Archive for the ‘World War I’ Category

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World War IClockwise from top right: Melee combat on the Western Front, air combat above Italian Alps, British infantry inside a trench, a dreadnought firing its main guns, a cavalry charge on the Middle Eastern Front, view from a British plane over the Western FrontDate

July 28, 1914 November 11, 1918

Europe, the Pacific, the Atlantic, Southeast Asia, the Mediterranean and Africa

5,525,000

22,477,500 KIA, WIA or MIA

4,386,000

16,403,000 KIA, WIA or MIA

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War and the Great War) was a global conflict lasting from 1914 to 1918, involving most of the world’s nations including all of the great powers, eventually forming two opposing military alliances, the Allies and the Central Powers.

Prior to World War II, the First World War was seen as one of the most devastating conflicts in world history as over nine million combatants and seven million civilians died as a result of the war, due to the belligerents’technological and industrial sophistication, and the tactical stalemate caused by gruelingtrench warfare.As such, many people at the time dubbed the conflict as “the war to end all wars”. While warfare would continue, the aftermath of World War I paved the way for both political and military change.

During the 19th century, the major European powers went to great lengths to maintain a balance of power, which resulted in the existence of both political and military alliances.

The situation in Europe before the war was uneasy. Imperialism, militarism, and nationalism are at high points, and an arms race between the great empires of Europe drove militarization to never-before-seen heights. Unresolved territorial conflicts created international tension, and multiple regional conflicts saw the break down of diplomatic relationships. Just before the outbreak of the war, much of Europe had allied themselves into two power camps, the Triple Entente and the Triple Alliance.

A trigger for a war was the assassination of Austro-Hungarian Archduke Ferdinand in Sarajevo at 28 June 1914, by Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip. The assassination brought Austria-Hungary to declare war on Serbia, and the conflict quickly escalated into most of Europe’s Great Powers declaring war on each other. World War I became the war between the greatest empires in the world.

1915-1918

See also: Gotha Raids on London (Codex Entry)

As an act of all-out war, the German Air Force performed many bombing raids on London. The main goal was to spread chaos and terror among Brits. At the beginning, Germans were using Zeppelins, but in 1917 they started replacing airships with better and harder to hit Gotha G.IV bombers.

21 February – 18 December 1916

The Battle of Verdun was the longest and one of the deadliest battles ever fought on the Western Front. The German Army attacked the Fortified Region of Verdun in an attempt to rapidly capture Meuse Heights, from which they can then gain an advantage over the city of Verdun itself. Due to heavy French resistance, German advancement slowed down significantly a few days into the battle as both sides experienced heavy casualties. The battle ended with French victory, but the grueling fight had taken a toll on both sides, with several hundred thousands of casualties.

June 1st – June 8th 1916

See also: Fort De Vaux (Codex Entry)

As the German Army advanced on Verdun, Fort de Vaux posed a threat to their left flank. The fort was constantly bombed by Germany since the Battle of Verdun began and a final assault began on 1 June. After a valiant defense by the French troops, the battle ended with their surrender on 7 June as they had ran out of water. The fort would not be recaptured by French forces until November.

April 1917

See also: Bloody April (Codex Entry)

In April 1917, Franco-British forces launched the Nivelle Offensive, named after and led by French General Robert Nivelle, one part of which is the Battle of Arras. In the Battle of Arras, the Royal Flying Corps has been involved in an arms race with the Luftstreitkrafte, the German Air Force. The battle in the air was a disaster for the RFC, as the German air superiority was too hard to counter. Unfortunately, as the battle takes place, British air recon as well as artillery never stopped, ultimately marked the failure for the Germans on the ground.

2327 October 1917

See also: Battle of Malmaison (Codex Entry)

The main component of the April 1917 Nivelle Offensive was the Second Battle of the Aisne, a French assault on German positions on the strategically important ridge of Chemin des Dames. However, the offensive was a dismal failure, with incredibly high French losses while failing to achieve the objective. Months later, on the night of October 23, French forces focused an assault on Chemin des Dames, advancing with the help of tanks and a creeping artillery barrage. On October 27, French forces had captured the village and fort of La Malmaison and taken control of Chemin des Dames.

Autumn 1917

Later in 1917, the region of Butte-de-Tahure, Marne, controlled by the Germans, is being invaded by the French in order to gain back land. As the battle comes to life, the village of Tahure has been entrenched and bombarded by French artillery, completely devastating the village, and the French eventually taken the region at the cost of losing the village of Tahure, pushing the Germans back.

21 23 March 1918

The stalemate on the Western Front broke in 1918, when Germany began the Spring Offensive, also known as Kaiserschlacht (The Emperor’s Battle in German). As the start of the opening offensive Operation Michael, the German Army, led by Erich Ludendorff, launched a rapid attack near the commune of Saint Quentin. With a surprise attack, the German Army managed to break through the Allied lines, pushing towards the city of Amiens, an important Allied railway and communications center. However, the Allies had managed to halt the German forces just east of Amiens, and by April, the operation was terminated.

23 April 1918

In April 1918, the British Royal Navy aimed to cripple the Imperial German Navy by attacking the Bruges-Zeebrugge Port, however, U-boats stashed in concrete defenses made an aerial bombardment on the port ineffective. Therefore, on the midnight of 23 April, the ships of HMS Vindictive, Thetis, Intrepid, and Iphegenia , alongside submarines of British Navy boarded the mole, destroying the only connection between German reinforcements. However, the attack was a strategic failure, but was classified as a success for the British. Casualties in this battle were low, with 8 Germans killed, 16 Germans wounded, and an estimated 200 British deaths.

15 July 6 August 1918

The Second Battle of the Marne saw Germany’s last offensive in the Spring Offensive, Operation Marneschutz-Reims, and was also the site of a major Allied counteroffensive.

8 – 12 August 1918

During the Spring Offensive, Germany had advanced the lines to the east of Amiens. With the support of tanks, Imperial soldiers attempted to penetrate the line further and reach Amiens, but they were stopped by the Allied forces. In August, after the success of the Battle of Soissons, the Allies performed a successful offensive on German forces in the region, and this victory was the beginning of a major Allied offensive known as the Hundred Days Offensive.

26 September – 11 November 1918

The Meuse-Argonne offensive was part of the Hundred Days Offensive, performed by American and French forces.

8 10 October 1918

In 1918, during the Hundred Days Offensive, the Entente forces began another armored offensive with over 320 tanks on the city of Cambrai. After the controversial First Battle of Cambrai in 1917 (also the first and the greatest tank battle in World War I), the tank tactics had developed significantly. Combined with exhausted German defenders, the battle was an overwhelming success for the Entente forces.

17 25 October 1918

Another Allied attack in the Hundred Days Offensive, the battle involved the Allies assaulting the retreating German forces near Le Cateau after the Second Battle of Cambrai, who had taken positions near the Selle river. The battle saw major combat over the Le Cateau-Wassigny Railway and ended with Allied victory.

Winter of 1914/1915

On the dawn of 1915, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, now at war with Russia, aims to capture the areas of Galicia to push the Russians back. An encounter on Lupkow Pass brought forth a bitterly contested area that would continue for the remainder of the war.

4 June – 20 September 1916

Aiming to push the Hapsburg forces of the Austro-Hungarian Empire back and regain the land from them, General Aleksei Brusilov spearheaded a tactical offensive on the 4th of June 1916.

September – October 1917

The German Empire launched an amphibious operation to occupy the West Estonian Islands, which was part of the Russian Republic as an autonomous governorate of Estonia. Initially, advances failed twice and eventually landed on 19 September at the Hiiumaa and captured the island. This operation was successful for the Germans and captured prisoners and guns. In this offensive, the Zeppelin was utilized alongside the Dreadnought.

24 October – 19 November 1917

The Isonzo River has been widely contested since 1915, with a total of elevenengagements between the Italian Army and the Austro-Hungarian forces. However, on the battle of Caporetto on 24 October, which marks the twelfth battle, the Austro-Hungarian Empire deployed poison gas, similar to the British Livens projectors,on the Italian trenches, prompting the Italians to flee, but killed approximately 500-600 soldiers. With the use of specialized tactics, alongside the help of the German forces, the handicapped Italian Army was massively defeated in the twelfth engagement.

24 October 3 November 1918

Since 1915, the Italian Front existed as a series of battles between the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Kingdom of Italy. The Battle of Vittorio Veneto, which occurred on the anniversary of Italy’sdefeat in the Twelfth Battle of the Isonzo River. This is the final offensive on the Italian Front and concluded the Italian Front with decisive Italian victory.

The main reason of conflict between British and Ottoman Empires was domination over the Suez Canal and Middle Eastern oilfields, which were the most important strategic objects in the region, allowing their armies to transport troops and extract oil, which was essential for modern armies.

6-8 September 1914

It was the first battle in the Middle East. British and Indian troops landed in Al-Faw Cape to take control over Fao Fortress. With the support of dreadnoughts and artillery, British troops captured the fort and took 300 prisoners.

26 January – 4 February 1915

At the beginning of 1915, the German-led Ottoman Army performed an attack on the Suez Canal. Ottoman soldiers crossed the Sinai Peninsula and started the raid, but their invasion failed, due to strongly held defenses.

25 April 1915 – 9 January 1916

British plan was to perform a massive invasion on the Ottoman Empire. Firstly, Britain had to capture Gallipoli peninsula and go to Constantinople. Gallipoli battle was the greatest landing operation of World War I. The naval attack never repelled. Due to heavy casualties on both sides, the conflict was withdrawn to Egypt. The Battle of Gallipoli was the first moment when Australians and New Zealanders fought under their own flag, which brought Australia their freedom from the British Empire.

28 January 1915 – 30 October 1918

After an unsuccessful raid on Suez Canal, Ottoman forces were pushed into Sinai Desert. Many battles occurred, such as battles of Gaza, Romani and Maghdaba. In 1918, the British Empire finally beat the Ottoman Empire and won the Middle-Eastern front.

June 1916 October 1918

In 1915, an Arab-nationalist movement began within the Ottoman Empire. Sharif Hussein bin Ali, Emir of Mecca, had negotiated with the British Empire to lead an uprising and secure an independent Arab state. In June 1916, Hussein declared himself the King of the Kingdom of Hejaz and began a rebellion against the Ottoman Empire. T. E. Lawrence, better known as the Lawrence of Arabia, was sent to Hejaz as a British liaison and to lead the revolt, showing strong skills as a strategist and securing multiple victories.

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World War I Fast Facts – CNN

The Central Powers consisted of Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany and the Ottoman Empire (now Turkey).

The United States declared neutrality until German submarine warfare threatened American commercial shipping.

Timeline:June 28, 1914 – Gavrilo Princip, who has ties to the Serbian terrorist-type group the Black Hand, assassinates Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary.

July 28, 1914 – Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia.

August 1, 1914 – Germany declares war on Russia.

August 4, 1914 – Germany invades Belgium. President Woodrow Wilson declares that the United States is neutral. Britain declares war on Germany.

August 10, 1914 – Austria-Hungary invades Russia, opening the fighting on the Eastern Front.

August 26-30, 1914 – Battle of Tannenberg, Prussia.

September 12, 1914 – First battle of the Aisne in France begins, marking the beginning of trench warfare.

November 3, 1914 – Russia declares war on the Ottoman Empire.

November 5, 1914 – Great Britain and France declare war on the Ottoman Empire.

April 22-May 25, 1915 – Second Battle of Ypres, marking the first wide-scale use of poison gas by Germany.

May 7, 1915 – A German U-20 submarine sinks the British passenger ship, the Lusitania; 1,198 are killed, including 128 Americans.

June 1915-November 1917 – Battles of the Isonzo, Italy.

1915 – Battle of Krithia, Gallipoli peninsula, Ottoman Empire.

February 21-July 1916 – Battle of Verdun, France, the war’s longest battle, with almost a million casualties.

May 31-June 1, 1916 – Battle of Jutland, North Sea near Denmark – a sea battle between British and German navies.

July 1, 1916-November 1916 – First Battle of the Somme River, France. The British introduce the tank.

June 26, 1917 – American troops begin landing in France.

November 20, 1917 – Battle of Cambrai, France.

December 3, 1917 – Russia signs an armistice with Germany.

March 3, 1918 – Russia signs the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, ending hostilities with the Central Powers and withdrawing Russia from this war.

March 21-April 5, 1918 – Second Battle of the Somme River.

September 29, 1918 – Bulgaria signs an armistice.

October 30, 1918 – Ottoman Empire signs an armistice.

November 3, 1918 – Austria-Hungary signs an armistice.

November 11, 1918 – Germany accepts the armistice terms demanded by the Allies, ending the war.

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World War I Centennial | National Archives

As the largest repository of American World War I records, the National Archives invites you to browse the wealth of records and information documenting the U.S. experience in this conflict, including photographs, documents, audiovisual recordings, educational resources, articles, blog posts, lectures, and events.

April 6, 2017, marks the 100th anniversary of Americas entrance into the Great War. After remaining neutral for three years, the United States reluctantly entered what was supposed to be “The War to End All Wars.” By declaring war, President Woodrow Wilson committed the nation to join the other Allied countries in their efforts to defeat the German-led Central Powers.

Explore more records, information, articles and resources at the National Archives organized by subject area.

Begin your research with these World War I overview guides and resources from the National Archives. The records highlighted here represent a small portion of the National Archives holdings, many of which have not yet been digitized. Contact the National Archives to plan a research visit.

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World War I Centennial | National Archives

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Amazon Best Sellers: Best World War I History

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The Fading Battlefields of World War I – The Atlantic

This year will mark the passing of a full century since the end of World War Ia hundred years since the War to End All Wars. In that time, much of the battle-ravaged landscape along the Western Front has been reclaimed by nature or returned to farmland, and the scars of the war are disappearing. Some zones remain toxic a century later, and others are still littered with unexploded ordnance, closed off to the public. But across France and Belgium, significant battlefields and ruins were preserved as monuments, and farm fields that became battlegrounds ended up as vast cemeteries. In these places, the visible physical damage to the landscape remains as evidence of the phenomenal violence and destruction that took so many lives so long ago.

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World War I – Forces and resources of the combatant …

When war broke out, the Allied powers possessed greater overall demographic, industrial, and military resources than the Central Powers and enjoyed easier access to the oceans for trade with neutral countries, particularly with the United States.

Table 1 shows the population, steel production, and armed strengths of the two rival coalitions in 1914.

All the initial belligerents in World War I were self-sufficient in food except Great Britain and Germany. Great Britains industrial establishment was slightly superior to Germanys (17 percent of world trade in 1913 as compared with 12 percent for Germany), but Germanys diversified chemical industry facilitated the production of ersatz, or substitute, materials, which compensated for the worst shortages ensuing from the British wartime blockade. The German chemist Fritz Haber was already developing a process for the fixation of nitrogen from air; this process made Germany self-sufficient in explosives and thus no longer dependent on imports of nitrates from Chile.

Of all the initial belligerent nations, only Great Britain had a volunteer army, and this was quite small at the start of the war. The other nations had much larger conscript armies that required three to four years of service from able-bodied males of military age, to be followed by several years in reserve formations. Military strength on land was counted in terms of divisions composed of 12,00020,000 officers and men. Two or more divisions made up an army corps, and two or more corps made up an army. An army could thus comprise anywhere from 50,000 to 250,000 men.

The land forces of the belligerent nations at the outbreak of war in August 1914 are shown in Table 2.

The higher state of discipline, training, leadership, and armament of the German army reduced the importance of the initial numerical inferiority of the armies of the Central Powers. Because of the comparative slowness of mobilization, poor higher leadership, and lower scale of armament of the Russian armies, there was an approximate balance of forces between the Central Powers and the Allies in August 1914 that prevented either side from gaining a quick victory.

Germany and Austria also enjoyed the advantage of interior lines of communication, which enabled them to send their forces to critical points on the battlefronts by the shortest route. According to one estimate, Germanys railway network made it possible to move eight divisions simultaneously from the Western Front to the Eastern Front in four and a half days.

Even greater in importance was the advantage that Germany derived from its strong military traditions and its cadre of highly efficient and disciplined regular officers. Skilled in directing a war of movement and quick to exploit the advantages of flank attacks, German senior officers were to prove generally more capable than their Allied counterparts at directing the operations of large troop formations.

Sea power was largely reckoned in terms of capital ships, or dreadnought battleships and battle cruisers having extremely large guns. Despite intensive competition from the Germans, the British had maintained their superiority in numbers, with the result that, in capital ships, the Allies had an almost two-to-one advantage over the Central Powers.

The strength of the two principal rivals at sea, Great Britain and Germany, is compared in Table 3.

The numerical superiority of the British navy, however, was offset by the technological lead of the German navy in many categories, such as range-finding equipment, magazine protection, searchlights, torpedoes, and mines. Great Britain relied on the Royal Navy not only to ensure necessary imports of food and other supplies in wartime but also to sever the Central Powers access to the markets of the world. With superior numbers of warships, Great Britain could impose a blockade that gradually weakened Germany by preventing imports from overseas.

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Watch: Dem Rep Keith Ellison Sings Song in Wig Mocking Trump

Friday at “MinnRoast,” an annual song-and-skit political variety show, DNC deputy chairman Rep. Keith Ellison (D-MN) donned a blonde wig while playing guitar and singing a mocking parody version of “Guantanamera,” about President Donald Trump. The lyrics included references to adult film actress Stormy Daniels, special counsel Robert Mueller and the Charlottesville rally violence. Ellison sang, “I’m a nice honest man. I just want straight shooting. If I want to be called a stable genius, I just call my best friend, Vlad Putin.” (h/t WFB) Follow Pam Key on Twitter @pamkeyNEN

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Donald Trump Hails First Female CIA Director Gina Haspel: ‘She Will Never, Ever Back Down’

“Our enemies will take note: Gina is tough and strong, and when it comes to defending America, she will never, ever back down,” he said.

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Delingpole: One Year on – Britain’s Worst Terror Atrocity Has Been Airbrushed from History

Today marks the first anniversary of the worst atrocity committed on British soil in living memory: the murder of 22 innocents, most of them young girls, and the wounding or maiming of dozens more by a Muslim suicide bomber at a pop concert in Manchester.

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World War I | Battlefield Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia

World War IClockwise from top right: Melee combat on the Western Front, air combat above Italian Alps, British infantry inside a trench, a dreadnought firing its main guns, a cavalry charge on the Middle Eastern Front, view from a British plane over the Western FrontDate July 28, 1914 November 11, 1918 Europe, the Pacific, the Atlantic, Southeast Asia, the Mediterranean and Africa 5,525,000 22,477,500 KIA, WIA or MIA 4,386,000 16,403,000 KIA, WIA or MIA World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War and the Great War) was a global conflict lasting from 1914 to 1918, involving most of the world’s nations including all of the great powers, eventually forming two opposing military alliances, the Allies and the Central Powers. Prior to World War II, the First World War was seen as one of the most devastating conflicts in world history as over nine million combatants and seven million civilians died as a result of the war, due to the belligerents’technological and industrial sophistication, and the tactical stalemate caused by gruelingtrench warfare.As such, many people at the time dubbed the conflict as “the war to end all wars”. While warfare would continue, the aftermath of World War I paved the way for both political and military change. During the 19th century, the major European powers went to great lengths to maintain a balance of power, which resulted in the existence of both political and military alliances. The situation in Europe before the war was uneasy. Imperialism, militarism, and nationalism are at high points, and an arms race between the great empires of Europe drove militarization to never-before-seen heights. Unresolved territorial conflicts created international tension, and multiple regional conflicts saw the break down of diplomatic relationships. Just before the outbreak of the war, much of Europe had allied themselves into two power camps, the Triple Entente and the Triple Alliance. A trigger for a war was the assassination of Austro-Hungarian Archduke Ferdinand in Sarajevo at 28 June 1914, by Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip. The assassination brought Austria-Hungary to declare war on Serbia, and the conflict quickly escalated into most of Europe’s Great Powers declaring war on each other. World War I became the war between the greatest empires in the world. 1915-1918 See also: Gotha Raids on London (Codex Entry) As an act of all-out war, the German Air Force performed many bombing raids on London. The main goal was to spread chaos and terror among Brits. At the beginning, Germans were using Zeppelins, but in 1917 they started replacing airships with better and harder to hit Gotha G.IV bombers. 21 February – 18 December 1916 The Battle of Verdun was the longest and one of the deadliest battles ever fought on the Western Front. The German Army attacked the Fortified Region of Verdun in an attempt to rapidly capture Meuse Heights, from which they can then gain an advantage over the city of Verdun itself. Due to heavy French resistance, German advancement slowed down significantly a few days into the battle as both sides experienced heavy casualties. The battle ended with French victory, but the grueling fight had taken a toll on both sides, with several hundred thousands of casualties. June 1st – June 8th 1916 See also: Fort De Vaux (Codex Entry) As the German Army advanced on Verdun, Fort de Vaux posed a threat to their left flank. The fort was constantly bombed by Germany since the Battle of Verdun began and a final assault began on 1 June. After a valiant defense by the French troops, the battle ended with their surrender on 7 June as they had ran out of water. The fort would not be recaptured by French forces until November. April 1917 See also: Bloody April (Codex Entry) In April 1917, Franco-British forces launched the Nivelle Offensive, named after and led by French General Robert Nivelle, one part of which is the Battle of Arras. In the Battle of Arras, the Royal Flying Corps has been involved in an arms race with the Luftstreitkrafte, the German Air Force. The battle in the air was a disaster for the RFC, as the German air superiority was too hard to counter. Unfortunately, as the battle takes place, British air recon as well as artillery never stopped, ultimately marked the failure for the Germans on the ground. 2327 October 1917 See also: Battle of Malmaison (Codex Entry) The main component of the April 1917 Nivelle Offensive was the Second Battle of the Aisne, a French assault on German positions on the strategically important ridge of Chemin des Dames. However, the offensive was a dismal failure, with incredibly high French losses while failing to achieve the objective. Months later, on the night of October 23, French forces focused an assault on Chemin des Dames, advancing with the help of tanks and a creeping artillery barrage. On October 27, French forces had captured the village and fort of La Malmaison and taken control of Chemin des Dames. Autumn 1917 Later in 1917, the region of Butte-de-Tahure, Marne, controlled by the Germans, is being invaded by the French in order to gain back land. As the battle comes to life, the village of Tahure has been entrenched and bombarded by French artillery, completely devastating the village, and the French eventually taken the region at the cost of losing the village of Tahure, pushing the Germans back. 21 23 March 1918 The stalemate on the Western Front broke in 1918, when Germany began the Spring Offensive, also known as Kaiserschlacht (The Emperor’s Battle in German). As the start of the opening offensive Operation Michael, the German Army, led by Erich Ludendorff, launched a rapid attack near the commune of Saint Quentin. With a surprise attack, the German Army managed to break through the Allied lines, pushing towards the city of Amiens, an important Allied railway and communications center. However, the Allies had managed to halt the German forces just east of Amiens, and by April, the operation was terminated. 23 April 1918 In April 1918, the British Royal Navy aimed to cripple the Imperial German Navy by attacking the Bruges-Zeebrugge Port, however, U-boats stashed in concrete defenses made an aerial bombardment on the port ineffective. Therefore, on the midnight of 23 April, the ships of HMS Vindictive, Thetis, Intrepid, and Iphegenia , alongside submarines of British Navy boarded the mole, destroying the only connection between German reinforcements. However, the attack was a strategic failure, but was classified as a success for the British. Casualties in this battle were low, with 8 Germans killed, 16 Germans wounded, and an estimated 200 British deaths. 15 July 6 August 1918 The Second Battle of the Marne saw Germany’s last offensive in the Spring Offensive, Operation Marneschutz-Reims, and was also the site of a major Allied counteroffensive. 8 – 12 August 1918 During the Spring Offensive, Germany had advanced the lines to the east of Amiens. With the support of tanks, Imperial soldiers attempted to penetrate the line further and reach Amiens, but they were stopped by the Allied forces. In August, after the success of the Battle of Soissons, the Allies performed a successful offensive on German forces in the region, and this victory was the beginning of a major Allied offensive known as the Hundred Days Offensive. 26 September – 11 November 1918 The Meuse-Argonne offensive was part of the Hundred Days Offensive, performed by American and French forces. 8 10 October 1918 In 1918, during the Hundred Days Offensive, the Entente forces began another armored offensive with over 320 tanks on the city of Cambrai. After the controversial First Battle of Cambrai in 1917 (also the first and the greatest tank battle in World War I), the tank tactics had developed significantly. Combined with exhausted German defenders, the battle was an overwhelming success for the Entente forces. 17 25 October 1918 Another Allied attack in the Hundred Days Offensive, the battle involved the Allies assaulting the retreating German forces near Le Cateau after the Second Battle of Cambrai, who had taken positions near the Selle river. The battle saw major combat over the Le Cateau-Wassigny Railway and ended with Allied victory. Winter of 1914/1915 On the dawn of 1915, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, now at war with Russia, aims to capture the areas of Galicia to push the Russians back. An encounter on Lupkow Pass brought forth a bitterly contested area that would continue for the remainder of the war. 4 June – 20 September 1916 Aiming to push the Hapsburg forces of the Austro-Hungarian Empire back and regain the land from them, General Aleksei Brusilov spearheaded a tactical offensive on the 4th of June 1916. September – October 1917 The German Empire launched an amphibious operation to occupy the West Estonian Islands, which was part of the Russian Republic as an autonomous governorate of Estonia. Initially, advances failed twice and eventually landed on 19 September at the Hiiumaa and captured the island. This operation was successful for the Germans and captured prisoners and guns. In this offensive, the Zeppelin was utilized alongside the Dreadnought. 24 October – 19 November 1917 The Isonzo River has been widely contested since 1915, with a total of elevenengagements between the Italian Army and the Austro-Hungarian forces. However, on the battle of Caporetto on 24 October, which marks the twelfth battle, the Austro-Hungarian Empire deployed poison gas, similar to the British Livens projectors,on the Italian trenches, prompting the Italians to flee, but killed approximately 500-600 soldiers. With the use of specialized tactics, alongside the help of the German forces, the handicapped Italian Army was massively defeated in the twelfth engagement. 24 October 3 November 1918 Since 1915, the Italian Front existed as a series of battles between the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Kingdom of Italy. The Battle of Vittorio Veneto, which occurred on the anniversary of Italy’sdefeat in the Twelfth Battle of the Isonzo River. This is the final offensive on the Italian Front and concluded the Italian Front with decisive Italian victory. The main reason of conflict between British and Ottoman Empires was domination over the Suez Canal and Middle Eastern oilfields, which were the most important strategic objects in the region, allowing their armies to transport troops and extract oil, which was essential for modern armies. 6-8 September 1914 It was the first battle in the Middle East. British and Indian troops landed in Al-Faw Cape to take control over Fao Fortress. With the support of dreadnoughts and artillery, British troops captured the fort and took 300 prisoners. 26 January – 4 February 1915 At the beginning of 1915, the German-led Ottoman Army performed an attack on the Suez Canal. Ottoman soldiers crossed the Sinai Peninsula and started the raid, but their invasion failed, due to strongly held defenses. 25 April 1915 – 9 January 1916 British plan was to perform a massive invasion on the Ottoman Empire. Firstly, Britain had to capture Gallipoli peninsula and go to Constantinople. Gallipoli battle was the greatest landing operation of World War I. The naval attack never repelled. Due to heavy casualties on both sides, the conflict was withdrawn to Egypt. The Battle of Gallipoli was the first moment when Australians and New Zealanders fought under their own flag, which brought Australia their freedom from the British Empire. 28 January 1915 – 30 October 1918 After an unsuccessful raid on Suez Canal, Ottoman forces were pushed into Sinai Desert. Many battles occurred, such as battles of Gaza, Romani and Maghdaba. In 1918, the British Empire finally beat the Ottoman Empire and won the Middle-Eastern front. June 1916 October 1918 In 1915, an Arab-nationalist movement began within the Ottoman Empire. Sharif Hussein bin Ali, Emir of Mecca, had negotiated with the British Empire to lead an uprising and secure an independent Arab state. In June 1916, Hussein declared himself the King of the Kingdom of Hejaz and began a rebellion against the Ottoman Empire. T. E. Lawrence, better known as the Lawrence of Arabia, was sent to Hejaz as a British liaison and to lead the revolt, showing strong skills as a strategist and securing multiple victories.

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August 23, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: World War I  Comments Closed

World War I Fast Facts – CNN

The Central Powers consisted of Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany and the Ottoman Empire (now Turkey). The United States declared neutrality until German submarine warfare threatened American commercial shipping. Timeline:June 28, 1914 – Gavrilo Princip, who has ties to the Serbian terrorist-type group the Black Hand, assassinates Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary. July 28, 1914 – Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia. August 1, 1914 – Germany declares war on Russia. August 4, 1914 – Germany invades Belgium. President Woodrow Wilson declares that the United States is neutral. Britain declares war on Germany. August 10, 1914 – Austria-Hungary invades Russia, opening the fighting on the Eastern Front. August 26-30, 1914 – Battle of Tannenberg, Prussia. September 12, 1914 – First battle of the Aisne in France begins, marking the beginning of trench warfare. November 3, 1914 – Russia declares war on the Ottoman Empire. November 5, 1914 – Great Britain and France declare war on the Ottoman Empire. April 22-May 25, 1915 – Second Battle of Ypres, marking the first wide-scale use of poison gas by Germany. May 7, 1915 – A German U-20 submarine sinks the British passenger ship, the Lusitania; 1,198 are killed, including 128 Americans. June 1915-November 1917 – Battles of the Isonzo, Italy. 1915 – Battle of Krithia, Gallipoli peninsula, Ottoman Empire. February 21-July 1916 – Battle of Verdun, France, the war’s longest battle, with almost a million casualties. May 31-June 1, 1916 – Battle of Jutland, North Sea near Denmark – a sea battle between British and German navies. July 1, 1916-November 1916 – First Battle of the Somme River, France. The British introduce the tank. June 26, 1917 – American troops begin landing in France. November 20, 1917 – Battle of Cambrai, France. December 3, 1917 – Russia signs an armistice with Germany. March 3, 1918 – Russia signs the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, ending hostilities with the Central Powers and withdrawing Russia from this war. March 21-April 5, 1918 – Second Battle of the Somme River. September 29, 1918 – Bulgaria signs an armistice. October 30, 1918 – Ottoman Empire signs an armistice. November 3, 1918 – Austria-Hungary signs an armistice. November 11, 1918 – Germany accepts the armistice terms demanded by the Allies, ending the war.

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August 5, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: World War I  Comments Closed

World War I Centennial | National Archives

As the largest repository of American World War I records, the National Archives invites you to browse the wealth of records and information documenting the U.S. experience in this conflict, including photographs, documents, audiovisual recordings, educational resources, articles, blog posts, lectures, and events. April 6, 2017, marks the 100th anniversary of Americas entrance into the Great War. After remaining neutral for three years, the United States reluctantly entered what was supposed to be “The War to End All Wars.” By declaring war, President Woodrow Wilson committed the nation to join the other Allied countries in their efforts to defeat the German-led Central Powers. Explore more records, information, articles and resources at the National Archives organized by subject area. Begin your research with these World War I overview guides and resources from the National Archives. The records highlighted here represent a small portion of the National Archives holdings, many of which have not yet been digitized. Contact the National Archives to plan a research visit.

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July 16, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: World War I  Comments Closed

Amazon Best Sellers: Best World War I History

‘).appendTo(flyout.elem());var panelGroup=flyout.getName()+’SubCats’;var hideTimeout=null;var sloppyTrigger=createSloppyTrigger($parent);var showParent=function(){if(hideTimeout){clearTimeout(hideTimeout);hideTimeout=null;} if(visible){return;} var height=$(‘#nav-flyout-shopAll’).height(); $parent.css({‘height’: height});$parent.animate({width:’show’},{duration:200,complete:function(){$parent.css({overflow:’visible’});}});visible=true;};var hideParentNow=function(){$parent.stop().css({overflow:’hidden’,display:’none’,width:’auto’,height:’auto’});panels.hideAll({group:panelGroup});visible=false;if(hideTimeout){clearTimeout(hideTimeout);hideTimeout=null;}};var hideParent=function(){if(!visible){return;} if(hideTimeout){clearTimeout(hideTimeout);hideTimeout=null;} hideTimeout=setTimeout(hideParentNow,10);};flyout.onHide(function(){sloppyTrigger.disable();hideParentNow();this.elem().hide();});var addPanel=function($link,panelKey){var panel=dataPanel({className:’nav-subcat’,dataKey:panelKey,groups:[panelGroup],spinner:false,visible:false});if(!flyoutDebug){var mouseout=mouseOutUtility();mouseout.add(flyout.elem());mouseout.action(function(){panel.hide();});mouseout.enable();} var a11y=a11yHandler({link:$link,onEscape:function(){panel.hide();$link.focus();}});var logPanelInteraction=function(promoID,wlTriggers){var logNow=$F.once().on(function(){var panelEvent=$.extend({},event,{id:promoID});if(config.browsePromos&&!!config.browsePromos[promoID]){panelEvent.bp=1;} logEvent(panelEvent);phoneHome.trigger(wlTriggers);});if(panel.isVisible()&&panel.hasInteracted()){logNow();}else{panel.onInteract(logNow);}};panel.onData(function(data){renderPromo(data.promoID,panel.elem());logPanelInteraction(data.promoID,data.wlTriggers);});panel.onShow(function(){var columnCount=$(‘.nav-column’,panel.elem()).length;panel.elem().addClass(‘nav-colcount-‘+columnCount);showParent();var $subCatLinks=$(‘.nav-subcat-links > a’,panel.elem());var length=$subCatLinks.length;if(length> 0){var firstElementLeftPos=$subCatLinks.eq(0).offset().left;for(var i=1;i’+ catTitle+”);panel.elem().prepend($subPanelTitle);}} $link.addClass(‘nav-active’);});panel.onHide(function(){$link.removeClass(‘nav-active’);hideParent();a11y.disable();sloppyTrigger.disable();});panel.onShow(function(){a11y.elems($(‘a, area’,panel.elem()));});sloppyTrigger.register($link,panel);if(flyoutDebug){$link.click(function(){if(panel.isVisible()){panel.hide();}else{panel.show();}});} var panelKeyHandler=onKey($link,function(){if(this.isEnter()||this.isSpace()){panel.show();}},’keydown’,false);$link.focus(function(){panelKeyHandler.bind();}).blur(function(){panelKeyHandler.unbind();});panel.elem().appendTo($parent);};var hideParentAndResetTrigger=function(){hideParent();sloppyTrigger.disable();};for(var i=0;i Your Shopping Cart is empty. Give it purposefill it with books, DVDs, clothes, electronics, and more. If you already have an account, sign in.

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July 5, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: World War I  Comments Closed

The Fading Battlefields of World War I – The Atlantic

This year will mark the passing of a full century since the end of World War Ia hundred years since the War to End All Wars. In that time, much of the battle-ravaged landscape along the Western Front has been reclaimed by nature or returned to farmland, and the scars of the war are disappearing. Some zones remain toxic a century later, and others are still littered with unexploded ordnance, closed off to the public. But across France and Belgium, significant battlefields and ruins were preserved as monuments, and farm fields that became battlegrounds ended up as vast cemeteries. In these places, the visible physical damage to the landscape remains as evidence of the phenomenal violence and destruction that took so many lives so long ago.

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June 4, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: World War I  Comments Closed

World War I – Forces and resources of the combatant …

When war broke out, the Allied powers possessed greater overall demographic, industrial, and military resources than the Central Powers and enjoyed easier access to the oceans for trade with neutral countries, particularly with the United States. Table 1 shows the population, steel production, and armed strengths of the two rival coalitions in 1914. All the initial belligerents in World War I were self-sufficient in food except Great Britain and Germany. Great Britains industrial establishment was slightly superior to Germanys (17 percent of world trade in 1913 as compared with 12 percent for Germany), but Germanys diversified chemical industry facilitated the production of ersatz, or substitute, materials, which compensated for the worst shortages ensuing from the British wartime blockade. The German chemist Fritz Haber was already developing a process for the fixation of nitrogen from air; this process made Germany self-sufficient in explosives and thus no longer dependent on imports of nitrates from Chile. Of all the initial belligerent nations, only Great Britain had a volunteer army, and this was quite small at the start of the war. The other nations had much larger conscript armies that required three to four years of service from able-bodied males of military age, to be followed by several years in reserve formations. Military strength on land was counted in terms of divisions composed of 12,00020,000 officers and men. Two or more divisions made up an army corps, and two or more corps made up an army. An army could thus comprise anywhere from 50,000 to 250,000 men. The land forces of the belligerent nations at the outbreak of war in August 1914 are shown in Table 2. The higher state of discipline, training, leadership, and armament of the German army reduced the importance of the initial numerical inferiority of the armies of the Central Powers. Because of the comparative slowness of mobilization, poor higher leadership, and lower scale of armament of the Russian armies, there was an approximate balance of forces between the Central Powers and the Allies in August 1914 that prevented either side from gaining a quick victory. Germany and Austria also enjoyed the advantage of interior lines of communication, which enabled them to send their forces to critical points on the battlefronts by the shortest route. According to one estimate, Germanys railway network made it possible to move eight divisions simultaneously from the Western Front to the Eastern Front in four and a half days. Even greater in importance was the advantage that Germany derived from its strong military traditions and its cadre of highly efficient and disciplined regular officers. Skilled in directing a war of movement and quick to exploit the advantages of flank attacks, German senior officers were to prove generally more capable than their Allied counterparts at directing the operations of large troop formations. Sea power was largely reckoned in terms of capital ships, or dreadnought battleships and battle cruisers having extremely large guns. Despite intensive competition from the Germans, the British had maintained their superiority in numbers, with the result that, in capital ships, the Allies had an almost two-to-one advantage over the Central Powers. The strength of the two principal rivals at sea, Great Britain and Germany, is compared in Table 3. The numerical superiority of the British navy, however, was offset by the technological lead of the German navy in many categories, such as range-finding equipment, magazine protection, searchlights, torpedoes, and mines. Great Britain relied on the Royal Navy not only to ensure necessary imports of food and other supplies in wartime but also to sever the Central Powers access to the markets of the world. With superior numbers of warships, Great Britain could impose a blockade that gradually weakened Germany by preventing imports from overseas.

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May 29, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: World War I  Comments Closed

Watch: Dem Rep Keith Ellison Sings Song in Wig Mocking Trump

Friday at “MinnRoast,” an annual song-and-skit political variety show, DNC deputy chairman Rep. Keith Ellison (D-MN) donned a blonde wig while playing guitar and singing a mocking parody version of “Guantanamera,” about President Donald Trump. The lyrics included references to adult film actress Stormy Daniels, special counsel Robert Mueller and the Charlottesville rally violence. Ellison sang, “I’m a nice honest man. I just want straight shooting. If I want to be called a stable genius, I just call my best friend, Vlad Putin.” (h/t WFB) Follow Pam Key on Twitter @pamkeyNEN

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May 22, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: World War I  Comments Closed

Donald Trump Hails First Female CIA Director Gina Haspel: ‘She Will Never, Ever Back Down’

“Our enemies will take note: Gina is tough and strong, and when it comes to defending America, she will never, ever back down,” he said.

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May 22, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: World War I  Comments Closed

Delingpole: One Year on – Britain’s Worst Terror Atrocity Has Been Airbrushed from History

Today marks the first anniversary of the worst atrocity committed on British soil in living memory: the murder of 22 innocents, most of them young girls, and the wounding or maiming of dozens more by a Muslim suicide bomber at a pop concert in Manchester.

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May 22, 2018  Tags:   Posted in: World War I  Comments Closed


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