainian is an official minority language in some of them.[which?] Ukrainian is also spoken by a large migr population, particularly in Canada (see Canadian Ukrainian), United States, and several countries of South America like Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay. The founders of this population primarily emigrated from Galicia, which used to be part of Austro-Hungary before World War I, and belonged to Poland between the World Wars. The language spoken by most of them is the Galician dialect of Ukrainian from the first half of the 20th century. Compared with modern Ukrainian, the vocabulary of Ukrainians outside Ukraine reflects less influence of Russian, but often contains many loanwords from the local language. Most of the countries where it is spoken are ex-USSR, where many Ukrainians have migrated. Canada and the United States are also home to a large Ukrainian population. Broken up by country (to the nearest thousand):[60] Ukrainian is one of three official languages of the breakaway Moldovan republic of Transnistria.[65] Ukrainian is widely spoken within the 400,000-strong (in 1994) Ukrainian community in Brazil.[66] Ukrainian is a fusional, nominative-accusative, satellite framed language. It exhibits T-V distinction, and is null-subject. The canonical word order of Ukrainian is SVO.[67] Other word orders are usual due to the free word order created by Ukrainian’s inflectional system. Nouns decline for 7 cases: nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, instrumental, locative, vocative; 3 genders: masculine, feminine, neuter; and 2 numbers: singular, plural. Adjectives agree with nouns in case, gender, and number. Verbs conjugate for 3 tenses: past, present, future; 2 voices: active, mediopassive, 3 persons: first, second, third; and 2 numbers, singular, and plural. Ukrainian verbs come in aspect pairs: perfective, and imperfective. Pairs are usually formed by a prepositional prefix and occasionally a root change. The past tense agrees with its subject in number and gender, having developed from the perfect participle. The Old East Slavic and Russian o in syllables ending in a consonant, often corresponds to a Ukrainian i, as in pod > pid (, ‘under’). Thus, in the declension of nouns, the o can re-appear as it is no longer located in a closed syllable, such as rik (, ‘year’) (nom): rotsi (loc) (). Similarly, some words can have in some declensions when most of the declension have o, for example (nominative singular), (nominative plural) but i (genitive plural). Ukrainian case endings are somewhat different from Old East Slavic, and the vocabulary includes a large overlay of Polish terminology. Russian na pervom etae ‘on the first floor’ is in the locative (prepositional) case. The Ukrainian corresponding expression is na peromu poversi ( ). -omu is the standard locative (prepositional) ending, but variants in -im are common in dialect and poetry, and allowed by the standards bodies. The kh of Ukrainian poverkh () has mutated into s under the influence of the soft vowel i (k is similarly mutable into c in final positions). The Ukrainian language has six vowels, /i, u, , , , a/. A number of the consonants come in three forms: hard, soft (palatalized) and long, for example, /l/, /l/, and /l/ or /n/, /n/, and /n/. The letter represents voiced glottal fricative //, often transliterated as Latin h. It is the voiced equivalent of English /h/. Russian speakers from Ukraine often use the soft Ukrainian // in place of Russian //, which comes from northern dialects of Old East Slavic. The Ukrainian alphabet has the additional letter for //, which appears in a few native words such as gryndoly ‘sleigh’ and gudzyk ‘button’. However, // appears almost exclusively in loan words, and is usually simply written . For example, loanwords from English on public signs usually use for both English g and h. Another phonetic divergence between the Ukrainian and Russian languages is the pronunciation of Cyrillic v/w. While in standard Russian it represents /v/, in many Ukrainian dialects it denotes /w/ (following a vowel and preceding a consonant (cluster), either within a word or at a word boundary, it denotes the allophone [u], and like the off-glide in the English words “flow” and “cow”, it forms a diphthong with the preceding vowel). Native Russian speakers will pronounce the Ukrainian as [v], which is one way to tell the two groups apart. As with above, Ukrainians use to render both English v and w; Russians occasionally use for w instead. Unlike Russian and most other modern Slavic languages, Ukrainian does not have final devoicing. Ukrainian is written in a version of Cyrillic, consisting of 33 letters, representing 38 phonemes; an apostrophe is also used. Ukrainian orthography is based on the phonemic principle, with one letter generally corresponding to one phoneme, although there are a number of exceptions. The orthography also has cases where the semantic, historical, and morphological principles are applied. The modern Ukrainian alphabet is the result of a number of proposed alphabetic reforms from the 19th and early 20th centuries, in Ukraine under the Russian Empire, in Austrian Galicia, and later in Soviet Ukraine. A unified Ukrainian alphabet (the Skrypnykivka, after Mykola Skrypnyk) was officially established at a 1927 international Orthographic Conference in Kharkiv, during the period of Ukrainization in Soviet Ukraine. But the policy was reversed in the 1930s, and the Soviet Ukrainian orthography diverged from that used by the diaspora. The Ukrainian letter ge was banned in the Soviet Union from 1933 until the period of Glasnost in 1990.[68] The letter represents two consonants [t]. The combination of [j] with some of the vowels is also represented by a single letter ([ja] = , [je] = , [ji] or [j] = , [ju] = ), while [j] = and the rare regional [j] = are written using two letters. These iotated vowel letters and a special soft sign change a preceding consonant from hard to soft. An apostrophe is used to indicate the hardness of the sound in the cases when normally the vowel would change the consonant to soft; in other words, it functions like the yer in the Russian alphabet. A consonant letter is doubled to indicate that the sound is doubled, or long. The phonemes [dz] and [d] do not have dedicated letters in the alphabet and are rendered with the digraphs and , respectively. [dz] is equivalent to English ds in pods, [d] is equivalent to j in jump. The Dictionary of Ukrainian Language in 11 volumes contains 135,000 entries.[citation needed] Lexical card catalog of the Ukrainian Institute of Language Studies has 6 million cards.[69] The same Institute is going to publish the new Dictionary of Ukrainian Language in 13 volumes.[citation needed] As mentioned at the top of the article, Ukrainian is most closely related lexically to Belarusian, and is also closer to Polish than to Russian (for example, , mozhlyvist’, “possibility”, and Polish moliwo, but Russian , vozmozhnost’). Ukrainian has varying degrees of mutual intelligibility with other Slavic languages and is considered to be most closely related to Belarusian.[70] In the 19th century, the question of whether Ukrainian, Belarusian and Russian languages are dialects of a single language or three separate languages was actively discussed, with the debate affected by linguistic and political factors.[10] The political situation (Ukraine and Belarus being mainly part of the Russian Empire at the time) and the historical existence of the medieval state of Kievan Rus’, which occupied large parts of these three nations, led to the creation of the common classification known later as the East Slavic languages. The underlying theory of the grouping is their descent from a common ancestor. In modern times, Ukrainian, Russian, and Belarusian are usually listed by linguists as separate languages.[71][72] Until the 17th and 18th centuries (the time of national and language revival of Ukraine) the Ukrainians were predominantly peasants and petits bourgeois; as a result, the Ukrainian language was mostly vernacular and few earlier literary works from the period can be found. In the cities, Ukrainian coexisted with Church Slavonic a literary language of religion that evolved from the Old Slavonic and later Polish and Russian, both languages which were more often used in formal writing and communication during that time. The Ukrainian language has the following similarities and differences with other Slavic languages: Unlike all other Slavic languages, Ukrainian has a synthetic future (also termed inflectional future) tense which developed through the erosion and cliticization of the verb ‘to have’ (or possibly ‘to take’): pysa-ty-mu (infinitive-future-1st sg.) I will write.[74] Although the inflectional future (based on the verb ‘to have’) is characteristic of Romance languages, Ukrainian linguist A. Danylenko argues that Ukrainian differs from Romance in the choice of auxiliary, which should be interpreted as ‘to take’ and not ‘to have.’ He states that Late Common Slavic (LCS) had three verbs with the same root *em-: The three verbs became conflated in East Slavic due to morphological overlap, in particular of imti to have and jati to take as exemplified in the Middle Ukrainian homonymic imut from both imti ( future is found in Chinese and Hungarian.[75] Links to related articles

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October 16, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Ukraine  Comments Closed

Ukraine | Hetalia Archives | FANDOM powered by Wikia

Ukraine (, , Ukuraina) is a character in the series Hetalia: Axis Powers. She has short blonde hair (which she keeps held back with a blue or green headband and clips), blue eyes, and wears a long-sleeved white blouse and blue overalls. Her most notable physical feature, however, is her large breast size, representing Ukraine’s status as a major agricultural nation (“large tracts of land”). She can also be seen carrying a pitchfork at times. In a sketch by Hidekaz Himaruya, she is shown to wear a long brown coat, pants, boots, and hat as her military uniform. Ukraine is the oldest of the three siblings and is constantly getting dragged into some sort of mess. She is described by her brother as being very warm-hearted and motherly, having taken care of him and Belarus when they were little. He also notes that she’s a bit of a cry-baby, yet with a big heart. She apparently has chest and back pains due to her assets. She was the one who gave Russia his scarf, which he continues to wear today. He told Japan that it is part of his body, therefore he cannot take it off. Main Article:Belarus Belarus is shown to be jealous of Ukraine for Russia’s attention to her; however, they have been known to get along with each other, such as Belarus offering to massage Ukraine’s back and breasts, and sharing an image song . Ukraine is Russia’s older sister, and acted as a mother to both him and Belarus when they were younger. She was the one who gave him his scarf. Though she wishes to be with him again, she either winds up running away at the chance due to the issues that arisen between them (such as paying for gas), or due to being blocked from seeing him in some way (such as her boss prohibiting her from giving him anything). However, Russia does still care deeply about her. Ukraine in Episode 42 Ukraine makes her debut anime appearance in Episode 42, which adapts Russia’s Big And Little Sisters from volume 2 of the published manga. In the episode, she is unable to come up with payment for gas due to her poverty situation, and is later forbidden from sharing milk with her brother by her boss because of the gas conflict. Ukraine as a child in Episode 43 In the anime adaptation, her headband was changed to yellow while her hair became more of a platinum shade. Sound effects were also added to her movement for further elaboration on her large breast size. Though no actual human name was given for Ukraine by Hidekaz Himaruya, Japanese fans quickly coined the nickname Katyusha as a it is diminutive form of the name Yekaterina, and a term for rocket artillery). Some fans would later expand on this and coin the name Yekaterina “Katyusha” Braginskaya, which has been used as a human name for her in various fanworks.Yekaterina is the russian equivalent of the name Katherine, and is the name of a notable Tsaritsa, Catherine the Great ( ). Carrot And Stick (featured) Ukraine in Gakuen uniform.

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September 13, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Ukraine  Comments Closed

Amazon.com: Ukraine: A History (9781442609914): Orest …

‘An excellent history of Ukrainians.’ (Paul Robert Magocsi, Journal of Ukrainian Studies) ‘Orest Subtelny’s Ukraine: A History is the standard work on the subject … Enormously readable and eminently “useable” in many educational contexts, [it] is required reading for anyone interested in the emergence of a Ukrainian territory, identity, and state.’ (Myroslav Shkandrij, Canadian Book Review Annual) ‘Highly recommended for its lucidity, meticulous attention to detail, and scholarly precision, Ukraine: A History is a “must” for anyone who wants to learn about this fascinating land and its people.’ (Midwest Book Review) ‘The best history of Ukraine in English.’ (World Affairs Report)

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September 11, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: Ukraine  Comments Closed

Ukraine Travel guide at Wikivoyage

Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) is a large country in Eastern Europe. It lies at the northwest end of the Black Sea, with Russia to the east, Belarus to the north, Poland to the northwest, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, and Romania to the south west and south, with Moldova in between. Most parts of the country are still as safe as before the war, as the fighting zone is contained and also very far from Kiev and most parts of the country, where life goes on as normal. While the international community recognizes Crimea as part of Ukraine, it is under the de facto control of Russia, and travellers can only realistically reach it from Russia. Accordingly, we cover it as part of Southern Russia. This is not a political endorsement of claims by either side in the dispute. Below is a selection of nine of Ukraine’s most notable cities. Other cities can be found under their specific regions. See also UNESCO World Heritage List, Ukraine section Most of Ukraine (the central and eastern portions) was formerly a part of the Russian Empire; after the October Revolution and the Civil War, the entire country, known as the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, was a part of the Soviet Union. Ukraine is the second-largest country in Europe, albeit with one of the most rapidly declining populations of any large country due to high emigration, low immigration, early deaths (particularly amongst males) and a shrinking birthrate that was already below replacement levels. Ukrainian history is long and proud, with the inception of Kyivan Rus (possibly founded by Swedish Vikings) as the most powerful state in Medieval Europe. While this state fell prey to Mongol conquest, the western part of Ukraine became part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from the 14th until the 18th century, even modern Ukraine owes it a debt of sorts. A subsequent Ukrainian state was able, in the face of pressure from the ascendant Muscovy, to remain autonomous for more than a century, but the Russian Empire absorbed much of Ukraine in the 18th century to the detriment of their culture and identity. Despite a brief, but uncertain, flash of independence at the end of the czarist regime, Ukraine was incorporated into the new USSR after the Russian Civil War in 1922 and subject to two disastrous famines (1932-33 and 1946) as well as brutal fighting during World War II. As a Soviet republic, the Ukrainian language was often ‘sidelined’ when compared to Russian to varying degrees; Stalinist repressions during the 1930s, attempts at decentralisation during the Khrushchev administration and the re-tightening of control during the Brezhnev-Kosygin era of the 1970s and early 1980s. In any case, the traditionally bilingual province had signs in both Russian and Ukrainian in virtually all cities, including Lviv, where Ukrainian is most prevalent. The 1986 Chernobyl accident was a further catastrophe for the republic but also widely considered as an event which, in the long run, galvanized the population’s regional sentiment and led to increasing pressure on the central Soviet government to promote autonomy. Ukraine declared its sovereignty within the Soviet Union in July 1990 as a prelude to unfolding events in the year to come. The Verkhovna Rada (Ukraine’s Parliament) again declared its independence in early December 1991 following the results of a referendum in November 1991 which indicated overwhelming popular support (90% in favour of independence). This declaration became a concrete reality as the Soviet Union formally ceased to exist on 25 December 1991. Initially, severe economic difficulties, hyperinflation, and oligarchic rule prevailed in the early years following independence. The issues of cronyism, corruption and alleged voting irregularities came to a head during the heavily-disputed 2004 Presidential election, where allegations of vote-rigging sparked what became known as the “Orange Revolution”. This revolution resulted in the subsequent election of opposition candidate Viktor Yushchenko as President. During the ongoing five years the “Orange coalition” broke up and Viktor Yushchenko lost the support of majority of Ukrainians. Ironically, his former adversary Viktor Yanukovich was elected President; ultimately the pro-Russian Yanukovich was ousted in early 2014 after months of popular protest against his failure to complete a key trade agreement with the European Union, but his departure comes at a time when the nation’s treasury is empty and the government in disarray. For the most up-to-date information please visit Visa Requirements For Foreigners page of the MFA government website. Select your country to get more information. More up-to-date country-specific information and requirements may be available at Ukraine’s Embassy website. You may find a list of embassies of Ukraine here, on official government MFA website: press ‘Find an Embassy’ and select your region and then country or visit MFA website, Visa requirements page. Citizens of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova, and Uzbekistan can visit and stay in Ukraine indefinitely visa free. However, citizens of Moldova and Uzbekistan must hold proof of sufficient funds on arrival. Citizens of all European Union member states, Albania, Andorra, Belarus, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Iceland, Israel, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Russia, San Marino, St. Kitts and Nevis, South Korea, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Turkey, the United States/American Samoa and Vatican City can visit visa free for up to 90 days within a 180 day period. However, citizens of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan must also have proof of sufficient funds when arriving in Ukraine. For citizens of Mongolia, the visa free only applies to service, tourist and private trips on conditions that documents certifying the purpose of the trip are provided. Citizens of Argentina can visit visa free for up to 90 days within a 365 day period. Citizens of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brunei and Serbia can visit visa free for up to 30 days within a 60-day period. Citizens of Hong Kong can visit visa free for up to 14 days. Those holding a diplomatic or official/service passports of Albania, Cambodia, Chile, China, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Iran, Kuwait, Laos, Morocco, North Korea, Peru, Qatar, Singapore, Thailand, Turkmenistan, Uruguay, Venezuela and Vietnam and only diplomatic passports of India and Mexico do not require a visa for Ukraine. For the most up-to-date details, visit MFA website, Visa On Arrival page More up-to-date country-specific information and requirements may be available at Ukraine’s Embassy website. You may find a list of embassies of Ukraine here, on official government MFA website: press ‘Find an Embassy’ and select your region and then country or visit MFA website, Visa requirements page. Citizens of Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, the Bahamas, Bahrain, Barbados, China (PRC), Dominica, East Timor, El Salvador, Guatemala, Grenada, Guatemala, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Kuwait, Macau, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Micronesia, New Zealand, Oman, Palau, Peru, Qatar, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Singapore, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, the United Arab Emirates and Vanuatu can visit Ukraine for up to 15 days, provided that the citizens of the countries obtain a visa at the Kyiv Boryspil Airport, Kyiv Zhuliany Airport or Odesa Airport (as of August 2017). Those obtaining a visa on arrival need to provide one of the following documents: Please note, the Visa Office at the airport is only open between 9:00am and 7:30pm. Arrivals outside of these hours must first wait for the office to open before a visa will be issued and then proceed to Passport Control. It is also important to note that at times, the Visa on Arrival office may suffer from a lack of manpower (for example, a single officer to deal with a plane of passengers manually doing data entry for all fields of the application form as well as single handedly doing all necessary checks and controls). This can lead to delays in exiting the airport of 2-4 hours, which is especially crucial to note for transit visa applicants hoping to do a day trip into Kyiv. If you have limited time, then you may consider an ordinary visa application at your embassy. Payment for Visa on Arrival can be done by credit card. For other countries, visas are obtainable within a few hours of visiting a Ukrainian consulate/embassy. ‘Letter of invitation’ from friend, family member, perspective lodging or business provider may be required. For the most up-to-date details, visit MFA website, Visa requirements page and select your country from the list. Information below may be not up-to-date. More up-to-date country-specific information and requirements may be available at Ukraine’s Embassy website. You may find a list of embassies of Ukraine here, on official government MFA website: press ‘Find an Embassy’ and select your region and then country or visit MFA website, Visa requirements page. Always know how much currency you have with you. Customs officials might inquire about the amount being brought into the country. It is prohibited to bring large amounts of Ukrainian currency (hryvnia) in to the country unless it was declared upon leaving Ukraine. Cash equvivalent of EUR 10,000 or more must be declared upo entry or leaving Ukraine. When entering the country you will no longer normally be required to complete an immigration form. However, if your passport has no space for stamps, or you don’t want it to be stamped, you can still fill out an immigration form at home and have it stamped instead of the passport. Citizens of Australia, Albania, Guatemala, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand and Singapore do not require a invitation letter to visit Ukraine. After the annexation of Crimea by Russia in March 2014, Russian immigration and custom agencies started operating in the peninsula’s ports of entries. It was announced by the Russian authorities on April 1, 2014, that foreign citizens would need regular Russian entry visas to visit Crimea. However, Crimea’s authorities plan to petition Russia’s federal government for introducing a simplified visa regime for certain categories of short-term visitors, different from that applied in mainland Russia. Since Ukraine does not recognize Russian’s annexation of the peninsula, an entry to Crimea not from mainland Ukraine is considered by the Ukrainian authorities as an “illegal entry to the territory of Ukraine”. If the fact of such a visit is discovered by the Ukrainian border authorities when a foreign national later tries to enter the mainland Ukraine, the foreign citizen will be subject to an “administrative punishment” (a fine, or possibly denial of entry to Ukraine). The cheapest way to fly into Ukraine is through the Boryspil International Airport near Kiev. The main international hubs for these flights are Budapest, Frankfurt, Milan, Munich, Prague, London, Rome, Vienna and Warsaw with several flights a day of Austrian AUA, CSA Czech Airlines, LOT, Lufthansa, Alitalia, Air France, British Airways, KLM and Ukraine International, which code-shares on these routes with the respective carriers. Special offers on flights come and go, depending on the whim of the carrier. Low-cost airline Wizzair started operations from other countries and within Ukraine as well. The only other low cost carrier serving Ukraine is AirBaltic, with flights routing through either Riga, Latvia, or Vilnius, Lithuania. Be advised that if you have a lot of baggage, Wizzair offers 30kg against the others 20kg allowances. There are several airlines which offer direct flights to cities like Dnipropetrovsk (Lufthansa), Odessa (LOT, Austrian, CSA Czech Airlines), Kharkiv and Lviv (LOT, Austrian Airlines), but they are more expensive. To fly inside Ukraine, the most common airline is Ukraine International Airlines. It is the unofficial national airline, and its routes cover all of Ukraine’s major destinations. Planes used are newer Boeing 737 aircraft. There are daily direct overnight trains from Prague, Warsaw, Belgrade, Budapest, Bucharest and Vienna and Sofia to Lviv or Kiev. When coming from Western Europe there will be a 2-3 hour wait at the border while the train’s bogies are changed in order to adapt to a different rail gauge. It’s generally quicker and cheaper to buy a ticket to the border and then change trains, rather than to wait for a through train. From Kiev there are good international connections with central Europe and Russia. Departures from Belgrade (36h), Budapest (24h), Chiinu (15h), Minsk (12h), Prague (35h), Sofia (37h) via Bucharest (26h) and Warsaw (16h) are nightly. From Moscow there are a multitude of trains with the fastest one being Metropolitan Express taking just 8 hours. Saint Petersburg is also well served with an overnight train taking 23 hours. There is also a connection from Venice (45h) via Ljubljana (41h) once a week, departing Thursdays. More exotic cities with infrequent departures from Kiev include Astana (73h, Thu), Baku (64h, Wed) and Murmansk (61h, seasonal). And if you are looking for a real journey, hop on train 133E linking Kiev with Vladivostok. It’s one of the longest journeys possible by train, taking eight nights! Information about trains can be found on the website of the Ukrainian rail-roads in English and Ukrainian. The website is still ‘beta’ and has some issues, particularly with booking online. There are inexpensive direct bus services to Lviv and Ivano-Frankivsk from Poland.They usually offer a budget level of comfort and cost about UAH 90-100. There are ferries to Ukraine several times a week from Batumi and Poti in Georgia (48 hours), and from Istanbul Haydarpasa (27 hours). For schedules, prices and tickets see www.ukrferry.com. These ferries land in Ukraine at Chornomorske (formerly called Illichivs’k) 20 km SW of Odessa – see that page for onward transport options. They run all year and take vehicles. This network of ferries serves other Black Sea ports such as Samsun, Varna & Constanta, but usually without direct sailing to Odessa. The nearest significant town on the Polish side is Przemyl, and it’s easy to find by following route #4 (which passes through Przemyl), also known as the E40 in European terms. When you arrive, the road is fairly narrow (no motorway/autobahn this) with a queue of trucks and vans parked to the right of the road; a hard-core parking area with cafe/bar to the left. Don’t stop behind the goods vehicles, slip up the side of them and then feed into the customs area when the guy flags you forward (for courteous Europeans, you’re not jumping the queue – commercial traffic goes through a different process). If you’re in an EU registered car then make for the EU-passports, passport control section. Thence to Ukrainian passport control and then Ukrainian customs and then you’re through. It used to be a nightmare, with apocalyptic tales of 5-6+ hours at the border, but the Ukrainians have made great advances in efficiency and it takes about an hour to make the crossing (2012). Don’t expect the border police to treat you in a friendly or even respectful manner, in fact, expect anything ranging from neutral to extremely obnoxious behaviour. Once through, just follow the main road towards Lviv on the E40 – this is the route right across Ukraine to Kiev (and thence on to the east). Stick to this – the main towns on the way are Lviv, Rivne, Zhytomyr. Watch out about 15-20km inside Ukraine, in Mostyska, as police have gone crazy about traffic calming measures here (speed bumps or “sleeping policemen”). They are like icebergs across the road, and very badly marked. There are about four or five sets of them through the village. Other than that, take care on the road, which although the main east/west highway, and the main road route into the EU, still remains in a miserable condition (surface-wise). You will soon realise why Ukraine has such poor statistics in relation to driver and pedestrian fatalities and injuries. Drive defensively! You can walk across the 200m long bridge from Sighetu Marmaiei, Romania. Once you get to Solotvino, Ukraine, you can continue your travel in a car or a train. Bicycling is also a possibility in summer. When you have crossed the wonderful old bridge go uphill, at the church turn right. After some 50 metres there is an ATM right-hand! That’s important because train tickets can be bought only in hryvnya and there is neither an exchange point nor an ATM nor the possibility to pay by credit card on the train station! Go ahead and before the rail-road crossing turn left.There is one train a day to Lviv (in the late afternoon). It stops in every village and takes about 13 hours to get to the final destination, the ticket is about 10. You cannot cross the border at Krocienko (Poland) by foot or by bicycle. You must be in a vehicle. Coming from Poland by bicycle in August 2011 a cyclist only has to wait about 5 minutes to flag down a driver who was willing (and had space) to take him, a bicycle, and a full cycle touring kit. The actually crossing then took about an hour or so. There was no charge by the driver or the immigration officials. Update July 2017: crossing with a bicycle was not a problem at all, there is even a signposted cycling route (R63) between Poland and Ukraine. You might also be able to skip the car queue and go straight to the checkpoint. Be aware that all foreigners are subject to higher scrutiny by police when travelling on public transportation, especially intercity forms of it. Be prepared to show your passport and entry papers and keep your embassy/consulate number handy in case you come across a corrupt official. If you are caught outside your base city without your official documents, be prepared for a big fine. The quickest way to get around big cities is the so-called marshrutka: the minibuses which follow routes much like the regular buses do. You can generally flag them down or ask them to stop at places other than the specified bus stops. The fare is paid as soon as you get in, and is fixed no matter how far you want to go. This is the same for the conventional buses, tram, trolley-buses and the Metro. Tell the driver that you want to get off when you are approaching the destination. Each city has an intercity bus station from which you can go pretty much anywhere in Ukraine. Fares and quality of service vary widely. UIA offers cheap flights that can be booked on-line and can be a time-saving alternative. For example, the flight Odessa-Kiev (one way) is USD180 (including tax and fees) and takes 1.5 hours. However, be sure to book early for the cheapest fares. Trains are operated by state-owned Ukrainian Railways. Train classes, coaches and ticket system are very similar to Russia and other CIS countries, see Russian train article. Ukrainian trains are quite old and slow by West European standards, and not very frequent, but they are punctual, reliable and very cheap. For example Kiev to Odessa only has 3 direct services per day, 7 hours & 550 uah by the fastest “Inter-city”, 9-10 hours & 400 uah by the slower “express”. So for a 300-mile journey with some half a dozen stops, the trains are averaging 30-40 mph on straight level terrain – the Bullet Train it’s not. Generally, in Ukraine, for long distance the train is preferred over the bus because of their comfort and because often they are even cheaper. The “Lux” sleeping cars have a two-berth cabin. Second class are cabins with four berths. Third class have six berths through which the aisle passes. Advance online booking is highly recommended, firstly because some trains are popular and will sell out, secondly because it avoids having to negotiate your journey at a frenetic foreign railway station. For timetables, prices and bookings visit Ukraine Railways or Ukrainian Railways e-shop (these websites are in English, Russian and Ukrainian). Tickets with a little QR code icon should be printed off at home and are good to go. Other e-tickets are just a voucher which must be exchanged in advance for a ticket, at any mainline station in Ukraine. (So don’t buy such a ticket for a journey that starts outside Ukraine.) Do this preferably an hour before departure, because close to departure of a long-distance express, the ticket area will become a frantic maul. Large train stations may have dedicated counters for e-vouchers; eg Kiev does, while in Odessa any window will do. Either way, before queuing look out for the “technical break” times posted on each window. If you have to buy on the day, write your destination and train number on a piece of paper; desk clerks have little English or German. Large stations have big screens that show tickets available for the upcoming trains. There are two major bus companies that run buses from all of the major cities to and from Kiev: they are Avtolux, and Gunsel. Prices run about UAH100-120 for service to Dnipro and Kharkiv. The major advantage of the bus service is that it leaves from Boryspil and stops in Kiev, so if your destination is not Kiev, its easier than taking a bus to the Main Passenger Railway Station in Kiev. The buses are standard coach buses, serve cold drinks and tea, show movies, and make a stop about every 3-4 hours. They run every few hours. Avtolux has a VIP bus to and from Odessa that has nice leather seats and is more less non-stop. It departs once a day, takes four hours or so both to and from Kiev and costs about UAH160-170. In addition, just as in Russia, there are private minibuses called Marshrutka. These run on fixed routes and may be licensed as either buses or taxis. You can board one at the start of the route or at fixed stops. Some of them will also stop at any point between designated stops, but this largely depends on the region and even on the driver’s mood. Officially, they are not supposed to drop passengers outside designated bus stops, but in reality they do it quite often. At the start of the route and at fixed routes, you may find a queue you will have to stand in. At other places, just wave your hand when you see one. if there are seats available, the minibus will stop for you. To get off, tell the driver when you reach your destination and he will stop. You need to pay the amount of your fare to the driver. You don’t get a ticket, unless you ask for it. Often it’s not easy to figure out which Marshrutka will take you to your destination, as in any city there are literally hundreds of different routes. Taxi is probably the most safe way to get around the city. You want to ask your hotel or restaurant to call you a taxi. Ukraine is largely a referral based economy, and this is how you get quality, safety and good service. Taxis are always busy. Locals will tell you to call in advance. Trying to hail a cab won’t be productive at best and get you in deep trouble at worst. It might seem unreasonable to hire a taxi to take you 100km to the next city. If you use your hotels referral, you will get a decent rate. It might be twice as expensive as train, but convenient, less time consuming, and secure. Keep in mind, you need a taxi to take you to the bus or train station. Americans will find the buses for long distance travel crowded and uncomfortable. It is possible to get around in Ukraine by car, but one must be aware of certain particulars: The signs are all in Ukrainian (Cyrillic alphabet). Only a few signs (every 200km or so) are written in the Latin alphabet, and indicate main cities. It is recommended you have a good road map (those available are mainly in Ukrainian, but Latin alphabet maps are starting to appear), because place names aren’t well posted on road signs. You are strongly advised to respect the signs, especially speed limits. Be aware that unlike in Western countries, where limits are repeated several times, in Ukraine, an obligation or a prohibition is often indicated on a single sign, which you must not miss. And even these signs are often far off the road, covered by branches, etc. The police are always there to remind you. Speed in cities is limited to 60km/h (40mph). However people do drive fast anyway. Speed in “nationals” (single carriageway countryside roads) is limited to 90km/h (55mph). The poor average quality of the roads already acts as a speed checker. Speed on highways (motorways) is limited to 110-120km/h (75mph). Be aware that corruption is widespread among Ukrainian police, and tourists are an especially profitable target. When you are stopped for speeding or other offences, officers might aggressively try and extract ridiculous sums of money from you (100 and up), offering “reductions” if you pay on the spot (the proposed alternative being some unpleasant and more expensive way, all made up). If you’re asked anything beyond that, demand a written ticket for you to pay later instead. Don’t let them intimidate you. It’s very useful to have an embassy phone number handy for these cases. If you mention that, they’ll let you off the hook quicker than you know it. At any rate, write down the officers’ badge numbers, rank, plate number of the police car, and notify the nearest embassy/consulate in detail, to help fight these corrupt practices. Fuel is no longer a problem in Ukraine, especially for those who remember travelling to Ukraine during the early 1990s, when petrol was considered precious. Today, there are plenty service stations. There are varying types of fuel, such as diesel, unleaded 95 octane, and (more rarely) unleaded 98 octane; one finds also 80 and 76 octane. Note that if you choose to fill-up in a rural filling station, you will need to pay first, and in cash. Even there many stations do accept credit cards, however. The state of the roads is a huge subject: The main roads are OK for all cars, as long as you don’t go too fast. Numerous running repairs have created a patchwork road surface, and it will seriously test your suspension – even on the major dual carriageways. Secondary roads are passable, but beware: certain zones can be full of potholes and you must treat them with extra care, or avoid them entirely. Roads between villages are often little more than dirt tracks and not metalled. Road works have been ongoing, but the quality of the roads is shy of Western Europe (with the exception of Kiev). Be careful when driving in towns or villages. Sometimes animals prefer to walk on the road, and they are a hazard for all drivers. You’re likely to see plenty of animals hit by cars, so be prepared… Bicycle traffic is not very common, but you will sometimes see an aged man transporting a sack of grass on an old road-bike or a cycling enthusiast in bright clothes riding a semi-professional racing bike. Those are even more likely to be met on well-maintained roads where the pavement is smooth. Also cyclists will use both lanes of the road in both directions equally i.e. you are just as likely to meet a cyclist coming towards you, riding on the verge, as you will travelling in your direction. And almost invariably without lights or bright clothing so be extra careful when driving at night and dawn/dusk. Also, don’t be surprised to see plenty of horse drawn carts – even on the dual carriageways. Hitchhiking in Ukraine is average. It’s possible to go by hitchhiking – usually cargo trucks will take you for free – but it’s still worth to try stop personal cars as well. Good people are everywhere; you may be picked up in a Lada or a Lexus. (More usually the former.) The usual hitchhiking gesture (also used to hail taxis and marshrutkas) is to face oncoming traffic and point at the road with a straight right arm held away from the body. Sometimes, for visibility, you may add a downward waving motion of the open right hand. It’s a good idea to write on a piece of paper your destination’s name. Ukrainian is the official language. Near the neighbouring countries, Russian, Romanian, Polish, and Hungarian are spoken. Russian is a close relative of Ukrainian and is most often the language of choice in the south and east of Ukraine. It is safe to assume that virtually any Ukrainian will understand Russian; however, in the western parts people may be reluctant to help you if you speak Russian, though to foreigners, Ukrainians will be more forgiving than to Russians. Especially in Lviv, you will have the hardest time because they not only mostly speak Ukrainian but they have a special dialect of their own. On the other hand, in the eastern parts, Russian is the most commonly spoken language. In the central and eastern parts of the country, you may also find people speaking transitional dialects (generically referred to as the surzhyk, i.e. the “mix [of languages]”). It is also common for people to talk to others in their native language, irrespective of the interlocutors one, so a visitor speaking Russian may be responded to in Ukrainian and vice versa. Kiev, the capital, speaks both languages, but Russian is more commonly used. So Ukrainian is more frequently met in Central and Western Ukraine, Russian in Eastern and Southern Ukraine. Young people are more likely to speak a little English, as it is the most widely taught foreign language in school. Most people in the tourism industry (hostels etc.) do speak English. Also, thanks to Ukraine hosting the Euro 2012, there was a lot of improvement in tourist facilities and police learning English to better assist the people there for the games. In general, Ukrainian is gaining more ground as time goes on. Certain regions may have special rules and can have schooling in Russian like in Luhansk. Russian is in general still the lingua franca but the newer generation of people are encouraging their children to speak Ukrainian in the home. The biggest wall to Ukrainization is that there is a resistance in the East and South from people who would even like Russian to be an official language of the state. Moreover, a lot of media such as books, videos, and video games are only in Russian but there have been a few titles with the option of Ukrainian subtitles on DVDs and some authors write exclusively in Ukrainian, so it is making ground. Universities used to have a choice between Ukrainian or Russian but now most of the national universities except those in special areas or private schools are exclusively taught in Ukrainian. There are plenty of people, however, that believe Ukraine will always have both languages and don’t feel one threatens the other’s existence. Though everyone there is Ukrainian by citizenship, there are more than a million who are of Russian origin; for example Kharkiv itself sports 1 million ethnic Russians. It’s hard to say they are really ethnically different, but they did migrate during the Soviet Union and are proud of their roots as Russians and continue speaking Russian with their kids even though their kids are getting an education in Ukrainian. The whole language thing in Ukrainian is a touchy subject, so hopefully the information provided seems neutral. If you are travelling to Ukraine, learn either basic Ukrainian or basic Russian beforehand (know your phrasebook well) and/or have some means of access to a bilingual speakera mobile/cell number (almost everyone has a mobile phone) can be a godsend. Virtually nobody in any official position (train stations, police, bus drivers, information desks, etc.) will be able to speak any language other than Ukrainian and Russian. If you already know another Slavic language, you will, however, be able to communicate as the Slavic languages are closely related. It is a good idea to familiarize yourself with the Cyrillic alphabet to save you a lot of time and difficulty. Knowing the alphabet helps a lot, because certain words are close to English, like telefon (telephone), so if you can read the Cyrillic alphabet you’ll understand them. – A – B – V – G – D – Zh – Z – I – Y – K – L – M – N – O – P – R – S – T – U – F – Kh – Ts – Ch – Sh – Shch – ‘ – Yu – Ya – G – E – Ye – I – Yi E – Ye – Yo – ‘ – I – E Vast in size and diverse in culture and landscapes, Ukraine has a range of great attractions to offer. Largely unknown to the world, the country’s main draws include some great and quintessentially Slavic cities, impressive cultural heritage and of course top class natural areas. Head to the historic city of Lviv, listed as a Unesco World Heritage Site but still a bustling place and a true centre for learning and culture in the country. Its cobblestoned streets are packed with monuments going back to Medieval times, seemingly untouched by the destructive force of wars that have changed some of Ukraine’s other cities so thoroughly. Even the extensive Soviet planning that has shaped many other places on the far east side of Europe have left only a minimal mark on the colourful mix of building styles. Highlights include the Korniakt Palace (right on the market square) and several beautiful churches. For an even more sophisticated taste of culture, try the fine collection of the Lviv National Art Gallery. Then there’s the must-see’s of Kiev, a colourful place where the golden roofs of the Unesco World Heritage sites Saint-Sophia Cathedral and Pechersk Lavra make for some excellent highlights. Take an afternoon stroll through Andriyivsky Uzviz, the Montmartre of Kiev, where you’ll find a bustling mix of artist and souvenir sellers. Follow in the footsteps of Apostle Andrew, who – according to legend – climbed the steep stairs of this bohemian neighbourhood two thousand years ago, to the top where you’ll now find a church with his name. Don’t miss the excellent Pyrohovo Museum of Folk Architecture. Last but not least, Kiev is one of the best spots to visit Ukraine’s lively markets (but Odesa or Kharkiv have good ones too). Also, consider a trip to the Residence of Bukovinian and the Dalmatian Metropolitans in Chernivtsi. In terms of natural attractions, the lovely Carpathian Mountains are among the best destinations this otherwise remarkably flat country has to offer. They hold beautiful panoramas of forested hills, lush valleys and snowy peaks and offer ample opportunities for hiking and biking as well as for winter sports. The rather little explored Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve is another great pick for nature lovers and bird watchers. Base yourself in the charming town of Vylkovo, with its many canals, and go boating and bird-watching during the day. Exchange rates for Ukrainian hryvnia As of January 2018:

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Holidays and observances in Ukraine in 2018

Jan 1MondayNew Year’s DayNational holidayJan 7SundayOrthodox Christmas DayNational holiday, OrthodoxJan 8MondayChristmas holidayNational holiday, OrthodoxJan 14SundayOrthodox New YearObservance, OrthodoxJan 22MondayUkrainian Unity DayObservanceJan 25ThursdayTatiana DayObservanceFeb 14WednesdayValentine’s DayObservanceMar 3SaturdaySpecial Working DayObservanceMar 8ThursdayInternational Women’s DayNational holidayMar 9FridayInternational Women’s Day holidayNational holidayMar 20TuesdayMarch equinoxSeasonMar 25SundayDaylight Saving Time startsClock change/Daylight Saving TimeApr 1SundayApril FoolsObservanceApr 8SundayOrthodox Easter DayNational holiday, OrthodoxApr 9MondayOrthodox Easter Day holidayNational holiday, OrthodoxApr 30MondayLabor Day HolidayNational holidayMay 1TuesdayLabor DayNational holidayMay 5SaturdaySpecial Working DayObservanceMay 9WednesdayVictory Day / Memorial DayNational holidayMay 13SundayMother’s DayObservanceMay 19SaturdayEurope DayObservanceMay 27SundayOrthodox PentecostNational holiday, OrthodoxMay 27SundayCultural Workers and Folk Artists DayObservanceMay 27SundayKiev DayObservanceMay 28MondayOrthodox Pentecost holidayNational holiday, OrthodoxJun 21ThursdayJune SolsticeSeasonJun 23SaturdaySpecial Working DayObservanceJun 28ThursdayConstitution DayNational holidayJun 29FridayConstitution Day HolidayNational holidayJul 7SaturdayKupala NightObservanceJul 8SundayFamily DayObservanceJul 28SaturdayBaptism of Kyivan RusObservanceJul 29SundayNavy DayObservanceAug 24FridayIndependence DayNational holidaySep 23SundaySeptember equinoxSeasonOct 7SundayTeacher’s DayObservanceOct 14SundayDefenders’ DayNational holidayOct 15MondayDefenders’ Day observedNational holidayOct 28SundayDaylight Saving Time endsClock change/Daylight Saving TimeNov 21WednesdayDignity and Freedom DayObservanceDec 6ThursdayArmy DayObservanceDec 19WednesdaySt. Nicholas DayObservance, OrthodoxDec 21FridayDecember SolsticeSeasonDec 22SaturdaySpecial Working DayObservanceDec 24MondayCatholic Christmas holidayNational holidayDec 25TuesdayCatholic Christmas DayNational holidayDec 29SaturdaySpecial Working DayObservanceDec 31MondayNew Year’s Day holidayNational holiday

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